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Volume 2, 1869
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Art. XXIV.—On the Vegetation of the neighbourhood of Christchurch, including Riccarton, Dry Bush, etc.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, December 2, 1868.]

Introductory Remarks on the Distribution of Plants in the Province of Canterbury. By Julius Haast, Ph. D., F. R. S.

Since the appearance of Dr. J. D. Hooker's excellent “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” it has always been my wish to see the compilation of the names of all the plants which grow in the neighbourhood of this city, undertaken; because I have often observed, that few persons, even those acquainted with the rudiments of botany, know what plants really grow wild near Christchurch, and when they should look for them. Unfortunately my own occupations have not allowed me time to prepare such lists, I there-fore induced our member, Mr. J. F. Armstrong, to devote his leisure time to do so, and there is no person here more competent to perform such an arduous task.

I may be here allowed to state, that for more than four years Mr. Armstrong, and his son Mr. J. B. Armstrong, have assisted me in collecting our indigenous vegetation, for the herbarium of our Museum, and for making exchanges; and both have also given me great help in arranging the botanical collections belonging to the province. In fact, whilst I was collecting and investigating the alpine and sub-alpine Flora of New Zealand, my two botanical assistants did the same work in the neighbourhood of Christchurch, and contributed several complete sets of plants to the Museum, which, however, like the great bulk of our botanical collections, have hitherto been inaccessible to the public, for want of space to exhibit them in.

The vegetation of the province of Canterbury, as formerly constituted, may be divided into five main groups or zones, which again can be formed into many sub-divisions.

The five main zones are:—

  • 1.

    The Littoral zone, in which grow, generally, only plants which are peculiar to the sea-shore, from high-water mark to 25 feet above it.

  • 2.

    Lowland zone. This comprises the lower portion of the Canterbury Plains, of Banks' Peninsula, and of Westland. I propose for this group the name of Pine zone. Altitude above sea-level, 25 to 800 feet. On Banks' Peninsula, to 1200 feet.

  • 3.

    Mountain zone, formed by the vegetation, mostly Beech or Fagus, which covers, where still existing, uniformly the sides of the mountains bordering the Canterbury Plains, and the foot of the central ranges, both on the east and west sides. It may appropriately be called the Beech zone. Altitude from 800 to 4000 feet. In the interior of the Alps, it rises only to 2500 feet.

  • 4.

    Sub-alpine zone, formed by a great variety of shrubs, and a few stunted trees. It ranges from 2500 to 4500 feet, and includes the lower portion of the interior of the province, and the highest summits of Banks' Peninsula.

  • I propose to call it the Dracophyllum zone, as this genus, belonging to the Ericeæ or Heaths, is always well represented, and most conspicuous in the regions referred to.

  • 5.

    Alpine zone, on the summits of the mountains bordering the Canter-bury Plains, and on the sides of the alpine ranges, growing to the line of perpetual snow, from 4000 to 7000 feet.

It consists of herbaceous plants, often growing in dense, carpet-like swards. I venture to call it the Raoulia zone, from that genus assuming such conspicuous forms in those regions.

There are, of course, many gradations from the one into the other, as all

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depends upon the aspect, orographical features, mean altitude, and many other secondary causes.

Banks' Peninsula has, in many respects, a peculiar botanical character, as some of the zones are here, as it were, blended with each other in a very striking manner. Moreover, several species of plants growing here, are not to be met with elsewhere.

The sand-hills near Christchurch are very good examples of the first, or Littoral zone, which consists mostly of creeping succulent plants, fond of saline matter, and of sedges, grasses, and a few small shrubs.

The second or Pine zone, is well represented in our neighbourhood by the Riccarton Bush, and still better by the forests on Banks' Peninsula.

It contains, from its low position, the most luxuriant portion of the New Zealand vegetation, high, straight trees, growing closely together, interwoven by numerous lianas, their stems covered with mosses and ferns, and with a dense undergrowth of shrubs and fern-trees.

This second, or Pine zone, is very rich in species, whilst the third, or Beech zone is remarkably uniform, except on the edges of the forest, or along the water-courses, where shrubs and some smaller trees are mixed with it. But once fairly entered into the Fagus (or Beech) forests, we find very little undergrowth, and the stems of the trees are remarkably clean.

The vegetation of Christchurch and its neighbourhood belongs to the first and second zones, with which Mr. Armstrong will make us further acquainted.

The Vegetation of the neighbourhood of Christchurch. By J. F. Armstrong.

Before entering into the subject of this paper, I may be allowed to make a few personal observations, and to request that you will kindly grant me your indulgence for this my first Essay.

I should never have ventured to bring these notes before the Institute had not our President urged upon me, that the preparation of the lists would be very desirable.

I have, therefore, occupied my leisure hours with drawing up these lists; in doing which, my son, who for several years has almost exclusively occupied himself with botany, has rendered me most effectual help, in naming the mosses, ferns, fungi, etc.

I am well aware that these lists are still incomplete in many respects; but I have no doubt, that, in the course of next year, much more material will be collected, so that in a short time they will contain the names of all the plants found within a radius of ten miles around Christchurch.

As Dr. Haast has kindly written some introductory remarks to my notes, I need not enter into botanical geography, but simply state that the vegetation of the country, of which I shall treat, belongs to the first, or littoral zone; and to the second, or pine zone.

It is my intention to furnish, at some future day, a complete list of the plants in this district, classified according to Hooker's “New Zealand Flora.” I shall at present only give lists of the most prominent localities, in which a great variety of vegetable life gladdens the eye of the friend of nature.

Amongst these localities none is more conspicuous than the Riccarton Bush, which, as the following list will show, is remarkably rich in species. In fact we have there a small remnant of the large forest, formerly, without doubt, covering the Canterbury Plains, giving us an insight into the luxuriant forest vegetation, which, in a bygone age, flourished here.

The principal portion of the forest consists of the noble coniferous trees, Podocarpus Totara, P. ferruginea (Black Pine), P. spicata, P. dacrydioides (White Pine), Eloeocarpus dentatus (Hinau), fifty feet high, with pendulous ra-cemes of white flowers. The bark of this tree yields a permanent dye, used by the

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Maoris for colouring mats and baskets. E. Hookerianus, similar to dentatus, but smaller. Plagianthus betulinus (Ribbon Wood), wood of which is worthless. Pittosporum eugenioides, a small, beautiful tree, with yellow, sweet-scented flowers, bark resinous, wood white, useful for cabinet work. Carpodetus serratus, flowers white, profusely produced; wood tough, useful for axe handles. Panax crassifolium, the Ivy tree.

Shrubs, Etc.

Drimys axillaris, a large evergreen shrub, aromatic and pungent, used by the Maoris for various diseases, the “Winter's bark” of New Zealand. Pepper tree of the settlers, wood used for veneers. Melicytus ramiflorus, a large shrub, with soft white wood, useful for cabinet work, leaves eaten by cattle. Pittosporum tenuifolium, a large evergreen, pyramidal shrub, with purple flowers, wood hard, yellowish, useful for cabinet work. P. Colensoi, similar to the last, but larger, wood useless. Hoheria populnea, a large shrub, with abundantly-produced white flowers, the bark affords a demulcent drink, and is also used for cordage. Aristotelia racemosa, a very handsome shrub, with large racemes of reddish, nodding flowers; wood very light, said to be good for veneers. Pennantia corymbosa, a large, very beautiful shrub, covered profusely with very fragrant white flowers. The wood was formerly used by the Maoris for kindling fires, by friction. Coriaria ruscifolia, a small shrub, foliage poisonous to cattle, etc.; the seeds are said to produce delirium and death. A beverage, like elderberry wine, is made from the juice. Urtica ferox, the Stinging Nettle, stings most violently; the pain lasts three or four days. Rhipogonum scandens, Supplejack. The long under-ground stems have been used as sarsaparilla by the settlers; the stems as cordage, by the Maoris. Phormium tenax, the fibres of which are very strong; its roots, also, have been used as a substitute for sarsaparilla.

Another interesting locality, in the neighbourhood of this city, and visible from our streets, is the so-called Dry Bush, which, from numerous fires having passed through it, has a scorched appearance. Although there are some large coniferous trees in this small forest, it has more the characteristics of that portion of our bush vegetation which invariably edges our larger forests, of which the Mount Pleasant Bush is a still more characteristic representative.

The only conifers are Podocarpus Totara, and P. ferruginea. The other principal forest trees are Alectryon excelsum (Titoki), a beautiful tree, with large panicles of reddish flowers; the oil of the seeds was formerly used by the Maoris for anointing the person; wood hard and durable. Sophora tetraptera, var. grandiflora, a beautiful tree, with large pendulous yellow flowers, wood red, valuable for fencing and cabinet work. Fuchsia excorticata, wood white, soft, probably worthless.

There are in this small bush about twenty-eight species of shrubs, enumerated in the appended list; some of them are very beautiful, and worthy of cultivation in our gardens; while others may prove useful for their medicinal properties. The most remarkable among these are Carmichoelia australis and C. juncea, with beautiful pea-like flowers. Discaria Toumatou, the spines of which were used in tattooing. Myrtus obcordata, Piper excelsum (Kava Kava), the New Zealand Pepper tree: a beverage, called kava, was formerly made from the roots and leaves by the Maoris; an infusion of the leaves is used to cure toothache. Clematis, n. sp., a curious leafless climber, with verticillate, yellow, sweet-scented flowers.*

The Sand-Hills.

It is evident from the shifting nature of the ground in the littoral zone,

[Footnote] * See List of Plants of Otago, by J. Buchanan, p. 38, “Trans. N. Z. Inst.,” Vol. i.

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that no large or continuous vegetation can occur; at the same time, from its diversified appearance, it is peculiarly interesting to the botanist. There we meet with a few shrubs, such as Cassinia, Carmichælia, Discaria, Pimelia Arenaria, with its peculiar baccate fruit; and a considerable variety of herbaceous plants, principally consisting of coarse grasses, Carex, Clematis, Ranunculus, Scleranthus, superior to the Kew grass for lawns, verges, etc., Tetragona, Pratia, six species of Orchideæ; and among Ferns, Pteris aquilina, Botrychium virginicum, the rare British fern Ophioglossum vulgatum, and Drosera.

As new plants are discovered every year, we are forced to the conclusion, that the flora of this neighbourhood is imperfectly known.

My best thanks are due to Mrs. Deans for having always given me permission to collect plants and specimens at Riccarton, whenever I required them.

The appended lists contain about 290 species of plants, including 230 flowering plants. As the total number in New Zealand is under 900 sp., we may conclude that the collection is tolerably complete. The number of ferns is 38 sp.; I believe there is no probability of future additions being made to this number. Of mosses, lichens. etc., only 26 sp. have been collected, but in this class there still remains an ample field for future discovery. Although I consider that the greater part of the flowering plants in the district have now been collected, much remains to be done in tracing the distribution of species; for, although the area is small, it contains several assemblages of species.

I find that there are five plants in the district which have not been found elsewhere: they are, Clematis, n. sp.; Carmichoelia, n. sp.; Anquilaria Novoe Zelandioe, n. sp.; Senecio saxifragoides, and Fuchsia Colensoi.

Riccarton Bush contains—forest trees 13 species, shrubs 27, climbers 10, herbaceous 34, ferns 14, mosses and lichens 20. Total 118.

Dry Bush.—Forest trees 15, shrubs 32, parasites 3, climbers 11, herbs 24, ferns 13, mosses 17. Total 115.

Mount Pleasant.—Forest trees 8, shrubs 20, climbers 11, herbaceous 18, parasites 2, ferns 27, mosses, etc., 14. Total 100.

Port Hills.—Shrubs 18, herbaceous 88, ferns 15, mosses 10. Total 131.

Sand Hills.—Shrubs 11, herbaceous 59, ferns 4, mosses 2. Total 76.

Swamps.—Shrubs 14, herbaceous 86, ferns, etc., 9, mosses, etc., 7. Total 116.

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[The following Lists have been compiled from those attached to Mr. Armstrong's paper, as giving the same information in a more connected form: the author gave a separate List for each district.—ED.]
Forest Trees. Native or Settlers' Name. Season of Flowering. Riccarton Bush. Dry Bush. Mount Pleasant Blush. Port hills, and Sumner: north side of range. Swamps. Sand-hills.
Pittosporum eugenioides Tarata Oct. 1 1
Plagianthus betulinus Ribbon wood Nov. 1 1
Aristotelia racemosa Nov 1
Elæocarpus dentatus Hinau Nov.-Dec. 1 1
" Hookerianus Small Hinau Dec. 1
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Forest Trees. Native or Settlers' Name. Season of Flowering. Riccarton Bush. Dry Bush. Mount Pleasant Blush. Port hills, and Sumner: north side of range. Swamps. Sand-hills.
Alectryon excelsum Titoki Nov.-Dec. 1
Sophora tetraptera, var. Kowai Oct.-Nov. 1
Carpodetus serratus Dec. 1 1
Leptospermum scoparium Manuka Nov.-Dec. 1
Fuchsia excorticata Konini Nov.-Jan. 1 1
Panax crassifolium Ivy tree Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1
" longissimum Horoeka 1
" simplex 1
Schefflera digitata. White wood Nov. 1 1 1
Grisilinea littoralis Broad leaf Oct.-Nov. 1 1
Myrsine Urvillei Matipo Oct.-Dec. 1 1 1
Epicarpurus microphyllus Towai Dec. 1
Podocarpus Totara Totara Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1
" ferruginea Black pine Dec. 1 1
Mairo
" spicata Maii Nov.-Dec. 1
" dacrydioides White pine Nov. 1
Kahikatea
Cordyline australis Dec.-Jan. 1
Shrubs and Small Trees.
Drymis axillaris Pepper tree Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1
Horopita
Melicytus ramiflorus Hina hiua Nov.-Jan. 1 1 1 1
Pittosporum tenuifolium Karo Nov.-Jan. 1 1 1
" Colensoi Oct.-Jan. 1 1
Hoheria populnea Ribbon wood Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1
Hohere
Aristotelia racemosa Wine berry Oct.-Nov. 1 1
Melicope simplex. Nov.-Jan. 1 1 1
Pennantia corymbosa Nov.-Jan. 1 1
Discaria Toumatou Toumatou Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1 1
Plagianthus divaricatus Dec. 1
Coriaria ruscifolia. Tutu Nov.-Jan. 1 1 1 1
Carmichælia australis Makaka Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1 1 1
" juncea Nov.-Dec. 1
" nana. Nov.-Dec. 1 1
" pilosa. Nov. 1
" grandiflora Oct.-Dec. 1
" sp. Nov.-Dec. 1
Sophora tetraptera, var. microphylla Oct.-Dec. 1 1
Haloragis alata Toa toa Oct.-Jan. 1 1 1 1 1
Leptospermum scoparium, var Manuka Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1 1 1
" ericoides Nov.-Dec. 1
Myrtus obcordata. Myrtle Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1
" pedunculata Rohutu Dec. 1
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Shrubs and Small Tress. Native or Settlers' Name. Season of Flowering. Riccarton Bush. Dry Bush. Mount pleasant Bush. port hills, and Summer: north side of range. Swamps. Sand-hills.
Fuchsia excorticata Koninin Nov.-Dec. 1 1
" Colensoi. Nov.-jan. 1 1
Griselinia lucida Broad leaf Oct. 1
Corokia Cotoneaster Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1
Coprosma lucida Kakaramu Nov. 1 1 1 1
" robusta Karamu Nov. 1 1
Cunninghamii Sept.-Oct. 1 1
" spathulata Sept.-Nov. 1 1 1
" rhamnoides Sept.-Oct. 1 1 1
" rotundifolia Oct.-Nov. 1 1 1
" cuneata. Oct. 1
" parviflora Sep. 1
" acerosa Oct.-Jan 1 1 1
Olearia virata 1
" nitida Oct.-Jan. 1
" Forsteri Akepirau Nov.-Jan. 1
Ozothamnus glomeratus Nov.-Dec. 1
Cyathodes acerosa Mingi Nov.-Dec. 1 1
Cassinia Vauvilliersii Dec.-Feb. 1 1 1
" leptophylla Nov.-Jan. 1
Muhlenbeckia compelxa Nov.Jan. 1
Leucopogon Frazeri Nov. 1 1
Sophora tetraptera, var. Oct.-Nov. 1
Veronica salicifolia Nov.-Feb. 1 1 1
" Lavaudiana Dec. 1
" Colnesoi. Dec.-Jan. 1 1
" Raoullii. Dec. 1
Myoporum lætum. Nagaio Dec.-Jan. 1 1 1
Teucridium parvifolium Nov.-Dec. 1
Urica ferox Ongonga Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1
Piper excelsum Kava-kava Nov.-Feb. 1 1
Pimelia prostrata. Dec. 1 1
" arenaria Antetaranga Nov.-Jan. 1
Parasites.
Loranthus micranthus Nov.-Jan. 1
Tupeia antarctica. Nov.-Jan. 1 1
Viscum lindsayi. Nov.-Jan. 1
Creepers.
Clematis indivisa. Travellers's Joy Nov. 1 1 1
" Colensoi. Nov. 1
" parviflora Nov.-Jan. 1
" foetida Nov. 1 1
n. sp. Oct.-Nov. 1
Rubus australis Tataramoa Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1
Metrosideros scandens Akakura Dec. 1 1 1
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Creepers. native or Settlers' Name. Season of Flowering. Riccarton Bush. Dry Bush. Mount Pleasant Bush. Port hills, and Summer: north side of range. Swamps. Sandhhills.
Passiflora tetrandra Kohea Dec. 1 1
Parsonsia albiflora Kaika Dec. 1 1 1
" rose Dec. 1 1 1
Convolvulus Tuguriorum Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1
" Sepium Nov.-Mar. 1
Muhlenbeckia adpressa Nov.-Feb. 1 1 1
" complexa Nov.-Jan. 1 1 1
Rhipogonum scandens Supple-jack Nov. 1
Herbaceous Plants.
Ranunculus pinguis Kori kori Nov.-Jan.1 1 1 1 1 1
" macropus Oct.-Feb. 1 1 1
" lapaceus Butter cup Nov.-Jan 1
" plebeius Dec.-Feb. 1
" multiscapus Nov.-Feb. 1 1
Cardamine hirsuta Panapana Sept.-jan. 1 1 1 1 1
Viola Cunninghamii Violet Sept.Mar. 1 1
Stellaria media Chickweed Aug.-Ap. 1 1
Colobanthus, sp. Nov. 1 1
Hypericum gramineum St. John's wort Nov.-Jan. 1 1
" japonicum Dec.-Jan 1 1 1
Linum monogynum Flax Nov.-Mar. 1
Geranium dissectum Pinaki tere Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1 1 1
" microphyllum Nov.-Feb. 1 1
Pelargonium australe Kopata Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1
Oxalis corniculata Nov.-Feb. 1 1 1 1
Acæna Sanguisorbæ Burr Nov.-Jan. 1 1 1
Hutiwai
Geum urbanum Kopato Oct.-Jan 1 1 1 1
potentilla ansorina, var. Nov.-Dec. 1 1
Drosera spathulata Sun dew Jan. 1
" binata Jan. 1
myriophyllum variæfolium Feb. 1
Gunnera monoica Nov.-Feb. 1
Epilobium macropus Oct.-Dec. 1 1 1 1 1
" nummularifolium Hinatoti Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1 1
" rotundifolium Nov.-Jan. 1 1 1 1
" pallidiflorum Nov.-Jan. 1 1 1 1 1 1
" Billardierianum Nov.-Feb. 1
" purpuratum Oct.-Feb. 1
" crassum Nov.-Mar. 1
" glabellum Oct.-Dec. 1
Aciphylla squarrosa Spear grass Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1 1
Eryngium vesiculosum Sea holly Nov.-Feb. 1 1
Ligusticum, sp. Dec. 1
Angelica Gingidium Nov.-Dec. 1 1
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Herbaceous Plants. Native or Settlers Name. Seasons of Flowering. Riccarton Bush Dry Bush. Mount Pleasant Bush Port hills, and Summer north side of range Swampa Sand-hilla.
Angelica geniculata Dec. 1 1 1
Galium tenuicaule Nov. -Dec. 1 1
Celmisia longifolia Nov. -Jan. 1 1
Vittadinia australis Nov. -Dec. 1 1 1
Daueus brachiatus Wild carrot Dec. 1
Lagenophora Forsteri Oct. -Jan. 1
" petiolata Oct. -Jan. 1
Cotula coronopifolia Nov. Mar. 1
" australis Sept -Mar. 1
Barchycome Sinclairii Daisy Nov. -Jan. 1
Craspedia fimbriata Sept. -Feb. 1 1 1
" alpina. Oct. -Jan. 1
Raoulia australis. Nov. -Dec. 1
" Monoroi. Nov. 1
" sp. Nov. 1
Gnaphalium luteo-album Nov. -Dec. 1 1 1 1
" bellidioides. Nov. -Dec. 1
" filicaule Nov. -Dec. 1
" involueratum Dec. 1 1 1
Erechtites arguta. Dec. -Ap. 1
" quadridentata Pekapeka Oct. -Jan. 1
Senecio bellidioides Nov. -Jan. 1 1 1
" saxifragoides Nov. -Feb. 1
" lautus Nov. -Jan. 1 1
" lagopus Dec. -Jan. 1
Microseris Frosteri Oct. -Jan. 1 1 1 1
Crepis Novæ Zelandiæ Sept. -Feb. 1 1
Taraxacum dens-leonis Oct.–April. 1 1 1 1
Sonchus oleraceus Sow thistle Nov.-Mar. 1 1 1 1 1
Wahlenbergia gracilis Bluebell Oct.–Jan. 1 1 1 1
Pratia angulata Dec. 1
" sp. Nov.–Mar. 1
Lobelia, sp. Dec. -Feb. 1
Selliera radicans Oct. -Jan. 1 1 1
Leucopogno, sp. Nov. -Jan. 1
Samolus repens Dec. -Jan. 1 1
Gentiana montana Dec. -Feb. 1
Sebæa ovata Dec. -Feb. 1 1 1
Myosotis Forsteri. Forget me not Nov. -Jan. 1
" australis Dec. 1
" sp. Nov. -Jan. 1
Convolvulus sepium Bind-weed Nov. -Jan. 1
" tuguriorum Nov. -Feb. 1
" erubescens Oct. -Jan. 1 1
Dichondra repens Nov.–Dec. 1
Solanum nigrum. Nightshade Sept. -Jan. 1 1 1 1 1
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Herbaceous Plants. Native or Settlers Name. Seasons of Flowering. Riccarton Bush Dry Bush. Mount Pleasant Bush Port hills, and Summer north side of range Swampa Sand-hilla.
Solanum aviculare Koho koho Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1
Mentha Cunninghamii Mint Nov. -Jan. 1 1 1
Plantago major. Plantain Oct. -Feb. 1 1 1
" Raoulii. Nov. -Jan. 1
Chenopodium triandrum Spinach Nov. -Jan. 1
" urbicum Nov. -Jan. 1
" glaucum Nov. 1
Atriplex cinerea Nov. -Jan. 1 1
Seleranthus biflorus Kohu kohu Nov. -Dec. 1 1
Polygonum aviculare Pigweed Oct. -Mar. 1 1 1
Rumex flexuosus. Dock Nov. -Jan. 1 1 1
Euphorbia glauca. Spurgewort Nov. -Dec. 1 1
Urtica incisa Nettle Nov. -Mar. 1 1 1
Earina mucronata. Dec.–Feb. 1
Corvsanthes macrantha. Nov. 1 1
" triloba Nov. 1
" oblonga Nov. 1
Thelymitra longifolia Dec. 1 1 1
Phrasophyllum Colensoi Dec 1 1 1
Four other orchids 1
One" 1
Libertia ixioides. Turutu Nov. -Jan. 1 1 1 1
" grandiflora Nov. -Jan. 1
Hyproxis pusilla Nov. -Apl. 1
Anquilaria Novæ Zelandiæ Nov. 1
Typha angustifolia Nov. -Apl. 1
" latifolia Raupo Dec. -Mar. 1
Lemna minor 1
Potamogeton natans 1
Cordyline Pumilio Tirauriki 1
Astelia nervosa Sep.–Oct. 1 1 1 1 1
Arthropodium candidum Nov. -Dec. 1 1
Anthericum Hookeri Nov.–Dec. 1 1 1
Phormium tenax. N. Z. flax Nov.–Dec. 1 1 1
" Colensoi Dec. -Jan. 1
Juncus vaginatus. Nov. 1 1
" austrialis. Oct. 1 1
" maritimus Wiwi Oct. 1 1 1
" communis Common rush Oct.–Nov. 1 1 1
" Holoschoenus Nov. 1
" sp. Oct. 1
Luzula campestris Oct. -Nov. 1 1 1 1 1 1
" Oldfieldii. Oct. -Dec. 1 1 1
" erinita Oct. 1 1
" sp. Oct. 1
Leptocarpus simplex Oi oi Nov. 1 1
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Herbaceous Plants. Native or Settlers' Name. Season of Flowering. Riccarton Bush. Dry Bush. Mount Pleasant Bush. Port hills, and Sumner: north side of range. Swamps. Sand-hills.
Eleocharis gracilis Nov. 1 1 1
Desmochoenus spiralis Pingao Nov. 1
Gahnia xanthocarpa Cutting grass Nov.-Dec. 1
Lepidosperma tetragona Nov. 1 1 1
Carex ternaria Rautahi Oct. 1 1 1 1 1 1
" breviculmis Oct. 1 1
" virgata, var. secta Oct.-Nov. 1
" Raoulii Nov. 1 1
" sp. Nov. 1
Microlæna polynoda 1 1
Alopecurus geniculatus Oct.-Nov. 1
"(Phleum) pratense Oct. 1
Hierochloe redolens Koretu Oct.-Dec. 1 1
Deschampsia cæspitosa Nov. 1 1 1
Agrostis quadriseta Nov. 1
Apera arundinacea Hoomanga-moka Oct. 1 1
Arundo conspicua Toi toi Nov.-Dec. 1 1 1 1
Poa foliosa Oct.-Dec. 1
Festuca duriuscula Oct.-Jan. 1 1
Ferns. 1
Cyathea dealbata 1
Dicksonia lanata 1
" squarrosa 1 1
Hypolepis tenuifolia 1 1
" distans 1
Adiantum Cunninghamii 1 1
Cheilanthes Sieberi 1 1
Pellæa rotundifolia 1 1 1 1
Pteris aquilina, var. escu-lenta 1 1 1 1 1 1
Pteris scaberula 1
" incisa 1
Lomaria procera 1 1 1 1 1
" fluviatilis 1 1 1 1 1
" vulcanica 1
" lanceolata 1
" discolor 1 1
" alpina 1 1 1 1 1 1
Asplenium obtusatum 1
" lucidum 1
" bulbiferum 1 1 1 1
" flaccidum 1 1 1
" flabellifoium 1 1
" Hookerianum 1 1
Aspidium aculeatum 1 1 1 1
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Ferns. Natie of Settlers' Namd. Season of Flowering. Riccarton Bush. Dry Bush. Mount Pleasant Bush. Port hills, and Sumner: north side of range. Swamps. Sand-hills.
Aspidium oculatum 1
Nephrodium velutinum 1
" decompositum 1 1
Polypodium Grammitidis 1
" rupestre 1 1 1 1
" pennigerum 1
" Billardieri 1 1 1 1
Leptopteris hymenophyl-loides Heru heru 1 1
Gymnogramme leptophylla 1
Ophioglossum vulgatum 1 1 1
Botrychium virginicum 1 1 1
Marsileaceæ. 1
Azolla rubra 1
Mosses, Lichens, Fungi, Etc.
Leucobryum candidum 1 1 1
Dicranum dicarpon 1 1 1
Campylopus introflexus 1 1 1
Ceratodon purpureus 1 1 1 1
Macromitrium erosulum 1 1 1
Bryum truncorum 1 1 1 1
Hookeria pulchella 1 1 1
Funaria hygrometrica 1 1 1 1 1
Isothecium ramulosum 1 1 1
Hypnum relaxum 1 1 1
" sp. 1 1 1
Sticta aurata 1 1 1
" crocata 1
" latifrons 1 1 1
" filicina 1 1 1
Polytrichum sp. 1 1
Chara sp. 1
Agaricus campestris Common mushroom 1 1 1 1
" sp 1
Geaster fimbriatus 1
Ileodictyon cibarium 1 1 1
" gracile 1 1 1
Lycoperdon Novæ Zelandiæ 1 1 1 1
" pyriforme 1
" sp. 1
Polyporus sp. 1 1 1