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Volume 6, 1873
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Humerus. Pl. XII.; figs. 4 and 5.

The humerus has already been described, so far as it differs from the bone attributed to Cnemiornis by Professor Owen, and the femur, tibia, and tarso-metatarsal have been figured in Pl. XIV. A for convenience of reference by collectors. They agree so perfectly with Professor Owen's description as to require no further notice, except to point out that the external articular process of the metatarse, instead of being obliquely reflexed, as in the goose, swan, and other swimming birds, is straight, as in true cursorial birds, indicating that the habit of the bird was rather to walk on land than swim in water.

The metacarpal (figs. 6, 7) is made up of the first and second digits, which are completely fused at both extremities, leaving a narrow interspace (a) for less than half the length of the bone. It resembles closely the corresponding bone

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in the weka (Ocydromus), and bears almost the same proportion as in that bird to the length of the humerus, or about two-fifths of the length of that bone.

I should state that this bone has been found in several instances in Canterbury by Dr. Haast associated with fragments of a similar humerus, and rightly assigned by him to Cnemiornis. A fragmentary skull, in which the basal, posterior, and nasal portions are wanting, and several leg bones, in the Colonial Museum—Some found by Mr. W. D. Murison, in Otago, and others from the Wairarapa, in Wellington—must also be referred to this species, and prove that it was widely dispersed over both Islands of New Zealand.

As the leg bones of Cnemiornis are not infrequent in collections, especially from the most recent turbary and cave deposits, this bird must have been of common occurrence, and the foregoing details afford conclusive evidence that it was a gigantic bird, probably allied to and of similar habits to the Cape Barren Goose of Australia (Cereopsis*), but in which the power of flight had become obsolete.

From the size of its pelvis, ribs, and sternum, the bulk of its body must have greatly exceeded in proportion any of its existing congeners, while its lower extremities were not less remarkable for their massive development. The height of its back above the ground exceeded 2 feet, and the length of the body from the beak to the tail was at least 32 inches.

Table of Admeasurements, in Inches.
Skull. Weight, 535 grains (with lower jaw).
Length 4.5
Breadth across paroccipitals 2.0
" " post-frontals 2.0
" " temporal fossa 1.5
" " middle of upper mandible 1.5
" " tip " " 1.0
Length from condyle to pre-sphenoid 2.1
" of palatines 1.4
" of pre-maxillary 1.5
"from point of external nostril to end of pre-maxillary 1.0
" of nasal aperture 0.8
Width of nasal aperture 0.4
" of internasal septum—anterior 0.4
Supra-occipital tuberosity to post-nasal suture, following the curve 2.6
Supra-occipital tuberosity to external basilar process 1.6
Length of vertical basilar area 0.3
" horizontal " 0.5
Width of " " 1.3

[Footnote] * Having procured a skeleton of this species for comparison, through the kindness of Professor M'Coy, I am able to confirm this surmise. Among the chief structural differences, I notice the presence in Cnemiornis of an extra pre-sacral vertebra, so that two, instead of three, ribs articulate with the sacrum, and an elevated pent-roof arrangement of the ossa innominata, which indicate more decided cursorial habits.

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Cnemiornis Calcitrans.

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Sternum. Weight, 1009 grains.
Extreme length of side 7.0
Extreme width at costal process 4.2
" " middle 3.7
" " posterior margin 3.6
Costal margins—length of each 3.0
" width at middle 0.4
Coracoid grooves—length of each 1.5
" interspace—inter-coracoid 0.6
Keel—length 2.5
Supra-carinal fossa—length 0.6
" " width 0.6
Height of arc 2.2
Furculum. Weight, 81 grains.
Vertical chord 2.8
Transverse chord 2.3
Total exterior length 7.0
Average diameter 0.3
Diameter of articular process 0.5
Humerus. Weight, 412 grains.
Length 6.2
Extreme breadth, proximal end 1.5
" " distal end 1.1
Circumference, middle of shaft 1.6
Metacarpal. Weight, 85 grains.
Length 1.5
Femur. Weight, 1021 grains.
Length 6.0
Tibia. Weight, 1789 grains
Length 12.1
Tarso-metatarse. Weight, 787 grains.
Length 5.6
3rd—length 5.0
4th " 5.5
5th " 6.0
6th " 6.4
7th " 6.8
7th sternal—length 4.6
VertebrŒ. 2nd Cervical. 14th Cervical. 2nd Dorsal. 1st Pre-sacral.
Transverse diameter of centrum 0.25 0.6 0.8 0.6
Breadth through transverse process 0.8 1.7 1.8 1.9
Antero-posterior diameter, or height of centrum 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.6
Total height 0.7 1.3 1.6 2.4
Length of centrum 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7
Pelvis. Weight, 2400 grains.
Total length 11.3
Antacetabular 4.1
Acetabulum 1.1
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Height through acetabulum 2.5
Antitrochanteric width 3.1
Mesial iliac suture 3.7
Post-sacral area—length 4.7
" " width between anterior lateral foramina 1.2
" " width between posterior lateral foramina 1.1
Ischiatic notch—breadth 1.2
" " length 3.0
Pubic style—length 7.5
" breadth, greatest 0.5
" " at middle 0.3
Superior posterior iliac interspace 0.8
Inferior " " 2.2
" " inter-ischiatic space 3.8
Posterior pubic interspace 2.0
Ilium—anterior width 2.0
" posterior width at middle 1.0
1st sacral vertebra—height of centrum 0.7
" " " neural canal and spine 2.0
" " width of centrum 0.6
" " " transverse processes 2.0
Length of 8 anterior sacrals 3.5