§ II. Geographic.
3. But, laying aside the ideal and theoretical, and coming to the practical and real:—how does the vegetation of this Northern Island of New Zealand appear when seen for the first time? What is its peculiar aspect? The answer will mainly depend on two things: (1.) the place whence the newly-arrived beholder last came; and (2.) the place in New Zealand where he lands;—not forgetting his expectations,—as the eye ever sees what the mind brings. If he last left the shores of Great Britain,—then the recollection of her verdant fields, may cause the brown fern-clad hills and dark-green forests of New Zealand to appear the more gloomy and sad; if his last landscapes were either South African or Australian, then their glaucous sea-green hue and arid appearance,
will be agreeably contrasted with New Zealand forest vegetation;—but, if he should have come hither direct from the sunny skies and islands of the tropics, with their graceful perennial light ever-green dress, then the New Zealand hills and dells may appear very sombre, and will suffer from recollection and comparison. Again: if he should happen to anchor in one of the many rivers or harbours north of the Thames,—while the ubiquitous brown fern (Pteris esculenta) is everywhere,—he will be struck with the appearance of the White Mangrove (Avicennia officinalis) growing within the range of the tide, and the romantic Pohutukawa (Metrosideros tomentosa) pendant from the cliffs or perched on some rocky headland; and perhaps in some forest not far off the stately Kauri Pine (Dammara australis) uprearing its lofty head far above all its compeers; but these vegetable characteristics will not be found south of the East Cape.
4. The general appearance of New Zealand vegetation (North Island) is not on the whole of a pleasing character. Brown fern-clad plains, and low hills sometimes of tolerably regular outline but oftener of all rugged shapes and sizes; and dark-green almost gloomy looking forests,—here extending for many miles, and there in belts or patches,—yield not an agreeable prospect. But, in summer,—when the sombre fern is bedecked with the neat flowering mantle of its neighbour, the myriad blooming Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), diffusing also its aromatic smell with every breeze; and the smaller and much more variegated woods, found nestling in deep glens and fringing the watercourses, exhibit their “ever-changing ever new” forms and summer colours in ever-varying lights and shades,—then the New Zealand vegetation appears greatly to advantage.
5. Not many of our larger timber trees are either handsome or graceful in foliage and branching when full grown, although several are both while young,—(e.g. the drooping-branched Rimu, (Dacrydium cupressinum,) the graceful fern-plumaged Kawaka, (Thuja Doniana,*) the handsome celery-leaved Tanekaha, (Phyllocladus trichomanoides,) the elegant poplar-like Rewarewa, (Knightia excelsa) the soft full-foliaged Titoki, (Alectryon excelsum,) the ornate Tawhai, (Fagus Menziesii) and, in high alluvial soils, the spreading Tawhai-rau-nui, (Fagus fusca). Yet, what may be absent of beauty and grace is more than supplied in size and utility. The huge bulk of some of the vegetable giants of the New Zealand forests, and the clean symmetrical trunks of others
[Footnote] * Libocedrus Doniana, Hook: f.—Ed.
towering aloft in silent grandeur, can never fail to strike the beholder with astonishment and awe: a feeling sense of his own littleness and span-like existence—of admiration at -“the (living) high embowered roof, with antique pillars massy proof,—casting a dim religious light,”—(ending perchance in lofty thoughts tending towards immortality,) is sure in such umbrageous retreats to steal over him.
6. Of our shrubs and smaller timber trees, several are of strikingly beautiful growth, or blossom, or foliage; and are often seen to advantage when standing in some clear glade, or on the outskirts of a forest:—(e. g.) the Houhere, Hoheria populnea (a) and its varieties; the Horopito, Drimys axillaris; the Manuka-rau-riki, Leptospermum ericoides; the Kohuhu, Pittosporun tenuifolum; the Kowhai, especially the small-leaved mountain variety, Sophora tetraptera var.: grandiflora; the Koromiko-taranga, Veronica, several species; the Mairehau, Phebalium nudum; the Toro, Persoonia Toro; the Pukapuka, Brachyglottis repanda; the Northern Maire, Santalum Cunninghamii; the Tawari, Ixerba brexioides; the Tipau, Myrsine Urvillei and M. salicina; the Tangeao, Tetranthera calicaris; the Ramarama, Myrtus bullata; the Ti, Cordyline australis; the Kahikomako, Pennantia corymbosa; the Pate, Schefflera digitata; the Horoeka, Panax crassifolia: and, on the sea-coast, the Karaka, Corynocarpus lævigata; the Karo, Pittosporum crassifolium; and the truly evergreen Ngaio, Myoporum lætum, (fit symbol of vigorous health on its barren and desolate beaches!)—while the tree ferns are universally praised for elegance of form, and, wherever seen, add an indescribable charm to the landscape, and draw willing homage from the delighted admirer.
7. The large virgin forests are generally composed of trees different in genera and sizes. The Kauri pine is always associated with other trees; yet, its loftiness, its colossal bulk, and peculiar growth, (including a huge mound of 8–12 feet alt. around its base, composed of its own fallen deciduous scales of outer bark) ever gives the forest in which it grows a highly characteristic appearance, so that such is truly a Kauri forest. A few only of our timber trees can be said to form large forests of a single species; such as, (on the low grounds,) Kahikatea, or White Pine, (Podocarpus dacrydioides); this alone of all the timber trees is chiefly found growing thickly together. The Totara, (P. totara) may also sometimes be found forming clumps or groves. The Tawhai, or Black Birch, (Fagus Solandri,) is frequently, in the south parts of the Island,
the prevailing tree on the sides of clayey hills, where it forms continuous woods. The Tawa (Nesodaphne Tawa), on both dry hills and low alluvial grounds, is commonly found forming large forests. On high grounds in the interior, especially on the old sandstone (Palæozoic), the Tawhai-rau-nui (Fagus fusca) often grows together in large forests; and the peculiar glory of these woods is, their openness and freeness from underwood, so that a traveller may run through them,—to the great danger, however, of losing the track. And, at a much higher elevation,—4000 to 6000 feet,—on the top of the mountain ranges, grows an allied species, F. Cliffortioides; and with it many small tough thick-growing gnarled shrubs as underwood, which can only be passed by walking on (not among); and which, with the prostrate and concealed rotten trees and branches, sadly tries the traveller's strength and patience, causing him to wish he was again in the low alluvial woods by the water-courses, among the supple-jacks, polygonums, and brambles!—
8. In order, however, that the Botanical Geography of this large island may be the better known, especially to those at a distance, it will be necessary to go a little into detail, and to show the same, as far as practicable, from its insular position, climate, and situation; as well as from a brief comparison of its Botany with that of the nearest lands. In doing this, the phænogamous genera and species, including also Ferns, endemic to our island, will be particularly noticed; and those plants which are very local in their habitat will be pointed out. For, although the general climate of the whole island is temperate and genial, (extending as it does from 34° to 42° south, and with only two elevations above the line of perpetual snow) several of its vegetable productions are remarkably local. And, that this may be the more naturally and readily perceived, it is purposed to show the same in two ways:—(1.) by areas corresponding more or less to its degrees of latitude; and (2.) by zones increasing in altitude surrounding the island. (b.)
9. Of phænogamic GENERA which (as far as is at present known) are peculiar to the North Island of New Zealand, the following may be mentioned, viz.,—Entelea, Ackama, Ixerba, Alseuosmia (several species), Colensoa, Rhabdothamnus, Nesodaphne (2 sp.), Dactylanthus, and Adenochilus; and of Ferns, Loxsoma. And of endemic SPECIES of genera hitherto unknown to the other New Zealand Islands, the following phænogams, viz.,—* Phebalium nudum; Pomaderris (3.), elliptica, Edgerleyi, and phylicifolia; Clianthus puniceus; Eugenia Maire; Meryta Sinclairii;
* Sapota costata; Olea (3), Cunninghamii, lanceolata, and montana; Geniostoma ligustrifolium; Calceolaria (2), Sinclairii, and repens; Glossostigma elatinoides; Vitex littoralis; *Pisonia Brunoniana; Tetranthera calicaris; Knightia excelsa; Persoonia Toro; Santalum Cunninghamii; Elatostemma rugosum; Dammara australis; Sarcochilus adversus; Alepyrum pallidum; Ehrharta Colensoi; Microlæna (2), avenacea, and polynoda; Catabrosa antarctica: and of Ferns:— Doodia (2), media, and caudata; Arthropteris tenella; Nephrolepis tuberosa; Lygodium articulatum; and Phylloglossum Drummondii.*
10. Besides which there are very many species peculiar to the North Island, but of genera common to all New Zealand; of which species the more notable are the following, vix., of phænogams:— Ranunculus (2), insignis, and nivicola; Melicytus (2), macrophyllus, and lanceolatus; Pittosporum (6), cornifolium, crassifolium, umbellatum, Colensoi, pimeleoides and reflexum; Hoheria (2.) populnea, (vera) and Sinclairii; Aristotelia Colensoi; Carmichælia pilosa; Quintinia elliptica; Metrosideros (5), albiflora, diffusa, Colensoi, robusta, and tomentosa; Myrtus (2), bullata, and Ralphii; Tetragonia irigyna; Panax Sinclairii; Corokia bunddleoides; Loranthus tenuiflorus; Corprosma (9), spathulata, tenuicaulis, grandifolia, petiolata, propinqua, Colensoi, depressa, repens, and microcarpa; Nertera (2), Cunninghamii, and setulosa; Olearia (4), furfuracea, Forsteri, albida, and Solandri; Lagenophora lanata; Cassinia retorta; Brachycome odorata; Senecie (5), latifolius, Colensoi, Greyii, perdicioides, glastifolius, and elœagnifolius; Forstera Bidwillii; Pratia perpusilla; Gaultheria (3), Colensoi, fagifolia, and oppositifolia; Epacris Sinclairii; Dracophyllum (4). latifolium, squarrosum, subulatum, and recurvum; Myrsine (3), salicina, montana, and divaricata; Logania depressa; Exarrhena petiolata; Veronica (5), pubescens, diosmæfolia, nivalis, spathulata, and elongata; Utricularia (3), Novœ Zelandiœ, Colensoi, and protrusa; Plantago uniflora,; Chenopodium pusillum; Pimelea (3), buxifolia, arenaria, and prostrata; Libocedrus Doniana; Phyllocladus trichomanoides; Acianthus Sinclairii; Prasophyllum (3), tunicatum, pumilum, and nudum; Thelymitra (2), Colensoi, and imberbis; Pterostylis (4), micromega, foliata, trullifolia, and puberula; Cordyline Pumiho; Astelia (2), linearis, and Banksii; Arthropodium cirrhatum; Juncus capillaceus; Luzula Colensoi; Chœtospora (4), Tendo, Brownii, concinnus, and nitens; Gahnia xanthocarpa; Carex (4), acicularis,
[Footnote] * Those prefixed thus are also found at Norfolk Island.
dissita, Lambertiana, and vacillans; Uncinia (3), rubra, cœspitosa, and ferruginea; Agrostis setifolia, and Danthonia (2), bromoides, and nuda. And of Ferns:—Cyathea Cunninghamii; Trichomanes elongatum; and Adiantum Cunninghamii.
11. In considering the vegetation of the North Island, in lateral areas nearly corresponding with its degrees of south latitude, the distribution of genera and species peculiar to each area, (in a few instances overlapping) will be found very nearly thus:—
(i.) The Northern area, from 34° to 35° south, contains, Drosera pygmœa, Colensoa physaloides, Cassytha paniculata, Hibiscus trionum, Cassinia retorta, Ipomœa pendula, and Todea Africana.
(ii.) The Bay of Islands area, from 35° to 36° south, contains, Barbarea australis; Melicytus macrophyllus; Pittosporum (4), cornifolium, umbellatum, reflexum, and pimeleoides; Hoheria populnea (vera); Phebalium nudum; Pomaderris elliptica; Eugenia Maire; Quintinia elliptica; Ackama resœfolia; Sinclairii; Corokia buddleoides; Alseuosmia, several species; Lagenophora lantata; Epacris pauciflora; Dracophyllum latifolium; Sapota costata; Geniostoma ligustrifolium; Rhabdothamnus Solandri; Gratiola pubescens; Glossostigma elatinoides; Veronica (2), diosmœfolia, and elongata; Pisonia Brunoniana; Atriplex Billardieri; Tetranthera calicaris; Nesodaphne Tarairi; Santalum Cunninghamii; Elatostemma rugosum; Peperomia Urvilleana; Libocedrus Doniana; Sparganium simplex; Prasophyllum pumilum; Thelymitra imberbis; Pterostylis trullifolia; Gleichenia (2), semivestita, and flabellata; Loxsoma Cunninghamii; Lomaria (2), membranacea, and Fraseri; Doodia media; Schizœa dichotoma; Marattia salicina, and Phylloglossum Drumondii.
(iii.) The Thames area, from 36° to 37° 30′ south, contains, Cardamine divaricata; Pamaderris Edgerleyi; Panax anomala; Corokia cotoneaster; Epacris (2), purpurascens, and Sinclairii; Dracophyllum squarrosum; Coprosma crassifolia; Veronica pubescens; Spiranthes australis; Pterostylis (2), puberula, and squamata; Pellœa falcata; Pteris Endlicheriana; Gymnogramma leptophylla; and Psilotum triquetrum.
(iv.) The East Cape area, from 37° 30′ to 39° S., contains Clematis hexasepala; Pittosporum rigidum; Epilobium (3), microphyllum, glabellum, and melanocaulon; Erechtites prenanthoides; Senecio (2), odoratus and perdicioides; Gaultheria fagifolia; Dracophyllum subulatum; Calceolaria Sinclarii; Euphrasia cuneata; Myosotis (2), Forsteri and spathulata; Utricularia (2), Colensoi, and protrusa; Lemna gibba; Adenochilus gracilis; Callixene parviflora; Arthropodium condidum; Hymenophyllum (2), pulcherrimum and œruginosum; Trichomanes Colensoi;
Davallia Novœ-Zelandiœ; Lomaria nigra; Dicksonia (2), antarctica and lanata; Polypodium sylcaticum; Nephrolepis tuberosa; Polystichum vestitum; and Leptopteris superba.
(v.) The Hawke's Bay and Taranaki area, from 39° to 40° S., (excluding plants from above 4000 feet altitude, which will be noticed separately hereafter), contains Ranunculus geraniifolius; Melicytus lanceolatus; Drosera (2), Arcturi and spathulata, var. pusilla; Pittosporum (2), Colensoi, and fasciculatum; Stellaria (2), parviflora, and elatinoides; Colobanthus Billardieri; Aristotelia fruticosa; Stachousia minima; Carmichœlia (3), odorata, flagelliformis, and juncea; Acœna microphylla; Panax (2), simplex and Colensoi; Ligusticum aromaticum; Angelica geniculata; Loranthus (2), Colensoi, and flavidus; Coprosma (8), fœtidissima, Colensoi, parviflora, cuneata, linariifolia, depressa, repens, and pumila; Asperula perpusilla; Olearia (4), Colensoi, ilicifolia, nitida, and dentata; Celmisia (2), coriacea, and glandulosa; Lagenophora (2), petiolata, and pinnatifida; Leptinella squalida; Gnaphalium prostratum; Senecio elœagnifolius; Pratia perpusilla; Wahlenbergia saxicola; Gaultheria (2), Colensoi, and oppositifolia; Cyathodes Colensoi; Epacris alpina; Dracophyllum filifolium; Logania depressa; Gentiana montana; Calceolaria repens; Mazus Pumilio; Veronica (6), Colensoi, lœvis, buxifolia, Lyallii, cataractœ, and Anagallis; Ourisia macrophylla; Myosotis (2), antarctica and Forsteri; Exarrhena (2), petiolata and saxosa; Polygonum (2), aviculare, and Dryandri; Muhlenbeckia ephedroides; Chenopodium pusillum; Atriplex patula; Pimelea (2), buxifolia, and Lyallii; Zannichellia palustris; Cyrtostylis (2), rotundifolia, and macrophylla; Pterostylis foliata; Corysanthes rotundifolia; Hypoxis pusilla; Chrysobactron Hookeri; Herpolirion Novœ-Zelandiœ; Astelia nervosa; Juncus (2), Novœ-Zelandiœ, and capilldceus; Calorophus minor; Isolepis cartilaginea; Schœnus (4), paufiflorus, Brownii, concinnus and nitens; Cladium articulatum; Carex (4), inversa, Colensoi, stellulata, and teretuscula; Uncinia (5), distans, divaricata, rubra, cœspitosa and ferruginea; Microlœna (2), stipoides and polynoda; Danthonia (2), nuda, and Raoulii; Poa (2), lœvis, and Colensoi; Gymnostichum gracile; Gleichenia dicarpa var. alpina; Alsophila Colensoi; Asplenium Trichomanes; and Riccia (2), acuminata, and natans.
Arenaria media; Carmichœlia pilosa; Epilobium tenuipes; Gunnera prorepens; Myrtus (2), obcordatus and Ralphii; Tillœa purpurata; Tetragonia trigyna; Pozoa trifoliolata; Erygium vesculosum; Crantzia lineata; Aciphylla (2), squarrosa and Colensoi; Angelica Gingidium; Coprosma petiolata; Nertera setulosa; Olearia (2), virgata, and Forsteri; Leptinella pusillum; Senecio Greyii; Calystegia marginata; Mimulus radicans; Utricularia Novœ-Zelandiœ; Plantago spathulata; Atriplex cinerea; Urtica (2), Australis and ferox; Ascarina lucida; Prasophyllum nudum; Apera arundinacea; Agrostis parviflora; Danthonia bromoides; Adiantum formosum; Aspidium oculatum; Gymnogramme rutœfolia; Grammitis rufus-villosa; Riccia fluitans; and Parmelia (2), perforata, and chrysopthalma.
12. In further endeavoring to show the distribution of the Plants of the North Island by zones surrounding the same, the more noteworthy and stable genera and species alone will be noticed. These will be divided into eight zones, as follow:—
Maritime and littoral.
Coast, mostly within a few yards above high water mark.
Lowland—from the Coast to an altitude of 500 feet.
Midland,—from 500 to 1500 feet altitude.
Upland,—from 1500 to 2500 feet altitude.
Mountainous,—from 2500 to 3500 feet altitude.
Sub-Alpine,—from 3500 to 4500 feet altitude.
Alpine,—from 4500 to snow line.
(i.) The maritime and littoral zone contains Myosurus aristatus; Ranunculus acaulis; Lepidium (2), oleraceum and incisum; Plagianthus divaricatus; Fuchsia procumbens; Metrosideros tomentosa (c.); Mesembryanthemum australe; Tetragonia (2), expansa and trigyna; Apium (2), filforme, and australe; Coprosma (2), retusa, and petiolata; Senecio lautus; Goodenia repens; Calystegia soldanella; Avicennia officinalis; Myoporum lœtum; Samolus littoralis; Plantago spathulata; Chenopodium sp.; A triplex sp.; Salicornia indica; Euphorbia glauca; Desmoschœnus spiralis; Leptocarpus simplex; Carex littorea; and Spinifex hirsutus.
(ii.) The Coast zone contains: Hymenanthera crassifolia; Pittosporum crassifolium; Hibiscus Trionum; Entelea arborescens, Discaria Toumatou; Corynocarpus lœvigata (d); Gunnera prorepens; Sicyos angulatus; Eryngium vesculosum; Meryta Sinclairii; Coprosma acerosa; Cassinia retorta; Senecio (2), Greyii and Colensoi; Colensoa physaloides; Pratia perpusilla; Sapota costata; Dichondra repens; Mimulus repens; Veronica (4), macroura, speciosa, parviflora, and diosmœfolia; Pisonia Brunoniana; Muhlenbeckia ephedroides; Suœda maritima; Pimelea arenaria; Piper excelsum; Peperomia Urvilleana; Triglochin flaccidum; Arthropodium cirrhatum; Bromus arenarius; Triticum scabrum; and Parmelia chrysopthalma.
(iii.) The Lowland zone, from the coast to an altitude of about 500 feet, contains: Clematis hexasepala; Ranunculus (4), plebeius, hirtus, incisus, and rivularis; Drosera (2), pygmœa, and auriculata; Pittosporum umbellatum; Plagianthus betulinus; Linum monogynum; Hoheria populnea; Aristotelia racemosa; Alectryon excelsum; Dodonœa viscosa; Dysoxylum spectabile; Melicope ternata; Clianthus puniceus; Carmichœlia (2), australis, and juncea; Metrosideros (3), florida; hypericifolia, and scandens; Myrtus (3), bullata, obcordata, Raphii; Carpodetus serratus; Quintinia serrata; Ackama rosœfolia; Weinmannia sylvicola; Angelica (2), gingidium, and rosœfolia; Daucus brachiatus; Panax arborea; Aralia Lessonii; Schœfflera digitata; Corokia (2), buddleides, and Cotoneaster; Loranthus tetrapetalus; Tupeia antarctica; Coprosma (5), lucida, tenuicaulis, rhamnoides, divaricata, and propinqua; Calceolaria Sinclairii; Tetranthera calicaris; Cassytha paniculata; Hedycarya dentata; Pimelea (4), longifolia, virgata, prostrata, and Urvilleana; Elatostemma rugosum; Ascarina lucida; Podocarpus dacrydioides; Freycinetia Banksii; Hypoxis hygrometrica; Loxsoma Cunninghamii; Adiantum (2), œthiopicum, and fulvum; Lomaria (3), lanceolata, Banksii, and Fraseri; Asplenium (3), flabellifolium, obtusatum, and bulbiferum; Doodia caudata; Nephrodium (2), decompostum, and squamulosum; Polypodium sylvaticum; Gymnogramme (2), rutœfolia, and leptophylla; Schizœa (2), bifida, and dichotoma; Leptopteris hymenophylloides; Marattia salicina; Phylloglossum Drummondii; Lycopodium (4), Billardieri, densum, laterale, and volubile; and Psilotum triquetrum.
(iv.) The Midland zone, embracing an altitude of from 500 to 1500 feet, contains: Ranunculus (2), multiscapus, and macropus; Drosera spathulata; Pittosporum (2), tenuifolium, and eugenioides; Elœocarpus
(2), dentatus, and Hookerianus; Pennantia corymbosa; Carmichœlia (2), odorata, and pilosa; Metrosideros (2), Colensoi, and robusta; Myrtus pedunculata; Weinmannia racemosa; Ixerba brexioides; Panax (2), anomala, and Edgerleyi; Alseuosmia sp.; Coprosma (2), grandifolia, and robusta; Olea (2), Cunninghamii, and lanceolata; Senecio (2), lagopus, and glastifolius; Leucopogon fasciculatus; Rhabdothammnus Solandri; Ourisia macrophylla; Nesodaphne Tarairi; Knightia excelsa; Persoonia Toro; Santalum Cunninghamii; Epicarpurus microphyllus; Fagus Solandri; Libocedrus Doniana; Hymenophyllum (4), dilatatum, crispatum, flabellatum, and œruginosum; Trichomanes Colensoi; Davallia Novœ-Zelandiœ; Adiantum formosum; Pteris vespertionis; Lomaria (4), fluviatilis, valcanica, elongata, and nigra; Asplenium Trichomanes; and Polystichum coriaceum.
(v.) The Upland zone, embracing an altitude of from 1500 to 2500 feet, contains: Ranunculus geraniifolius; Drimys axillaris; Viola filicaulis; Melicytus micranthus: Drosera Arcturi; Pittosporum Colensoi: Aristotelia fruticosa; Geranium potentilloides; Carmichœlia flagelliformis; Acœna microphylla; Epilobium (2), glabellum, and melanocaulon; Metrosideros lucida: Coprosma (2), fœtidissima, and pumila; Asperula perpusilla; Olearia Colensoi; Celmisia coriacea; Gnaphalium prostratum; Gaultheria (2), rupestris, and oppositifolia; Epacris alpina; Olea montana; Gentiana montana; Logania depressa; Calceolaria repens; Veronica (2), lœvis, and buxifolia; Exarrhena; saxosa; Anthericum Hookeri: Herpolirion Novœ-Zelandiœ; Calorophus minor; Uncinia (2), distans, and ferruginea; Poa lœvis; Gymnostitchum gracile; Gleichenia dicarpa var. alpina; Cyathea Smithii; Alsophila Colensoi; Hymenophyllum (2), bivalve, and pulcherrimum; Lomaria (3), alpina, imbricata, and minor; Polystichum vestitum; and Lycopodium (2), varium, and clavatum.
(vi.) The Mountainous zone, comprising an altitude of from 2500 to 3500 feet, contains: Pittosporum rigidum; Coriaria thymifolia; Geranium brevicaule; Carmichælia nana; Epilobium linnœoides; Ligusticum aromaticum; Panax (2), simplex, and Colensoi; Oreomyrrhis Colensoi; Coprosma (2), microcarpa, and cuneata; Olearia dentata; Celmisia incana; Wahlelenbergia saxicola; Gaulthria Colensoi; Cyathodes Colensoi; Myrsine montana; Gentiana pleurogynoides; Veronica diffusa; Pimelea Gnidia; Fagus Menziesii; Pterostylis foliata; Callixene parviflora; Cordyline indivisa; Schœnus (2) pauciflorus, and concinnus; Uncinia (2), divaricata, and rubra; Hierochloe alpina; Danthonia Cunninghamii; Hymenopyllum
unilaterale; Leptopteris superba; Lycopodium scariosum; and Andrœa rupestris.
(vii.) The Sub-alpine zone, embracing an altitude of from 3500 to 4500 feet, contains: Caltha Novœ-Zelandiœ; Aciphylla Colensoi; Celmisia spectabilis; Forstera Bidwillii; Cyathodes empetrifolia; Pentachondra pumila; Myrsine nummularia; Veronica tetragona; Ourisia (2), cœspitosa, and Colensoi; Euphrasia (2), antarctica, and revoluta; Plantago (2), unifolia, and carnosa; Fagus Cliffortioides; Podocarpus nivalis; Dacrydium (2), Colensoi, and laxifolium; Phyllocladus alpinus; Caladenia bifolia; Astelia linearis; Cartha alpina; Carex acicularis; Uncinia filiformis; Agrostis (2), parviflora, var. perpusilla, and setifolia; and Usnea melaxantha.
(viii.) The Alpine zone, or area, comprising an altitude of from 4500 feet to the line of permanent snow, contains: Ranunculus (2), insignis, and nivicola; Geum parviflorum; Abrotanella pusilla; Raoulia grandiflora; Gnaphalium (Helichrysum) Colensoi; Senecio (2), rotundifolius, and Bidwillii; Helophyllum Colensoi; Dracophyllum recuvum; Veronica nivalis; Drapetes Dieffenbachii; Alepyrum pallidum; Oreobolus pectinatus; Carex pyrenaica; Uncinia scabra; Ehrharta Colensoi; Catabrosa antarctica; and Stereocaulon Colensoi.
13. After all there are still several plants remaining unclassified, as to geographical distribution—habitat or altitude—not a few of which are among the most noble and useful of all our vegetable productions. These have hitherto not been classed as to area or zone, from their being more or less ubiquitous. The principal of them will therefore have now to be briefly considered in three seperate divisions, viz., (i.) Plants common to the whole North Island;-(ii.) Plants (unenumerated as to area or zone) not found in the South parts of the Island;-and, (iii.) Plants (also unenumerated as to area or zone) not found in the North parts of the Island.—
(i.) Plants common to the whole North Island.—among these the following may be noticed:—Cardamine hirsuta, in all soils and situations, to the alt. of 2500 feet. Elœocarpus dentatus; Aristotelia racemosa; Alectryon excelsum; Dodonœa viscosa; Pelargonium clandestinum, from the sea coast to 2000 feet; Oxalis corniculata, in all soils from the sea to 2000 feet; O. Magellanica, from 500 to 5000 feet; Edwardsia grandiflora, in all soils form the sea to 2500 feet; Coriaria ruscifolia, in all soils (but not in woods) from the sea to 3000 feet; Rubus australis, in all soils from the sea to 2500 feet; Acœna Sanguisorbœ, in all soils from
the sea to 3000 feet; Fuchsia excorticata, from the coast to 2000 feet; Epilobium nummularifolium, and E. rotundifolium, ascending to 3500 feet; E. alsinoides, junceum, and pubens, to 1000 feet; Leptospermum scoparium, in all soils from the sea to 3000 feet; Coprosma lucida, grandifolia, robusta, and tenuicaulis; Nertera depressa; Brachyglottis repanda; Sonchus oleraceus, everywhere; Wahlenbergia gracilis, from the sea to 3000 feet; Goultheria antipoda, from the coast to. 3000 feet; Myrsine salicina, australis, and divaricata; Olea Cunninghamii; Parsonsia, sp.; Solanum aviculare, and nigrum, from the sea to 1500 feet; Veronica salicifolia, from the sea to 2500 feet; Mentha Cunninghamii ascending to 500 feet; Nesodaphne Tawa from 500 to 2000 feet; Atherosperma Novœ-Zelandiœ, from near the coast to 1500 feet; Hedycarya dentata, Knightia excelsa, Pimelea prostrata, and P. Urvilleana, from the coast to 1000 feet; Podocarpus ferruginea, from near the coast to 3000 feet; P. spicata, from 500 to 2500 feet; P. Totara, from the sea coast to 3000 feet; P. dacrydioides, from the coast to nearly 1000 feet; Dacrydium cupressinum, from 500 to 2500 feet; Phyllocladus trichomanoides, ascending to 3000 feet. The Orchideons genera, Earina, Dendrobium, Bolbophyllum, Thelymitra, Microtis, and Acianthus. Phormium, tenax, and P. Colensoi, and their vars., in all soils and situations, from the sea coast to 4000 feet; Cordyline australis, in all soils and situations, from the coast to 3000 feet; Areca sapida, from 200 to 1500 feet; Rhipogonum parviflorum, in woods, from coast to 2000 feet; Arundo conspicua, in all soils and situations, from the coast to 2500 feet; Cyathea medullaris, and C. dealbata, from 200 to 2000 feet; Dicksonia squarrosa, from 500 to 1500 feet; Hymenophyllum multifidum, dilatatum, polyanthos, and demissum; Trichomanes reniforme, and T. venosum; Pteris esculenta; in all soils not wholly wet, from the coast to 3000 feet; Lomaria procera, and its vars., in all soils and situations, from the coast to 4000 feet; Niphobolus rupestris; Bolrychium Virginicum, in open lands, from the coast to 1600 feet; and Tmesipteris Forsteri, epiphytal, in forests from 300 to 2500 feet.
(ii.) Northern plants, occupying more than one area or zone, not found in the South parts of the Island.—among these, are,—Drosera binata, a Bay of Islands plant, has been very sparingly detected so far South as 39°30′. Dysoxylum spectabile, not uncommon from the Bay of Islands to the Thames, has also been detected as far south as the river Mohaka in Hawke's Bay; extreme altitude, 1000 feet. Metrosideros tomentosa, a littoral plant from the North Cape to Tolaga Bay, (c.) Alseuosmia, sp.
whose chief habitat is around the Bay of Islands, where, in shady dry woods, it is plentiful; A. macrophylla, was found at Te Whau, Manukau Bay, in 1841; and, subsequently, a few plants of A. Banksii in one spot in the dense forest between the river Manawatu and Wairarapa, but none intermediate ascending to nearly 1000 feet. Geniostoma ligustrifolium, abundant at the Bay of Islands, and farther north, ascending to 1200 feet; a straggling plant (having thicker leaves) has been seen as far south as the woods at Hawke's Bay; the only plant, however, noticed south of the East Cape. Vitex littoralis, a tree very plentiful at the north, extending quite across the Island, and growing as diffusely on the immediate sea coast as on the high lands, ascending to 1500 feet; is little known south of the East Cape; one tree however is said to be on the islet Mokoia in the large lake at Rotorua, and one is also at Table Cape (north side), its extreme southern limit. Avicennia officinalis, a maritime plant, very plentiful from the North Cape to about 37½° south; the mouth of the Waikato river on the west, and within Tauranga harbour on the east coast, being its south limits. Persoonia Toro, has not been met with south of Whangarei Bay. Santalum Cunninghamii, and its vars., plentiful at the north, has not been noticed south of 38°; yet, at the head of the Wairarapa valley, (just at the entrance of the long forest) in about 41° south, two trees were most unexpectedly found standing together; no more however were detected in a journey of 3–4 days through that forest, performed on several occasions. Trophis opaca, (or, Epicarpurus microphyllus) has its south limits at Tolaga Bay, or about 39° south. Dammara australis, which grows from the sea side to an altitude of 1500 feet, in nearly all soils and situations, (though its favorite soil is a stiff sterile clay) is very plentiful quite across the Island from the North Cape to the Thames, but has its limits on the east coast at 37½° south, and on the west coast at Kauri river (Kawhia), 38° 4′ south, where are a few stunted trees. The writer well remembers seeing, in 1841, a straggling tree on the west bank of river Waikato, a little below Ngaruawahia. Libocedrus Doniana, keeps always in the interior on high ground (500 to 2000 feet), from 35° to the Thames seems to be its limits. It is, however, strongly suspected, that there are two species of this genus in the North Island; the Libocedrus growing in dense thickets on the Ruahine Mountains, has never yet been found in fruit* and appears in foliage different from the Bay of Islands plant, which is also of more robust growth.
[Footnote] * Since made a new species by Dr. Hooker:—L. Bidwillii.
Phyllocladus trichomanoides, which is plentiful at the north, from about 35° south, (where it has been observed growing from the sea-side to 1200 feet altitude) has its southern limits at 39½° south, in the mountains inland west from Hawke's Bay. Arthropodium cirrhatum, a common littoral north plant, has its south limits at Cape Kidnappers, in 38°50′ south. Trichomanes elongatum, has not been met with south of the Thames. Loxsoma Cunninghamii, for a long time only found at one spot (the noted Kerikeri waterfall in the Bay of Islands) has been also met with at Whangarei, and in the Coromandel ranges. Doodia caudata (or, media), so very common at the north, has not been seen south of the Thames, except in one locality near Napier; which plant, however, may prove to be a distinct species. Gymnogramma leptophylla, plentiful near the head of Manukau Bay, has only been again met with at Ahuriri and Cape Kidnappers. Lygodium articulatum, a northern plant, has not been, noticed south of the East Cape; and Schizœa dichotoma appears to be wholly confined to the Dammara (Kauri) forests.
(iii.) Plants found plentifully in the southern parts of the North Island, but rarely, if ever, extending north beyond the East Cape.— Among these the following may be noticed:—Elœocarpus Hookerianus, extends north to Tolaga Bay; Hypericum gramineum, from the coast to 600 feet altitude, has not been noticed north of Table Cape. Coriaria thymifolia, (several varieties), from the sea coast (Hawke's Bay) to 4000 feet, has not been generally met with north of Poverty Bay; but the very small leaved species, C. angustissima, was found, in 1838, on Mount Hikurangi, East Cape, and, subsequently, near the summits of the Ruahine range, at an altitude of 4500 feet. Discaria Toumatou, a coast plant, has not been detected north of Poverty Bay. Potentilla anserina, and Geum Magellanicum, extend from Cook's Straits to the East Cape. Aciphylla squarrosa, found from the sea coast to 3500 feet altitude, has not been noticed north of 40°30′ south. Craspedia fimbriata, several varieties, from the coast to 1000 feet, extends north to the East Cape. Microseris Forsteri, common near the coast, has its north limit about Poverty Bay; where, too, it is very plentiful. Taraxacum Dens-leonis growing sparingly with the former, but often rising to much higher elevation of 3000 feet, has not been detected north of Tolaga Bay. Ourisia macrophylla, found plentifully at from 1500 to 3000 feet, has not been seen north of Poverty Bay. Calceolaria Sinclairii.
and Euphrasia cuneata, coast plants, (rising, however, to 500 feet) have their north limits at the East Cape. Myosotis, and Exarrhena, several species, met with in both dry and damp spots from the sea coast to an altitude of 2000 feet, are unknown north of the East Cape. Fagus fusca, found in the interior at an altitude of from 500 to 2500 feet, has not been seen north of Poverty Bay (e.); while F. Solandri, a species found much nearer the sea, and attaining to a higher elevation of 4000 feet, reaches nearly to the East Cape. Zannichellia palustris, has not been noticed north of Table Cape; while its aquatic congener, Lemna gibba, reaches Poverty Bay. Of Ferns, peculiar to the Southern parts of the Island, may be noticed,—Hymenophyllum bivalve, H.pulcherrimum, and H. œruginosum, which extend throughout damp forests in the interior, at an elevation of 2000 feet, to about 38° south their north limit Davallia Novœ-Zelandiœ, has been found as far north as the Bay of Plenty. Lomaria elongata, and L. nigra, at an elevation of 1000 to 1600 feet, extend plentifully north, from Wairarapa near Wellington, to 38° south. Small specimens, however, of Lomaria elongata have lately been found near Wellington. Polypodium sylvaticum, (a scarce fern) at a lower elevation, from Wellington to Tolaga Bay 38° 30′ south; and Leptopteris superba, at an altitude of from 2000 to 3000 feet, extends north to about 38° south.
14. It has already been shown, how widely spread and common many of the plants of this North Island are; nevertheless, there are some, both genera and species, which (as far as is known) are. peculiarly local This, it is believed, is a characteristic feature in the Botany of New Zealand; one which (if hereafter proved to be real) will be worthy of deep consideration,—as to the why such should be. A few of the more strikingly local plants, hitherto only found in one small spot, are here enumerated, with their their known habitats:— Clematis depauperata (n.), near Hawke's Bay. Myosurus aristatus, Palliser Bay. Ranunculus geraniifolius, (n.) between Mount Tongariro and Ruahine mountain range. Drosera pygmœa, Cape Maria Van Diemen; Drosera Arcturi, at Taupo, near the base of Tongariro. Stackhousia minima, (n.) Hawke's Bay, Geum parviflorum, summit of Rauhine range, east side, 5,000 feet altitude. Gunnera prorepens, (n.) Flat Point South East coast. *Meryta Sirtclairii, (n.) Whangaruru Bay. *Angelica geniculata, * Hawke's Bay. Loran-thus Colensoi, (n.) Waikare Lake. Coprosma repens, (n.) between
[Footnote] * NOTE—Of those marked with a star(*) before them, a single plant only has been seen; the letter n. after the name, denotes such to be a new species.
Mount Tongariro and Ruahine range; and C. petiolata, (n.) between Castle Point and Pahawa. Cotula perpusilla, (n.) Turakirae, Palliser Bay. Abrotanella pusilla, (n.) near the top of Ruahine range. Gnaphalium (Helichrysum) Colensoi, (n.) summit of Ruahine range, east side. Fortera Bidwillii, west side of Ruahine range, 4000 feet altitude. Helophyllum Colensoi, (n.) summit of Ruahine range, 5000 altitude. Myrsine nummularia, (n.) west side of Ruahine range, 4500 feet altitude. *Logania depressa, (n.) between Taupo and Ruahine. Calceolaria repens, (n.) west base of Ruahine. Exarrhena saxosa, (n.) Hawke's Bay. Utricularia protrusa, (n.) Bay of Plenty. Cassytha paniculata, near Mount Camel. Ascarina lucida, (n.) three trees growing together in a swamp, at Wairarapa. Spiranthes australis, Upper Waikato. Adenochilus grachilis, (n.) near Lake Waikare. Anthericum Hookeri, (n.) between Mount Tongariro and the west base of Ruahine. Hymenophyllum unilaterale, (according to Dr. Hooker, but a sp. nov. mihi) on one tree only, but plentiful upon it;—in the dense forest, west side of Ruahine range, 3000 feet altitude. Trichomanes Colensoi, (n.) near Lake Waikare. Adiantum formosum, only, in one spot in the dense forest between Wairarapa and Manawatu. Hypolepis millefolium, (n.) near the top of Ruahine range, east side. Asplenium Trichomanes, Hawke's Bay. Gymnogramma rutœfolia, near Cape Palliser. Grammitis rufusvillosa, (n.) three specimens only, growing together in the dense forest, east base of Tararua range. Riccia natans, in the little lake Roto-akiwa, Hawke's Bay; and Riccia fluitans, at the head of Wairarapa valley.
15. The North Island of New Zealand also contains several wellknown European plants, which were found here by her earlier scientific visitors;—(exclusive of the host of common plants which have come in with colonization;)—some of which, curiously enough, have not been found elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere. Those European plants (several of which are cosmopolites) are of the following natural orders, vis:—Cruciferæ, 3; Caryophylleæ, 2; Malvaceæ, 1; Geraniaceeæ, 2; Oxalideæ, 1; Coriarieæ, 1; Rosaceæ, 2; Onagrariæ, 1; Halorageæ, 1; Compositeæ, 5; Solaneæ, 1; Chenopodiaceæ, 4; Naidaceæ, 3; Aroideæ, 4; Junceæ, 3; Cyperaceæ, 6; Gramineæ, 4; Filices, 7; and, Lycopodiaceæ, 1;—total species, 57. It is worthy of remark, that not a single species is hard-wooded, scarcely even a shrub, save Coriaria rusoifolia;—total that many of them are sea-side and water plants, identical to those found in Great Britain.
16. Before, however, any comparison is attempted between the Botany of New Zealand (North Island) and that of other lands, it will be advantageous further to consider such genera and species peculiar to the Island—or to the New Zealand groupe—as are real and well-developed; and which, united, form the characteristic New Zealand Botany. Not but that a genus may be (and often is) quite as well developed by a single species, as by a number. (Witness, that unique New Zealand plant, Phylloglossum Drummondii; which single species, at present, not only constitutes a genus, but which, by eminent continental Botanists, had very nearly been made the type of a new Natural order!) A genus, although not endemic, may properly enough be said to be “well-developed” in New Zealand, if better species are found, or if more abundantly met with, here than in other countries;—if, in fact, New Zealand clearly seems to be its centre, its home. Several of our New Zealand genera were created by her first Botanical visitors;—Banks and Solander, and by Forster aided by Sparmann (f.); the younger Linnæus, D'Candolle, and R. Brown, also made a few. A. Cunningham increased the number considerably from the Bay of Islands' plants; and, more recently, Dr. Hooker has both confirmed their genera, and added considerably thereto. Already (pars. 9 and 10) the phænogamic genera and species endemic to the North Island, as far as known, have been enumerated; and it now remains to show the well-developed New Zealand genera, and peculiar species of the North Island, comprising those which mainly give that peculiar contour-tout-ensemble-to her vegetation, in order to the better contrasting of her Botany with that of other lands.
17. The phænogamic genera which are truly and pre-eminently New Zealand, are:—*Melicytus, Hoheria, Entelea, Melicope, Corynocarpus, Carmichælia, Carpodetus, Ackama, Ixenba, Aciphylla, Griselinia, Corokia, Tupeia, Alseuosmia,-*Coprosma, * (also found in Tasmania, but here it has upwards of twenty-five species), Raoulia, Helophyllum, Colensoa, Geniostoma, Rhabdothaminus, Teucridium, Nesodaphne, Knightia, Elatostemma, Earina. Adenochilus, Nematoceras, and *Phormium;—yet, * of these twenty-eight genera, scarcely half of the number are of that class which give the characteristic appearance or stamp to New Zealand Botany. Of those which are more noticeable, several are either very local in area, or only occasionally met with. It is, then, to the distinct New Zealand species of genera which her Botany has in common with other lands, that so much is due for characteristic
[Footnote] * NOTE.—The genera marked thus
[Footnote] *, are also found in Norfolk Island.
vegetable appearance as well as for utility, At' the same time, not a few of these will be found to be confined (so to speak) to the New Zealand Botanical region. Among the more important and prominent of such species are the following:—Drimys axillaris; Hymenanthera crassifolia; Pittosporum, upwards of 10 species; Plagianthus, 2 species; Elæocarpus, 2 species; Aristotelia, 3 or 4 species; Pennantia corymbosa; Alectryon excelsum; Dysoxylum spectubile; Pelargoniun clandestinum; Coriara, 3 or more species; Pomaderris, 3 species; Discaria Toumatou; Clianthus puniceus; Edwardsia grandiflora; Aœna 3 species; Fuchsia, 2 species; Epilobium, nearly 20 species and wellmarked varieties; Haloragis, 4 species; Metrosideros, 10 species; Leptospermum, 2 or more species; Myrtus, 4 species; Weinmannia, 2 species; Ligusticum and Angelica, 16 species; Panax, 10 species; Olearia, 20 species; Celmisia, 24 species; Forstera, 2 species; Dracophyllum, 14 species; Myrsine, 5 species; Calceolaria, 2 species; Veronica, 40 species; Ourisia, 6 species; Vitex littoralis; Myoporum lœtum; Laurelia Novœ-Zelandiœ; Trophis opaca (or, Epicarpurus microphyllus); Pimelea, 10 species; Fagus, 5 species; Dammara Australis; Libocedrus, 2 species; Podocarpus, 5 species; Daerydium, 3 species; Phyllocladus, 2 species; Rhipogonum parviflorum; Anthericum Hookeri; Cordyline, 5 or more species; Astelia, 5 species; Areca sapida; Arundo conspicua; Cyathea, 4 species; and Dicksonia, 3 species.
18. Those genera principally belong to the south temperate zone, where their habitat is mostly insular, and not unfrequently of the same maridionals with the New Zealand groupe. This is in strict accordance with what might have been expected—that from Norfolk Island in the north down to the Antarotic Islands in the South, including the Chatham Islands, the same genera would be found; and, in many instances, there are not only the same genera to be met with, but the same species. Moreover, it should not be forgotten that the majority of those genera are very small, some having only two species each, (as Alectryon, Dysoxylum, Knightia, and Rhipogonum) others, only three or four, (as Hymenanthera, Pennantia, Clianthus, Edwardsia, Atherosperma, Dammara, and Phyllocldus) and these are only found as single species in their various habitats; and of others, containing from 5 to 10 species each,(as, Plagianthus, Aristotelia, Forstera, Ourisia, Cardyline, Astelia, Podocarpus, and Dacrydium) the greater number of species of each genus are to be fouud in New Zealand; so that New Zealand (the North Island) may not inaptly be
deemed their centre, or home. Further still, (in the midst of much apparent dissimilarity, which, however, is daily lessening) there is a very great concord, or botanical affinity, between the vegetation of the various islands lying in or about the same parallels of south latitude. A belt around the globe, containing the Chatham Islands, Juan Fernandez, South Chili, the Fuegian and Falkland groupes, Tristan d'Acunha, the Cape, Kerguelen's Land, St. Paul's Island, Tasmania, the South-east coast of Australia, Lord Howe's Island, the Middleton group, and Norfolk Island, all contain the same genera, and in not a few instances (particularly in the smaller islands) the very same species. And this will be much more evident when the whole of the Botany (i. e., including the numerous smaller cryptogams,—Musci, Hepaticœ, Algœ, Fungi, and Lichenes) of those countries is collectively considered; particularly of those, however distant from each other, which partake the same isothermal and humid climate. If, instead of writing on the Botanical Geography of the Northern Island alone of the New Zealand groupe, I were writing on that of the nhole groupe, and, at the same time, possessed that necessary intimate botanico-geographical and geognostical knowledge of the interior of the Middle and Southern Islands which I possess of the Northern Island—I should be in a far better position for comparing the botanical geography of New Zealand with that of other lands, lying within or near the same parallels of south latitude than I now am; and, from what I already know, I believe, that hereafter, and only in some such way, can the botanical geography of the New Zealand groupe be truly and efficiently shown and compared. Nevertheless, this cannot presently be done; for (to use the words of Dr. Hooker) “the subject is one that cannot be fully worked out without far more materials than have hitherto been collected…..When the floras of the monntains of South Chili, New Zealand, South Tasmania, the Australian Alps, the Crozets, Prince Edward's Island, Amsterdam Island, St. Paul's Island, and; Macquarrie Island,” [and of all other islets lying south of 27° south.] “shall have been properly explored,” [together with their geology and climate,] “the great problem of representation and distribution in the South Temperate and Antarctic Zone will be solved.*
19. Referring again to those genera, which, though not endemic, possess characteristis New Zealand species, the following will be found to be their geographical distribution,—including, also, a few species that are identical—Myosurus aristatus, a plant of the Chilian Andes;
[Footnote] * Introduotory Essay, Flora. Nov. Zel., vol. L., p. xxxili.
Drimys, a small genus of only three species, one of which, the celebrated Winter's Bark (D. Winteri), is confined to Fuegia, and another has recently been found so far north as the alpine mountains of Borneo; but the New Zealand plant, (D. axillaris) is very closely allied to a kindred plant much nearer home (one of another very small genus of two or three species) the Tasmania aromatica of Tasmania. Hymenan thera, (a genus of only four species) has a species in New Zealand, one in Norfolk Island, another in Tasmania, and another in Australia. Pittosporum, has about a dozen, species in Australia, and one in Tasmania, but “the maximum of this genus will probably be found in the Pacific Islands.”* Colobanthus Billardieri, is also found in Tasmania and Campbell's Island. Plagianthus has a few species in New Holland and Tasmania. Elœocarpus has several species in tropical India and the Pacific Islands, and one species in New South Wales. Aristotelia has species in Chili, and one in Tasmania. Pennantia, a genus of only three species, one of which (corymbosa) is in New Zealand, one in Norfolk Island, and one on the coast of West Australia. Alectryon excelsum is said (by D'Candolie, with some degree of doubt) to have a single allied species in New Holland—Dysoxylum (Hartighsea), has a species in Norfolk Island, and (perhaps) another on the east coast of New Holland. Pelargonium clandestinum is also found in Tasmania, Tristan d'Acunha, and the Cape; to which countries this extensive genus is almost wholly confined, Oxalis Magellanica is also found in Tasmania and Fuegia. Coriaria, two, at least of its species, are common in south Chili Pomaderris has several species in New Holland and Tasmania. Discaria, a small genus, is found in South America, Australia, Tasmania, and the Gallapago Islands. Clianthus, another small genus, is only again met with in Norfolk Island and New Holland. Edwardsia (Sophora) grandiflora, is common in Chili, Chiloe, and Juan Fernandez; but, curiously enough, the genus is not found in Tasmania or Australia, where plants of the same natural order are so very common; this small genus only possesses some six or seven species, two of which, according to D'Candolle, are confined to the Isle of Bourbon. Acœna has two species in Tasmania and Australia, (one of them being the common New Zealand one) and several in South America, and in the Antarctic and Kerguelen's Islands. Fuchsia, a large genus; yet, out of New Zealand, is only found in South America, from Mexico to the Straits of Magellan. Epilobium, an extensive European genus, is also found in
[Footnote] * Flora Tasmanis, vol. I., p. 38.
South-east and South-west Australia, in western South America, in the AntarcticIslands, and in Tasmania; but “is more abundant in New Zealand than in any other part of the globe,”* the six species found in Tasmania are all natives of New Zealand. Haloragis, is found in South-east Australia, Tasmania and Juan Fernandez. Metrosideros, in South Chili, the Capeand Australia. Leptospermum, in South-east Australia and Tasmania. Myrtus in Chili and at Cape Horn. Montia fontana, the only plant of this genus, is also abundant at Cape Horn, Kerguelen's Land, the Antarctic Islands and Tasmania. Weinmannia, at the Cape, Madagascar, the Isle of Bourbon, Tahiti, and South Chili. Ligusticum and Angelica, several speciesin the Antarctic Islands. Panax.—Our New Zealand species have close alliance with species in the Antarctic Islands and Chili; one small species alone of this genus is found in Tasmania, the only representative in that island of the natural order (Araliaceœ) to which it belongs! of which order also, only 8 or 10 species are found in Australia! Meryta, a singular genus of only 4 or 5 species, two of which are found in Norfolk Island, and one in Tahiti The fine Composite genera, Olearia and Celmisia, are also found in Australia and Tasmania; the latter genus, however, so well developed in New Zealand, is only feebly so by a single species in each of those two countries. Of the smaller Compositeœ, Lagenophora, a small genus, is also found in Antarctic America, the Falkland Islands, Australia and Tasmania. Abrotanella is confined to New Zealand, Tasmania, the Antarctic Islands, Fuegia, and Kerguelen's Land; and Microseris, a genus of only two species, is found in Tasmania and West Chili. Olea has a closely allied species in Norfolk Island, and others at the Cape, Mauritius, and Bourbon. Sapota costata is also found in Norfolk Island. Forstera is confined to New Zealand, Tasmania, and Fuegia. Dracophyllum, so well developed in New Zealand, extends south to the Antarctic Islands, east to the Chatham Islands, and north to New Caledonia; one species is also found in New South Wales. The large tropical genus Myrsine, containing above 80 species, of which 50 are Brazilian and Indian, and 30 insular,—from the West India Islands to the Sandwich Islands and Borneo, and southwards in Norfolk Island, New Zealand, and the Antarctic Islands, is not found in Tasmania, (where there are no plants of the whole natural order) and has only three species, in Australia. Geniostoma, a small and wholly insular genus of only 3 species one of which is found in the Isle of Tanna, and another in the Isle of
[Footnote] * Flora Tasmaniœ, vol. i., p. 116.
Bourbon. Calceolaria (another curious instance like that of Fuchsia) is only found besides in Western South America, where it is common. Veronica, a large cosmopolite genus, is comparatively scarce in Tasmania and Australia, it abounds however throughout the New Zealand groupe and the Antarctic Islands, and is also found in the Falklands. Ourisia is found in Fuegia, and has one small species in Tasmania. Myoporum in Tasmania and South East Australia. Atherosperma, a very small genus containing only 3 other species, one of which is found in Tasmania and one in South Chili. Pimelea is well represented in Australia and Tasmania, while Knightia has only one other species, and that in New Caledonia. Drapetes, a small genus of only 4 species, one of which is found in Fuegia, and another as far north as the alpine mountains of Borneo. Australina, a curious small genus of only 2 species, one of which is in Tasmania. Elatostemma, another small genus, has a second species in the Society Islands. Euphorbia glauca is also found in Norfolk Island. Piper excelsum is also found in Norfolk Island, and has allied species in the Fiji, and other South Sea, Islands; so also has Peperomia. Ascarina, a small genus of only 2 species, one of which is in the Sandwich Islands. Fagus, a genus in the Southern Hemisphere, confined to South Chili, Fuegia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Dammara, a small genus, one species of which is found so far north as La Perouse's, or Vanicolla, Island, (11° 40′ S. 167° 0′ E,) which, with another species said to be in the Fiji Islands, are all that are known in the Southern Hemisphere. Libocedrus (Thuja) Doniana, is closely allied to the “Alerse,” a highly useful species (Thuja tetragona) found in South Chili. Podocarpus is found in South Chili, and one small bushy species is found in Australia and Tasmania. Dacrydium has one noble species in Tasmania (the celebrated “Huon Pine”), and several in the Polynesian Islands. Phyllocladus, a small genus of 4 species, one of which is in Tasmania, and one has lately been discovered so far north as the alpine mountains of Borneo. Most of the New Zealand Orchideous genera (and some of the species) are found in Australia, Tasmania, and the Antarctic Islands. Khipogonum, (a genus of only 2 species) has one species in New Holland. Callixene, a genus of only 3 species, has two species in South Chili and in Fuegia. Phormium is only found besides in Norfolk Island (g). Cordyline has a few species in Norfolk Island, and one species in Australia. Astelia is found in Fuegia, Oahu, and Tasmania. Areca sapida is believed to be confined to New Zealand and to
Norfolk Island, but the genus is found in some islands of the Malay Archipelago. The 3 genera of the New Zealand Tree Ferns, Cyathea, Alsophila, and Dicksonia, are also found in Norfolk Island, and in Tasmania; and of the New Zealand Ferns generally, it may be said, their southern genera and species (excluding those few which are endemic) are also found in Norfolk Island, Tasmania, South America, and, the Antarctic Islands; and, more sparingly, in Juan Fernandez, Chiloe, the Falkland group, Tristan d'Acunha, Kerguelen's Land, and the Cape.
20. Moreover, of the 3 great Natural Orders, Leguminosœ, Myrtaceœ, and Proteaceœ, so very common in Australia, and tolerably so in Tasmania, but very few are found in New Zealand, and, curiously enough, these few do not belong to any of the great Australian genera, such as, Acacia, Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Grevillea, and Hakea. The Australian and Tasmanian species alone of the genus Acacia are upwards of 260 in number; and of Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Grevillea, and Hakea, each numbers above 100 species. Not a single species however of those great genera has been found in New Zealand! Of Leguminosœ, of which order Australia has upwards of 900 known species, and Tasmania nearly 70, New Zealand possesses some 7 or 8 species, belonging to 3 small genera; one of which, Camichœlia, (having 5 of the 8 species), is confined to New Zealand; and of another, Edwardsia, (if separated from Sophora, a very small genus), the New Zealand species, E. grandifllora, (as has been already shown, par. 19) is only found in Juan Fernandez and South Chili. Of Myrtaceœ, (of which order Australia has upwards of 650 known species, and Tasmania 36) New Zealand has only 15 species, belonging to 4 distinct genera; of which genera, only one (Leptospermum) is found in Tasmania; and another of them (Myrtus), which has 4 species in New Zealand, is also not found in Australia. Of Proteaceœ, (of which order Australia has also 650 known species, and Tasmania 22), only 2 species are found in New Zealand. Of the whole 24 or 25 species, of those 3 great natural families, found in New Zealand, only one species, the common “Tea-tree” (Leptosperrmum scoparium) is found in Tasmania and Australia; while those countries possess upwards of 2,200 known species!
21. Darwin, indeed, states, that “New Zealand in its endemic plants is much more closely related to Australis, the nearest main-land, than to any other region.”* Dr. Hooker, however, (in his elaborate Intro-
[Footnote] * Origin of Species, chap. xii.
ductory Essay to the Flora Tasmaniæ*), does not go so far as this, although he, too, says, “that 216 or one-fourth of the New Zealand Phænogams are natives of Australia, and of these 115 species are confined to these two countries;” and, “that of the 115 specimens peculiar to Australia and New Zealand, only 26 belong to genera peculiar to those countries, and only 6 to the long list of Australian genera which contain upwards of 20 species each.” Nevertheless it is believed that this comparison will be very materially altered, when the whole of the Flora of New Zealand (and the many other Polynesian Islands) shall be fully known. Already, since the publication of the Flora Novæ-Zelandiæ, have many new species been discovered in New Zealand, particularly in the Middle Island; where too, are several South American genera hitherto not detected in the North Island, (as Donatia, Rostkovia, Gaimardia, &c.), and, consequently, not referred to in this Essay. And of those 26 species belonging to genera at present only common to Australia and New Zealand, may it not reasonably be expected, that some of these will be also found in the many unexplored sub-tropical islands? Again, seeing that the striking characteristic Australian genera (while found in Tasmania) are wholly wanting in New Zealand; and that the characteristic New Zealand genera are also (as such) wanting in Australia; is it not evident, that it is not so much from what is (the positive), as from what is not (the negative), that the better comparison can in this case be drawn, and the truer Botanical afflnity deduced? Reviewing, then, what is already known of New Zealand and Southern insular Botany, and looking forward expectingly to future kindred revelations, it is not unreasonably believed, that the Botany of the New Zealand group will be found to be peculiar, and not so closely related with the nearest main-land (Australia), as with many other small islands, and therefore, forming with them a Southern Botanical insular region, of which New Zealand is probably about the existing centre.
22. In bringing this necessarily imperfect outline of the Botanical Geography of the North Island to a close, many such thoughts as the following present themselves for consideration:—
Is there a natural law affecting the dissemination of plants?
Is a climatic, or geognostic, difference, of greater value than a mere geographical one?
[Footnote] * Page IXXXViii.:—An admirable work, well worthy the serious study of every student of New Zealand Botany.
Did cosmopolite genera, or species, proceed from a single germ, or centre? and, if so, how did they reach the extreme outposts?
Did endemic genera and species proceed from a single germ or centre? and, if so, can that centre be found?
How is it, that of some insular genera (e.g. Coprosma), there are many species and varieties; while of others (e.g. Corynocarpus, Geniostoma, Carpodetus), there is only one?
Were all such genera created simultaneously? and the large genus with all its species and varieties?
Are genera having many species older than those having only one; or vice versa?
May not the several species and varieties of an insular, or endemic, genus, be validly considered as having originally sprung from one species or plant?
Why are several species of the numerous-seeding and easily-distributed Natural Order Compositæ so comparatively scarce and very local? e.g., several species of the genus Celmisia; the New Zealand “daisies,” Brachycome Sinclairii, and B. odorata; Gnaphalium prostratum, and G. Colensoi; Senecio Greyii, and S. perdicioides; and Taraxacum Dens-leonis? Senecio perdicioides has not been found by any Botanist since Cook's visit. Senecio Greyii, although producing its fine flowers by hundreds, is very local, hitherto only met with in one rocky spot. And the small indigenous Taraxacum Dens-leonis is, comparatively, very scarce; while the larger introduced plant is rapidly becoming a perfect pest, growing, together with the English daisy, by hundreds and thousands.
Does New Zealand (with the islets lying north and south) possess a peculiar Botany of her own?
Is New Zealand the centre of this Botanical region, at least as regards New Zealand species found north and south of her?
How is the isolation of certain species to one peculiar plant, spot, or locality, (as stated in par. 14), to be accounted for? This last thought is never more strongly felt, than when on the tops of a secluded mountain range, or in the depths of a deep untrodden glen, one, or a few plants of any species are found, but no more; perhaps no more in the island! or, at all events, no more have been detected after several years of diligent research. How is this to be accounted for, if all present species were created as they now are, and at one time? There, in its habitat, everything has for years—or ages—combined to favor the growth and spread of that plant; but, although flourishing,
it has not spread. Are we to infer from its scarcity, that it is but a creation of yesterday? or, the lingering relic of a past race? or a new form, or a sportive hybrid of Nature?
Lastly: May future varieties in certain species be hereafter the more reasonably expected to take place in New Zealand,—or vice versa,—through Colonization, and through the introduction of con-generic plants, of honey-making insects, and of insectivorous birds?
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