Art. XXXI.—On the Cultivation of some Species of Native Trees and Shrubs.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, September 17, 1870.]
Many of the writers and travellers who have described the physical appearance and natural scenery of New Zealand, have dwelt with more or less enthusiasm on the remarkable character of the beauty of our native forests, on the noble trees, amongst which the Coniferœ occupy so distinguished a position, and the ever-varying foliage of the luxuriant shrubs, of which so many species are peculiar to these Islands. Although a century has elapsed since that epoch, at which a far from insignificant portion of the flora of this country became known to botanists, and notwithstanding that the footsteps of Banks and Solander have been followed at intervals by many men of science, it may be considered a matter of surprise that so little has been made known of the habits of many genera, and that so few persons have devoted much time and attention to their cultivation. That this neglect of our most interesting indigenous plants is a matter of regret, few of those will be disposed to question who have had opportunities of becoming personally acquainted with the present condition of many districts, and who cannot fail to have reflected on the destructive results to our native flora which the rapid settlement of the country is daily effecting. The constantly recurring bush fires, the means by which the tenant of crown lands seeks to improve the condition and quality of the grasses for the depasturing of his stock, and the wasteful management of the once magnificently timbered forests, threaten at no distant period the almost entire destruction of many interesting and valuable species, before time has been afforded to ascertain their real position as a portion of the economical resources of the country. In the Middle Island, the localisation of the bushes and shrub-covered areas, may have exercised a deterring influence, not without its effects on the newly formed shrubberies and plantations of the settler.
The object of this paper is simply to draw attention to the cultivation of native plants, and to impart, very briefly, such information as may have been acquired from the experience of several years, during which many species have been cultivated. One of the chief reasons which has induced the communication of these observations, is the knowledge of the fact that many persons show almost a prejudice against planting native shrubs, from the supposed difficulty attending their successful treatment.
That the efforts of some beginners have been marked by failure, is not altogether a matter for surprise; often with the hope of making a show at once, specimens are selected from the bush which are too large, and too old, to be safely removed; in too many cases the planter contents himself with tearing up the young and tender seedlings from the moist shelter of the bushy
gullies, transplanting the flagging shrubs, with roots bruised and ruptured, to the open borders of the garden or shrubbery, where, in all probability, they are equally exposed to the icy blast of the south-west gales and the desiccating influence of the parching north-wester. Let the intending grower place some portion of a decaying log, rich in its panoply of various-hued lichens, beside the newly removed plants, and a convincing proof will be afforded of the sudden change of atmospherical conditions they are expected to encounter and survive, as he gazes on the shrivelled objects to which a few days exposure has metamorphosed the luxuriant lichens. An equal want of consideration for the habits of plants may be noted where alpines (to which a free circulation of air is a necessary condition of healthy growth, if not of life), have been buried beneath the shade and drip of overhanging trees. To these hints as to the desirableness of shelter in the tender stage of their earlier growth, should perhaps be added, that planting in too close proximity to fast growing but exhaustive Eucalypti should also be avoided.
Amongst the groups of plants on the cultivation of which it is proposed to offer remarks, many will be found of the most ornamental description, beautiful in foliage, compact in form; some, from their habit of growth, adapted for training as impervious screens; from the many flowered corymbs of others, fragrant odours are diffused; whilst the native hardiness of several species, points them out as worthy of cultivation from their being calculated to afford grateful shelter in the bleakest situations. All are desirable acquisitions to the garden, the shrubbery, or the plantation, and have a right to and are worthy of a home in public Botanic Gardens of the colony.
In view of the progress which is being made in the formation of plantations, by the efforts of many enterprising settlers in several districts in both islands, the value of many species of native shrubs, as nurse plants for sheltering exotic forest trees, must be recognized, as their aid during the earlier and tender stage in the life of many a valuable timber tree, will be found materially to assist its successful acclimatization. Coprosmas and Olearias at once occur as groups admirably adapted for this purpose, from their hardiness of constitution, closeness of foliage, and the ease with which they can be removed with safety.
It is to be hoped that the formation and proper organization of Botanic Gardens will not be much longer deferred; each year's delay is a national loss, whether it is considered from a scientific, educational, or commercial point of view; by the establishment of such gardens, it is not meant that such institutions should be considered as carried out successfully when certain reserves of land are set aside, and marked off on a map. In order to confer the greatest amount of public benefit, such establishments should be carefully but vigorously administered. Appreciative foreigners are ever anxious to obtain collections of our native flora, and interesting exchanges would soon occupy an important
position, the value of which would be at once recognized. Much additional usefulness would be derived from the support of a laboratory in connection with the most prominent of such gardens, in order that the aid of chemistry might be invoked, to demonstrate what of value we might be enabled to derive from the remains of our vegetable wealth. It might also teach us to look with regret on the charred and blackened stumps of what were once noble forests, on the wide areas of country lately covered with heavy luxuriant bushes of Phormium, as bearing evidence against us of a wasteful and costly system of settlement, that would then be no longer tolerated.
We have adhered to the nomenclature and arrangement as given in that valuable boon to the colony, Hooker's Handbook of the New Zealand Flora, which must be appreciated by every one who takes an interest in the vegetable kingdom.
The time of flowering given, is the period when the species blossom in Governor's Bay, near Lyttelton,—a locality which enjoys the advantage of a certain amount of shelter from south-west weather, but is open to the sea breeze from the north-east, the prevailing wind.
Clematis indivisa, Willd. May be found in abundance in most of the bushes throughout the country; in early spring (September and October), its long wreaths of star-like white flowers may be observed hanging in graceful festoons from the tops of the highest trees. In any ordinary soil that is not too dry it flourishes well, it is easily raised from seed, it can be propagated by cuttings, bears transplanting with ordinary care. A specimen growing here was covered with a fine show of blossom in the fifth year from the seed. Seed should be collected as soon as ripe, as the downy achenes are soon dispersed by the wind.
Clematis, sp., Colensoi. Usually found on the outskirts of some bushy gully, but is not so common as the preceding species. Through the months of October and November its dull yellowish blossoms diffuse an agreeable scent.
Drimys axillaris, Forst. The well known Pepper-tree has a very extensive range; it is frequently observed outside of the bush, but the foliage of this handsome aromatic shrub appears to the greatest advantage in shady nooks. It maintains an excellent form, the bright green upper surface of the leaf, dotted with red spots, contrasting with the whitish underside, gives the plant a very cheerful look, and makes it a desirable addition to the shrubbery. It is of slow growth; although very hardy, it is well to remember, the better the shelter the greener the leaf. It flowers as early as August; its small yellow star-like blossoms give out a faint fishy odour.
Melicytus raniflorus, Forst. In many parts of Banks' Peninsula, this tree is known as “Cowleaf,” from the avidity with which its leaves are devoured by cattle. Tolerably hardy, this close-growing shrub, with its dark green lanceolate leaves, is admirably adapted for screen hedges; it will bear cutting-in to any extent. It thrives in any ordinary soil, is easily raised from seed. Its bluish black fruit, with which its sprays are clustered, form a favourite food for birds. In June, 1868, we found on the Peninsula, a variety of this species with white seeds. Flowering season is in November.
Melcytus lanceolatus, Hook. f. A handsome pale green shrub with very long lanceolate leaves, its purplish flowers are very small. This plant will not thrive well in a very bleak exposure, but with a little attention to shelter its growth will be found very rapid. Flowers as early as August.
Pittosporum Colensoi. An ornamental tree, as a single specimen plant or with plenty of room it maintains a beautiful conical form of growth; it bears close pruning well, and is adapted for screens. Its dark purple flowers are in blossom from November to January. This species is frequently mistaken for P. tenuifolium.
Pittosporum tenuifolium. Has a very compact form of growth; it bears a strong resemblance to the preceding species, but the leaves are smaller and paler green.
Pittosporum obcordatum, Raoul. Not very common; we have met with specimens having stems about 8 inches in diameter. It is of straggling growth, the branches much interlaced, and is better adapted for mixing with other shrubs rather than for planting in a front row or open space.
Pittosporum fasciculatum, Hook. Our specimens were procured from the Otira Gorge. This handsome close-growing species is of robust habit, and a fast grower.
Pittosporum crassifolium, Banks and Sol. This large shrub contrasts well with other Pittosporeœ; its obovate leaf frequently measures 3 ½ inches in length, the sides slightly recurved; both leaf and stem exhibit resinous exudations.
Pittosporum eugenioides, Cunn. This beautiful shrub always excites admiration, from its shapeliness and the delicate green of its long finely-veined undulated leaf, to which the almost white midrib lends its share of beauty. Not only do the corymbs of pale yellowish blossoms yield a delicate fragrance, but the leaves, when bruised, emit a strong lemonish scent. With space, the Tarata maintains a shape which renders it one of the chief ornaments of the shrubbery. The seeds are less abundantly covered with gluten than some of the species, and require two years to ripen. Blooms in October.
Pittosporum cornifolium, Cunn. Small plants of this species are growing well that were raised from seed obtained from boughs cut when the seed was in a half-ripened state, the boughs having been kept fresh by insertion in the ground.
The Pittosporeœ flourish in any ordinary soil; they are easily raised from seed; should be moved with care; the seedlings should be shifted once or twice in the nursery before they are finally planted, if this practice is adopted the cultivator will surely find that he has not lost either time or trouble by so doing.
Plagianthus divaricatus, Forst. A singular looking shrub, growing close to the sea shore in Port Cooper; its slender sprays are so much interlaced as to form a stiff compact mass, capable of sustaining a considerable weight. It flowers in the month of December.
Plagianthus betulinus, Cunn. One of our few deciduous trees; in its young state it has a graceful form of growth. Flowers in December.
Plagianthus Lyallii, Hook. f. This tree or shrub is one of our handsomest flowering plants; it is found at very considerable altitudes in “the back country,” and is useful where Phormium is rarely, if at all, to be met with; a strip of the lace-like bark of the Ribbon-scrub answers all the purposes of a flax leaf to the bushman. Its handsome white flowers may be seen in December and January.
Ordinary soil, not too stiff, appears most suitable to this family; they transplant freely, and may be propagated by cuttings.
Entelea arborescens, Br. The Whau, or native Mulberry, is remarkable for its immense cordate leaves; it is impatient of cold exposure. We have not yet succeeded in acclimatizing it here; it appears to thrive well in warm moist situations without requiring any particular attention to be paid to it. Should sericiculture obtain a footing in the colony, it would be worth while to ascertain, from actual experiment, whether the leaves of the Entelea would be suitable food for the silkworm.
Aristotelia racemosa, Hook. f. A handsome thinly-foliaged tree, the light green serrated leaves contrast agreeably with the dark reddish bark of its sprays. It is an early bloomer, its panicles of reddish flowers varying in tint from deep claret to the faintest pink, may be sometimes observed as early as August. It bears pruning well, and this it requires to keep it within bounds, as it is apt to become straggling if this is neglected. From its abundance of fibrous roots, it can survive a great deal of rough treatment in transplanting.
Aristotelia fruticosa, Hook. f. Our specimens were procured from near the head waters of the Rangitata. In its natural state it rarely exceeds, even if
it attains, a height of 6 feet; it is exceedingly hardy, and like the preceding species, any ordinary soil suits it, and it is managed without the slightest difficulty; its deep green foliage is seen to the best advantage when it is grown with a southerly aspect.
Pennantia corymbosa, Forst. Common in the bush on Banks' Peninsula. It is a plant of graceful habit; its white fragrant flowers cover it in the greatest abundance. In its young state the leaves are small and rounded, but a remarkable transformation takes place, and it assumes oblong leaves nearly three inches in length. Blossoms in December. Its cultivation calls for no particular remark.
Discaria Toumatou, Raoul. The scrubby-looking plant, known as the “Wild Irishman,” becomes quite a tree above the gorges of some of the great southern rivers; its wood, from its hardness and durability, is in great request for stock-whip handles; any soil appears to suit this plant. In November its creamy coloured flowers charge the air with their powerful fragrance. Some of the finest specimens with which we are acquainted surround the grave of the lamented Dr. Sinclair, on the banks of the Rangitata.
Dodonœa viscosa, Forst. This handsome-looking tree is clothed with foliage of a peculiar tint, which at once arrests attention; it appears to flourish best at no great distance from the sea. Its flowers, of reddish hue, are succeeded by seeds enclosed in membranous-winged coverings, reminding one somewhat of the “keys” of some of the British forest trees.
Alectryon excelsum, DC. The Titoki, or New Zealand Ash, is far from uncommon in many districts; in the neighbourhood of Wellington it appears to grow with considerable vigour, but here we have found some difficulty in its cultivation. Its panicles of flowers may be noticed during November and December, but it is when the tree is in fruit that it assumes its most striking appearance, from its abundance of peculiar looking scarlet berries.
Corynocarpus lœvigata, Forst. This fine laurel-leaved shrub is very local in Canterbury, its habitat being almost, if not entirely, confined to Okain Bay, Little Akaroa, and perhaps a few other spots in that distrct. We have heard it suggested that its presence there is owing to the fruit brought down in old times by the canoes crossing Pegasus Bay from the North Island. Near the sea, in sheltered spots, it grows fairly, but we have lost a considerable percentage from planting out when too small. It luxuriates in a rich damp soil, and grows readily from seed. The drupe appears to be held in great estimation by the Maoris as an article of food.
Clianthus puniceus, Banks and Sol. One of the most beautiful of all shrubs; is too well known to require any remark.
Sophora tetraptera, Aiton. This valuable tree is very peculiar looking in its young state, when its flexible sprays are so much interlaced, that it appears almost incredible that from the thicket of pliant twigs should be produced the graceful straight-stemmed tree, the wood of which is unsurpassed for fencing purposes. From the end of August, through September and October, its racemes of yellow flowers make a handsome appearance. The young trees are frequently injured by the attacks of a boring insect. From about midsummer, through the early part of January, its leaves supply food for a caterpillar that entirely strips its foliage, leaving the trees bare for two or three weeks. The Kowhai prefers a cool moist situation, and even then it makes very slow growth. On very bleak exposures a decumbent variety is frequently met with.
Rubus australis, Forst. This straggling fast-growing climber may be usefully employed to conceal some unsightly spot. Its sharp recurved prickles not only extend over leaves and sprays, they even defend its panicles of fragrant blossoms, which perfume the air in the month of November. Some day the distiller of perfumes may turn this shrub to account; we have tried experiments by enfleurage. Excellent baskets can be manufactured from the stems.
Carpodetus serratus, Forst. A small round-headed tree, with mottled bark; in its young state the leaves are small and rounded, as it grows up they assume an oblong shape, handsomely variegated, the darker shade of green following the course of the nerves. The finest foliaged specimens we ever met with were growing in the bushes near the River Wilberforce. About midsummer, its panicles of white flowers are produced in abundance. Any fair soil suits the Carpodetus, which prefers a cool moist aspect.
Leptospermum scoparium, Forst. The Manuka is too well known to all settlers to need description. There are few prettier sights than a patch of it in November or December, when the whole scrub is a mass of white blossoms, as though it had just received a light fall of snow.
Leptospermum ericoides, Rich. The Bush Manuka, as it is called, attains a considerable size, the leaves smaller, darker, and narrower than those of the other species, the blossoms also are smaller and later in their season of flowering. Both species under cultivation grow faster than is usually supposed; they are very exhaustive, their fine matted fibrous roots completely
dry up the soil near its surface; when cut down, the trees die at once, not making any attempt to shoot or break.
Metrosideros lucida, Menz. A very handsome myrtle-like foliaged shrub, growing in many places to a large tree; in its native state the Rata is usually found growing amongst the crevices of rocks, which, during the month of January, are enlivened with its brilliant scarlet blossoms. We have had this plant under cultivation for many years; in good soil, it makes fine vigorous growth; it may be raised from seed (which requires a considerable time to ripen); it can be propagated by cuttings; after a shift or two, it forms such a mass of fibrous roots that it can be removed with perfect safety. It is hardy enough for any aspect; a free current of air is absolutely necessary to preserve its compact habit.
Metrosideros tomentosa, Cunn. The Pohutukawa under cultivation grows in a compact form, and blossoms freely; with us, its growth is slower than that of M. lucida, but it is hardy enough to withstand the rigour of our winter.
Myrtus bullata, Banks and Sol. A nice-looking upright-growing shrub, which often may be noticed under cultivation in the North. The yellowish green leaf presents a blistered appearance.
Myrtus obcordata, Hook. f. Common about the bays of Port Cooper, where it may be frequently observed on the outskirts of the bush, attaining the size of a small tree, from 6 to 12 inches diameter. It is of slow growth, but compact habit; its small pale green obcordate leaves are variegated with a brownish green tint on the margin and along the course of the nerves. Flowers in December.
Myrtus pedunculata, Hook. f. Far less compact than the preceding species; its glaucous leaves are somewhat oblong. Blossoms in December; grows best in a shady situation.
The Myrtles thrive in any light soil, not too wet, and are easily raised from seed.
Passiflora tetrandra, Banks and Sol. This lofty climber shows itself best when clothing a round-topped tree of moderate height, adorned with its bright clusters of orange coloured fruit; although it is found on the outskirts of the bush, it requires a sheltered situation, the frost affecting it far more than winds. It is easily removed, and grows freely from seed; thrives best in light soil, not too dry.
Panax longissimum, Hook. f. This peculiar looking tree presents a complete contrast to all other natives, from its straight erect rod-like stem with drooping coriaceous leaves, that sometimes measure above 2 feet in length. After some years the stem becomes branched about ten or twelve feet from
the ground, the leaves then are much diminished in size. This plant requires some attention during removal; after recovering from the check, it makes fair growth. A specimen here, planted in fair loam ten years since, now measures 13 feet 6 inches in height; stem rather more than 1 foot 2 inches circumference a few inches above the ground; it commenced forming its branched head two years since; when moved into the shrubbery it was about 2 feet 6 inches in height, and the rod about the thickness of a finger.
Panax Colensoi, Hook. f. A finely foliaged tree, with large deep green glossy leaves; an excellent species for shelter or for the shrubbery. Its large clusters of purple-black fruit are very conspicuous; it can be removed without difficulty. Both this and the preceding species flourish in ordinary soil.
Shefflera digitata, Forst. Handsome foliaged shrub, with large slightly drooping digitate leaves, found chiefly on the banks of shady creeks; its panicles of pale yellowish green blossoms, which may be observed in October and November, convey some idea of a resemblance to a gigantic spike of mignionette. Any soil suits it, with a moist sheltered situation.
Griselinia lucida, Forst. Frequently observed growing on trees, apparently parasitical, but with its roots striking into the soil; it has been noticed with its roots reaching the ground through the hollow stem of a decaying tree. Its large pale green coriaceous leaf is of peculiar shape. Far more tender than G. littoralis, it flourishes in fair soil with a sheltered aspect; removed without difficulty.
Griselinia littoralis, Raoul. One of the best and hardiest shrubs for shelter, it will flourish in the coldest places; it bears close pruning. The pale yellowish green leaf of this densely foliaged plant affords a pleasing contrast in the shrubbery. In too sheltered a position it is liable to be much affected by scale. Its yellowish green flowers, which bloom in September, October, and November, are almost scentless; fruit dull black. No tree is transplanted with less risk, even when of a large size. In its natural state, the Kapuka, or Broad-leaf, attains the dimensions of a large forest tree.
Corokia cotoneaster, Cunn. A brown-looking shrub of very dwarf habit, with branches much interlaced; often found on the outskirts of bushes on the hills; upper side of the bright brownish leaves are contrasted with a white tomentose under surface. Its yellow blossoms may be seen in the month of November, the drupe is yellowish; it is of hardy constitution; it grows fairly from seed, is transplanted without difficulty; prefers a south-west aspect, not too much shaded.
Loranthus flavidus, Hook. f. A thinly foliaged parasite that may frequently be observed growing upon Fagus trees, on the outside of forests.
Flowers yellow. We have noticed it growing upon small trees of Fagus Cliffortioides, in a shrubbery where the soil was both cold and stiff, and that too in a situation much exposed to heavy winds.
Loranthus micranthus, Hook. f. A fast growing parasite found on a variety of plants, introduced as well as native; amongst the former we have observed specimens attached to Cratœgus, plum, peach, and laburnum, this species thus ranging over, and as we conceive showing a preference for, species belonging to the foreign natural orders Pomaceœ, Drupaceœ, Fabaceœ. Our opinion that this species of Loranthus exhibits a preference for introduced trees, is founded on the following observations:—in this neighbourhood it may be found growing in the bushy gullies, and in the bush itself, on trees of Melicytus ramiflorus and Melicope simplex, representatives of Violariœ and Rutaceœ; in the shrubberies which impinge upon and partly bound the gardens, plants of the two native species just named do not exhibit one single specimen of Loranthus, nor on any native tree is an example of this particular kind of parasite to be found, nearer than about half a mile's distance, in a bushy gully, yet specimens may be noticed in the garden flourishing on representatives of the three foreign natural orders before mentioned. On the laburnum the Loranthus appears to grow quite luxuriantly, a plant now four years old, the beautiful green ovate leaves of which form a thick-set bush measuring 4 feet through, vertically, by 3 feet 6 inches through, horizontally; a specimen on a Cratœgus of the same age, measures 1 foot through, vertically, by about the same measurement horizontally. Both laburnum and thorn were removed two years since, in the course of some alterations, without causing the slightest apparent injury to their parasites. In October the green blossoms of the Loranthus are abundantly produced, yielding a very delicate perfume; the yellow drupe is a favourite bird food.
Tupeia antarctica, Cham. and Schl. By the sea shore, in some places about Port Cooper, dense clusters or bushes of this pale green parasite may be observed, perhaps more frequently on trees of Panax Colensoi than on any other shrub; however, it is now and then to be met with growing on Loranthus micranthus; it is later in its season of flowering than that Loranthus; the berry is green, afterwards white, and at last changes to a rosy hue.
We have ten or twelve species of Coprosma under cultivation, of which one of the most hardy and interesting is the new sub-alpine species C. seratulus, Hook., which has been added to our flora by Dr. Hector since the publication of the Handbook.
Coprosma lucida, Forst. A small tree or shrub, with bright shining very dark leaves, well adapted for a screen; it bears close pruning; tolerably hardy. Flowers in October.
Coprosma Baureiana, Endl. This handsome native, flourishing by the sea shore, is conspicuous from its recurved bright leaves showing their paler under surface. It is moderately hardy.
Coprosma robusta, Raoul. Well known as the Karamu, this common plant is invaluable as shelter for the shrubbery or plantation; it is fast-growing; like the rest of the family its blossom is very unattractive, but when in fruit, with its crowded clusters of yellow-red berries, is a beautiful object. We have found a variety of C. robusta bearing equally crowded clusters of drupes, of the same size and shape precisely, but of pearly whiteness.
Olearia Colensoi, Hook. A very handsome shrub, of great natural hardiness; may be found growing in Arthur's Pass abundantly. Its foliage is striking; its oblong very coriaceous leaves of bright green above, with the under surface covered with buffy tomentum, are serrated, bearing a large next a small tooth, in regular alternation. Its dense habit of growth must render it a valuable acquisition to the shrubbery.
Olearia nitida, Hook. f. A very stiff-growing shrub or tree; leaves coriaceous, with silvery tomentum on the under surface; the large corymbs of almost white blossoms are very fragrant. It is one of our hardiest species; easily propagated by cuttings.
Olearia dentata, Hook. f. A fine shrub with handsome toothed leaves, which, on being rubbed, yield a musky odour; it is easily propagated by cuttings. We have not seen plants of this species equal in size some specimens of O. ilicifolia; the bark is not so dark as in that species. We do not think this species and O. ilicifolia so very closely allied.
Olearia Traversii, Muell. This well known species, from the Chatham Islands, grows freely, but takes many years to flower; a specimen that has been in the border ten years, has not yet exhibited any blossom. It strikes from cuttings if they are placed in a shady spot.
Olearia ilicifolia, Hook. f. In some places this stiff-growing shrub reaches the dimensions of a tree; its dull green long narrow leaves, waved at the edges, give out an aromatic scent on being rubbed; its corymbs of whitish blossoms are very fragrant; it bears pruning well. Unlike O. dentata, which strikes so freely, this Olearia is most difficult to propagate by cuttings.
Olearia Cunninghamii, Hook. f. A fine foliaged plant with long lanceolate leaves, carried much after the same manner as those of a well grown Drimys. Our specimens, procured from the neighbourhood of Wellington, are sufficiently hardy to withstand the winter without injury.
Olearia moschata, Hook. f. A small foliaged compact-growing alpine shrub, with under surface of the leaves remarkably tomentose. We cannot perceive the appropriateness of moschata, as applied to this species when cultivated, in
which state we have been unable to detect any musky odour either in the flower or leaf. When growing in its native habitat, it however possesses this odour in a marked degree. Very hardy. We have procured specimens from a locality a few miles below the Rangitata glacier. It grows from cuttings most freely.
Olearia nummularifolia, Hook. f. A very erect-growing shrub with small obtuse leaves; exceedingly hardy; it is a most desirable acquisition for the front row of the shrubbery. Grows well from cuttings.
Olearia cymbifolia. Found in abundance on the spurs of Mt. Potts; its habit is very similar to that of the preceding species; its hard coriaceous leaves are so extremely recurved that the margins nearly meet; the flower heads are not solitary, as in O. nummularifolia, neither does it strike so readily from cuttings as that species. Another variety, from the River Clyde, has larger leaves than either of these two species, with flowers as in O. cymbifolia, but with leaves less recurved; it is propagated by cuttings more readily than that species.
Olearia Forsteri, Hook. f. A very common shrub about Banks' Peninsula; capital shrub for shelter; it lasts in blossom during the midsummer months, giving out a powerful fragrance; the flowers attract multitudes of Lepidopterœ. Its leaves are subject to attacks from insects. It can be propagated by cuttings, but young seedlings can always be found in abundance in any bush where the species is found growing.
Olearia avicenniœfolia, Hook. f. A mountain shrub, less densely foliaged than many other species; it is very hardy, and may be usefully planted as shelter in the bleakest spots. Its whitish flowers are fragrant. Freely grows from cuttings, but abundance of young plants can be obtained, as in the case of O. Forsteri.
Olearia virgata, Hook. f. A somewhat straggling shrub, with extremely narrow leaves; its creamy white blossom gives out a fragrant scent. We possess at least two varieties of this species.
Olearia Solandri, Hook. f. A very common shrub on the hills about Wellington Harbour; it is of upright growth, rather formal in appearance.
The whole family of Oleariœ flourish under ordinary cultivation in almost any soil; they are useful for shelter, as the majority of the species are most hardy; they are easily raised from seed, can be transplanted without trouble, and, with the exception perhaps of O. ilicifolia, are readily propagated from cuttings. The blossoms diffuse a powerful odour.
Cassinia retorta, Cunn. A small-leaved dense-growing shrub, with under surface of leaf tomentose; very common about Port Nicholson. From its silvery appearance is valuable for contrast in planting.
Cassinia leptophylla, Br. One of the commonest river-bed shrubs, too frequently met with to be held in much esteem. In habit of growth it closely
resembles C. retorta. Its general colour is dull yellowish brown. Flowers in December.
Cassinia fulvida, Hook. f. Is extensively distributed amongst the hills; general colour brownish green. Flowers in December.
Cassinia Vauvilliersii, Hook. f. Handsomest foliaged plant amongst the Cassinœ. Our specimens were obtained from the Otira Gorge, but it is generally distributed over the low hills. Colour deep dark green; leaf slightly recurved. Flowers in December and January.
All the Cassiniœ are hardy, grow well in light soil, thrive in any aspect, can be propagated by cuttings or transplanted easily. Perhaps, owing to the attacks of insects on the seeds, we never find seedlings, although the various species have been grown and flowered here for several years.
Ozothamnus glomeratus, Hook. f. This singular looking shrub is no unfrequently met with on the hills. It grows into a dense bush, the slender drooping branches with woolly points being very much interlaced. General colour a bronzy green.
Ozothamnus microphyllus, Hook. f. A depressed alpine shrub, with bright green leaves closely imbricate; the branches covered with white tomentum give the plant a variegated appearance; it is most suitable for rockwork. Both species are hardy, easily cultivated in any ordinary soil.
Raoulia eximia, Hook. f. The “Vegetable Sheep.” We have tried for some time to acclimatize this curious alpine, but cannot make any encouraging statement as to successful treatment; the specimens still alive do not look flourishing.
Senecio glastifolius, Hook. f. Found plentifully about Port Nicholson; dark green foliaged shrub; grows freely in a sheltered place. Flowers in September.
Senecio sciadophilus, Raoul. This very slender climbing shrub may be found about the bays in Port Cooper. It appears to delight in shady nooks, and may be observed completely covering small trees or shrubs; it blossoms very late, as its yellow flowers may be noticed in June and July.
Senecio elœagnifolius, Hook. f. An alpine shrub of very robust habit and fine foliage; deep green leaves with creamy white tomentum on the under surface; it grows freely, and is hardy enough for any situation. Flowers in February and March. Strikes from cuttings, but not freely.
Senecio Bidwillii, Hook. f. A small slow-growing alpine, with very coriaceous foliage. We have specimens from Arthur's Pass and from above the Rangitata Gorge. It bears transplanting well, and strikes freely from cuttings. An excellent plant for rockwork.
Senecio cassinioides, Hook. f. A slow-growing thickly-foliaged alpine, with small imbricate leaves. It flowers in February and March, its yellow blossoms yielding an agreeable scent, as also do the branches on being rubbed. It is
easily propagated by cuttings, and can be transplanted safely. Like the preceding species, it is hardy enough for any aspect, perhaps the cooler the better.
Brachyglottis repanda, Forst. The well known Pukapuka grows best near the sea, and may be observed in the greatest abundance about Port Nicholson. It is cultivated without any trouble; here it requires some attention to shelter; its large panicles of scented flowers blossom in September and October.
Gaultheria antipoda, Forst. A small prostrate shrub with white flowers, abundant on the Malvern Hills.
Gaultheria rupestris, Br. A shrubby coriaceous-foliaged plant of compact habit; grows freely; suitable for rockwork.
Two other Gaultheriœ are very distinct; one, of prostrate habit, bears a round white flower, which is eaten, under the name of “chuckiechuck.”
Cyothodes acerosa, Br. A very beautiful shrub, with bright green acerose leaves glaucous underneath. The flowers are creamy white, bell-shaped, very small; the drupe is sometimes coral red, sometimes snow white. The plant is not at all uncommon about the outskirts of the bush. We have noticed that it is a difficult species to remove safely. Like many other natives, the beautiful colour of the shrub depends much on the situation in which it is grown.
Leucopogon fasciculatus, Rich. We have known this shrub mistaken forLeptospermum ericoides, to which its foliage bears some resemblance. It bears small creamy flowers; the fruit an orange red drupe. Grows well from seed.
Dracophyllum longifolium, Br. Generally distributed through the hilly country. The singular-looking Grass-tree deserves a place in the shrubbery, if only for the contrast afforded by its grassy-looking brownish green foliage. It is hardy, but of slow growth.
Dracophyllum rosmarinifolium, Forst. An alpine, with reddish lineate leaves stiffer than those of the preceding species; very slow growing, and requires attention as to shade and shelter after removal till new roots are formed. Like many other hard-wooded plants, it prefers an admixture of peat and sand.
Mrysine salicina, Heward. Specimens obtained from Port Nicholson are sufficiently hardy to withstand the severities of our southern winter. Its long linear leaf gives a conspicuous appearance to the foliage of this species.
Myrsine Urvillei. Has a very extensive range from the sea beach to a considerable altitude in the mountain ranges. From its hardiness and compact form of growth, it is admirably adapted for a sheltering screen. It can be removed with safety when of a large size.
Parsonsia albiflora, Raoul. An elegant climber, with fine foliage of long lanceolate coriaceous leaves; it bears panicles of white scented flowers in spring, quite one of the ornaments of the bushy gullies.
Parsonsia rosea, Raoul. In every way more slender than P. albiflora; its blossoms have a rosy tint. Flowers in December.
Solanum aviculare, Forst. A very common shrub, with dark green foliage and purplish flower; berry orange coloured, edible. Its usefulness as a sheltering plant or nurse for young trees should be mentioned. It is grown from seed without the least trouble; not very hardy, but its usefulness as a nurse-plant, from the rapidity of its growth, can scarcely be overvalued by the planter of exotic Coniferœ or any young shrubs or trees requiring shelter.
Veronica Dieffenbachii, Benth. This species, from its drooping habit, spreads over a large space of ground in proportion to its height. Our experience leads us to conclude this plant is a shy bloomer; it is easily propagated by cuttings; it thrives well in a light sandy soil.
Veronica macroura, Hook. f. This free-growing species is valuable from its thriving by the sea side.
Veronica salicifolia, Forst. This shrub is familiarly known in this district and throughout the province as Koromiko; it is so universally met with that its claims for cultivation as an ornamental plant are not sufficiently recognized. Flowers throughout the summer.
Veronica ligustrifolia, Cunn. Although we have not flowered this species, young plants obtained from Port Nicholson are growing well under ordinary cultivation.
Veronica Traversii, Hook. f. This species heads an important group of the family; it has a very extensive distribution from the coast line to the Southern Alps. Hardy and of excellent habit, any ordinary soil appears to suit it. We have a very distinct sub-alpine variety, obtained from the rocky banks of a creek in the Ashburton District; it is dwarf in habit, from 2 to 3 feet in height, of spreading form; the leaves large, very coriaceous; flowers abundant; cuttings require a longer time than most other species to form good roots. When better known, perhaps this shrub may be allowed the honours of a distinct species.
Veronica vernicosa, Hook. f. One of the most desirable of the alpine shrubs, whether we consider its compact habit, fine colour, or the readiness with which it submits to, and improves under, cultivation. We have a very distinct variety from the Upper Ashburton District, which is of a dwarfer and less compact form than the plant commonly known by this name; it produces flowers
frequently, throughout the year; before expausion of the petals, the buds exhibit a pinkish tinge; it grows from cuttings readily, and bears abundance of good seed; it thrives in any soil not too dry, and is hardy enough to withstand the cold blast of the bitterest south-wester.
Veronica elliptica, Forst. One of the native plants that is known to have been cultivated in England for some years; it is even mentioned in Paxton's Botanical Dictionary. It is often to be observed in gardens and shrubberies, not very hardy perhaps, as its habitat naturally is in sheltered positions near the sea. Its pale lilac-tinged blossoms exhale a delicate perfume. From cuttings it is propagated almost as easily as the willow. It blooms in November.
Veronica diosmœfolia, R. Cunn. This beautiful shrub, said to have been brought from the Bay of Islands, bears such an abundance of lovely white blossoms as should ensure it a sheltered place in every shrubbery.
Veronica Colensoi, Hook. f. This close-growing species attains a height of 3 or 4 feet, with an even rotundity of form that appears almost artificial. It is common in sub-alpine districts. Hooker states it to be variable, and difficult to distinguish from V. lœvis and V. Traversii; we have long remarked variations both in form and colour of the leaf, and also that some individual specimens are much shyer bloomers than others. It will thrive in any ordinary soil, and is hardy enough for any aspect; it should have plenty of air. A variety of this kind we have seen planted for edgings.
Veronica lœvis, Benth. The species we know as V. lœvis, differs from Hooker's description in that the leaves are without petioles. It does not thrive well in very dry soil.
Veronica buxifolia, Benth. Our specimens, obtained from the Westland side of Arthur's Pass, are of dwarf habit, 2 to 3 feet in height; the white flowers, produced abundantly in short racemes at the points of the branchlets, bloom in October. Hardy; it grows well from cuttings.
Veronica carnosula, Hook. f. Native of the Dun Mountain Range. At first glance its leaves appear somewhat to resemble those of V. elliptica, but are coriaceous and rounded at the point; its habit is much like that of V. buxifolia. It flowers in November. Hardy; it is easily propagated by cuttings.
Veronica pinguifolia, Hook. f. We have cultivated this shrub for many years. The peculiar glaucous colour of this decumbent species, affords a pleasing contrast to many others in the shrubbery. Its habit is pleasing and it blooms freely in any situation, and is not easily lost if once obtained as its lower branches are often found self-rooted.
Veronica pimeleoides, Hook. f. A small shrubby species with a delicate shade of glaucous green; its pretty blue flowers make it a desirable plant for the front of a border or for rockwork. It grows well from cuttings, but must not be planted in a very wet situation.
Veronica pimeleoides, minor. Our specimens of this pretty species were procured from the shingle beds of the Potts River. It is of prostrate habit, sending out rootlets from its trailing branches; the flower, larger than that of the preceding species, is blue; it blooms in November. It is propagated by division; light soil, even if rather sandy, appears best suited to its growth. It is admirably adapted for rockwork.
Veronica lycopodioides, Hook. f. This remarkable looking shrub commences another group of Alpine Veronicas. Nowhere, perhaps, is it to be found in greater abundance than near the swampy creeks that intersect the spurs of Mt. Potts, at an elevation of from 3000 to 4000 feet. It may be said to grow about 2 feet in height, although we have seen specimens of nearly double that measurement. In its young state, with its densely imbricated leaves, it presents a dark green velvety appearance. It flowers in November. It differs from most other species in preferring a deep peaty soil, where it can always obtain a certain amount of moisture; it is most difficult to strike from cuttings, but can be propagated by layers.
Veronica tetrasticha, Hook. f. Quite a fairy-like alpine; although in its native localities amongst crevices of rocks it may be termed decumbent, when growing on a plane surface its habit becomes erect; it is of such slow growth, that a plant which has blossomed for two or three years, has not yet attained 3 inches in height; its peculiarly tinted foliage of silvery green is densely imbricate; its small flowers appear in November; excellent for rockwork; it may be propagated by division.
Veronica Hectori, Hook. f. This much-branched brown-looking alpine, is of upright growth; leaves closely imbricate; above the gorge of the Ashburton there are specimens from 3 to 4 feet in height; very hardy; it grows most freely from cuttings. Flowering season, November.
Veronica salicornioides, Hook. f. A small much-branched alpine, with leaves densely imbricate; colour greenish brown; no specimen has flowered here as yet; it has been cultivated since 1864. Young plants are readily obtained from the lower self-rooted branches.
Veronica cupressoides. The best coloured plant amongst this group of Alpine Veronicas, its fresh deep green foliage and compact shape render it a fitting object either for the shrubbery, or for rockwork, or any place not under trees; it can be moved with safety when of large size; it may be propagated by cuttings, or young plants can be obtained from the lower self-rooted branches.
Veronica Haastii, Hook. f. One of the most curious of the alpine species; it is found on the shingly slips of the Southern Alps. We find this plant difficult to grow, and still more difficult to propagate; we have raised it from seed; in transplanting care must be observed. It flowers in August and September. Light soil most suitable.
Veronica epacridea, Hook. f. This plant bears some resemblance to the last species, but is of very different habit; we have observed on a shingle spit, patches covering many square yards. It flowers in September and October. This prostrate species is well adapted for rockwork; it is easily propagated from cuttings, and is moved without difficulty; light soil most suitable.
Veronica macrantha, Hook. f. Our specimens of this stiff erect-growing shrub were obtained on the mountain's side, several hundred feet above the River Clyde. It is easily grown from cuttings.
Veronica Hulkeana, Muell. This is a fine foliaged species, for which space should be found in a front row of the shrubbery.
Veronica Lavaudiana, Raoul. This shrub is about the best plant that is to be found on the Lyttelton Hills; brownish green foliage, with decumbent self- rooting branches; it is easily propagated, although it does not freely strike from cuttings. Its handsome spikes of bluish white blossoms rival, if they do not surpass in beauty, those of any other native plant in the district.
Veronica Raoulii, Hook. f. More erect-growing than the preceding species; it enjoys a wide distribution; flowers are light mauve colour. This shrub, like the three preceding it, does well in any ordinary soil, without any particular attention being necessary for its cultivation.
Veronica linifolia, Hook. f. This procumbent herbaceous species may be found about the Rangitata; it bears a pretty whitish flower, requires a shady moist situation, and is propagated by division and seed.
Veronica Lyallii, Hook. f. A prostrate-growing species from the River Clyde, with whitish flower; propagated by division or cuttings; thrives in lightish soil, rather moist.
Veronica Bidwillii, Hook. This prostrate species bears a close resemblance to the preceding species. Our specimens were obtained above the gorge of the Ashburton and bear rose-coloulred flowers; succeeds under similar treatment to that recommended for the two preceding species.
Vitex littoralis, Cunn. We have never seen the Puriri, or New Zealand Teak, growing in Canterbury; as yet, our efforts to acclimatize this valuable tree have been unsuccessful, the winter being too severe. In Mr. Ludlam's beautiful garden, at the Hutt, a fine specimen may be observed growing luxuriantly; we have had the pleasure of seeing it there both in flower and fruit. It appears to require a warm sheltered situation, with moist soil; it is propagated by cuttings easily.
Teucridium parvifolium, Hook. f. A twiggy shrub of very dwarf habit, which may be found commonly growing about Banks' Peninsula; this plant may be trimmed very close; it is suitable for dwarf edgings; flowering season
in November and December. Any rather dry soil suits it, but it appears to thrive best on a slope or rocky hill-side; can be removed easily.
Myoporum lœtum, Forst. A shore-loving tree or shrub; its rapid growth and handsome foliage render it valuable for screening the nursery of young trees or shelter of almost any kind, but it is not sufficiently hardy to encounter very severe frosts without injury; it bears pruning well; if neglected in this respect its robust habit quickly changes the densely-foliaged shrub into a tree, with its lower part furnished with lateral twigs, the bareness of which detract from its beauty; it may be headed to within a few inches of the ground; in transplanting, a dull day should be chosen for the purpose, as the young plants are apt to flag. Its pale flowers are succeeded by a purple drupe; it is subject to scale.
Muhlenbeckia adpressa, Lab. A fast-growing twining climber, its rambling habit covers a considerable space; its foliage of bright green cordate leaves may be found useful for concealing some shabby object or unsightly corner; its spikes of blossoms are very pretty and graceful, they may be observed during several months of summer; rather damp soil most suitable.
Nesodaphne Taraire, Hook. f. Small plants obtained from the neighbourhood of Wellington appear to thrive very well. In a report furnished to the House of Representatives, 1869, N. Tawa is alleged to be found in Oxford Bush, in this province.
Atherosperma Novœ Zelandiœ, Hook. f. Small plants of this fine tree look thriving.
Hedycarya dentata, Forst. This beautiful evergreen shrub is sometimes called the Holly, from its deep green glabrous foliage and abundant clusters of red berries; from the character of its roots, not unlike those of Drimys, it can be removed with safety if ordinary care be taken; although found in sheltered spots, it flourishes with a south-west aspect.
Knightia excelsa. Small plants of this lofty tree are thriving.
Pimelea Traversii, Hook. f. Our specimens of this dwarf glabrous-leafed alpine were obtained some distance above the Rangitata Gorge; it is erect in habit, bears pinkish white flowers; it thrives in stiff clay soil, and it is very difficult to remove without injury; it is readily raised from seed.
Pimelea prostrata, Vahl. Common amongst the Malvern Hills; of prostrate
habit; its trailing branches somewhat radiate; its creamy white flowers are fragrant, and succeeded by greenish white fruit; it does well in stiff soil; from its long tap root it is difficult to remove with safety.
Fagus Menziesii, Hook. f. As is well known, the Fagus family occupy one of the most important positions amongst the forest trees of the Middle Island; not unlike the kauri in respect of being gregarious, whole bushes may be observed composed almost wholly of Fagus. Four species are recognized by botanists; these are known to settlers by the names of Black, White, or Red Birch, not Beech, which would be their more correct designation. Specimens of F. Menziesii, obtained from the head waters of the Rakaia, are making fair growth.
Fagus fusca, Hook. f. Not very common in Banks' Peninsula. Young plants look well.
Fagus Solandri, Hook. f. In some few places on Banks' Peninsula this well known tree may yet be found growing to a large size; some we measured were 14 feet in circumference.
Fagus Cliffortioides, Hook. f. The Black Birch of the Malvern Hills, etc.
All the Fagi grow well in rather strong soil, can be easily removed, and grow freely from seed; they are hardy, and their foliage forms a capital contrast in shrubberies and plantations.
Piper excelsum, Forst. An aromatic shrub with bright green cordate leaves, the fruit a long-shaped yellow berry. This plant requires a sheltered and rather moist situation; it is well worthy of cultivation; it can be removed without difficulty.
The conditions necessary to the successful cultivation of New Zealand Coniferœ differ much from those which mark the usual routine of fine culture; a certain degree of moist shade and shelter is requisite; that this is absolutely necessary anyone can ascertain who will take the trouble of observing the natural habits of the various species, and the peculiar conditions attending the growth of young plants. As an instance, the group of Podocarpi may be mentioned, the seedlings and young plants are mostly to be found growing under the moist shelter of a variety of shrubby undergrowth, of which the Ngaio frequently forms a large proportion; here they may be said to hide themselves, as it were, from the cold blasts of winter and the scorching rays of the noontide sun in summer time, presenting lively green shades of foliage, seldom, if ever, to be met with in an open exposure. In one word, if our native Conifer are treated in the same manner under which exotic pines flourish, the result will be disappointment and perhaps disgust, as the number
of casualties are enumerated, the occurrence of which might be fairly attributed to drying off.
Dammara australis, Lambert. This noble tree is, par excellence, the Queen of the New Zealand forests, as it has been aptly termed. In this southern latitude, as yet, we have been unable to acclimatize it successfully; it is of slow growth even at the Hutt; we imagine that judging from the extreme localization of this magnificent Conifer, its cultivation is attended with difficulty; probably certain incidents of soil, shelter, and aspect, are indispensable to success. According to Paxton, the Kauri reaches the height of 400 feet.
Libocedrus Doniana, Endl. This beautiful Conifer may still be found in Banks' Peninsula, though rare; in the Otira Gorge it may be found in great numbers; young plants can be removed safely, but require shade and shelter; some are growing here in quite exposed situations, but it should be noted that numbers have died from want of shelter; the handsome foliage of this Conifer (not very unlike that of Arbor vitœ) will repay the grower for extra care and attention; rich soil, not too wet, appears most suitable.
Libocedrus Bidwillii, Hook. We have observed some fine specimens growing on Mounts Sinclair and Fitzgerald; in its habit of growth it preserves a rounder form than that of the preceding species.
Podocarpus ferruginea, Don. This excellent timber tree, called the Miro, seems to flourish both in valleys and on hill-sides; shade and shelter is requisite for young plants; soil, if moist, must not be absolutely wet.
Podocarpus nivalis, Hook. f. One of the hardy inhabitants of the Southern Alps, where it may be observed battling successfully with a rigorous climate; we have rarely noticed it with a straight stem; plants of this slow-growing species are greener in foliage than specimens of P. Totara, the leaf also is much shorter; however hardy its constitution may be, young plants require shelter; they may be transplanted safely without much trouble.
Podocarpus Totara, A. Cunn. Well known as one of the most valuable of the forest trees of the country. This species does well, and makes rapid growth under cultivation; it may be transplanted without difficulty, can be propagated by cuttings, for which purpose care should be taken to select slips from leading shoots. A variety of Totara has broader leaves, thinner bark, and wood which is said by bushmen to be of tougher quality.
Podocarpus spicata, Br. Mai or Mataii, the well known Black Pine, which settlers find useful for so many purposes. Robust as the tree becomes in its adult state, we have experienced great difficulty in cultivating young plants; without shade or shelter it seems an almost hopeless undertaking.
Podocarpus dacrydioides, Rich. Kahikatea, or White Pine, luxuriates in deep alluvial soil in shady situations; if exposed, the foliage exchanges its green hue for dull brown tints; in a dry position its growth is exceedingly slow; can be removed with safety; grows well from seed.
Dacrydium cupressinum, Soland. The graceful drooping foliage of the Rimu is, perhaps, unsurpassed in beauty by that of any other native Conifer; it requires a moist and rather sandy soil, with abundance of shelter; it should be removed carefully, in order that the rootlets may not become too dry.
Dacrydium Colensoi, Hook. In very exposed positions this tree or shrub maintains a dense habit of growth, perhaps 6 to 10 feet in height; in more favoured situations it approaches the dimensions of a fair-sized tree.
Phyllocladus trichomanoides, Don. This singular looking North Island pine grows freely; it merits a place in plantations of forest trees from the contrast it affords by its curious purplish-tinged foliage.
Phyllocladus alpinus, Hook. f. In its native state it withstands the rigour of most inclement winter seasons; its close growth, conical form, and the silvery appearance of its foliage, make this species a most interesting object when seen amongst the rocks of its rugged mountain home. It is slow growing; may be removed without difficulty; can be propagated by cuttings, or may be increased by layers.
Rhipogonum scandens, Forst. This obstructive climber, which so often delays the progress of the wanderer through the bush, is not unattractive with its dark coriaceous foliage and clusters of scarlet berries; excellent baskets can be manufactured from its stems, also handsome walking canes that would be prized in Europe; we believe there is no better material for ships' fenders than is supplied by the stems of the Supple-jack.
Cordyline australis, Hook. f. The Ti Palm, or Cabbage Tree, is too well known to need description; as a screen hedge it affords excellent shelter; grows freely and rapidly; can be transplanted without any difficulty; its huge spikes of flowers are very fragrant, and might be made to yield a valuable perfume; it delights in rich soil; its presence is said to indicate moisture.
Cordyline indivisa, Kunth. This Cordyline, generally about 10 to 12 feet in height when it is met with on Banks' Peninsula, yet specimens are occasionally observed reaching from 20 to 25 feet; grows well in fair soil, but is liable to die off in its young state if not well attended to; it requires plenty of room and air.
Cordyline, sp. The Titawhiti, of the Whanganui tribes, grows here very well; it has a dark green leaf, and throws off young plants more freely than some of the other species.
Phormium tenax, Forst. The cultivation of native Flax has already been so often dwelt upon, that any remarks on the subject must be quite unnecessary, more especially as the whole subject has been exhaustively treated by the Report of the Flax Commission. A variegated variety, differing somewhat from any other with which we are acquainted, was found growing near the beach in Port Cooper.