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Volume 2, 1869
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Art. LXI.—List of Plants found in the Northern District of the Province of Auckland.

[In the course of the geological survey of the above district in 1865–6, an extensive collection of plants was made by Mr. Buchanan, and forwarded to Dr. Hooker, at Kew. They were, however, unfortunately, distributed by an assistant without being examined, so that a complete list was not obtained, and any few novelties escaped notice in the appendix to Vol. ii. of the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora.”

From the portion of the collection retained, and from notes made on the spot, Mr. Buchanan compiled the greater part of the following list, with the exception of the natural orders, Junceæ, Restiaceæ, Cyperaceæ, and Gramineæ, the lists of which are furnished altogether by Mr. Kirk. As Mr. Buchanan collected in the months of November and December, and Mr. Kirk went over most of the same ground in April, the latter observer was also able to add largely to the number of plants, the results, as combined in the following lists, should give a tolerably complete Flora of each locality indicated.

An account of the chief plants of interest obtained by Mr. Kirk is given in a paper published in the “Transactions” for last year (p. 140); along with which his contribution to the following tables was to have been printed, had not circumstances prevented it.

For the characteristic plants of the district, and a comparison of its botany with that of other part of New Zealand, the reader is referred to Mr. Colenso's Essay, also in Vol. i. of the “Transactions.”—ED.]

Introductory Remarks by J. Buchanan.

The above area may be divided into eight districts, viz:—

1.

Wangarei,

2.

Bay of Islands,

3.

Wangaroa,

4.

Stephenson's Island,

the latter as showing the comparative botany of a portion of land detached from the Main Island.

5.

Mount Camel,

6.

North Cape.

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Nos. 5 and 6 are isolated districts, the latter, in a great measure, cut off from the general Flora by a peninsula of sand-hills, nearly 70 miles in length.

7.

Kaitaia,

8.

Hokianga.

The general facies of the vegetation over the whole is alternately bush, and open scrubby or fern land; there being very little natural grass land, the largest area being that at the North Cape, and even there the prevailing species are not indigenous to New Zealand. The whole country has been, at no distant time, covered by bush, which, no doubt, has been partially cleared off by fires, as extensive denudation by this means is still in progress.

The most of the open land yields Kauri gum, which is obtained by digging for a few feet beneath the surface, thus proving the Kauri pine (Dammara australis) to have formerly been the prevailing species of tree. It might be safely inferred from this fact alone, that a soil capable of producing such heavy forest growth, should now yield heavy crops of other kinds; and so it would under conditions of sufficient moisture.

In addition to the known influence of trees, in drawing more frequent rains, evaporation is also checked, but dry soils, such as the Kauri gum land of Auckland, or the Manuka land of Otago, are always more easily burned in dry seasons; and as, with every additional area added to the open country, the whole will become more arid, it may in the end defy all improvement, even with the aid of agricultural science. In the meantime, it is probable that the prevailing idea that this open land is barren, may be an error; but the principal reason for this idea is its aridity; it is a question therefore of some importance whether further extensive denudations of bush may not render the country positively barren, except in valley bottoms.

As in other parts of New Zealand, the greatest extent of the open land in the northern district of Auckland, is found on the east coast. Much of it is covered by fern (Pteris esculenta), but more commonly the vegetation is mixed, including Leptospermum scoparium, L. ericoides, Pomaderris elliptica, P. phylicifolia, Dracophyllum Urvilleanum, Coriaria ruscifolia, Leucopogon fasciculatum, Weinmannia sylvicola, Gleichenia circinata, Epacris pauciflora, Phormium tenax, with smaller plants of the Orders Lycopodiaceæ, Cyperaceæ, Grasses and Ferns.

The bush is rich in fine species, many of which are found only in the northern half of the North Island, although a few may push stragglers further south; the following are prominent species:—Dammara australis, Nesodaphne Tarairi, Vitex litoralis, Avicennia tomentosa, Metrosideros tomentosa, Tetranthera calicaris, Sapota costata, Ixerba brexioides, Quintinia serrata, Pittosporum umbellatum, P. Kirkii, P. Huttoniana, Phebalium nudum, Phylloclades trichomanoides, Colensoa physaloides.

Such is the sameness of conditions of plant-growth over this northern part of New Zealand, that the vegetation may be classed under two Zones, Littoral, and Interior. No sufficient altitude existing to produce any change worthy of notice. On Maungataniwha (2700 feet), the greatest elevation in these districts, the bush covering the top, is not stunted in growth, which is the first thing noticed on ascending a mountain, if change is produced by altitude. Again on Taratara Hill, inland from Wangaroa Bay, where a portion of the summit is open land, the vegetation is identical with that of the lower levels.

As I have had an opportunity of comparing the vegetation at the extremes of latitude in New Zealand, I may state that many prominent species range over the whole islands; of such are, Myrsine Urvilleanum, Aristotelia racemosa, Myoporum loetum, and the more important species of the Natural Order

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Coniferæ; such plants are found equally abundant and luxuriant in the north, as in the extreme south.

Others again find their northern limits before reaching the North Cape district, or dwindle in size from the locality of their maximum growth in the South Island. Of such are some of the Pittosporums, Leptospermum ericoides, and L. scoparium, Fuchsia excorticata, Griselinia littoralis, Drimys axillaris, and D. Colorata.

The birch forests (Fagus), which are so important in the South, are also absent from the North, a few stragglers only being found on the line of the main ranges.

In the district under notice, frequent instances may be found of that disposition to vary, so common among New Zealand species of plants, the cause of which by some has been ascribed to the whole Flora having arrived at such a delicate state of balance, that any small disturbance would produce a great change; but I think it more probable that causes of change have always been in operation while a Flora existed in the islands; and if the range of latitude, and thermal variations which must exist over such a range be considered, it will only require the transportation of plants from localities well suited to them, and vice versa, to produce some variation of form, as we see.

As might be expected, arid winds seem to exert a stronger influence, in producing plant variation, than even temperature. For instance, at the North Cape, and Cape Maria Van Diemen, species such as Myoporum loetum, Coprosma acerosa, and others, even under the dry warm winds of that latitude, may be seen dwarfed and stunted, flattened out on the ground, and hiding themselves, as it were, behind the sand-hills. The same may be seen at Mount Camel, where large patches of low copse forest of the Akerautangi (Dodonoea viscosa) cover the ground, whereas the same plant at Nelson, 7° of latitude further south, forms a handsome, though small tree. In these cases where the causes to variation are not so evident and direct as the action of arid winds, it would appear that the tendency of a plant to vary is increased with the distance from its centre of maximum growth.*

I am inclined to the opinion that variation in some species shows its derivative track by the young plants reverting to some older type form. As an instance of this, Weinmannia Sylvicola is often seen, in the young state, dotted over the open Kauri gum land, having only imparipinnate leaves, while the older tree assumes a ternate form in the upper branches; and in full adult trees, the foliage becomes unifoliolate in the upper branches, and ternate in the lower—thus, I infer, showing the typical foliage of two species now extinct. It is even probable that the above species has passed through one form that still exists in the South, Weinmannia racemosa, which also shows the extinct form of ternate leaves, but only in the young plant and lower branches.

The limits of this paper will not allow further illustrations of this curious point, although there might be many added with facility. Local collectors will always be liable, in New Zealand, which possesses such a varying Flora, to be deceived with supposed new discoveries, and may be frequently puzzled, from the descriptions in Hooker's “Handbook” having been frequently taken from specimens found only in one locality. Thus, no southern collector has

[Footnote] * As illustrative of the influence of humidity or aridity on plant variation, the Kowhai (Sophora tetraptera) may be taken as an example. Near Dunedin it may be said to have acquired its maximum of growth, under the conditions of excess of cold humid winds. On the west coast of the South Island, again, under conditions of warm humid winds, it is a delicate drooping branched shrub-tree, while on the seaward grass hills of Marlborough, under the conditions of an arid cold wind, the same plant has become dwarfed to a few inches high, covering patches of ground, and rigid enough to be walked on; temperature here shows the least influence, as otherwise the West Coast variety would have been the largest.

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probably seen the young plants of Panax Colensoi, or Schefflera digitata, with lobulate leaves, yet such are found in the North. Again, he might be puzzled to find Pittosporum tenuifolium with fasicles of flowers in the upper branches, and alternate in the lower. Some of the plants of this genus are remarkably varied in different localities, and to found species on distinctions of flowers being umbellate or alternate, fasicled or alternate, is simply to produce confusion, for as far as the present extent of variation has gone, there is always a common facies in all the varieties of a species, which never can be mistaken.

So inconstant, and limited in distribution are some varieties, that it is necessary to know the New Zealand Flora in every locality, to be able to describe a species, and even opinions on the value of timber, etc., have only a local value from the same cause. Hence the necessity of local observations by many persons, and a combination of the results of their labours, as by such means only will future botanists be able to make out the true cause and laws of variation in plants.

  • Ranunculaceæ.

  • Clematis indivisa, 1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " Colensoi,1 2 6 7

  • " parviflora, 1

  • Ranunculus plebeius,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " multiscapus,12

  • " rivularis,1 2 3 7

  • Cruciferæ.

  • Nasturtium palustre, 2 6

  • Barbarea vulgaris,1 2 6

  • Cardamine hirsuta,12

  • Lepidium oleraceum,12

  • Violareæ.

  • Melicytus ramiflorus,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • " macrophyllus, 2 5 6

  • " lanceolatus, 1

  • Hymenanthera crassifolia, 5 6

  • Pittosporeæ.

  • Pittosporum tenuifolium,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " Colensoi,1 2 3 8

  • " reflexum, 1

  • " crassifolium,1 2 3

  • " umbellatum,1 2 3 8

  • " eugenioides,1 2 8

  • " cornifolium,1 2 3 8

  • " Kirkii, 1

  • " Huttoniana, 1

  • Caryophylleæ.

  • Colobanthus Billardieri, 5

  • Elatineæ.

  • Elatine americana, 2

  • Hypericineæ.

  • Hypericum gramineum,1 2

  • Malvaceæ.

  • Plagianthus divaricatus,1 2 3 6

  • " betulinus, 2 8

  • Hoheria var. a, vulgaris,1 2 5 6 7 8

  • var. b, lanceolata, 1

  • var. c, angustifolia,1 2 3 6 7

  • var. d, cratægifolia, 5 7 8

  • Hibiscus Trionum,1 6 7

  • " Taylorii, 6

  • Tiliaceæ.

  • Entelea arborescens,1 2 3 4 6 7 8

  • Aristotelia racemosa,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Elæocarpus dentatus,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Lineæ.

  • Linum monogynum,1 2 3 6 8

  • Geraniaceæ.

  • Geranium carolinianum,1 2 4 5 6 7 8

  • " microphyllum,1 2 3 6 8

  • Pelargonium clandestinum,1 6

  • Oxalis corniculata,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " magellanica, 2 7

  • Rutaceæ.

  • Phebalium nudum,1 2 3 7 8

  • Melicope ternata,1 2 3 6 7

  • " Mantellii,1 2 7

  • " simplex,1 2 3

  • Meliaceæ.

  • Dysoxylum spectabile,1 2 3 5 7 8

  • Rhamneæ.

  • Pomaderris elliptica, 2 3 5 6 7

  • " Edgerleyi,1 6

  • " phylicifolia,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • Sapindaceæ.

  • Dodonæa viscosa,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Alectryon excelsum,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Anacardiaceæ.

  • Corynocarpus lævigata,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • Coriareæ.

  • Coriaria ruscifolia,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

[Footnote] 1. Wangarei.

[Footnote] 2. Bay of Islands.

[Footnote] 3. Wangaroa.

[Footnote] 6. North Cape.

[Footnote] 7. Kaitaia.

[Footnote] 8. Hokianga.

[Footnote] 5. Mount Camel.

[Footnote] 4. Stephenson's Island.

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  • Leguminoseæ.

  • Carmichælia australis, 1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Sophora tetraptera, var. a,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Rosaceæ.

  • Rubus australis, 3 vars.,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Acæna Sanguisorbæ,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • Saxifrageæ.

  • Quintinia serrata,17

  • Carpodetus serratus,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Ackama rosæfolia,1 2 7 8

  • Weinmannia sylvicola,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Droseraceæ.

  • Drosera pygmæa, 2 8

  • " spathulata, 2

  • " binata,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " auriculata,1 2 7

  • Halorageæ.

  • Haloragis alata,1 2 5 6

  • " depressa,1 2 3 6 7

  • " micrantha,1 2 3 6 7

  • " tetragyna, 3 5 7

  • " diffusa,16

  • Myriophyllum variæfolium,15

  • Gunnera monoica, 2 6

  • Callitriche, 2

  • Myrtaceæ.

  • Leptospermum scoparium,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • " ericoides,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Metrosideros florida,1 2 3 7 8

  • " albiflora,1 2 3

  • " hypericifolia,1 2 3 5 7 8

  • " robusta,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " tomentosa,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • " scandens,1 2 3

  • Myrtus bullata,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " Ralphii,12

  • " pedanculata,1 2 3 8

  • Eugenia Maire,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Onagrarieæ.

  • Fuchsia excorticata,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Epilobium nummularifolium,1 2 3 6 8

  • " tetragonum,1 6 7

  • " glabellum,1 3 6 7 8

  • " junceum,1 2 3 6

  • " Billardierianum, 6 8

  • " pallidiflorum,1 2 6 7

  • Passifloreæ.

  • Passiflora tetrandra,1 2 7 8

  • Ficoideæ.

  • Mesembryanthemum australe,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • Tetragonia expansa,1 5 6 8

  • Umbelliferæ.

  • Hydrocotyle elongata,1 2 3 8

  • " Asiatica,1 2 3 6

  • Crantzia maritima, 6

  • Apium australe,1 2 3 4 5 6 8

  • " filiforme, 2

  • Angelica rosæfolia, 1

  • Daucus brachiatus, 5 6

  • Araliaceæ.

  • Panax simplex,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " Edgerleyi,1 2 3 6 8

  • " crassifolium,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " Lessoni,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " arboreum,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " anomalum, 3

  • Schefflera digitata,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Corneæ.

  • Griselinia lucida,1 2 3 8

  • " littoralis,1 2 3 7 8

  • Corokia buddleoides,1 2 7

  • " cotoneaster,16

  • Loranthaceæ.

  • Loranthus tetrapetalous,1 2 3 8

  • " micranthus,1 2 3 8

  • Tupeia antarctica,1 2 3 6 7

  • Caprifoliaceæ.

  • Alseuosmia macrophylla,1 2 3 8

  • " Banksii,1 2 3 7 8

  • " linariifolia,1 2 3

  • Rubiaceæ.

  • Coprosma lucida,1 2 3 5 6 8

  • " grandifolia,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " Baueriana,1 2 4 5

  • " petiolata, 6 7 8

  • " Cunninghamii, 2

  • " robusta,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • " spathulata,1 2 3 7 8

  • " rotundifolia,12

  • " tenuicaulis,1 2 3 8

  • " divaricata,1 2 5 6 7 8

  • " parviflora,1 7 8

  • " acerosa,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " linariifolia,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Nertera dichondræfolia,1 2 8

  • Galium tenuicaule, 1

  • Compositæ.

  • Olearia furfuracea,1 2 3 8

  • " Cunninghami,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " albida,1 2 3 6 8

  • " virgata,1 2 5 6 7

  • " Solandri,1 2 3 6 8

  • Celmisia (Monroi?), 1

[Footnote] 4. Stephenson's Island.

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  • Lagenophora Forsteri, 1 2 3 7 8

  • " lanata,12

  • Bidens pilosa,15 6

  • Cotula coronopifolia,1 2 3 7

  • " australis, 6

  • " minuta, 6

  • Cassinia retorta,1 2 6 8

  • " leptophylla,1 2 3 4 6 8

  • Ozothamnus glomeratus, 1

  • " lanceolatus, 8

  • Gnaphalium luteo-album,16

  • " Keriense,16

  • " involucratum,1 2 6

  • " collinum,1 2 6

  • Senecio lautus,1 2 3 6 8

  • " glastifolius,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Brachyglottis repanda,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Picris hieracioides,1 2 6

  • Sonchus oleraceus,1 2 6 7 8

  • Campanulaceæ.

  • Wahlenbergia gracilis,1 2 4 5 6 7 8

  • Colensoa physaloides 3 6 7 8

  • Lobelia anceps,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • Selliera radicans,1 2 6 7 8

  • Ericeæ.

  • Gaultheria antipoda,1 2 3 6

  • " rupestris,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Cyathodes acerosa,1 2 3 5 6

  • Leucopogon fasciculatus,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " Frazeri,1 2 4 6 8

  • Epacris purpurascens,1 2 5 6

  • " pauciflora,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Dracophyllum latifolium,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " squarrosum, 2 3

  • " Urvilleanum,1 2 5 6 7 8

  • Myrsineæ.

  • Myrsine salicina,1 2 3 6 8

  • " Urvillei,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Primulaceæ.

  • Samolus littoralis,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Sapoteæ.

  • Sapota costata,1 2 5 6

  • Jasmineæ.

  • Olea Cunninghami,1 3 7 8

  • " lanceolata,1 3 6 7

  • " montana,1 2 3

  • Apocyneæ.

  • Parsonsia albiflora,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Loganiaceæ.

  • Geniostoma ligustrifolium,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • Convolvulaceæ.

  • Convolvulus sepium,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Convolvulus Tuguriorum,1 2 6 8

  • " Soldanella,1 2 6 7 8

  • " erubescens, 6

  • " marginata,12

  • Ipomoea tuberculata, 2 5 6 7

  • Dichondra repens, 1

  • Solaneæ.

  • Pomaderris aviculare,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " nigrum,1 2 6 7 8

  • Scrophularineæ.

  • Gratiola sexdentata, 2

  • " nana,1 2 7

  • Glossostigma elatinoides, 2

  • Veronica speciosa, 8

  • " macroura,16

  • " salicifolia,1 2 3 4 6 7 8

  • " parviflora,1 2 5 6 7 8

  • " ligustrifolia,12

  • " diosmæfolia, 2 6 7 8

  • " elongata, 2

  • Gesneriaceæ.

  • Rhabdothamnus Solandri,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Verbenaceæ.

  • Vitex littoralis,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Teucridium parvifolium, 3

  • Avicennia officinalis,1 2 3 5 6 8

  • Myoporum lætum,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Labiatæ.

  • Mentha Cunninghami,12

  • Plantagineæ.

  • Plantago Raoulii, 5 6

  • Nyctagineæ.

  • Pisonia Brunoniana,12

  • Chenopodiaceæ.

  • Chenopodium ambiguum,1 6 7

  • " ambrosioides,1 2 6

  • " carinatum,1 2 6

  • Salicornia indica,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Amaranthaceæ.

  • Alternanthera sessilis,1 2 5 6 7

  • Paronychieæ.

  • Scleranthus biflorus,1 4 6

  • Polygoneæ.

  • Polygonum decipiens,1 2 6

  • " aviculare,1 2 6 7

  • Muhlenbeckia adpressa,1 2 6 7

  • " complexa,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Rumex flexuosus,1 2 6 7

  • Laurineæ.

  • Tetranthera calicaris,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Nesodaphne Tarairi,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " Tawa,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " var. Tawa-rau-nui,12

– 245 –
  • Cassytha paniculata, 6

  • Monimiaceæ.

  • Atherosperma Novæ Zelandiæ, 1 2 3 7 8

  • Hedycarya dentata,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Proteaceæ.

  • Knightia excelsa,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Persoonia Toro,1 2 3 7 8

  • Thymeleæ.

  • Pimelea virgata,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " arenaria,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • " prostrata,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Santalaceæ.

  • Santalum Cunninghami,1 2 3 7 8

  • Euphorbiaceæ.

  • Euphorbia glauca,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Urticeæ.

  • Epicarpurus microphyllus,12

  • Elatostemma rugosum,1 2 3 7 8

  • Chloranthaceæ.

  • Ascarina lucida,1 2 3 7 8

  • Piperaceæ.

  • Peperomia Urvilleana,1 2 6 8

  • Piper excelsum,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Coniferæ.

  • Dammara australis,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Libocedrus Doniana,1 2 3 8

  • Podocarpus ferruginea,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " Totara,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " spicata,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " dacrydioides,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Dacrydium cupressinum,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " Colensoi, 3

  • Phyllocladus trichomanoides,1 2 3 6 8

  • Orchideæ.

  • Earina mucronata,1 2 3 8

  • " autumnalis,1 2 3 8

  • Dendrobium Cunnighami,1 2 3

  • Bolbophyllum pygmæum,18

  • Corysanthes triloba,12

  • Microtis porrifolia,1 2 3 7 8

  • Pterostylis Banksii,1 2 3 7

  • Prasophyllum pumilum, 2 6 7

  • Irideæ.

  • Libertia ixioides,12

  • " grandiflora, 1

  • Pandaneæ.

  • Freycinetia Banksii,1 2 3 8

  • Typhaceæ.

  • Typha angustifolia,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • Sparganium simplex, 1

  • Naiadeæ.

  • Lemna minor, 6

  • Triglochin triandrum,1 2 6

  • Zostera marina,1 3 6

  • Potamogeton heterophyllus, 2

  • Liliaceæ.

  • Rhipogonum scandens,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Cordyline australis,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " Banksii,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " Pumilio,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Dianella intermedia,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Astelia Cunninghami,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • " Banksii,1 2 5 6 7 8

  • " Solandri,1 2 4 5 6 7 8

  • " grandis, 6

  • Arthropodium cirrhatum,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • Phormium tenax,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • " Colensoi,1 2 6 7

  • Palmeæ.

  • Areca sapida,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Junceæ.

  • Juncus communis,16

  • " planifolius,1 2 6

  • " australis, 2

  • " maritimus, 2 6 8

  • " effusus, 2

  • " bufnius,1 6 8

  • " vaginatus, 6

  • Luzula campestris,1 2 7 8

  • " Oldfieldii,1 2 7 8

  • " pumila,1 2 7 8

  • Restiaceæ.

  • Leptocarpus simplex,1 2 6 7

  • Cyperaceæ.

  • Cyperus ustulatus,1 2 6 8

  • Schoenus, axillaris,16

  • " Tendo,1 2 5 6

  • " tenax,1 2 5 6

  • Scirpus maritimus,1 2 4 5 6 7 8

  • " lacustris, 2

  • " triqueter, 8

  • Eleocharis sphacelata, 2 6 7 8

  • " var. gracillima, 1

  • " platylepis, 2 6

  • Isolepis prolifer,1 2 6

  • " riparia, 2 6

  • " nodosa, 6

  • Desmoschoenus spiralis,1 2 3 4 6 7 8

  • Cladium glomeratum,1 2 6

  • " teretifolium,1 2 6

  • " articulatum,1 2 6

  • " junceum, 5 6 7

  • " Sinclairi, 6

  • Gahnia setifolia,1 7 8

– 246 –
  • Gahnia lacera, 1 6

  • " xanthocarpa,13

  • " arenaria,12 6

  • Lepidosperma tetragona,15 6 8

  • " concava,1 2 6

  • Uncinia australis,18

  • " Banksii, 1

  • Carex ternaria,1 2 8

  • " virgata,1 2 3 7 8

  • " pumila, 6 8

  • " breviculmis,16

  • " dissita,16

  • " Lambertiana,12

  • " vacillans,16

  • Gramineæ.

  • Microlæna stipoides, 2

  • " avenacea, 1

  • Spinifex hirsutus,1 2 4 6 7 8

  • Paspalum scrobiculatum,1 2 6

  • " distichum, 6

  • Panicum imbecille,1 2 6 7

  • Isachne australis,12

  • Echinopogon ovatus, 2 4 7 8

  • Dichelachne stipoides, 4 5 6

  • Sporobolus elongatus,1 2 6

  • Agostis æmula, 6 7 8

  • " Billardieri, 6

  • " quadriseta, 2 6

  • Arundo conspicua,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • Danthonia Cunninghami, 2

  • " semi-annularis,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • Poa breviglumis, 5

  • " anceps,1 5 6 7

  • " foliosa, 4 5

  • Festuca scoparia, 5 6 8

  • " littoralis,1 2 7 8

  • Triticum multiflorum, 2

  • Filices.

  • Gleichenia circinata,1 2 3 6 7

  • " flabellata,1 2 6 7

  • Cyathea dealbata,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " medullaris,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " Cunninghami, 2

  • Dicksonia squarrosa, 2 7

  • " lanata,1 2 3 7 8

  • Hymenophyllum tunbridgense,1 2 3 7 8

  • " minimum, 3

  • " rarum,1 2 8

  • " dilatatum,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " crispatum,1 2 3 8

  • " polyanthos,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Hymenophyllum demissum,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " scabrum,1 2 3 8

  • Trichomanes reniforme,1 2 3

  • " strictum, 8

  • " elongatum,1 2 3 7

  • " humile,12

  • Loxsoma Cunninghami,12

  • Lindsæa linearis,1 2 3 6 7

  • " trichomanoides,1 2 8

  • Adiantum hispidulum,1 2 5 6 7 8

  • " Cunninghami,1 2 6 8

  • " fulvum,1 2 6 7

  • " æthiopicum,12

  • " formosum, 1

  • Hypolepis tenuifolia,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " Millefolium, 1

  • " distans,13

  • Pellæa falcata, 2 3

  • " rotundifolia,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Cheilanthes tenuifolia,1 2 6 7

  • Pteris esculenta,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • " tremula,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " scaberula,1 2 6

  • " incisa,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " macilenta,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " Endlicheriana,1 4 5

  • Lomaria filiformis,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • " procera,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • " fluviatilis,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " membranacea,12

  • " pumila, 1

  • " lanceolata,1 2 6 7

  • " discolor,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • " Banksii, 6

  • " Fraseri,1 2 6 7 8

  • Doodia media,1 2 4 5 6 7 8

  • " caudata,1 2 6 7 8

  • Asplenium obtusatum, 6

  • " lucidum,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • " falcatum,1 2 5 6 7

  • " Hookerianum,17

  • " bulbiferum,1 2 3 7 8

  • " flaccidum,1 3 5 7 8

  • " australe, 1

  • Aspidium Richardi,1 5 6 7 8

  • Nephrodium velutinum,1 2 7

  • " decompositum,1 2 7

  • " hispidum,1 2 5 7 8

  • Polypodium australe,13

  • " Grammitidis,1 2 7 8

  • " tenellum,1 7

  • " rugulosum, 2

  • " pennigerum,1 2 5 6 7 8

Picture icon

Wind Worn Stones
Evans Bay Wellington
To illustrate paper by W.T.L. Travers

– 247 –
  • Polypodium rupestre, 1 2 5 6 7 8

  • " Cunninghami,12 3 5 7

  • " pustulatum,1 2 5 7 8

  • " Billardieri,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  • Todea africana, 3 6

  • Leptopteris hymenophylloides,1 2 3 5 8

  • Lygodium articulatum,1 2 3 6 7 8

  • Schizæa dichotoma,1 2 3 7 8

  • " bifida,17

  • Marattia salicina,12

  • Ophioglossum vulgatum, 1

  • Botrychium cicutarium,1 2 6

  • Lycopodiaceæ.

  • Lycopodium Billardieri,1 2 3 7

  • " densum, 2 5 6

  • " laterale, 2 5 6

  • " cernuum, 2 5xy4

  • " volubile,1 2 3 5 6 7 8

  • Tmesipteris Forsteri,1 2 6