Art. XV.—On the Botany of the Thames Gold-fields.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, November 13, 1869.]
The country between the Waikawa and Kawæranga creeks consists, for the most part, of steep hills and narrow gullies, and presents but few variations in those features which influence the character of its vegetation. From the Kawæranga northward to Kurunui, a gradually-narrowing strip of alluvial land, much of which is now occupied by Shortland and Grahamstown, still exhibits dense thickets of Olearia Solandri, Hook. f., Plagianthus divaricatus, Forst., Muhlenbeckia adpressa, Lab., M. compressa, Mein., Coprosma sps., Dodonoea viscosa, Forst., with a close undergrowth of sedges and other uliginal plants, the most conspicuous of which is Cladium junceum, Br., often found covering large spaces, to the exclusion of other plants. The mud-flats and margins of the creeks are occupied by the Mangrove, Avicennia officinalis, L., which is here abundant and attains a large size, Chenopodium ambiguum, Br., Leptocarpus simplex, A. Rich, Selliera radicans, Cav., Samolus repens, Pers., Scirpus maritimus, L., and rarely S. triqueter. L.
At various points along the coast, small patches of sand admit of a sparse growth of arenarian plants, the most common being Convolvulus Soldanella, L., and Carex pumila, Thumb.; the Pingao (Desmochoenus spiralis, Hook.), a plant which, in the north, at least, is common on shifting sand, usually within the influence of the sea-spray, is here found only in small quantity and apparently confined to a single locality. Occasionally, as in the neighbourhood of the Tararu, the Waionau, and other creeks, alluvial flats of sufficient extent to have been used as cultivations by the Maoris, are now more or less clothed with a dense growth of Tauhinu (Pomaderris phylicifolia, Lodd.), Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium, Forst.), Koromiko (Veronica salicifolia, Forst.), and fern (Pteris esculenta, Forst.), with an abundance of naturalized plants, waifs of cultivation, grasses, and other stragglers, which are again mixed with a few coarse-growing native plants of herbaceous habit.
In the neighbourhood of Shortland and Grahamstown, the hills are usually much broken and precipitous, and attain their greatest height, 2300 feet, near the head of the Kawæranga creek: the beds of the different creeks are frequently mere ravines, the sides of which are thickly clothed with mosses, various species of Gottschea and Plagiochila: P. Stephensoniana, Mitten, attaining unusual luxuriance; in less moist places a rare moss, Mielichoferia tenuiseta, Mitten, covers the surface and forms a suitable medium for the growth of various species of Corysanthes, especially C. rivularis, Hook. f., and rocks and trees alike are clothed with a rich covering of various ferns, more especially Hymenophyllum, dilatatum, Swartz., H. scabrum, A. Rich., H. oeruginosum, Carm., and Trichomanes reniforme, Menz. The slopes of the hills are usually covered with a dense forest of timber trees, and undergrowth, the forms being chiefly the Hinau (Elœocarpus dentatus, Hook.), Toro (Persoonia Toro, A. Cunn.), Tawa (Nesodaphne Tawa, Hook. f.), Beech, or Black Birch (Fagus fusca, Hook. f.), Kauri (Dammara australis, Lamb.), Miro (Podocarpus ferruginea, Don.), Totara (Podocarpus Totara, A. Cunn.), Rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum, Soland.), etc., with Alseuosmia macrophylla, A. Cunn., Schefflera digitata, Forst., Coprosma grandifolia, Hook. f., Senecio glastifolius, Hook. f., and immense tussocks of an undescribed Astelia, and cutting grasses (Gahnia lacera, Stend., G. arenaria, Hook. f.): the Supplejack (Rhipogonum scandens, Forst.), and Mange-mange (Lygodium articulatum, Swartz.), are so mixed with the undergrowth as to render all progress tedious and laborious in the extreme.
A remarkable feature, in some parts of the district, is the social character of the arborescent ferms, more especially of the Mamaku (Cyathea medullaris, Swartz.), and the Weki (Dicksonia squarrosa, Swartz.), which occasionally form groves of small extent; the Ponga Flat, a comparatively level piece of land at an altitude of about 1650 feet, owes its name to the large grove of Black Tree-ferns with which it was formerly covered. A few specimens have been spared and are carefully protected by the miners.
North of the Tararu creek, the hills next the sea are of lower elevation, and more rounded in outline, their slopes being chiefly covered with a varying growth of Pteris esculenta, Forst., Leptospermum scopariun, Forst., Pomaderris phylicifolia, Lodd., Dracophyllum squarrosum, Hook., f., Coriaria ruscifolia, L., Epacris pauciflora, A. Rich., and a few straggling grasses, varied by occasional patches of forest. The tributary streams are choked with a close growth of Typha, Schoenus, Cladium, Carex, and other marsh-loving plants. But a few miles inland these ericetal and uliginal plants disappear, the streams become narrowed and impetuous, the hills steeper and higher, clothed everywhere with a dense bush, often nearly impassable from the abundance of Mange-mange, which binds trees and undergrowth together in an almost impenetrable mass. The highest peaks of Mount Wynyard, 2690 feet, are approached by connecting wall-like ridges, often not sufficiently wide to admit of two persons walking abreast, and covered with tussocks of Astelia, Gahnia, and various shrubs.*
About the height of 1800 feet a change is usually observable in the character of the vegetation; in broken rocky places there is a profusion of mosses and lichens, chiefly belonging to genera Racomitrium, Dicranum, and Cladonia, with a varying shrubby growth of Weinmannia, Leptospermum, Pittosporum, Coprosma, Phebalium, Quintinia, and many ferns. On more even ground Weinmannia silvicola, Banks and Sol., and Metrosideros lucida, attain
[Footnote] * One of these ridges is completely blocked by an immense Rata, Metrosideros robusta, A. Cunn., the trunk of which overhangs both edges of the mural precipice, and can only be passed by the aid of the friendly climbers, and the tussocks of Astelia which partially cover its base.
a large size, associated with Ixerba brexioides, A. Cunn., and Phyllocladus glauca, both of which attain their maximum of growth at about 2000 feet, although found in abundance at a greater elevation; in fact they occur on the highest peaks, together with Dracophyllum Traversii, Hook. f., Archeria racemosa, Hook. f., Griselinia littoralis, Raoul., Dacrydium Colensoi, Hook. f., Panax Colensoi, Hook. f., and many others of greater vertical range. Although from the steep character and ridge-like form of these ranges, water cannot, in some places, be obtained at an altitude of more than 1200 feet, yet the abundance and luxuriance of the mosses and hepaticæ, which clothe the summits, attest an atmosphere continually charged with moisture.
The trees and shrubs that have been utilized either as timber for house or ship-building, or for fencing, are the Kauri, Rimu, Totara, Miro, Beech or Black-birch, Manuka, Rawiri, Puriri, Pohutukawa, Rata (Metrosideros robusta, A. Cunn.), Tawa, and more rarely, the Tanekaha, Tawari (Ixerba brexioides, A. Cunn.), and Toro. The utilization of the Beech, affords a marked extension of the economical range of the genus to which it belongs, as, although largely used in the South, its timber is usually neglected in this part of the colony, although its bark is occasionally sent to the tan yards. It is now being largely used in the construction of the Moanataiari tramway, which will afford a good opportunity of testing its durability.
While on this subject, I may remark, the waste of timber on some parts of the field has been excessive, and will be severely felt by the miners at no distant period. The Kauri has been preserved to a great extent, as the sum of twenty-five shillings is required for each tree cut down. the Pohutukawa, which from its value to the ship-builder, has contributed largely to the progress of this part of the colony, is without the benefit of protection, and has been in some cases recklessly cut down for firewood, a proceeding which is said to have been commented upon by the Maoris. Although confessedly difficult, it would seem not impracticable to prevent this wanton destruction of valuable timber, by legislative enactment; it is certainly desirable, in the interest of the miners themselves, no less than in that of the colony at large.
Naturalized plants are to be found in great abundance in all situations, except on the highest ranges. The most common forms are identical with those found to the north of the Waitemata, and occur in nearly the same proportion, as will be seen from the following list, which is arranged in the order of their relative abundance over the entire district:—
Erigeron canadensis, L.
Hypocharis radicata, L.
Anagallis arvensis, L.
Medicago denticulata, Willd.
Lolium perenne, L.
Euphorbia Peplus, L.
Rumex obtusifolius, L.
Plantago major, L.
Helminthia echioides, Gært.
Briza minor, L.
The most notable exception in the above list is the Milk-weed (Euphorbia Peplus, L.), which in many northern districts, would rank second or third on the list, instead of sixth; the position of one or two species in the list, might possibly be altered by an examination of the district in December, instead of April. The former extent of native cultivations is attested by the common occurrence of the Tara (Colocasia esculenta, Scholl.), and several of the cultivated fruits of Europe, the peach, cherry, fig, vine, raspberry, strawberry, all of which are propagating themselves without the assistance of man, and are
probably deteriorating in quality even more rapidly than they are increasing in number. A close analysis of the indigenous species found in the district, shows that fully four-fifths of the entire number are common to both the North and South Islands; the remaining fifth being peculiar to the North.
New or Critical Species; Variations, Etc.
Drimys colorata, Raoul. A small shrub with membranous leaves, green on both surfaces, is doubtfully referred to this form, in the absence of flowers. The ordinary forms of D. axillaris vary widely in the texture of the leaf, the hairiness of the midrib, and the length of the peduncle.
Viola filicaulis, Hook. f. Identified in the absence of flowers. Extremely local, and probably attains here its northern limit.
Pittosporum Huttonianum, n. sp. A somewhat-irregularly branched shrub or small tree, 12–25 feet high, with black or dark-brown bark, young branches slender, and with the leaves and petioles clothed with white floccose tomentum; leaves alternate, oblong or ovate, obtuse or acute, rarely acuminate, 3–5 inches long, slightly coriaceous when old; petioles slender, ½–¾ inches long; flowers axillary, solitary, or rarely in twos on a common pedicel, peduncles downy, ½–¾ inch long; sepals lanceolate, acute, somewhat bullate at the base, downy; petals ligulate, sharply recurved at about half their length; the corolla never presenting the rotate appearance seen in P. tenuifolium; ovary pubescent, peduncles twice or thrice the length of the sepals; bracts at the base of the peduncle, deciduous, capsules erect, 2–3-valved, downy, larger than in P. tenuifolium. In the flowering season the tomentum at the back of the leaves presents a cobwebby appearance, and falls off in large quantities.
I have named this handsome shrub after my valued friend Captain Hutton, F. G. S., who was my associate at its original discovery, on the Great Barrier Island.
Pittosporum Kirkii, Hook. f., n. sp. A handsome laxly-branched shrub when growing freely, 3–15 feet high, branchlets stout, rigid, ascending; bark reddish-purple, leaves alternate, crowded or whorled, linear-obovate, acute or obtuse, 2–5 inches long, gradually narrowed into rather broad purple petioles, excessively coriaceous, glabrous, pale-green above, lighter below, midrib stout, prominent and curiously flattened beneath; flowers terminal in 3–7 flowered umbels, peduncles rather stout, decurved; sepals braodly lanceolate with membranous margins; petals ligulate, bright yellow, recurved; capsules erect, clustered, glabrous, elliptic, 1–1 ½ inches long, obtuse, 2-valved, remarkably compressed, but the valves contract in a curious manner when the capsule bursts.
Usually in rocky woods, often epiphytic, observed only between 1600 feet and 2700 feet. Originally discovered on the Great Barrier. One of the most strongly marked species of the genus.
Elœocarpus Hookerianus, Raoul. A few small specimens of this plant were seen on high peaks, with all the leaves orbicular or narrow-linear, and curiously toothed and lobed; the branches shortened and curiously aggregated, forming an impervious mass of close growth. This was not simply the result of exposure, as notwithstanding the altitude at which they grew, they were sheltered by larger trees. In the Waikato, trees with leaves similar to the above, are to be seen, amongst those of the ordinary mature form, on every large tree; in other localities in this province, the smaller leaves are not to be met with. There appears to be some reason for supposing that two forms are included under the name.
Pomaderris Edgerleyi, Hook. f. Apparently confined to the sea-cliffs in this district; in one locality occurring in immense abundance, and attaining a stature of 6–9 feet; the most southern locality known for this remarkably
local plant. There are good grounds for supposing the existence of an undescribed species, attaining the height of 20 feet.
Metrosideros robusta, A. Cunn. A dwarf form, 3–5 feet high, usually laden with old capsules, occurs at an altitude of 1800 feet, and upwards, and in the absence of flowers and perfect fruit is referred to this species.
Metrosideros tomentosa, A. Cunn. There appear to be three principal forms of this tree, chiefly dependent upon habitat. (1). On rocky cliffs, and in open places by the sea, it attains a large size, and is marked by its spreading, gnarled, and distorted branches. (2). In woods near the sea it attains its greatest height, and is of comparatively close and erect growth; known to bushmen as “inland Pohutukawa.” the flowers of this form are smaller and less brilliant than the others. (3). A coppice form, rarely more than 12 feet high, sparingly branched, and of erect, compact growth, flowering freely, the petals being usually more acute than in either of the other forms. In large patches on sandy soil not far removed from high-water mark; makes capital firewood. A specimen of the first-named form occurs on the beach at Tapu, the trunk of which has a girth of upwards of 17 feet, and the two principal arms of 11 feet and 8 feet respectively. It is of remarkably symmetrical proportions. Chiefly through the public spirit of William Buckland, Esq., it has escaped the destruction which has befallen other noble specimens at Tapu, and has been enclosed by a protecting fence.
Panax, n. sp. A shrub or small tree 6–20 feet high, diœcious, bark and leaves, especially on the under surface, having a peculiar bronzed appearance, when fresh. Leaves on rather slender petioles 1–2 inches long, 3-foliolate, leaflets 2–3 inches long, obovate lanceolate, cuneate at the base, coarsely and sharply toothed, never sinuate-pinnatifid, glossy; rarely a few unifoliolate leaves are found intermixed with the ordinary form. Panicles invariably terminal, male of few rays 2–3 inches long, flowers in slender pedicels ¼–⅜ inch long; female much shorter, rays and pedicels stouter, fruit nearly as large as in P. Lessonii, styles 5-cuneate at the base, tips recurved, flowers greenish-yellow.
Somewhat resembling P. Simplex, but the leaves are trifoliolate in all stages, the panicles diœcious and terminal, and styles 5. Found also on the Great and Little Barrier Islands, from the sea-level to the highest peaks; and I have long known a solitary clump of small barren trees in the forest at Omaha, which I wrongly referred to P. Sinclairii, when first observed.
Panax arboreum, Forst. This plant assumes two marked forms, which present wide external differences, although difficult to distinguish on paper. (1). A shrub or small tree, in the former state with stout, rather long, branches, and large leaves, the branches ultimately becoming shorter, and the leaves shorter, as the tree grows old, when it presents an unattractive appearance. (2). A shrub with many short and stout branches, leaves more glossy and of a deeper green, much larger and bolder than in the last; petioles stouter with wider bases, umbels much larger, and rays more deeply channelled. The first is the common form at the Thames, and is often clothed with Tupeia antarctica; the last, which would form a handsome plant for the shrubbery, I have only seen at the Thames, and in the Waikato. Both forms may be seen growing together.
Panax Colensoi, D. C., appears to find here its northern limit, and is extremely local, occurring at an altitude of 1600 to 2800 feet. All the young plants observed had pinnatifid leaflets, closely resembling those represented in “Flora Novæ Zelandiæ,” Vol. 1., pl. 21, but of a purplish hue, certainly not P. Edgerleyi. P. Sinclairii was not observed.
Schefflera digitata, Forst. The young leaves of this plant, in some of the higher and deeper gullies more especially, are lobulate and pinnatifid to a
much greater extent than is usually the case, often retaining the peculiarity when 3–4 feet high. In some localities, young plants with leaves of the ordinary form are the exception.
Loranthus, n. sp. (?) Widely differing in appearance from any other N. Z. species; branches slender, ascending; leaves erect, decussate, somewhat deltoid, fleshy, yellowish, turning red when dry; flowers not seen, but apparently axillary and solitary; parasitic an Quintinia serrata, at an altitude of 1800 to 2700 feet. Occasionally branches of the parasite are adherent to its support for a length of several feet.
Griselinia lucida, Forst., var. macrophylla. This is correctly supposed by Dr. Hooker to be merely a state of the species to which it is referred. It is usually found growing on Pohutukawa, and other littoral trees. The normal form is indifferently epiphytic or terrestrial.
Griselinia littoralis, Raoul. Not observed below 1700 feet.
Coprosma, sp. A small shrub 2 feet high, with crimson fruit, apparently allied to C. linariifolia, Hook. f., 1800 to 2500 feet.
Raoulia tenuicaulis, Hook. f. Local, but abundant; apparently attains here its northern limit, and that of the genus.
Gaultheria rupestris, Br. Local; from 1700 to 2700 feet; apparently reaches its northern limit here.
Archeria racemosa, Hook. f. Local, but abundant from 1900 to 2800 feet, previously known only on the Great Barrier Island, where it descends below 1000 feet; finds here an extension of its southern range. Leaves distinctly veined, old racemes fully one inch in length.
Dracophyllum Traversii, Hook. f. (?). A remarkable and handsome shrub, of doubtful identification in the absence of flowers; stem erect, stout, simple or sparingly branched; leaves densely aggregated, recurved, 1 ½ feet long, or more, 1 ½–2 inches wide at the base; panicle shorter and stouter than in D. longifolium, flowers small, crowded. A striking plant although long past flowering. On the highest peaks 2300 to 2700 feet, rare.
Veronica macrocarpa, Vahl. From the sea level to 1800 feet, at the latter altitude having a stature of some 15 feet, or more, with a stem 6 inches in diameter. Mere varieties of V. salicifolia, with larger leaves and capsules than usual, are sometimes referred to this handsome species. It is worthy of remark that V. macrocarpa flowers from April to July, V. salicifolia some months earlier.
Veronica irrigans, Kirk, n. sp. Herbaceous, but branches suffruticose at base, finely puberulous in all its parts, 6–12 inches high, slender; leaves opposite, narrow, linear-lanceolate, distantly sharply serrate, 1–2 inches long, sessile or very shortly petioled; racemes axillary, near the ends of the branches, elongating, 2–5 inches long, very slender, many flowered; peduncles capillary, ¼.½ inch long; sepals ovate, obtuse; flowers, large for the size of the plant, ⅜ inch diameter; petals, whitish with rose-coloured spots at the base; capsules, large, rounded, didymous.
Fagus fusca, Hook. f. The identification of the fine timber tree here referred to this species, rests solely upon a comparison of the foliage. It is certainly identical with the Beech found at the Kawau and at Omaha, and probably with that at Whangarei; but I am not aware that specimens of the inflorescence and fruit have been obtained for comparison with the southern form. At the Thames it is found in rather sheltered places, and has not been found at a greater altitude than 1500 feet. The dense under-growth usually found in the New Zealand forest is entirely wanting in the patches of Beech in the north, and the tree itself is rarely clothed with climbers.
? Dactylanthus, sp. A singular plant, provisionally referred to this genus until better specimens can be obtained. Plant, globose, in large specimens,
the size of a man's fist, usually smaller, densely studded with scaly bud-like processes, swollen at the apex, and in a few cases developed to the length of 2 inches. On being laid open, one or two specimens exhibited numerous almost sessile anthers (?), which crumbled under the knife. Most of the specimens collected were in the last stage of decay. Parasitic on the roots of Schefflera digitata, 1000 to 1600 feet; rare.
Dacrydium laxifolium, Hook. f., var. An erect branching tree, 30 feet high, of which the inflorescence appears to be quite unknown. Notwithstanding the wide difference in habit, it is referred here chiefly on account of the wide basal attachment of the mature leaves. The leaves of the young state, at first, closely resemble those of Podocarpus dacrydioides, subsequently these are replaced by others resembling those of the young state of Dacrydium cupressinum, but stouter; these again become gradually smaller, and modified in shape, until the broadly-imbricating appressed state of the mature leaves is finally developed. Alt. 1500 to 2700 feet.
Phyllocladus glauca, Carr. This fine pine attains here an extension of its southern range, and is abundant from 1800 to 2700 feet.
Callixene parviflora, Hook. f. Attains here most probably its northern limit, at an altitude of 2400 to 2700 feet; rare, epiphytic, flowers not seen.
Schoenus Brownii, Hook. f. Local, 700 to 1200 feet, the most northern locality known.
Scirpus triquetur, L. Local, the most northern locality known to me.
Uncinia, sp? Apparently intermediate between U. australis, Pers., and U. coespitosa, Bool., of which last it is possibly a broad-leaved form, allied to the former by the foliaceous bracts.
Hymenophyllum dilatatum, Swartz, and H. scabrum, A. Rich. These ferns are most abundant, and attain an unusual luxuriance; fronds over 30 inches in length, were collected at an altitude of 2000 feet.
Trichomanes reniforme, Forst. Also of unusual luxuriance. Ascends from the sea-level to 2700 feet.
Trichomanes strictum, Menzies. From 800 to 2700 feet, but local, although it doubtless occurs in isolated habitats, along the entire peninsula. A careful examination of several hundred specimens of this species, from various localities, as well as of T. elongatum, has entirely failed to confirm Mr. Baker's view, of the latter being a variety of the former.
Loxsoma Cunninghamii, Br. Local, but exhibiting a slight extension of its range southward. The most southern locality previously known being at Mercury Bay.
Lomaria elongata, Blume. Descends to about 800 feet, and probably attains here its northern limit; very rare.
Polypodium sylvaticum, Col. This also appears to find its northern limit here; descends to 800 feet.
A few decaying scraps of a plant with narrow-linear leaves, apparently a Clovewort, were picked amongst moss on the peaks of Mount Wynyard, but being without the slightest trace of flower or fruit, identification was impossible. It can scarcely be referred to any described New Zealand species.
Catalogue Of The Flowering Plants And Ferns, Etc., Collected On The Thames Gold-Fields, March And April, 1869.
It is attempted in the following catalogue, to arrange the Phænogamic plants and higher Acrogens of the Cape Colville Peninsula, so as to afford as definite an idea of the distribution of each species, as the space at command will admit of. The method adopted requires a few words of explanation.
The plants are arranged in groups, according to the nature of their habitats, viewed chiefly with regard to dryness, moisture, shade, exposure, etc.
In this district they may be roughly divided into, Ericetal, or plants of the open land, and Sylvestral, or woodland plants, which would almost equally divide the total number of plants between them. The first of these divisions readily admits of sub-division, and the following terms have been adopted for the different groups.
* 1. Littoral. Plants of the sea-shore, whether growing on sandy or muddy beaches, as Convolvulus Soldanella, Salicornia indica: on sea-cliffs, as Metrosideros tomentosa; or in salt-marshes, as Juncus maritimus.
2. Ericetal. Plants of open dry land, as Leptospermum scoparium, Pteris esculenta.
3. Pascual. Plants of open grassy land, as Ranunculus plebeius, Cardamine hirsuta.
4. Rupestral. Plants growing on or amongst rocks, as Cheilanthes Sieberi, Pelloea rotundifolia.
5. Viatical. Plants growing in waste places, or by road sides, etc., as Polygonum aviculare, Agrostis oemula.
6. Inundatal. Plants growing on the banks of streams, or in other places liable to frequent inundation, as Oxalis magellanica, Pratia angulata, Lomaria lanceolata.
7. Paludal. Plants growing in constantly wet soil, or in water, as Epilobium pallidiflorum, Typha latifolia.
8. Lacustral. Aquatic plants, whether floating or submerged, as Ranunculus rivularis, Zostera marina.
9. Sylvestral. Forest or woodland plants, as Dammara australis, Nesodaphne Tawa, Microloena avenacea.
There are a few plants whose habitats are so varied, or possibly so complex, that they cannot be fully expressed by a single term; thus Cardamine hirsuta might with almost equal propriety be classed as Pascual or Sylvestral. Nasturtium palustre as Inundatal or Viatical. Podocarpus dacrydioides as Sylvestral or Paludal. Muhlenbeckia complexa as Ericetal or Sylvestral.
In these and a few other other cases, some allowance must of necessity be made on the score of conciseness.
The term “Sylvestral” is perhaps the most open to objection, on account of its comprehensiveness, as no distinction is drawn between plants found only in deep forests, as the Kauri, and those found in light scrub, or on the outskirts of forest, as the various species of Clematis; but the degrees of difference are generally so near that it is extremely difficult to define them, and to adopt terms that can be applied with any approach to precision. The attempt has therefore been abandoned for the present.
To a certain extent, the above arrangement gives a definite idea of the distribution of each species; but by the aid of a short series of numbers, greater precision may be gained. The series adopted is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20. A plant with the highest number affixed, is one of the most generally distributed throughout the district, limited only by the nature of its habitat, and (possibly) by altitude. Thus Geniostoma is found in, or on, the margin of almost every patch of bush, however small, as is Leptospermum scoparium on every open hill-side. The lower numbers exhibit comparative rarity. But it must be borne in mind that this notation has reference to the extent of distribution only, and not to relative abundance. The same number is applied to each of the two plants last mentioned, yet if the relative number of individuals could be compared, it would be found less than single plant of the Geniostoma to ten thousand of the Leptospermum. At the advanced
[Footnote] * These terms are similar to those introduced by Mr. Watson, in his various works on Phytogeography, but are employed with different limitations.
period of the season at which the survey was made, it was only possible to apply this test of frequency to a portion of the plants observed.
The estimate of altitude affixed to many species, is chiefly based upon single observations with a pocket aneroid, and can therefore be regarded as approximative only.
It may well be, that from the late period of the season at which this exploration was made, some plants will be found to be omitted from the list, and the distribution of others but imperfectly laid down from the same cause. The application of the terms and figures descriptive of habitat, frequency, and vertical range, must be regarded as for this district only.
Lepidium oleraceum. Pittosporum crassifolium, (1). P. umbellatum, (3). Plagianthus divaricatus, (3). Linum monogynum, (5). Oxalis corniculata, (20). * Pomaderris Edgerleyi, (2)—200. Metrosideros tomentosa, (15)—2000. Mesembryanthemum australe, (10). Apium australe. A. filiforme. Panax Lessoni, (5) †—800.? Coprosma Baueriana, (1). Olearia furfuracea, (2). O. albida, (5)—200. Senecio lautus,—1000. Selliera radicans. Samolus repens. Convolvulus Soldanella. Avicennia officinalis, (4). Chenopodium ambiguum. Salicornia indica. Euphorbia glauca. Astelia Banksii,—800. Juncus maritimus. Leptocarpus simplex. Scripus maritimus. S. triquetur. Desmochoenus spiralis. Carex pumila. Spinifex hirsutus. Paspalum distichum. Dichelachne stipoides. Triticum multiflorum. T. scabrum. Asplenium obtusatum.
Geranium microphyllum. Pomaderris phylicifolia,—1000. Coriaria ruscifolia, (20)—2000. Drosera auriculata,—2000. Haloragis tetragyna. Leptospermum scoparium, (20)—2000. Lagenophora Forsteri, (20). Wahlenbergia gracilis. Gaultheria antipoda, (15)—2000. Epacris pauciflora, (4)—300. Leucopogon Frazeri, (5). Dracophyllum squarrosum, (4)—2300. Geniostoma ligustrifolium, (20). Muhlenbeckia complexa, (10). Pimelia prostrata. Acianthus Sinclairii,—2000. Microtis porrifolia. Thelymitra longifolia. Orthoceras Solandri. Cordyline Banksii, (10). C. Pumilio, (10). Dianella intermedia, (10). Schoenus tenax. S. tendo. Gahnia setifolia, G. arenaria. Carex breviculmis. Lindsæa linearis, (4). Pteris esculenta, (20)—2520. Doodia media, (10). Schizæa bifida, (5)—2000. Botrychium cicutarium, (3). Lycopodium densum, (15)—2000. L. volubile, (20)—2000.
Ranunculus plebeius, (20). Cardamine hirsuta. Linum marginata. Haloragis micrantha. Epilobium Billardierianum. Dichondra repens. Plantago Raoulii. Libertia ixioides. Arthropodium candidum. Luzula campestris. Microlæna stipoides. Dichelachne sciurea. D. crinita. Agrostis quadriseta. Danthonia semi-annularis,—2000. Poa anceps.
Epilobium nummularifolium, (20). E. pubens. Celmisia, sp. (1), 2200–2700. Ozothamnus glomeratus, (3)—1600. Erechtites scaberula, E. quadridentata. Gaultheria rupestris, (1) 1700–2700. Convolvulus
[Footnote] * The typical form is a truly Littoral plant: the varieties are Ericetal and Viatical.
[Footnote] † Also Sylvestral.Note.—Range in altitude given in feet: a dash only, prefixed, signifies “from sealevel to.” Figures in parentheses refer to the comparative distribution of species in the district: see p. 96.—ED.
Tuguriorum. Parietaria debilis. Peperomia Urvilleana. Earina autumnalis. Arthropodium cirrhatum (5). Microlæna polynoda. Echinopogon ovatus. Cheilanthes Sieberi, (3). Pellæa rotundifolia (10). Lomaria vulcanica, (2) 1200–1800. Asplenium lucidum, (20). A. flabellifolium, (3). A. Hookerianum (3)—1600. Aspidium Richardi, (20). Schizæa fistulosa, (3)—2000. Lycopodium scariosum, (3)—2000.
Geranium dissectum, vars. carolinianum, pilosum, patulum, glabratum. G. molle. Pelargonium australe, var. clandestinum. Acæna Sanguisorbæ. Haloragis alata. Epilobium junceum, (20). Sicyos angulatus. Daucus brachiatus. Bidens pilosa. Cotula australis. Gnaphalium luteo-album. G. involucratum. G. collinum. Sonchus oleraceus, var. asper. Convolvulus sepium. C. marginata. Solanum aviculare. S. nigrum. Polygonum aviculare. Rumex flexuosus. Agrostis æmula. A. Billardieri.
Nasturtium palustre. Viola filicaulis, (1)—700. Stellaria parviflora. Oxalis magellanica. Gunnera monoica. Callitriche Muellerii. Eugenia Maire, (5). Epilobium alsinioides. Hydrocotyle elongata. H. moschata. Coprosma propinqua (?), (5). C. linariifolia, (5). Olearia Solandri. Lagenophora petiolata. Cotula perpusilla. C. minuta. Raoulia tenuicaulis. Gnaphalium Keriense. Lobelia anceps. Pratia angulata. Veronica irrigans, Kirk, n. sp.,—300. Corysanthes rivularis. C. macrantha. Triglochin triandrum. Cordyline australis. Astelia grandis. Phormium tenax,—2300. P. tenax, var. variegata. P. Colensoi. Juncus vaginatus. J. bufonius. Schoenus Brownii, 700–1200. Isolepis nodosa. I. riparia. Cladium Gunnii. C. Sinclairii. Carex lucida. C. Lambertiana. C. vacillans. Sporobolus elongatus. Gleichenia circinata, (5). G. circinata, v. hecistophylla. Dicksonia squarrosa,—2000. Loxsoma Cunninghamii. Lindsæa trichomanoides, (2). Lomaria membranacea, (10). L. lanceolata, (15). Lycopodium cernuum, (5).
Hypericum japonicum. Epilobium tetragonum. E. pallidiflorum. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Nertera Cunninghamii, (3). Cotula coronopifolia. Polygonum minus, var. decipiens. Typha latifolia. Juncus planifolius. Schoenus axillaris. Eleocharis acuta, var. platylepis. E. gracillima. Isolepis prolifer. Cladium glomeratum. C. teretifolium. C. junceum. Carex virgata. C. virgata, var. secta. C. Gaudichaudiana. C. ternaria. C. Forsteri. Isachne australis. Arundo conspicua. Lomaria procera, (20)—2600. L. fluviatilis, (5) 500–1600. L. elongata, (1)—800. Lycopodium laterale, (3).
Ranunculus rivularis. (Fluviatile.) Zostera marina (Marine.)
Clematis indivisa, (10). C. parviflora, (3). C. foetida, (3). C. Colensoi, (2). Drimys axillaris, (5)—2000. D. colorata, (2). Cardamine stylosa. Melicytus ramiflorus, (20)—2000. M. micranthus, (5). Pittosporum tenuifolium, (20). P. Huttonianum, Kirk., n. sp., (5), under 500. P. Eugenioides, (10). P. cornifolium, (15)—2000. P. Kirkii, Hook. f., n. sp., (3) 1600–2700. Hoheria populnea, (5). Entelea arborecens, (10). Aristotelia racemosa, (15). Elœocarpus dentatus, (20). E. Hookerianus, (1) 2000–2700. Phebalium nudum, (5)—2000. Melicope ternata, (10). M. simplex, (5). Dysoxylum spectabile, (15). Dodonæa viscosa, (15). Alectryon excelsum, (10). Cory
nocarpus lævigata, (20). Carmichælia australis, (10). Sophora tetraptera, (15). Rubus australis, vars. glaber, schmidelioides, cissoides, (20). Quintinia serrata, (15)—2700. Ixerba brexioides, (10) 800–2700. Carpodetus serratus, (10)—1800. Weinmannia silvicola, (20)—2500. W. racemosa, (3). Leptospermum ericoides, (10). Metrosideros florida, (15)—2400. M. lucida, (10) 1700–2700. M. albiflora, (5) 900–2700. M. hypericifolia, (15). M. robusta, (15)—2500. M. robusta, var. M. scandens, (20). M. diffusa. Myrtus bullata, (10). Fuchsia excorticata, (20). Passiflora tetrandra, (10). Panax Edgerleyi, (10) 1000–1800. P. crassifolia, (20)—2500. P. Colensoi, (2) 1800–2700. P. arborea, (20)—2500. P. arborea, var. P. n. sp. (5) 1800–2700. Schefflera digitata, (15)—2500. Griselinia lucida, (20)—2000. G. lucida, v. macrophylla. G. littoralis, (4) 1700–2700. Corokia buddleoides, (4)—2300. Loranthus, n. sp., (3) 1700–2700. L. micranthus, (4). Tupeia antarctica, (5). Alseuosmia macrophylla, (20)—2700. A. macrophylla, var. variegata. A. quercifolia, (3). Coprosma lucida, (15)—2300. C. lucida, var., 1800–2700. C. grandifolia, (15) 2500. C. robusta, (15). C. spathulata, (5). C. rotundifolia. C. sp., (2) 2000–2500. Nertera dichondræfolia, —2000. Olearia Cunninghamii, (20). Senecio glastifolius, (15)—2700. Brachyglottis repanda, (20)—2500. Cyathodes acerosa, (10)—2300. Leucopogon fasciculatus, (20)—2500. Archeria racemosa, (2) 1800–2700. Dracophyllum Traversii, (2) 2300–2700. D. latifolium, (5)—2000. Myrsine salicina, (3). M. Urvillei (15)—2000. M. divaricata, (1). Olea Cunninghamii, (2). O. lanceolata, (5). Parsonsia albiflora, (20)—2500. Veronica salicifolia, (20). V. macrocarpa, (4)—1800. Rhabdothamnus Solandri, (15)—2000. Vitex littoralis, (10). Myoporum lætum, (5). Muhlenbeckia adpressa, (10). Tetranthera calicaris, (10). Nesodaphne Tarairi, (2)—800. Nesodaphne Tawa, (15)—2000. Atherosperma Novæ Zelandiæ, (5). Hedycarya dentata, (10). Knightia excelsa, (15)—2000. Persoonia Toro, (10),—2700. Pimelea longifolia, (2) 1200–1800. P. virgata, (4). Santalum Cunninghamii, (10)—2000. Fagus fusca, (5)—1500. Epicarpurus microphyllus, (3). Piper excelsum, (15).? Dactylanthus, sp. Dammara australis, (20)—2700. Podocarpus ferruginea, (10). P. Totara, (15)—2700. P. spicata, (5). P. dacrydioides, (5). Dacrydium cupressinum, (10)—2000. D. laxifolium, (3) (tree form) 1800–2700. Phyllocladus trichomanoides, (15) —2000. P. Glauca, (3) 1800–2700. Earina mucronata. Bolbophyllum pygmæum, —2500. Sarcochilus adversus. Adenochilus gracilis. Corysanthus triloba,—1600. C. rivularis. Pterostylis Banksii. P. trullifolia,—1200. Libertia micrantha, 1000–2700. Freycinetia Banksii, (20)—2500. Rhipogonum scandens, (15)—2500. Callixene parviflora, 2400–2700. Astelia Cunninghamii, (10)—2500. A. Solandri, (20)—2700. Astelia, n. sp., (15)—2700. Areca sapida, (15). Gahnia, n. sp. G. ebenocarpa. G. lacera,—2700. Uncinia australis. U. sp. U. Banksii. Microlæna avenacea. Panicum imbecille. Gleichenia Cunninghamii, (5). Cyathea dealbata, (15)—2000. C. medullaris, (20)—2000. C. Smithii, (10)—2700. Dicksonia lanata, (2) 1200–1800. Hymenophyllum Tunbridgense, (10)—2500. H. bivalve, (1), 1500–1900. H. multifidum, (10)—2700. H. rarum, (10)—2500. H. dilatatum, (20)—2500. H. Javanicum, (10)—1500. H. sanguinolentum, (20)—2700, H. demissum, (20)—2000. H. scabrum, (15)—2000. H. flabellatum. (20)—2500. H. æruginosum, (10)—2000. H. Lyallii, (10)—2700, Trichomanes reniforme, (20)—2700. T. strictum, (4) 800–2700. T. elongatum, (15)—1800. T. humile, (10)—1800. T. venosum, (10)—1800. Davallia Novæ Zelandiæ, (2) 800–1500. Lindsæa Lessonii, (5)—2000. Adiantum hispidulum, (5). A. affine, (5). A. Cunninghamii, (20). A. fulvum, (15). Hypolepis tenuifolia, (10). Pteris tremula. (20)—2700. P. scaberula, (5). P. incisa, (5). P. macilenta, (15). P.
Endlicheriana, (5). Lomaria filiformis, (10)—2000. L. discolor, (10). L. nigra, (3) 1800–2500. L. Fraseri, (10). Asplenium falcatum, (20)—2000. A. bulbiferum, (20). A. flaccidum, (20)—2000. Aspidium coriaceum, (15). Nephrodium velutinum, (20). N. decompositum, (10). N. de., var. pubescens. N. hispidum, (15). Polypodium australe, (10)—2700. P. Grammitidis, (15)—2500. P. tenellum, (2). P. sylvaticum, (3) 800–1700. P. rugulosum, (5). P. pennigerum, (20). P. rupestre, (15)—2500. P. Cunninghamii, (20)—2500. P. pustulatum, (20)—2000. P. Billardieri, (20)—2500. Leptopteris hymenophylloides, (20). Lygodium articulatum, (15)—2500. Lycopodium Billardieri, (15)—2500. tmesipteris Forsteri, (15)—2700.
Nasturtium officinale. Erysimum officinale. Senebiera pinnatifida. Capsella Bursa-pastoris, Sinapis arvensis. Brassica rapa. B. napus. B. oleracea. Raphanus sativus. Vitis vinifera. Silene quinquevulnera. Stellaria media. Cerastium vulgatum. C. viscosum. Malva rotundifolia. M. Caroliniana. Erodium circutariam. Trifolium repens. T. pratense. T. medium. T. procumbens. T. minus. Melilotus arvensis. Medicago lupulina. M. maculata. M. denticulata. Acacia lophantha. Amygdalus persica. Prunus cerasus. Fragaria elatior. Rubus Idæus. Rosa micrantha. R. rubiginosa. R. multiflora. OEnothera stricta. Cucurbita, sp. Erigeron canadensis. Bellis perennis. Senecio vulgaris. Carduus lanceolatus. Hypochoeris radicata. Taraxacum Dens-Leonis. Helminthia Echioides. Anagallis arvensis. Solanum tuberosum. Physalis peruviana. Verbascum, sp. Veronica arvensis. V. serpyllifolia. Mentha viridis. Prunella vulgaris. Plantago major. P. lanceolata. Rumex viridis. R. obtusifolius. R. crispus. R. Acetosella. Chenopodium murale. Euxolus viridis. Euphorbia Peplus. Riccinus Palma-Christi. Ficus Carica. Colocasia antiquorum. Iris Germanica. Allium, sp. Alopecurus pratensis. Phalaris canariensis. Holcus mollis. H. lanatus. Anthoxanthum odoratum. Digitaria sanguinalis. Poa annua. P. pratensis. Briza minor. Dactylis glomeratus. Bambusa arundinacea. Lolium perenne.