Art. XXIX.— On the Botany of the Northern Part of the Province of Auckland.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, October 10, 1870.]
In the “List of Plants” of this district, by Mr. Buchanan and myself, published in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute for 1869, several errors and omissions were made, which it seems desirable to explain and correct. The list there given is a compilation from the notes of Mr. Buchanan's exploration of the district, in 1865–6, and from my own examination of certain points on its eastern side, in April, 1868. It was, however, prepared for publication by Mr. Buchanan under extreme pressure from other business, and under circumstances which precluded the possibility of a copy of the complete list being sent to me for examination, until after it had left the hands of the printer. As some of the errors and omissions which have thus crept in are of considerable importance, especially from a phyto-geographical point of view, I now purpose to supply the necessary corrections, and to add thereto the results of recent research in the district.
Before doing this, however, I am desirous of offering a few remarks, chiefly upon points of interest not noticed by Mr. Buchanan in his introduction. The district from Whangarei Harbour to the head of Doubtless Bay, may be roughly estimated at about eighty miles in length by fifty miles in width; of
the plants of fully one-third of this large district, say from Hokianga on the west coast southward to Mangawhare, we have scarcely any knowledge. From a little above the head of Doubtless Bay, a sandy peninsula connects the North Cape with the southern portion of the district, the length of the portion north of Doubtless Bay being about fifty-five miles, and varying in width from six miles at Ohora to about twenty-five between Cape Maria van Diemen and Cape Reinga. The entire district corresponds to the Northern area, and the Bay of Islands area as defined by Mr. Colenso. Its highest point is attained in the Maungataniwha range, and does not exceed 2800 feet, although I believe has been stated at various heights, from 2300 feet to 3000 feet. The country is varied with open fern or tea-tree land and heavy forest; much of the latter on the south-western side consisting of kahikatea. There are extensive swamps, some of which are choked with raupo and coarse sedges, whilst others support a large variety of moisture-loving plants. Grass lands are almost entirely wanting, although nearly half the native grasses have been collected in the district. The vegetation of the district, so far as the conditions of plant growth are concerned, may, with but few exceptions, be advantageously grouped as, (1.) Littoral, (2.) Ericetal, (3.) Paludal, (4.) Sylvestral. I do not propose to consider these groups in detail.
The chief distinctive features of the forest vegetation have been already pointed out by Mr. Buchanan. I need only remark that Metrosideros tomentosa, Sapota costata, Pittosporum umbellatum, P. crassifolium, and Avicennia tomentosa, belong entirely to the Littoral group, and form no portion of the forest flora, except in those places where the forest touches the sea- beach. The plants which chiefly give character to the northern forests are Dammara australis, Nesodaphne Taraire, Vitex littoralis, and Phyllocladus trichomanoides; Vitex littoralis forms the whole of the forest in several places on the western coast, and has a very different habit of growth to the generality of specimens of this tree on the eastern coast. Over the entire district, Alseuosmia macrophylla is to be met with, and in many places forms the whole of the undergrowth. All the species of this peculiar genus are found in the district, and at first sight appear to pass into each other by almost imperceptible shades of difference.
The following plants appear to be confined to this district:—Pittosporum ellipticum, Kirk, n. s., P. reflexum, (includes Gilliesianum, Trans. Vol. i., p. 143), P. pimeleoides, Hibiscus diversifolius, Ackama rosœfolia, Drosera pygmœa, Haloragis tetragyna, Meryta Sinclairii, Ozothamnus lanceolatus, Buchanan, n. s. (Trans. Vol. ii., p. 88), Colensoa physaloides, Ipomœa tuberculata, Gratiola nana, Veronica diosmœfolia, V. speciosa, Cassytha paniculata, Thelymitra Colensoi.
Of the above, eleven species are strictly endemic, and of those found in other countries the Ipomœa is the only species having a wide range. The
Hibiscus, Ipomœa, Cassytha, and Veronica diosmœfolia are the only forms that are not local in their habitats in the district.
The following plants are confined to the district, and to the Great and Little Barrier, or other outlying islands, but are not found elsewhere on the main-land:—Hymenanthera Tasmanica, Pittosporum virgatum, n. s., Olea apetala, Vahl., Pisonia umbellifera, Seem.
The following species are of more or less frequent occurrence in the district, but local elsewhere in the colony, and entirely confined to the North Island :— Pittosporum Buchanani, P. Huttoniamum, P. umbellatum, P. Kirkii, Hymenanthera crassifolia, Hibiscus Trionum, Apium leptophyllum, Pomaderris elliptica, P. Edgerleyi, Sapota costata, Atriplex Billardieri, Nephrodium Thelypteris, Prasophyllum pumilum, Doodia connexa, Nephrodium molle, Desv., Lycopodium Carolinianum, Metrosideros diffusa, Veronica elongata, Alseuosmia Banksii, Melicytus lanceolatus, Todea Africana, Nertera Cunninghamii, Australina pusilla, Cyathea Cunninghamii, Loxsoma Cunninghamii, Phyllocladus glauca.
This list might be greatly extended, but, taken in conjunction with the short preceding sections, it exhibits a more remarkable series of lowland plants than could probably be found in any other part of the colony.
The following plants highly characteristic of the flora of the southern part of the colony, are sparingly represented in the district:—Oxalis magellanica, Colobanthus Billardiari, Celmisia Munroi, C. longifolia, Olearea lacunosa, Vittadinia australis, Teucridium parvifolium, Fagus fusca, Hypolepis Millefolium.
Nearly three-fifths of the entire number of plants found in the district are common alike to the Provinces of Auckland and Otago, but, although found over the same extent of country as to boundaries, they occur in very different ratios. Corokia Cotoneaster is found at the extremities of both islands, but there are spaces of many miles where this plant is entirely wanting, and in some of its habitats a very few specimens only are found; Myrsine australis is also found at both extremities of the island, and the traveller could not journey any great distance without meeting it in abundance. Pteris esculenta and Leptospermum scoparium are examples of plants abundant in every suitable locality between tae North Cape and the Bluff.
Before leaving this part of the subject I will notice the peculiar variation of Veronica diosmœfolia—a plant already stated amongst the endemic plants peculiar to the district, as showing in the extreme North a characteristic feature of the Veronicas peculiar to the South, a feature the more remarkable, as in this district the genus exhibits a very slight degree of variation.
Veronica diosmœfolia is a handsome species, found in various localities from Cape Reinga to the Whangarei River, and is closely allied to some states of the southern V. Colensoi. It should be remarked that the first section of
the genus, as divided by Dr. Hooker, forms two groups, with scarcely an exception; one distinguished by entire leaves, the other by the leaves being variously serrated. But, as if purposely to show that the artificial characters employed by the systematist are, after all, mere matters of convenience, this distinct species exhibits two forms, one of which would, by the division just stated, be placed in the first group, the other in the second. In the first variety the leaves are close set, spreading, margined, entire; corymbs axillary, rarely terminal, flowers pale lilac, produced in great abundance, about October and November only. The second form exhibits the leaves close set, usually appressed in a greater or lesser degree, serrated or rather closely incised, as if simply cut with a pair of scissors, serratures and edges of the leaves margined; corymbs usually terminal, flowers white, produced more or less freely the whole year. The latter form was first observed by Dr. Hector and Mr. Buchanan, at the Bay of Islands, and is decidedly more local than the typical form. I have to express my thanks to Mr. D. Hay, for the opportunity of examining recent wild specimens collected by Mrs. Clarke.
The occurrence of Veronica diosmœfolia and V. elongata exhibits a curious phenomenon, absolutely without parallel in any other part of the colony—both species are the sole representatives in the district of their respective groups, both are endemic, and restricted to small areas; but the first, in general appearance and liability to a certain amount of variation, is a marked representative of the forms of the genus which are peculiar to the southern hemisphere; the other, equally in general appearance and fixity of character, represents the germanders and speedwells of the northern hemisphere.
The total number of species of flowering plants and ferns already collected in the district is under 550, and falls very far short of what may fairly be expected to occur. Further additions will be made to the extent of fully one-fourth as the district is worked up by competent observers.
I must own to a feeling of disappointment on reading Mr. Buchanan's remarks on the causes of plant variation in the colony. His extensive knowledge of the vegetation of its south and south-western portions especially, had led me to expect that he would throw some light on this obscure, but interesting, subject. His remarks on the influence of wind on plants have failed to convince me of the possibility of permanent variation being produced by its agency, which is purely mechanical, as it has been again and again proved that seeds from wind-dwarfed and prematurely aged trees, descended from others grown in the same locality for ages past, are capable in ordinary situations of producing trees of the normal type and luxuriance.
Dodonœa viscosa, which is cited by Mr. Buchanan as a (possible) instance of a species exhibiting an increasing tendency to variation as it recedes from its centre of maximum growth, does not in any way support that view, whether considered with regard to New Zealand alone, or to the numerous countries in
which it is found. The causes of variation in the northern part of New Zealand, at any rate, are strictly local. At Mount Camel, he states that it is found in a peculiarly dwarf and stunted condition—the same condition is found still further north, and, contrary to the theory which he appears to support, in many localities to the south also. But on the other hand, there are luxuriant specimens, twenty feet high, to be seen at Spirits' Bay in the extreme north, which is equally opposed to the theory. At Whangarei, and at Omaha, the tree attains a height of thirty feet, while one hundred miles south of Whangarei it is seen in abundance, only a few inches in height, growing in great luxuriance, and producing well-developed large sized fruit.
In New Zealand this plant attains its extreme southern limit, and ought therefore, if the theory be worth anything whatever, to present generally a considerable amount of variation from its usual forms in Australia, America, and India; but the very opposite is the case, the variations in the New Zealand plant are simply in size and luxuriance, caused evidently by the nature of its habitat as to soil and shelter. In shape of foliage and fruit it is remarkably uniform, never producing the pinnate leaves and partially-developed fruit which, even in Australia, are not uncommon. Exposed to the full force of the wind on a sandy soil, the plant becomes stunted, the branches numerous, short and weak, the leaves small and short-lived; old specimens are frequently laden with twiggy branches, few of which are capable of developing even a solitary leaf. In sheltered woods on a good soil, it reaches its highest degree of development, attaining the height of twenty to thirty feet, with luxuriant foliage. Again, when growing on basaltic rocks the plant becomes extremely dwarf, often less than a foot in height, but not stunted, with the foliage and fruit as luxuriant as in the large sylvestral form. The causes of these departures from the luxuriant type are not far to seek. In the first form the growth of the plant is prevented by poor soil and the action of the wind, at the same time the bark and leaves are prevented from exercising their functions by the sand with which, from their viscidity, they are more or less covered. On the rocky soil the plant is dwarf from lack of nutritive matter for the roots, but is still luxuriant from a two-fold cause—the comminuted state of the limited amount of soil allowing the ready extraction of the nutritive matters it contains, and the unimpeded action of the leaves.
It must however be obvious, that the term variation has a very restricted meaning when applied to mere differences of stature and luxuriance of growth, as in the preceding observations, where the instances discussed belong to simple depauperation, and have no necessary connection with the wide subject of morphological variation.
In the present state of our knowledge of the subject, a classified statement of the plants which exhibit aberration from their typical forms, with their
horizontal and vertical distribution, the extent of variation as well as the external circumstances which favour its production, would be a contribution of the highest value to morphological science.* In fact, it is indispensable to real progress. Deductions drawn from isolated examples can seldom be made available for general laws. We have, for example, no evidence to show that the early trifoliate-leaved state of Melicope simplex is any proof that the plant has “passed through” other forms whether extinct or recent, than we have that it should be considered indicative of future development. This, however, must not be construed into a positive opinion on the theory involved.
To revert for a moment to the subject of plant variation in the Northern district: it is worthy of remark that all the species of Veronica belong, with a solitary exception, to the section with dorsally compressed capsules, but it could not possibly be said that in this district “they appear to present a graduated scale of forms.” On the contrary, the amount of variation is extremely limited, and the intermediate forms must be sought for in the southern parts of the colony.
But, on the other hand, the northern genus Alseuosmia presents in its four or five recognized forms, an amount of variation in habit and foliation fully equal to that of any similar number of the southern Veronicas; and, so far as appears at present, this variation is not affected by habitat.
I have the pleasing duty of tendering my thanks to Mr. Buchanan, for a large amount of information kindly afforded by him; without his valued aid the appended lists of corrections and additions would have been much less complete; also to Mr. Robert Mair and Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, for copious lists of the plants observed by them at Whangarei; and especially to Mr. Colenso, for much valued criticism and information afforded by him during a lengthened correspondence.
In the following notes I hold myself personally responsible for authenticity in all cases not otherwise specified.
Note.—Particulars of the Naturalized Plants of the Northern District will be found in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, Vol. ii., p. 131. The North Cape District and the southern portion of the Whangarei district of that paper, form the area now treated of.
[Footnote] * A knowledge of the aberrant forms of the outlying islands, the Kermadec and Auckland groups, etc., would possess special value.
Corrections, Additional Localities,* &c., To Previous List.
(See Vol. ii., p. 242.)
Hymenanthera latifolia, Endl., var Tasmanica. This is H. crassifolia of the list, as I find from specimens collected by Mr. Buchanan; it is found also on the Taranga Islands.
Pittosporum Colensoi, Hook. f. The northern plant referred to this species by Mr. Buchanan is my P. virgatum, easily distinguished from P. Colensoi by its terminal capsules. Mr. Colenso informs me that he never saw P. Colensoi north of the Waitemata.
Elatine Americana, Arnott. Add District 8, on the authority of the “Handbook.”
Hibiscus diversifolius, Jacq. 2. Colenso. 6. The H. Taylorii of Buchanan.
Geranium dissectum, L., var. Carolinianum. All the varieties occur, together with the ordinary English form of G. dissectum, the latter introduced.
Drosera pygmæa, DC. Districts 2 and 8 must be erased, and 6 substituted on Mr. Buchanan's authority.
Callitriche Muellerii, Sond. 1 2 3 6.
Panax simplex, Forst. This is in part, if not entirely, my P. discolor, which was only observed by me at Wangaroa; I have not seen P. simplex in the North.
Ozothamnus glomeratus, Hook. f. Add 2. “Handbook.”
Gaultheria rupestris, Br. A clerical error, G. antipoda being the plant intended. J. Buchanan. Must therefore be erased.
Epacris purpurascens, Br. Must be erased. Certainly not found in the North. (See Trans. N.Z. Institute, Vol. ii., p. 108.)
Gratiola sexdentata, A. Cunn. Add 1.
Glossostigma elatinoides, Benth. Add 1.
Veronica ligustrifolia, A. Cunn. Add 1. T. F. Cheeseman.
" diosmæfolia, R. Cunn. Add 1.
Plantago Raoulii, Dec. Add 1 2.
Ascarina lucida, Hook. f. All the districts except 5 and 8 must be erased. J. Buchanan.
Dacrydium Colensoi, Hook. Add 8. R. Bell.
Prasophyllum pumilum, Hook. f. Add 1.
Typha latifolia, L. The European T. angustifolia has not been found in New Zealand. It is therefore advisable to abandon the name and refer both forms of our plant to T. latifolia.
[Footnote] * The districts as divided and numbered by Mr. Buchanan are— 1. Whangarei. 2. Bay of Islands. 3. Whangaroa. 4. Stephenson's Island. 5. Mount Camel. 6. North Cape. 7. Kaitaia. 8. Hokianga.
Astelia “grandis,” Hook. f. Add 1 2.
Eleocharis acuta, Br. var. platylepis. Add 1 3.
" gracillima, Hook. f. 1 2 3 6.
Isolepis riparia, Br. Add 1 3.
" nodosa, Br. Add 1 2 3 6.
Cladium glomeratum, Br. Add 3.
" teretifolium, Br. Add 3.
" junceum, Br. Add 1 2 3.
" Sinclairii, Hook. f. Add 1 2.
Gahnia ebenocarpa, Hook. f. 1 2 3. Erase G. xanthocarpa.
" setifolia, Hook. f. Add 2 3.
" lacera, Steud. Add 2 3.
" arenaria, Hook. f. Add 3.
Carex pumila, Thunb. Add 1.
" breviculmis, Br. Add 2.
Echinopogon ovatus, Pal. Add 1.
Dichelachne stipoides, Hook. f. Add 1 2.
Agrostis æmula, Br. Add 1 2 3.
" Billardieri, Br. Add 1 2 3.
" quadriseta, Br. Add 1.
Danthonia Cunninghamii, Hook. f. Add 1. T. F. Cheeseman.
Poa foliosa, Hook. f. I believe this to be an error; I have no recollection of having seen this plant in the North, and can find no mention of it in my notes. It could, moreover, scarcely be expected to occur so far north, unless at a far higher elevation than is found in the district.
Cyathea Cunninghamii, Hook. f. Add 1.
Dicksonia squarrosa, Swartz. Add 1 3.
Lindsæa trichomanoides, Dryand. Erase 2 and 8, which belong to L. Lessoni. J. Buchanan.
Adiantum formosum, Br. Not found in Whangarei proper, but occurs on the west coast. R. Mair. The locality is in the Kaipara District, but not on the Kaipara River as stated in the “Handbook.”
Asplenium obtusatum, Forst. Add 1.
Polypodium rugulosum, Lab. Add 1.
Clematis fœtida, Raoul. 1.
Ranunculus hirtus, Banks and Sol. 1 2 3 6.
" rivularis, Banks and Sol., var. subfluitans. 1 2.
" acaulis, Banks and Sol. 1 2.
Drimys axillaris, Forst. 1.
Cardamine stylosa, DC. 1 2.
Hymenanthera crassifolia, Hook. f. “Maritime rocks opposite the Cavallos Islands.”—“Handbook.”
Pittosporum Buchanani, Hook. f. 7. J. Buchanan.
" virgatum, Kirk. n. s. 3.
" ellipticum, Kirk. n. s. 1.
" ovatum, Kirk. n. s. 1 3.
" pimeleoides, R. Cunn. 2. “Handbook.”
Stellaria parviflora, Banks and Sol. 1 2.
Spergularia rubra, Pers., var. marina. Stephenson's Island. J. Buchanan.
Hypericum japonicum, Thunb. 1 2.
Linum marginale, A. Cunn. 1 2 6.
Geranium molle, L. 1 2 3 6.
Clianthus puniceus, Banks and Sol. 2. Rev. R. Taylor.
Coriaria, sps. In a foot-note to Dr. Lindsay's remarks on this genus, in his Contributions to the Botany of New Zealand, he writes, — “I find the opinion that there are three ‘kinds’ of ‘Toot’ unanimous among the more observant settlers alike of Otago and Auckland, (representing Wanganui, Raglan, Coromandel, Kaipara, Hokianga, and other districts in the latter province.)” It is difficult to account for the origin of this error. C. ruscifolia is common over the entire province, and varies from a dwarf shrubby or even sub-herbaceous plant, to a small tree; the last form however being comparatively rare. It is possible that the extreme forms may be considered distinct by settlers not well acquainted with the plant, but I never met with anyone who expressed this opinion. Neither C. thymifolia nor C. angustissima has been found so far north as Auckland.
Ixerba brexioides, A. Cunn. 1 2.
Leptospermum ericoides, A. Rich. The peculiar dwarf pubescent form mentioned at p. 728 of the “Handbook,” is abundant in the open country about Mongonui and in other localities.
Metrosideros lucida, Menz. 1. T. F. Cheeseman.
" diffusa, Sm. 1 2.
" Colensoi, Hook. f. In the “Handbook” this is said to occur at the Bay of Islands, but Mr. Colenso believes this to be erroneous.
Myrtus obcordata, Hook. f. 1. T. F. Cheeseman.
Fuchsia procumbens, R. Cunn. Cavalhi Passage.
" Kirkii, Hook. f. 2.
Epilobium alsinoides, A. Cunn. 1.
" rotundifolium, Forst. 1 2.
" pubens, A. Rich. 1 2 3.
Sicyos angulatus, L. 1.
Hydrocotyle Novæ Zelandiæ, DC. 1.
" moschata, Forst. 1 2.
Hydrocotyle microphylla, A. Cunn. Mongonui.
Apium leptophyllum, F. Muell. 2.
Panax Lessonii, DC., var. heterophyllum. 3.
Meryta Sinclairii, Hook. f. Taranga Islands.
Viscum salicornioides, Hook. f. 1 2.
Alseuosmia quercifolia, A. Cunn. 1 2.
Coprosma, n. s. 1.
" propinqus, A. Cunn. 1 2.
Nertera Cunninghamii, Hook. f. 1 2.
Galium umbrosum, Forst. 1 2 3.
Olearia lacunosa, Hook. f. 2. J. Buchanan.
Celmisia longifolia, Cass. 2. W. Colenso.
Vittadinia australis, A. Rich. 1.
Lagenophora petiolata, Hook. f. 1 2.
Cotula minor, Hook. f. 1 2.
Erechtites arguta, DC. 1 2 3.
" scaberula, Hook. f. 1 2.
" quadridentata, DC. 1.
Senecio Colensoi, Hook. f. 2. W. Colenso.
Pratia angulata, Hook. f. 1 2.
Dracophyllum Traversii, Hook. f. 1. J. Buchanan.
Olea apetals, Vahl. Taranga Islands.
Limosella aquatica, L., var. tenuifolia. 1.
Veronica macrocarpa, Vahl. 2. “Handbook.”
Chenopodium triandrum, Forst. 1 2.
Suæda maritima, Dum. 1 2.
Atriplex Billardieri, Hook. f. Whangaruru. W. Colenso. North Cape. J. Buchanan.
Pimelia Urvilleana, A. Rich. 2. “Handbook.”
Fagus fasca, Hook. f. 1 7 8. J. Buchanan.
Urtica incisa, Poir. 1.
Parietaria debilis, Forst. 1 2.
Australina pusilla, Gaud. 1 2. W. Colenso.
Phyllocladus glauca, Carr. 1. T. K. 8. R. Mair.
Sarcochilus adversus, Hook. f. 1.
Gastrodia Cunninghamii, Hook. f. 2.
Acianthus Sinclairii, Hook. f. 1 2.
Cyrtostylis oblonga, Hook. f. 2. W. Colenso.
Corysanthes oblonga, Hook. f. 2.
" rivularis, Hook. f. 2. W. Colenso.
Caladenia minor, Hook. f. 1 2.
Pterostylis trullifolia, Hook. f. 1 2.
Thelymitra longifolia, Forst. 1 2 3 6.
" Colensoi, Hook. f. 2. W. Colenso.
" imberbis, Hook. f. 2. W. Colenso.
Orthoceras Solandri, Lindl. 1 2 3.
Lemna minor, L. 1.
Potamogeton “natans,” L. 1 2.
" “gramineus,” L. 2. “Handbook.”
Astelia, n. s. 1 2 3.
Calorophus elongatus, Lab. 1.
Schœnus tenuis, Kirk. n. s. 1 2 6.
Gahnia pauciflora, Kirk. n. s. 1 2.
Fimbristylis dichotoma, Vahl. 2. W. Colenso.
Carex subdola, Boott. 2. “Handbook.”
" lucida, Boott. 1 2.
" Forsteri, Wahl. 1 2.
Microlæna polynoda, Hook. f. 1 2.
Hierochloe redolens, Br. 1 2.
Zoysia pungens, Willd. 1 2 3 6.
Dichelachne crinita, Hook. f. 1 2 3.
" sciurea, Hook. f. 1 2.
Danthonia “Unarede,” Raoul. A stout handsome grass occurring on sea cliffs in Whangaruru Harbour, at the Bay of Islands, and in the Cavalhi Passage, but of which I possess very imperfect specimens only; is provisionally referred here. Its habit is similar to that of Gahnia setifolia.
Trisetum antarcticum, Trin. 1 2.
Bromus arenarius, Lab. 1 2.
Triticum scabrum, Br. 1.
Gleichenia Cunninghamii, Hew. 1 2.
Cyathea Cunninghamii, Hook. f. 1.
" Smithii, Hook. f. 1. R. Mair.
Hymenophyllum multifidum, Swartz. 1 2.
" flabellatum, Lab. 1 2.
" æruginosum, Carm. 1. R. Mair.
Trichomanes venosum, Br. 1.
Davallia Novæ Zelandiæ, Col. 1 2.
Lindsæa trichomanoides, Dry. 1.
Adiantum affine, Willd. 1 2.
Lomaria nigra, Col. 1. W. Mair.
Doodia connexe, Kunze. 1. R. Mair.
Asplenium flabellifolium, Cav. 1.
Aspidium coriaceum, Swartz. 1 2.
Nephrodium thelypteris, Presl., var. squamulosum. 1 2. W. Colenso.
Nephrodium molle, Desv. 1. R. Mair.
Nothochlæna distans, Br. 1.
Schizæa fistulosa, Lab. 1 2.
Botrychium cicutarium, Swartz, var. dissectum. 1 6.
Phylloglossum Drummondii, Kunze. 2.
Lycopodium Carolinianum, L. 7. W. Colenso.