Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 3, 1870
This text is also available in PDF
(961 KB) Opens in new window
– 158 –

Naturalized Plants.

It has been already stated that one of the chief directions in which the indigenous flora has been affected by the operations of the settler, is in the displacement of many of its species by naturalized exotics. The extent to which these plants have become established is detailed in an “Account of the Naturalized Plants of New Zealand,” published in the Transactions of the New Zeuland Institute, 1869, which renders it needless to recapitulate the particulars here. A few general remarks on their diffusion in this district will serve as a fitting introduction to the following catalogue.

Many introduced grasses, trefoils, and medicks have formed patches of natural pasture, of considerable value, both on the scoria and clay; these are often improved by a mixture of native grasses, especially Microlœna stipoides and Danthonia semi-annularis, and, if the open lands were not so frequently burnt, this self-sown pasture would soon become general, and that on lands which can only be laid down in artificial pasture at a heavy expense. On waste places, and by road sides, an unsightly appearance is produced by the docks, camomile, mallows, and flea-bane, which everywhere take possession of disturbed soil. Of these, however, the flea-bane is commonly eaten by cattle when young.

A few plants have become pests on the light scoria soil; the sheep's sorrel and the white clover are almost ineradicable in gardens; Phytolacea octandra makes its appearance wherever soil is disturbed on the volcanic hills, or by the road sides in their vicinity, and forms large suffruticose bushes, whose spikes of black fruit produce a striking effect; Amaranthus oleraceus is usually associated with it, and less frequently the purslane, which enjoys a wider range of soil. The large moth-mullein rears its tall shafts on the North Head of the Waitemata and on Mount Eden, a marked contrast to the vegetation about it. It must have been an early introduction, as Hochstetter speaks of its occurrence in the former locality in 1858. Œnothera slricta appears to be confined to the volcanic hills, where it is usually plentiful.

In ordinary cultivated land, the milk-weed, Euphorbia Peplus, and several small speedwells are extremely troublesome, together with a few grasses, especially Digitaria sanguinalis, D. humifusa, and the canary-grass.

In every plashy place and moist gully on the Isthmus, Lythrum hyssopifolium is in abundance, affording a remarkable contrast to the paucity of this plant in its European habitats.

Black-berries, sweet-briars, and roses sometimes form large thickets, covered with the rampant Senecio scandens, from the Cape of Good Hope, or more rarely with the tropical Dolichos lignosus.

The dwarf centaury is abundant on open lands and in paddocks, forming a welcome addition to our native plants; Aira caryophyllea and Prunella vulgaris are frequently associated with it.

– 159 –

Lastly, while many species, as the water-cress, cat's-car, furze, and the various docks, are perfectly irrepressible, others, as Fredia olitoria, Lepidium sativum, Alchemilla arvensis, etc., are content with little more than maintaining an unobtrusive existence.

  • Ranunculus acris.

  • " " repens.

  • Fumaria officinalis.

  • Nasturtium amphibium.

  • Barbarea præcox, Br.

  • Sisymbrium officinale.

  • Senebiera coronopus, Poér.

  • " " pinnatifida, DC.

  • Capsella bursa-pastoris.

  • Lepidium ruderale.

  • " " sativum.

  • Cochlearia armoracea.

  • Sinapis nigra.

  • " " arvensis.

  • Brassica rapa.

  • " " napus.

  • " " oleracea.

  • " " campestris.

  • Raphanus sativus.

  • Polygala myrtifolia.

  • Yitis vinifera.

  • Silene inflata, Sm.

  • " " quinquevulnera.

  • Saponaria vaccaria.

  • Lychnis githago, Lam.

  • " " flos-cuculi.

  • Stellaria media, With.

  • Cerastium vulgatum.

  • " " viscosum.

  • Polycarpon tetraphyllum.

  • Spergula arvensis.

  • Portulaca oleracea.

  • Hypericum humifusum.

  • Malva sylvestris.

  • " " rotundifolia.

  • Modiola multifida, Meneh.

  • Lavatera arborea.

  • Linum usitatissimum.

  • Geranium dissectum.

  • Pelargonium quercifolium.

  • Erodium cicutarium.

  • Podalyria sericea, W.

  • Ulex europæus.

  • Lotus corniculatus.

  • " " major.

  • Trifolium pratense.

  • " " medium.

  • " " glomeratum.

  • " " repens.

  • Trifolium procumbens.

  • " " minus.

  • Melilotus officinalis, Willd.

  • " " arvensis, Willd.

  • Medicago lupulina.

  • " " maculata.

  • " " denticulata, Willd.

  • Psoralea pinnata, Willd.

  • Indigofera viscosa, Lam.

  • Robinia pseudacacia, Willd.

  • Vicia sativa.

  • " " hirsuta.

  • " " tetrasperma, Mœnch.

  • Lathyrus odoratus, Willd.

  • Dolichos lignosus.

  • Acacia lophantha, Willd.

  • " " decurrens, Willd., var. dealbata

  • Amygdalus Persica.

  • Prunus cerasus.

  • Spiræa salicifolia, Willd.

  • Rubus discolor, W. and N.

  • " " rudis, Wrihe.

  • " " Idæus.

  • Fragaria vesca.

  • Alchemilla arvensis.

  • Rosa micrantha, Sm

  • " " rubiginosa.

  • " " canina.

  • " " indica.

  • " " multiflora, Thunb.

  • Lythrum hyssopifolium.

  • " " Græfferi, Cust.

  • Œnothera stricta.

  • Cucurbita citrullus.

  • " " sp.

  • Apium graviolens.

  • Petroselinum sativum.

  • Pimpinella saxifraga.

  • Fœniculum vulgare.

  • Daucus carota.

  • Pastinaca sativa.

  • Torilis nodosa, Gart.

  • Scaudix pecten-veneris.

  • Sambucus nigra.

  • Galium aparine.

  • Sherardia arvensis.

  • Fedia olitoria.

  • Erigeron canadensis.

– 160 –
  • Bellis perennis.

  • Anthernis arvensis.

  • " " nobilis.

  • Achillea millefolium.

  • Matricaria inodora.

  • " " chamomilla.

  • Chrysanthemum leucanthemum.

  • " " segetum.

  • Senecio vulgaris.

  • " " scandens.

  • Osteospermum moniliferum, Willd.

  • Cryptostemma calendulacea, Br.

  • Centaurea nigra.

  • " " solstitialis.

  • " " calcitrapa.

  • Carduus lanceolatus, Gœrtm.

  • Silybum Marianum.

  • Lapsana communis.

  • Cichorium Intybus.

  • Hypochæris glabra.

  • " " radicata.

  • Thrincia hirta, Roth.

  • Apargia autumnalis, Willd.

  • Tragopagon minor, Fries.

  • " " porrifolius.

  • Helminthia ectrioides, Gœrt.

  • Sonchus oleraceus.

  • " " arvensis.

  • Taraxacum dens-leonis, Desf.

  • Crepis vircus.

  • Xanthium spinosum.

  • Anagallis arvensis.

  • " " var. cærulea

  • Vinca major.

  • Erythrea centaurium, Pers.

  • Lithospermum arvense.

  • Aselepias nivea.

  • Solanum nigrum.

  • " " tuberosum.

  • " " virginianum.

  • " " indicum.

  • Physalis Alkekengi.

  • " " peruvianum.

  • Capsicum annuum.

  • Lycopersicum esculentum, Mill.

  • Datura stramonium.

  • Nicotiana tabacum.

  • Liycium barbarum.

  • Verbascum thapsus.

  • " " glabrum.

  • " " blattaria.

  • Veronica arvensis.

  • " " serpyllifolia.

  • " " agrestis.

  • " " Buxbaumii, Ten.

  • Digitalis purpurea.

  • Linaria elatine, Mill.

  • Verbena officinalis.

  • " " bonariensis, Willd.

  • Orobanche Picrides, F. Schultz, var.

  • Mentha piperita, Sm.

  • " " viridis.

  • " " dentata.

  • Stachys arvensis.

  • Marrubium vulgare.

  • Prunella vulgaris.

  • Phytolacca octandra.

  • Plantago major.

  • " " media.

  • " " lanceolata.

  • Fagopyrum esculentum, Manch.

  • Rumex conglomeratus, Murr.

  • " " viridis, Sibth.

  • " " obtusifolius.

  • " " crispus.

  • " " acetosa.

  • " " acetosella.

  • Chenopodium album.

  • " " viride.

  • " " murale.

  • Amaranthus oleraceus.

  • " " Blitum.

  • " " caudatus.

  • Euphorbia Peplus.

  • Ricinus Palma Christi.

  • Urtica urens.

  • " " dioica.

  • Ficus Carica.

  • Canna Indica, Rose.

  • Iris Germanica.

  • Antholyza æthiopica, Ker.

  • Watsonia, sp.

  • Agave americana.

  • Allium vineale.

  • Asphodelus fistulosus.

  • Asparagus officinalis.

  • Alopecurus pratensis.

  • " " agrestis.

  • Phleum pratense.

  • Phalaris canariensis.

  • Arrhenatherum avenaceum, Beauv.

  • Holcus lanatus.

  • " " mollis.

  • Echinochloa crusgalli, Beauv.

  • Sectaria virdis, Beauv.

  • " " italica, Beauv.

  • Agrostis vulgaris, With.

  • " " canina.

  • Cynodon dactylon.

  • Digitaria sanguinalis, Scop.

– 161 –
  • Digitaria humifusa, Pers.

  • Anthoxanthum odoratum.

  • Aira caryophyllea.

  • Avena sativa.

  • Poa annua.

  • " " pratensis.

  • " " var. sub-cærulea

  • " " trivialis.

  • Eragrostis Brownii, Kunth.

  • Briza minor.

  • " " maxima.

  • Dactylis glomeratus.

  • Cynosurus cristatus.

  • Festuca elatior.

  • " " pratensis.

  • " " sciuroides, Roth.

  • Bromus erectus, Hed.

  • Bromus sterilis.

  • " " madritensis.

  • " " tectorum.

  • " " commutatus. Schrœd.

  • " " mollis, Parl.

  • " " racemosus, Parl.

  • " " arvensis, Godron.

  • " " patulus, Parl.

  • Ceratochloa unioloides, Beauv.

  • Lolium perenne.

  • " " italicum, Braun.

  • " " temulentum.

  • " " var. arvense

  • Triticum sativum.

  • Hordeum sativum.

  • " " murinum.

  • Lepturus incurvatus, Trin.

Note.—Where no authority is quoted in the above List of Naturalized Plants, the names are those given by Linnæus.