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Volume 1, 1868
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Art. X.—On the Botany of the Great Barrier Island.

The Great Barrier Island presents but few physical features calculated to exercise a marked influence on the character of its Flora: the central and northern parts of the island are excessively broken into deep gullies and ravines, by the low mountain ranges which intersect them in various directions, nearly the whole of which are covered with forest to their highest peaks, 2300–2400 feet, leaving but small patches of open country. The hills in the southern part of the island are of much lower elevation, and there is a larger extent of fern-land. Much of the land, however, is of barren quality, and, on the whole, offers a less varied vegetation than in the north.

On the eastern coast there is a considerable tract of sand-dunes and swamps, where a few peculiar plants may be found.

The general character of the bush greatly resembles that of the main land north of Auckland, its chief points of difference being the variety of the Tarairi, Nesodaphne Tarairi; and the great abundance of Panax Sinclairii, which is found from the sea level to the crests of the ranges. The prevalent trees are Nesodaphne Tawa, Dammara australis, Persoonia Toro, Weinmannia silvicola, Dacrydium cupressinum, Metrosideros lucida, M. tomentosa, Leptospermum ericoides, Vitex littoralis, Corynocarpus lœvigata, Elœocarpus dentatus, Dysoxylum spectabile, Knightia excelsa, etc., etc., with the arborescent ferns, Cyathea medullaris, and C. dealbata.

On the higher parts of the ranges, Ixerba brexioides, Dacrydium Colensoi, Dacrydium, n. s., Phyllocladus glauca, Epacris Sinclairii (which here attains the height of 12 feet), Metrosideros albiflora, Olearia, sp., and Dracophyllum latifolium, are chiefly found:—Archeria racemosa, which is supposed to be peculiar to the island, is very local, and only found between 800 and 2000 feet of elevation.

Most of the ordinary sand plants are found on the eastern coast: Convolvulus Soldanella, Desmochœnus spiralis, Spinifex hirsutus, Coprosma acerosa, are abundant; as is also the naturalized Raphanus sativus; Atriplex Billardieri, and an underscribed Melicytus with finely reticulate leaves are also found here.

A very few species of plants form nearly the whole of the vegetation of the extensive swamps on the eastern coast: Cladium glomeratum, C. teretifolium, C. junceum, C. articulatum, Typha “angustifolia,” Gleichenia circinata, Drosera binata, Lomaria procera, Schœnus, n. s., Eleocharis sphacelata, E. gracilis, Sparganium simplex, Triglochin triandrum, with three or four orchids or other small plants, and occasional tufts of Phormium tenax, comprise the whole.

In the immediate vicinity of the Hot Springs, in the centre of the island, Gleichenia flabellata, Pteris incisa, and Paspalum scrobiculatum, attain a high degree of luxuriance—the ferns being frequently from 5–7 feet in height, when growing close to the stream, but at a few yards distance may be seen in their ordinary condition.

Of about four hundred species of indigenous plants collected on the island, fully two-thirds are of general distribution; the remainder being confined to the higher parts of the ranges, paludal, arenarian, or of extremely local distribution, from causes unknown.

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But little has been done in the way of utilizing the vegetable productions of the island. The Kauri is almost entirely confined to the district in which the palæozoic rocks occur—only isolated trees, or small clumps, being found south of the Hot Springs. On the eastern side it could only be got out of the forest with great difficulty; but at Wairahi and Kaiarara, it can be procured with comparative ease, and has been largely cut to supply the saw mills of the Great Barrier Company. The Pohutukawa, Metrosideros tomentosa, so valuable for ship timbers, has scarcely been used except for firewood, although it is most abundant and attains unusual dimensions. Vitex littoralis and Leptospermum ericoides have been largely cut for fencing and firewood, and are now becoming comparatively scarce in some districts. The bark of the Towai, Weinmannia silvicola, does not appear to have been collected for tanning purposes, although it is abundant in many places, with other trees whose bark might also be applied for tanning or dye uses.

The following plants appear to find their south limit on the island:

  • Metrosideros diffusa,

  • Pisonia umbellifera,

  • Gleichenia flabellata.

The following appear to reach their northern boundary here:

  • Panax Sinclairii,

  • Celmisia longifolia,

  • Vittadinia australis,

  • Olearia, sp.

  • Utricularia, sp.

  • Phyllocladus glauca,

  • Prasophyllum Colensoi,

  • Microlœna polynoda,

  • Hymenophyllum Lyallii.

Ozothamnus glomeratus, usually found on dry hills, is most abundant at the sea level, but has not been observed above 1600 feet.

Hymenophyllum Lyalli, attains its greatest elevation, 2000 feet.

Loxsoma Cunninghamii, observed slightly under 1000 feet.

Naturalized plants are found in abundance from the sea level to the crests of the ranges; nearly one hundred species were identified, only one of the number, Nepeta cataria, which is abundant at Whangapurapura Bay, not having been previously seen on the main land. In some localities, Cyperus ustulatus, and one or two plants of equally coarse growth, are the only forms able to hold their ground against the mallows, chamomile, thistle, docks, and grasses of the northern hemisphere.

New or Critical Species, Variations, ETC.

Clematis indivisa, Willd. A form with decompound leaves is not uncommon.

Melicytus? A dwarf bush or straggling shrub, 2–10 feet high. Leaves close-set, obovate, narrowed into rather stout petioles, 2–3 in. long, distantly crenate, or serrate, finely reticulate on both surfaces; peduncles in axillary fascicles, 1/4–3/8 in. long, with two minute opposite bracts about the middle, erect or decurved; calyx persistent, 5–lobed;

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lobes obtuse; fruit nearly globose, tipped with the remainder of the style, 2-seeded; flowers, not seen.

Originally discovered in the Northern Island by Mr. Colenso, possibly a form of M. machrophyllus.

Pittosporum, n. s. A somewhat irregularly-branched shrub or small tree, 12–25 feet high, with black or dark-brown bark; young branches slender, and with the leaves and petioles clothed with white floccose tomentum; leaves alternate, oblong or ovate, obtuse or acute, rarely acuminate, 3–5 in. long, slightly coriaceous when old; petioles slender, 1/2–3/4 in. long; flowers not seen; peduncles very slender, erect, 1/2–3/4 in. long, solitary axillary, downy, rarely on a short leafy pedice; capsules 2–3 valved, downy.

Very distinct from any described New Zealand species.

Pittosporum, n. sp.? A slender tree, 20–25 feet high; branches twiggy; leaves alternate, lanceolate, or ovate, or obovate, acute, margins entire, or irregularly crenate, or sinuate, or variously lobed; leaves and young branches clothed with silky ferruginous hairs on both surfaces; flowers not seen; peduncles very short, coarsely-pubescent, terminal, solitary, or two or three together; capsules small, globose, downy, 2–valved; valves 2–lobed, granulated on both surfaces.

Allied to P. Colensoi, by the globose capsule and short peduncle, which are, however, terminal and pubescent; differing in all other respects.

Pittosporum, n. s.? A handsome, laxly-branched shrub, 8–15 feet high, without flower or fruit, but differing widely in habit and foliage from any described N. Z. species of this genus, was observed at an altitude of 1600–1800 feet; branchlets stout, bark red-purple, leaves alternate or whorled, crowded, ascending, narrow, linear-obovate, acute or obtuse, 2–5 in. long, gradually narrowed into rather broad purple petioles, excessively coriaceous, pale green on both surfaces, glabrous, with mid-rib stout, and prominent beneath.

Pittosporum-crassifolium, Banks and Sol. This is a common tree on the coast, with invariably terminal, solitary, decurved peduncles; and very large fruit with somewhat concave valves. I have seen no other form north of Auckland, except on the Little Barrier Island, where a spreading bush with terminal, umbellate, erect peducles, appears to be confined to a solitary habitat. This plant bears exposure well, and is worthy of a place in every shrubbery.

Pittosporum umbellatum, Banks and Sol., var.? A small tree, which in the absence of flowers may be referred to this species, is found in the northern part of the island, and may be readily distinguished by its narrow leaves, which are sharply tapered downwards, and by the truly cordate capsules, the valves of which are not lobed. The capsules of P. umbellatum have the valves excessively lobed, and produced so as to give a square outline with concave sides.

Lepidium? A much branched plant, 1–2 feet high, branches and root stock stout, leaves 1–2 in. long, narrowed into petioles, fleshy, linearspathulate, deeply incised at the tips. Flowers numerous, tetrandrous, pods ovate, cordate, keeled at the back, and finely reticulate.

Leptospermum ericoides, A. Rich, var. pubescens. A prostrate or suberect shrub, sometimes 3 feet high, at others appressed to the rock, like

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an alpine plant; leaves more or less pubescent and ciliated; flowers fragrant, produced in immense profusion, sometimes concealing the leaves; pedicels and calyx downy. This would make a valuable bedding plant for the culturist. It was originally observed, on the island, by the late Dr. Sinclair, but I am not aware of its occurrence elsewhere.

Metrosideros? A striking plant belonging to this genus, but without flower or fruit, occurs in the central parts of the island, usually a small bush, not exceeding 20 feet in height, with straight ascending branches, and smooth light-brown bark; leaves elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, excessively coriaceous, and clothed, when young, with long silky hairs. A solitary specimen of large size, made a forcible contrast, from its long straight branches and pendulous branchlets, with M. lucida, which grew in close proximity.

Fuchsia procumbens. R. Cunn., var.? A procumbent plant, which is doubtfully referred to this species, has rounded ovate-cordate leaves, on long petioles; flowers large, 3/4 in. long, axillary; calyx tube, bright yellow, with reflexed segments; anthers oblong; ovary ovate; stigma 4-lobed.

Hydrocotyle, n. a. A stout, erect plant, pilose, 6–10 in. high; leaves large, coarsely crenate, 5–7 lobed with an open sinus; petioles stout; peduncles longer or shorter than the petioles; stipules large, membranous; umbels, 8–15 flowered. Fruit large, compressed; carpels slightly keeled, with 2 ribs on each face.

Allied to H. Novœ Zelandiœ, from which it is distinguished by its large size, stout erect habit, many flowered umbels, and large keeled fruit.

Olearia? A small, shrubby form, usually from 3–15 in. high—rarely 2 feet—much branched from the base, allied to O. Haasti, but differing, in its remarkably dwarf habit, uniform oblong keeled leaves, which are close set and excessively coriaceous, and in the loosely imbricated scales, which are usually acute and downy; florets of the ray about 8, very broad, white; achenes downy; pappus brown, spreading.

Senecio? A remarkable plant, resembling a branched Sempervirum, in habit and colour, appears to be confined to the palæozoic rocks in the north part of the island; flowers not seen; leaves crowded, succulent, obovate, sometimes 2 in. or more in width, with a few irregular obtuse serratures, narrowed into slender petioles. The ordinary broadleaved form of S. glastifolius, is frequently found growing with it, and offers a marked contrast in habit, and colour of foliage. Still, although so widely different in appearance, they may prove forms of the same species.

S. glastifolius, is found in all parts of the island, and from its noble corymbs of large white flowers, tipped with rose, ought to find a place in every garden. It is erroneously represented on t. 39, Fl. N. Z., i, with yellow rays.

Sapota castata, A. D. C. An abundant tree in the northern part of the island, but always found close to the sea, and rarely seen at an elevation of more than 100 feet. The fruit is oval in shape, and contains three nut-like seeds when perfect: sometimes the berry is clavate, and presents an abortive appearance from the non-development of one or two of the nuts. Flowers open, not globose, corolla lobes twice as long as

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the sepals. Wood very hard and heavy. The seeds are said to have been formerly worn as necklaces by the chiefs. Native name, in the Great Barrier, “Pau,”—a favourite food of pigeons.

Olea, n. s.? A very handsome umbrageous shrub, or small tree, 12–25 feet high; branches spreading, often tortuous; bark brown, sometimes deeply furrowed and corky; leaves opposite, 3–4 in. long, 1–2 ½ in. wide, ovate, acute, or acuminate, very coriaceous and glossy, midrib prominent, and with veins, distinct beneath; racemes of female flowers stout, 1–1 ½ in. long, spreading, 12–18 flowered, flowers on rather long pedicels; male flowers not seen. The foliage of this fine species greatly resembles that of Camellia japonica, and differs widely from its nearest ally, Olea Cunninghamii.

Utricularia? A small species, allied to U. Novœ Zelandiœ, but differing in the 3-nerved linear, spathulate, entire leaves, and in the 1 or rarely 2-flowered scapes, which have four minute bracteoles, arranged cross-wise at the base of the peduncle; sepals very broad, inflated, entire, upper lip of corolla rounded, waved, lower tip fan-shaped but the margin flattened in the middle, entire; seeds rugose.

Veronica? This is a fine shrub, apparently intermediate between V. ligustrifolia and V. parvifolia, sometimes attaining the height of 15 feet, or more, with the stem measuring 2 ft. 8 in. in circumference, and producing its small dense-flowered racemes in the greatest profusion; leaves linear-lanceolate, sessile, flat or keeled; racemes scarcely longer than the leaves; sepals small, acute, with membranous margins; corolla small, white; capsules more than twice the length of the calyx.

Astelia “grandis,” Hook. f., n. s. A noble plant, imperfectly described, and referred to “A. nervosa, or a near ally,” in the Handbook to the New Zealand Flora, p. 743.

Astelia, n. s. Allied to A. Banksii, but readily distinguished by the triple-nerve on each side of the leaf, and by the crimson fruit.

Dacrydium, n. s. A. diœcious tree, 40–60 feet high, or more, 2–3 feet in diameter; bark reddish brown, slightly flaky; wood red, durable; branches spreading below, fastigiate above. Leaves of two kinds: on immature trees, and frequently on the lowest branches of old trees, up to 40 feet high, linear-lanceolate, 1–1 ½ in. long, distichous or scattered, narrowed into a very short petiole; costa slender, acute, not pungent. Small leaves broad, rhomboidal, membranous on the upper edge, densely imbricated, and appressed to the terete branchlets, 1/12–1/4 in. long. Male catkins sessile, terminal, solitary, 1/8–1/4 in. long, of minute, loosely imbricated scales; anthers not seen. Female catkins terminal, solitary, 1/4–½ in. long, of few tumid green scales, ultimately bearing 2–5 faintly ribbed, compressed nuts, with rounded edges.

I am informed that this was one of the many good things originally discovered in the Northern Island by Mr. Colenso, and more recently by Dr. Hector and Mr. Buchanan, but I am ignorant how far these gentlemen may agree on the question of its distinctness from D. Colensoi, with which it has been confused, and from which it differs (according to the description of that species in the Handbook of the New Zealand Flora), in its larger size, red wood, large linear leaves, which greatly resemble a Picea, in the appressed small leaves, and in the aggregated faintly ribbed nuts, which are uninverted in all stages of growth.

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Phyllocladus glauca, n. s. A. remarkably distinct and handsome diœcious tree 20–30 feet high, rarely higher, sparingly branched, branches often whorled, very stout. Phyllodes distichous or scattered, 1–3 in. long, often arranged in a rachis 6–12 in. long, and thickly clustered at the tips of the branches, broad, excessively coriaceous, with large coarse teeth, or waved or lobed, margins slightly recurved: male catkins 1 in. long, on stout, erect peduncles, 1–1 ½ in. long, thickly set amongst the recurved scales and phyllodes at the tips of the branches; receptacles aggregated in shortly-stalked, rounded clusters of from 5–18, the size of a hazel nut, with a minute scale on the rachis, or more rarely a depauperated phyllode; usually distichously arranged, in from 6–16 clusters, on a main rachis, with or without one or more phyllodes at the apex. Nuts from 5–18 on each cluster, rounded on the back and polished, with compressed edges. A very distinct species: certainly the most handsome of the New Zealand pines. Fruiting specimens, collected at the sea level at Omaha, were forwarded to Dr. Hooker, somewhat more than a year ago—he at once endorsed the collector's opinion as to its distinctness, although its diœcious character was not even suspected at that time, and is only established by the present specimen, from the Great Barrier, where it occurs at an elevation of 2000 feet.

Schœnus, n. s. A. slender-growing species, apparently intermediate between S. Tendo and S. pauciflorus, is found on several places on the island, and elsewhere, but specimens have not been procured in a fit state for description.

Gahnia? A plant apparently allied to G. procera, is found in woods, height 1–3 feet, sparingly branched, branches pendulous; nut very large, shining, red, transversely grooved within.

Gahnia ebenocarpa, Hook. f. Imperfectly described in the Handbook as G. xanthocarpa, often attaining the height of 9–12 feet, with long involute leaves and drooping branches, nuts large, black, transversely furrowed within. A noble lawn plant.

Catalogue of Plants Observed on the Great Barrier Island.
Clematis indivisa Pittosporum tenuifolium
" " var. " n. s.
" fœtida " n. s.?
" parviflora " crassifolium
Ranunculus plebeius " umbellatum
" australis " " var.?
Drimys axillaris " eugenioides
Stellaria parviflora " cornifolium
Nasturtium palustre " n. s.?
Cardamine hirsuta Hypericum japonicum
" stylosa Plagianthus divaricatus
Lepidium oleraceum Hoheria populnea, a and b
" sp. Hibiscus Trionum
Melicytus ramiflorus Entelea arborescens
" n. s.? Aristotelia racemosa
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Elœocarpus dentatus Fuchsia procumbens
" Hookerianus " var.?
Linum monogynum a Epilobium nummularifolium
Geranium carolinianum, a, b and c " alsinoides
" microphyllum " tetragonum
" molle " junceum
Pelargonium clandestinum " pubens
Oxalis corniculata " Billiardierianum
" "b. stricta " pallidiflorum
" " d. ciliifera Passiflora tetrandra
Phebalium nudum Sicyos angulatus
Melicope ternata Mesembryanthemum australe
" simplex Tetragonia expansa
Dysoxilum spectabile Hydrocotyle elongata
Pomaderris phylicifolia " Americana
Dodonæa viscosa " Asiatica
Alectryon excelsum " Novæ Zelandiæ
Corynocarpus lævigatus " n. s.?
Coriaria ruscifolia " moschata
Carmichælia australis Crantzia lineata
Clianthus puniceus Apium australe
Sophora tetraptera " filiforme
Rubus australis, a, b and c Angelica rosæfolia
Acæna Sanguisorbæ Daucus brachiatus
Quintinia serrata Panax crassifolium
Ixerba brexioides " Lessonii
Carpodetus serratus " arboreum
Weinmannia silvicola " Sinclairii
Tillæa verticillaris Schefflera digitata
Drosera binata Griselina lucida
" auriculata Corokia buddleoides
Haloragis alata Alseuosmia macrophylla
" tetragyna, b. diffusa " quercifolia
" depressa Coprosma lucida
" micrantha Coprosma grandifolia
Myriophyllum elatinoides " " var.?
Callitriche Muellerï " Baueriana
Leptospermum scoparium, a, b, c, d " Cunninghamii
" ericoides " spathulata
" " var. " sp.
Metrosideros florida " propinqua
" lucida " acerosa
" new sp.? Nertera Cunninghamii
" albiflora " dichondræfolia
" diffusa Galium tenuicaule
" hypericifolia Olearia furfuracea
" tomentosa " Cunninghamii
" scandens " n. s.?
Myrtus bullata " virgata
Eugenia Maire Celmisia longifolia
Fuchsia excorticata Vittadinia australis
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Lagenophora Forsteri Veronica macroura, var.
" petiolata " salicifolia
Bidens pilosa " macrocarpa
Cotula coronopifolia " parviflora, var.?
" australis Rhabdothamnus Solandri
" minor Utricularia, n. s.
" dioica Vitex littoralis
" minuta Avicennia officinalis
Cassinia leptophylla Myoporum lætum
" retorta Plantago Raoulii
Ozothamnus glomeratus Pisonia umbellifera, Arid Island
Gnaphalium Keriense Chenopodium triandrum
" luteo-album " urbicum
" involucratum " ambiguum
" collinum Atriplex Billardieri
Erechtites arguta Salicornia indica
" scaberula Scleranthus biflorus
" quadridentata Polygonum decipiens
Senecio lautus " aviculare
" glastifolius " var. Dryandri
" "var.? Muhlenbeckia adpressa
Brachyglottis repanda " complexa
Picris hieracioides Rumex flexuosus
Sonchus oleraceus, a and b Tetranthera calicaris
Wahlenbergia gracilis Nesodaphne Tarairi
Lobelia anceps " Tawa
Pratia angulata Atherosperma Novæ Zelandiæ
Selliera radicans Hedycarya dentata
Gaultheria antipoda Knightia excelsa
Cyathodes acerosa Persoonia Toro
Leucopogon fasciculatus Pimelea longifolia
" Fraseri " virgafa
Epacris pauciflora " arenaria
Archeria racemosa " prostrata
Dracophyllum latifolium Santalum Cunninghamii
" squarrosum Euphorbia glauca
Myrsine salicina Epicarpurus microphyllus
" Urvillei Parietaria debilis
Samolus repens Elatostemma rugosum
Sapota costata Peperomia Urvilleana
Olea lanceolata Piper excelsum
" Cunnighamii Dammara australis
" n. s. Podocarpus ferruginea
Parsonsia albiflora " totara
Geniostoma ligustrifolia " spicata
Convolvolus sepium " dacrydioides
" Tuguriorum Dacrydium cupressinum
" Soldanella Dacrydium Colensoi
Dichondra repens " n. s.?
Solanum aviculare Phyllocladus trichomanoides
" nigrum " glauca
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Earina mucronata Scirpus maritimus
" autumnalis " lacustris
Dendrobium Cunninghamii Eleocharis sphacelata
Bolbophyllum pygmæum " acuta var. platylepsis
Gastrodia Cunninghamii " gracilima
Acianthus Sinclairii Isolepsis nodosa
Corysanthes oblonga? " prolifer
" rivularis " riparia
Microtis porrifolia Desmochœnus spiralis
Pterostylis Banksii Cladium glomeratum
" trullifolia " teretifolium
Thelymitra longifolia " articulatum
Prasophyllum Colensoi " Gunnii
Orthoceras Solandri " junceum
Libertia ixioides " Sinclairii
" grandiflora Gahnia setifolia
" micrantha " lacera
Freycinetia Banksii " ebenocarpa
Typha latifolia, L. var. “angustifolia,” not T. angustifolia, Linn. " ebenocarpa (xanthocarpa, Hook, f, in Handbook Fl. N. Z.)
" arenaria
Sparganium simplex Lepidosperma tetragona
Triglochin triandrum " concava
Zostera marina Uncinia Banksii, var.
Rhipogonum scandens " australis
Cordyline australis Carex virgata
" Banksii " " b. secta
" Pumilio " ternaria
Dianella intermedia " pumila
Astelia Cunninghamii " Forsteri
" grandis " breviculmis
" Solandri " Neesiana
" n. s. " dissita
" Banksii " Lambertiana
Arthropodium cirrhatum " vacillans
Phormium tenax Microlæna stipoides
" Colensoi " avenacea
Areca sapida " polynoda
Juncus vaginatus Hierochloe redolens
" australis Spinifex hirsutus
" maritimus Paspalum scrobiculatum
" communis " distichum
" planifolius Panicum imbecille
" bufonius Isachne australis
Luzula campestris Echinopogon ovatus
Leptocarpus simplex Dichelachne stipoides
Cyperus ustulatus " crinita
Shœnus axillaris Sporobolus elongatus
" tenax Agrostis æmula
" Tendo- " Billardieri
" n. s. " quadriseta
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Arundo conspicua Pteris Endlicheriana
Danthonia semi-annularis Lomaria filiformis
Trisetum antarcticum " procera
Poa anceps " fluviatilis
Festuca littoralis " membranacea
Bromus arenarius " lanceolata
Triticum multiflorum " discolor
" scabrum " Fraseri
Gleichenia hecistophylla Doodia media
" Cunninghamii Asplenium obtusatum
" flabellata " lucidum
Cyathea dealbata " flabellifolium
" medullaris " falcatum
Dicksonia squarrosa " Hookerianum
" lanata " bulbiferum, a and b
Hymenophyllum Tunbridgense " flaccidum, a, b and e
" multifidum Aspidium Richardi
" rarum " coriaceum
" dilatatum Nephrodium velutinum
" Javanicum " decompositum
" sanguinolentum " hispidum
" demissum Polypodium australe
" scabrum " " var. ciliata
" flabellatum " Grammitidis
" Lyallii " tenellum
Trichomanes reniforme " pennigerum
" elongatum " rupestre
" humile " Cunninghamii
Loxsoma Cunninghamii, a and b " pustulatum
Lindsæa linearis " Billardieri
" trichomanoides Nothoclæna distans
" " b. Lessoni Leptopteris hymenophylloides
Adiantum hispidulum Lygodium articulatum
" affine Schizæa dichotoma
" æthiopicum " bifida
" Cunninghamii " fistulosa
" fulvum Ophioglossum lusitanicum
Hypolepis tenuifolia Botrychium circutarium
Cheilanthes Sieberi Lycopodium Billardieri
Pellæa rotundifolia " densum
Pteris esculenta " laterale
" tremula " cernuum
" scaberula " scariosum
" incisa " volubile
" macilenta Tmesipteris Forsteri
Naturalized Plants.
Ranunculus acris Nasturtium officinale
" repens Erysimum officinale
Barbarea præcox Senebiera coronopus
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Senebiera didyma Helminthia echioides
Capsella Bursa-pastoris Crepis virens
Lepidium ruderale Taraxacum Dens-leonis
Sinapis arvensis Anagallis arvensis
Brassica Rapa Physalis peruviana
" Napus Lycopersicum exculentum
" oleracea Verbascum Thapsus
Raphanus sativus " phæniceum
Silene-quinquevulnera Veronica arvensis
Stellaria media " serpyllifolia
Cerastium vulgatum Verbena officinalis
" viscosum Mentha viridis
Spergula arvensis Nepeta Cataria
Portulaca oleracea Stachys arvensis
Hypericum perforatum Prunella vulgaris
Malva rotundifolia Plantago major
Erodium circutarium " lanceolata
Ulex europæus Rumex obtusifolius
Trifolium repens " viridis
" pratense " crispus
" procumbens " Acetosælla
" minus Euphorbia Peplus
Melilotus arvensis Colocasia antiquorum
Medicago lupulina Gastridium lendigerum
" maculata Phleum pratense
" denticulata Phalaris canariensis
Amygdalus persica Holcus mollis
Lythrum hyssopifolium " lanatus
Cucurbita, sp. Anthoxanthum odoratum
Petroselinum sativum Panicum sanguinale
Fæniculinum vulgare Cynodon Dachtylon
Pastinaca sativa Agrostis vulgaris
Torilis nodosa Avena sativa
Sherardia arvensis Poa pratensis
Erigeron canadensis " annua
Bellis perennis Briza minor
Matricaria Chamomilla Dactylis glomerata
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Festuca bromoides
Senecio, sp. Bromus Schrœderi
Carduus lanceolatus " sterilis
Centaurea solstitialis " mollis
Lapsana communis " racemosus
Hypochæris glabra Hordeum, sp.
" radicata Lolium perenne
– 155 –
Catalogue of Plants Found on the South and South-East Coasts of the Little Barrier Island. December, 1867.
Clematis parviflora Griselinia lucida
Drimys axillaris Alseuosmia macrophylla
Cardamine hirsuta Coprosma grandifolia
" stylosa " Baueriana
Melicytus ramiflorus " robusta
" n. s. " sp.
Pittosporum crassifolium Olearia Cunninghamii
" " var. Lagenophora Forsteri
" umbellatum Bidens pilosa
Pittosporum " var.? Ozothamnus glomeratus
" cornifolium Gnaphalium Keriense
Stellaria parviflora " luteo-album
Hoheria populnea " involucratum
Entelea arborescens Erechtites scaberula
Elœocarpus dentatus Senecio lautus
Linum monogynum, a " glastifolitts
Oxalis ciliifera Brachyglottis repanda
Melicope ternata Sonchus oleraceus, a and b
Dysoxylum spectabile Wahlenbergia gracilis
Alectryon excelsum Lobelia anceps
Corynocarpus lævigatus Leucopogon fasciculatum
Coriaria ruscifolia Dracophyllum latifolium
Carmichælia australis Myrsine salicina
Rubus australis " Urvillei
Quintinia serrata Samolus repens
Ixerba brexioides Sapota costata
Weinmannia silvicola Geniostoma ligustrifolia
Haloragis alata Convolvolus Sepium
Leptospermum scoparium " Tuguriorum
" ericoides " Soldanella
Metrosideros florida Dichondra repens
" lucida Solanum aviculare
" diffusa " nigrum
" hypericifolia Veronica salicifolia
" tomentosa Rhabdothamnus Solandri
" scandens Vitex littoralis
Fuchsia excorticata Myoporum lætum
Epilobium alsinoides Plantago Raoulii
Sicyos angulatus Pisonia umbellifera
Mesembryanthemum australe Chenopodium triandrum
Tetragonia trigyna Salicornia indica
Hydrocotyle asiatica Muhlenbeckia complexa
Angelica rosæfolia Tetranthera calicaris
Apium australe Nesodaphne Tarairi
Panax Lessonii " Tawa
" arborea Knightia excelsa
" Sinclairii Santalum Cunninghamii
Schefflera digitata Euphorbia glauca
– 156 –
Parietaria debilis Cyathea medullaris
Peperomia Urvilleana " Cunninghamii
Piper excelsum Hymenophyllum Tunbridgense
Dammara australis " dilatatum
Podocarpus ferruginea " Javanicum
" Totara " polyanthos
Earina mucronata " demissum
Dendrobium Cunninghamii Trichomanes reniforme
Bolbophyllum pygmæum Lindsæa Lessonii
Microtis porrifolia Adiantum Cunninghamii
Libertia grandiflora Hypolepis tenuifolia
Freycinetia Banksii Cheilanthes Sieberi
Rhipogonum scandens Pellæa rotundifolia
Cordyline australis Pteris esculenta
" Banksii " tremula
" Pumilio " Endlicheriana
Dianella intermedia Lomaria filiformis
Astelia Cunninghamii " procera
" Solandri " membranacea
" n. s. " lanceolata
" Banksii " discolor
Arthropodium cirrhatum " n. s.?
Phormium tenax " Fraseri
Areca sapida Doodia media
Cyperus ustulatus Asplenium obtustaum
Isolepxis nodosa " lucidum
" riparia " falcatum
Gahnia setifolia " bulbiferum
Uncinia australis " flaccidum, a, b and c
" Banksii, var. Aspidium Richardi
Carex lucida Polypodium australe
" ternaria " Grammitidis
" dissita " tenellum
" vacillans " pennigerum
Panicum imbecille " rupestre
Dichelachno crinita " Cunninghamii
Agrostis æmula " pustulatum
" Billardieri " Billardieri
Arundo conspicua Leptopteris hymenophylloides
Danthonia semi-annularis Lygodium articulatum
Poa anceps Ophioglossum lusitaticum
Triticum multiflorum Lycopodium Billardieri
Cyathea dealbata " volubile
Introduced Plants.
Brassica oleracea Amygdalus persica
" campestris Erigeron canadensis
Stellaria media Rumex viridis
– 157 –
Catalogue of Naturalized Plants Observed at Kororariki, Bay of Islands.
Ranunculus, sp. Carduus lanceolatus
Nasturtium officinale Hypochæris radicata
Erysimum officinale Xanthium spinosum
Senebiera coronopus Anagallis arvensis
" pinnatifida Physalis peruviana
Capsella Bursa-pastoris Lycium barbarum
Lepidium ruderale Veronica serpyllifolia
Brassica campestris Mentha aquatica
Silene quinquevulnera Stachys arvensis
Stellaria media Marrubium vulgare
Cerastium viscosum Prunella vulgaris
Portulaca oleracea Plantago major
Polycarpon tetraphyllum Rumex obtusifolius
Spergula arvensis " Acetosa
Malva rotundifolia Chenopodium murale
" sp. Amaranthus Blitum
Pelargonium quercifolium " retroflexus
Erodium circutarium Euphorbia Peplus
" " var. littorale " Helioscopia
" moschatum Iris germanica
Trifolium repens Agave americana
" paratense Phalaris canariensis
" minor Holcus mollis
Melilotus arvensis Anthoxanthum odoratum
Medicago lupulina Panicum sanguinale
" maculata Cynodon Dachtylon
Rosa rubiginosa Agrostis vulgaris
Lythrum hyssopifolium Poa annua
Apium leptophyllum*. Dactylis glomerata
Erigeron canadensis Festuca bromoides
Senecio vulgaris Lolium perenne
Carduus Marianus

[Footnote] * This plant was observed in the forest at Kawau, and is not unlikely to prove indigenous. It is found in East Australia, and North and South America