Art. XIV.—On Barata Numerals.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 22nd July, 1872.]
The great insular languages of the Torrid Zone I have shown in a previous paper* to have been originally derived from an archaic negro race occupying the peninsula of Hindostan, anciently termed the country of Barata. The language of this archaic negro race was there shown to have extended from Madagascar to Easter Island. As I have, since I wrote the former paper, had an opportunity of comparing the numerals of thirty-four off-shoots of the above archaic and wonderfully expansive race, I now beg to submit to our Society the remarks and observations that have occurred to me, and from which I derive certain conclusions, which will have the weight due only to the very narrow limits of inquiry and imperfect materials available to me.
Taking the aboriginal numerals of New Zealand, viz., the Maori, as the basis of our comparisons, it will be found, on referring to the annexed table (see p. 137) that this basis would equally serve for any or all of the great Polynesian groups, their numerals being radically the same with the above, such as the Cocos, Friendly, Society, Marquesas, and Sandwich Islands, even to the remote Easter Island. Comparing the numerals of that remote and distantly disjoined island at the westerly extreme of expansion of the great Barata race, viz., Madagascar, the curious fact will appear that out of the ten numerals only one is dissimilar, and only so far as the dissimilarity consists in a convertible consonant; the root of the numeral “one,” in which the sole dissimilarity takes place, being in Maori, ta (tahai); dagger; Malagasi, sa (essa); and it will be seen in comparing this numeral in the intermediate races of the Eastern Archipelago and adjacent groups that this dissimilarity equally obtains, some races adopting the dental pronunciation of the Maori, others the sibilant pronunciation of the Malagasi. Thus, in the first essay to count, one of the most distant and important races of the human family has been divided at centre and extremes.
[Footnote] * See Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. V., Art. I., p. 23.
[Footnote] † As phonography differs in various parts of New Zealand, I carefully weighed the question of spelling the Maori numerals, and decided on the forms here used as affording the best illustrations for my paper. The usual spelling, as given in Williams dietionary, is as follows:—tahi, one; rua, two; toru, three; wha, four; rima, five; ono, Six; whitu, seven; waru, eight; iwa, nine; ngahuru, ten; tekau, eleven.
As an illustration of the above facts, quotations are given in the following table from various vocabularies:—
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
|Tika||New Guinea (coast).|
|Taci||Isle of Cocos.|
|A Tahau||Friendly Islands.|
|Ko Tahe||Easter Island.|
|Essa or isso||Malagasi.|
|Sa or satu||Malay.|
|Osu||Papua (New Guinea.)|
Some of the races have a radically different numeral, such as ji, Kayan (Borneo); hijee, Prince's Island (Sunda); sigi, Java; kaou, Isle of Moses; parai, New Caledonia, etc.
The numeral “two” is expressed by a word radically the same by all the Barata races; the following of which are examples, showing their variations, such as:—rua, Maori; rua, Malagasi; dua, Malay; lorou, Java; dalova, Tagala; o'looa, Ceram; wa roo, New Caledonia; looa, Friendly Islands; E rooa, Otaheite; bo hooa, Marquesas. Divergence from the above rule is limited, and of which the following are examples:—Etji, Vialo (Timor); woror, Kissa; bore Tenimbar.
The numeral “three” is radically similar in all the races, with the exception of Malay and some in Melanesia and the Timor group, as the following examples will demonstrate:—torou, Maori; tulloo, Malagasi; tloo, Acheen; tulloo, Lampong; toloo, Batta; tellou, Rejang; tallu, Prince's Island; tullu, Java; ytlo, Tagala; atlo, Papango; tulu, Mindanao; tulloa, Savu; o toloo, Ceram; toloa, Isle of Moses; tolu, New Guinea (coast); tolou, Horn Islands; tulou, Isle of Cocos; toloo, Friendly Islands; tooroa, Island of Amsterdam; torhoa, Society and Sandwich Islands; toroo, Otaheite; a toroa, Marquesas; toroo, Easter Island
Examples of radical divergences are as follows:—tiga, Malay; kior, Papua; wat een, New Caledonia; ekei, Malicolo; ka har, Tanna; utue, Vialo; wokil, Kissa; lasi, Arru, etc
The numeral “four” has wider acceptance than the numeral three, being similarly expressed by all races, excepting two in Papuanesia and three in the Timor group. The following are examples of the form of expression in its variations:—t'fa, Maori; efar, Malagasi; ampat, Malay; paat, Acheen; ampah, Lampong; oput, Batta; m'pat, Rejang; opat, Prince's Island; pappat, Java; apat, Tagala; apat, Papango; apat, Mindanao; uppu, Savu; opatoo, Ceram; wati, Isle of Moses; patta, New Guinea (coast); ebats, Malicolo;
ka fa, Tanna; d'fa, Horn Islands; fa, Isle of Cocos; t'fa, Friendly Islands; a'faa, Amsterdam Island; ha, Otaheite and Sandwich Islands; a faa, Marquesas; fa, Easter Island; pat, Kayan (Borneo), etc.
Examples of radical divergences are as follows:—tiak, Papua (New Guinea); par bai, New Caledonia; wo ahka, Kissa; ka, Arru, etc.
By reference to the table the number “five” will be seen to have the most extensive diffusion of any in a radically similar expression, there being only one exception to this. The following are examples of the above numeral:— reema, Maori; limi, Malagasi; lima, Malay; lumung, Acheen; leema, Lampong; leemah, Batta; lema, Rejang; limah, Prince's Island; limo, Java; lima, Tagala; lima, Papango; lima, Mindanao; lumee, Savu; o leema, Ceram; rima, Isle of Moses; lima, New Guinea (coast); rim, Papua; wan nim, New Caledonia; e reem, Malicolo; ku rirrom, Tannah; lima, Horn Islands; lima, Isle of Cocos; neema, Friendly Islands; neema, Amsterdam Island; h lemi, Sandwich and Society Islands; a aeema,. Marquesas; reema, Easter Island; lima, Rotti; limi, Vialo; walima, Kissa; wa lima, Tenimbar; au lim, Keh; lima, Arru, etc. The sole exception is in Coepang, ni being the expression.
The number “six” is another of the most widely diffused under a similar expression. The common form with variations will be seen to be as follows:—oné, Maori; oné, Malagasi; anam, Malay; annam, Lampong; onam, Batta; noom, Rejang; num, Acheen; anim, Tagala; anam, Papango; anom, Mindanao; unna, Savu; eno, Isle of Moses; onim, Papua; houno, Isle of Cocos; vano, Friendly Islands, whaine, Sandwich and Society Islands; a ono, Marquesas; honoo, Easter Island; anam, Kayan; wanam, Kissa; walem, Tenimbar; annam, Keh. The radical exceptions are gunnap, Prince's Island; o loma, Ceram; houw, Horn Islands; ne, Rotti, etc.
The Maori expression for “seven” is not so generally diffused as that for six, yet it, with its variations, is the general rule among the Barata races. The following are examples:—wheetoo, Maori; feetoo, Malagasi; peetoo, Lampong; paitoo, Batta; petu, Java; pito, Tagala; pitu, Papango; petoo, Mindanao; petoo, Savu; o peeto, Ceram; fitu, New Guinea; fitou, Isle of Cocos; fidda, Friendly Islands; hitoo, Sandwich and Society Islands; a wheetoo, Marquesas; heedoo, Easter Island; hitu, Rotti; hi it, Coepang.
The radical exceptions are:—tudju, Malay; toojoo, Acheen; toojoo, Rejang; tudju, Prince's Island; tik, Papua; tusyu, Kayan; wo iko, Kissa; wa ite, Tenimbar; au fit, Keh; duhem, Arru.
To the Maori expression for “eight,” the same remarks apply as to seven, as may be seen by the following examples:—warou, Maori; varlo, Malagasi; ovalloo, Lampong; ovalloa, Batta; wolo, Java; valo, Tagala; valo, Papango; walu, Mindanao; arvo, Savu; o aloo, Ceram; wala, New Guinea; war, Papua; walou, Island of Cocos; varoo, Friendly Islands; wallhoa, Sandwich and
Society Islands; a waoo, Marquesas; varoo, Easter Island; falu, Rotti; fa'au, Coepang, etc.
The radical exceptions are:—delapan, Malay; d'luppan, Acheen; delapoon, Rejang; delapan, Prince's Island; saya, Kayan; kafar, Vialo; wo ah, Kissa; karua, Arru, etc.
There is the same degree of accordance in the expression of the numeral “nine” that there is in seven and eight, as the following examples will show:—eeva, Maori; seeva, Malagasi; seewah, Lampong; seeah, Batta; siyam, Tagala; siam, Papango; seaow, Mindanao; saio, Savu; siwa, Isle of Moses; siwa, New Guinea; siou, Papua; yerou, Isle of Cocos; heeoa, Friendly Islands; iva, Society and Sandwich Islands; a eeva, Marquesas; heeva, Easter Island; siu, Rotti; seu, Coepang; siwa, Vialo; wa siawa, Tenimbar; au siu, Keh.
The exceptions are as follows:—sambilan, Malay; sa koorong, Acheen; sembilan, Rejang; salapun, Prince's Island; songo, Java; o teeo, Ceram; pitan, Kayan; wohi, Kissa; teri, Arru.
The number “ten” is nearly as common to all the Barata races as the numeral five, and it is only in the Timor group that radical differences take place, as will be seen from following examples:—Anga hourou, Maori; fooloo, Malagasi; sapuloo, Malay; saploo, Acheen; pooloo, Lampong; sapooloo, Batta, de pooloo, Rejang; sapoulo, Prince's Island; supoulo, Java; pulo, Tagala; apalo, Papango; san poulo, Mindanao; singooroo, Isle of Savu; o pooloo, Ceram; sanga poulo, Isle of Moses; sanga foula, New Guinea; on ge foula, Isle of Cocos; ango fooroo, Friendly Islands; houlhoa, Sandwich and Society Islands; whanna hoo, Marquesas; attu hooroo, Easter Island; sanga hulu, Rotti; pulo, Kayan.
The radical exceptions are:—ho es, Coepang; ta ana, Vialo; ita weli, Kissa; aluli, Tenimbar; wut, Keh, etc.
It will be seen that in numerals radically similar the variations have been principally caused by the conversion of sibilants, dentals, aspirates, and palatals into each other, or by the dropping of the whole, the vowel sounds remaining radically alike.
In the general view of the question, as elucidated by the facts before us, it will at once be observed that the numerals of the most distant races and the more remote interior and uncivilized tribes of the Eastern Archipelago are the most similar. Thus, admitting that the sibilant is convertible into the dental, as ta into sa, the Maori and great groups of far Eastern Polynesia have numerals identical with the great island of Madagascar. A remote race in the interior of the great island of Sumatra, viz., the Lampong, has numerals identical with Maori; while another in the same island, viz., the Batta, has numerals identical with the Malagasi—the former adopting the dental, the latter the sibilant. Again, the numerals of the principal races of the Philippines, viz.,
Tagala, Papango, and Mindanao, are identical with the Malagasi, which is also the case with the island of Savu, near Timor, and Dory, in New Guinea.
What do these facts, as far as they go, tend to prove? This; they serve as another proof to the theory that I have already advanced from other data, that one tropical race, a negro one, had in archaic times power and vitality to extend its off-shoots and language from the centre, i.e., Barata (ancient Hindostan) westward as far as Madagascar, and eastward as far as Easter Island; and that the most remote branches of the race should now speak languages more similar than those near the centre is consistent with what ethnological inquiry teaches us to have taken place in the Eastern Archipelago, viz., that the languages in that middle distance between the extremes of migration have been affected (though not radically) by the incursions of Arian, Thibetan, and other continental races.
It will thus be seen that the numerals of one archaic race have extended over 200° of longitude, a distance only surpassed by the transcendent efforts of the modern British, and as the Malay race has come in intimate comparison with their predecessors (the Barata) by their having occupied a portion of the middle distance, viz., between 100° and 140° of longitude, and though limited to 40°, or one-fifth of the space, yet, it being a very important part, some allusion is necessary to estimate the nature of their connection, if any exists. On reference to the table, it will be seen that of the ten numerals five only of the Malay are similar to the Maori, and six are similar to the Malagasi. This removes the Malay to the same distance from the archaic numerals, as those of the Timor and Arru groups, geographically connected rather with Australia than the Eastern Archipelago; such being the case the connection is but very distant.
Some of the ruder tribes, such as those of New Caledonia, Malicolo, and Tanna, will be seen to only count as far as five, and this, in prehistoric times, seems also to have been the case with the archaic Malay. Such was his crude advancement in the science of figures; so we may conclude that while the Malay was a rude savage in the interior of Sumatra, the Barata race occupied the Malacca Strait—the gate of Africa, India, and Polynesia—and advanced to the height of his power and expansion till the inroads of the Arian and Thibetan extruded him from his peninsular seat and eliminated his race and language from the country of his origin.
The first six numerals, excepting the third, will be seen to be almost identical in all the races of Madagascar, the Indian Archipelago, and Polynesia. In Malay the numeral three, or tiga, entirely differs from these, and the sixth may have been derived from the Barata term, which has been universally adopted by the adjacent tribes, viz., the Acheens, Lampongs, Battas, and
Rejangs. But the next three numerals, viz., seven, eight, and nine, in Malay, are not Barata, but of their own invention, adopted at a time when the rise and progress of the tribe demanded the addition, and the manner of invention may be explained as follows:—Seven is expressed by tudju, that means to point which act is done by the seventh, or forefinger of the right hand after the left had been counted. Eight is expressed by delapan, that is dua lapang, or two spaces between it and the last, or tenth, finger (the small finger of the right hand). That this is the correct interpretation is proved by another language in Sumatra, viz., that of Prince's Island, which uses the same term for eight and sa lapan for nine, that is one space between it and the last; while the Acheenese for the same numeral (nine) use sa korong, i.e.—one wanting. Nine is expressed in Malay by sambilan, i.e.—one count from the last. This idiom is common to the language, thus, for example, “half-past three” they express by saying “half of four o'clock.” Ten is expressed by the word sapulo, that is sa-ulo, or one end or head, the “p” being inserted for the sake of euphony, a very common practice in the Malay language.
Thus we see that of all the numerals in the table the Malay, in common with remote Timor, has borrowed least from the Barata tongue, and so far as the evidence goes, it has had little connection with the origin of the Polynesian languages, including that of New Zealand. This I adduce as another proof of the theory I have previously advanced on other data before this Society.
With the extinction of the Barata power there arose the Malayan influence, but which extended, in its most palmy days, only from Sumatra to Ternati. Its original seat in the highlands of Sumatra, viz., Menangkabau, by its fertility and temperate climate, was well fitted to develop a race superior in energy to those found on the sea boards and enervating plains of the Malayan Peninsula and adjacent districts. The proximity of the river outlets of Menangkabau to the Straits of Singapore, the key of eastern navigation, placed the Malay race (once developed into a nation) in a strategical position eminently superior to the only powerful nations that could come in contact with them, viz., the Siamese and Javanese. The whole basin of Malacca must be described as barren, so the region, while being the key to the Archipelago, can only be said to be fitted for trade or piratical adventure. In these pursuits we find, from native history, that the Malays competed with the Bugis over the length and breadth of the Archipelago, drawing down on themselves the intermittent wrath of the kings of Kalinga, Siam, and Java.
Marco Polo visited their capital, at that time fixed at Singapura (Singapore) in the year 1292, a valuable date, a desideratum of which native histories are entirely deficient, for by this we may estimate the chronology of
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
|Maori of New Zealand||Malay.||Malagasi.||Acheen.||Lampong.||Batta.||Rejang.||Prince's Island, Sunda.||Java.||Tagala.||Papango.||Mindanao.||Savu (Timor).||Ceram.||Isle of Moses.||Dory (New Guinea).||Papua (New Guinea).||New Caledonia.||Malicolo.||Tanna.||Horn Islands.||Cocos.||Friendly Islands.||Sandwich Islands.||Society Islands.||Marquesas.||Easter Islands.||Kayan (Borneo).||Rotti.||Coepang.||Vialo.||Kossa.||Tenimbar.||Keh.||Arru.|
|10. Anga Hourou||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|Numerals same as Maori||5||9||6||10||9||6||5||8||9||9||9||9||8||9||9||6||2||4||4||6||10||10||10||10||10||10||6||9||5||4||3||3||7||2|
concurrent, prior, or succeeding events. These I have sufficiently touched on in my former paper, and therefore need not do so here.
Thus I hope I have satisfactorily shown that the first ten numerals, in as far as their evidence is valuable, tend to prove the intimate connection that subsisted between an archaic race that spread over nearly two-thirds of the circumference of the globe—and in which expansion the Malay had no connection—but the ethnological phenomenon was due solely to the illustrious Barata.
For the native numerals I am indebted to the labours of Captain Cook, Windsor-Earle, and Burns.
Note.—Since the above was written I have had an opportunity of perusing the vocabulary of numerals given at the end of Mr. Wallace's admirable work on the Malay Archipelago. The vocabulary is confined principally to the Molucca and adjacent groups, and is entirely confirmatory of my previous observations.
The vocabulary is of thirty-three languages or dialects, and in regard to the numeral one, 23 belong to the archaic Barata; of the numeral two, 29; three, 27; four, 30; five, 31; six, 28; seven, 28; eight, 21; nine, 27; ten, 14.
It has already been stated that the Malay numerals three, seven, eight, and nine differ from the Barata and its offshoots, and in this vocabulary only one tribe is found to copy the Malay in the numerals three, eight, and nine, while only two tribes copy it in the numeral seven; another proof of its slight claim to its generally received paternity of Polynesia and Madagascar.