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Volume 6, 1873
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Art. XLV.—Further Report on the Chemistry of Phormium tenax. *

Communicated by the Hon. the Colonial Secretary.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 1st September, 1873.]

  • § 1.—Proximate Principles of the Leaf.

  • (a.) Gum.

  • (b.) Wax or Fat.

  • (c.) Sugar.

  • (d.) Bitter Principle

  • (e.) Colouring Matters.

  • (f.) Organic Acids.

  • § 2.—Mineral Matter or Ash of the Leaf.

  • § 3.—Further Experiments with the Fibre.

  • (a.) Absorption of Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Oil by the Fibre.

  • (b.) Colouration of the Fibre.

  • (c.) Miscellaneous Observations on the Fibre.


§ 1. Proximate Principles of the Leaf of Phormium tenax.

In examining the constituents of the fresh plant, as received from the Royal Gardens at Kew, particular attention was paid to those substances which seemed likely to prove of interest in themselves, or in connection with the preparation of the Phormium fibre. The experiments and results given in this section of the report will be found to relate to the gum, wax, sugar, bitter principle, colouring matter, and organic acids of the Phormium leaf. A few words, however, may be first given in reference to the total percentage of organic or carbonaceous matters in the leaves employed. These leaves were in perfection—neither decayed and faded on the one hand, nor immature on the other. They gave, on drying at 212° Fah. (100° centigrade), and subsequent burning in the air, the following percentages:—

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Moisture 71.6
Organic matter 26.8
Mineral matter 1.6

By a reference to my previous report, § 11, it will be seen that these results are almost identical with those obtained in the analysis of similar leaves in the year 1871.

The next step was to extract, identify, separate, and finally to examine the chief organic constituents, or proximate principles, of the leaf. The use of water and of other solvents, cold or hot, enables us to make an examination of this kind. Cold water extracts from the divided and bruised leaf a good deal of sugar, with traces of albuminoid matters and of saline substances; hot water removes a good deal of gum and starch along with much of the bitter

[Footnote] * App. to Journ. H. of R., 1871, G. No. 4A.

[Footnote] † loc. cit., p. 12.

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principle; ether removes oil and fat; and so on with other solvents. I propose to describe the methods used for isolating the several proximate principles of the plant under the respective headings “Gum,” “Sugar,” etc.


It is to be hoped that much of the confusion once existing as to the gum of the Phormium has been cleared up in consequence of recent researches. The gummy matter, which is chiefly found on the inner (or proximal) surfaces of the butts of the leaves, presents no remarkable character, and I cannot suggest any use for which it would be likely to prove peculiarly applicable. It presents the following characters:—When partially dried it swells in cold water, and dissolves almost perfectly in hot: the solution forms, on cooling, a somewhat ropy jelly. The gum has a distinct alkaline reaction to test-paper; and when burnt, leaves a white ash, which contains much potash and lime. The gum is not coloured by iodine either before or after treatment with sulphuric acid: this shows that it is distinct both from starch and from cellulose. [A few particles of vegetable tissue often occur in the Phormium gum, and these will of course be coloured by iodine if they have previously been treated with sulphuric acid.] A ropy but clear solution of the gum in water was rendered at first milky by the addition of two measures of alcohol; then a coagulum of white filaments separated. This was a precipitate of the unchanged gum, still retaining the mineral matters (potash and lime) belonging to it in the crude state. A solution of the gum is precipitated by basic lead-acetate, but not by the neutral acetate. The gum is transformed very readily into sugar by boiling it with dilute sulphuric acid.

An attempt was made to purify the gum from its alkaline and earthy salts by means of Graham's dialytic process. An aqueous solution of the gum was acidified with dilute acetic acid, and poured into a floating dialyzer of parchment-paper. A certain quantity of saline matter did escape in the course of forty-eight hours into the water employed, but the greater part of the mineral matter of the original gum remained in the solution upon the dialyzer. It should be noted that gum arabic may be almost completely forced from mineral matter by such treatment.

I find that a solution of the Phormium gum yields, on evaporation, a residue which may be almost completely re-dissolved by boiling water.

B.— Wax or Fat.

The percentage of fixed fat or wax in the fresh plant of Phormium is not large, generally averaging less than 1 per cent. Most of this fat is on the surfaces of the leaf, and may be removed by the action of a caustic alkali of soap, or of a solvent such as ether. It helps to impart the “bloom” to the leaf, and forms a film, or fine coating, which throws off water. To the presence of this wax

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on the exterior of the leaf much of the difficulty experienced in bringing various chemicals to act upon the cellular substance of the leaf itself is due; it also retards the commencement of the retting and fermentation processes for the preparation of the fibre. Of course, the removal of this greasy bloom could not be economically effected on a manufacturing scale by means of a solvent like ether, or even by the use of that much cheaper and still more powerful agent, the bisulphide of carbon (CS2); but it might be worth while to see how far a brief immersion of the leaf in an alkaline or soapy liquor would answer in actual practice. As an alkaline lye might be prepared from the ashes of the rejected parts of the leaves, the cost of such a treatment as that just suggested need not be considerable. Laboratory experiments have shown me that leaves cleansed from the surface-wax by means of a boiling alkaline solution, are far more easily acted upon by the materials used in their subsequent treatment. It may be here remarked that in the treatment of the dried plant with boiling alcohol, a solution of many of the proximate principles of the plant is obtained, and amongst these some of the wax or fat will be found; but, as the solution cools, the greater part of this substance is deposited in granules, which are soluble in ether, and which fuse below the heat of boiling water.


In determining the existence and proportion of sugar in the Phormium leaf, two plans were adopted. When an alcoholic extract of the leaves had been prepared, as described further on, under the heading “Bitter Principle,” it yielded, after treatment with lead subacetate and separation of the resulting precipitate, a solution which contained certain lead compounds along with the bitter principle, and much sugar. This solution was freed from lead by means of sulphuretted hydrogen (H2S), and then, after filtration and concentration, gradually deposited a considerable amount of amorphous sugar. This sugar corresponded closely in properties to the sugar of acid fruits, known as fructose or lŒvulose. It was soluble in alcohol, and reduced the red oxide of copper from Fehling's sugar test very readily. A rough determination of its amount gave 4.3 per cent. as existing in the fresh leaves. This number is much higher than the estimate recorded by Dr. Hector in 1865 (1 to 1.5 per cent.); but I consider it rather under than beyond the truth. This apparent discrepancy may, however, be capable of ready explanation. The leaves of Phormium upon which my experiments were necessarily made, had been grown in a greenhouse at Kew. The plant was a good deal shaded by the crowding of other foliage, and altogether was growing under quite artificial conditions. These conditions may have been, and are likely to have been, peculiarly favourable to the production of sugar.

When an aqueous extract of the plant was prepared, a still higher percentage

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of sugar was deduced from the examination of the matters thus removed from the tissues of the leaves. The analysis of the solution thus prepared led to the following numbers, as representing the proportion of sugar in the leaves of the Phormium:—

Calculated as Cane Sugar.
In the fresh leaves 5.45 per cent.
In the dry leaves 19.20 "

It may be concluded that these numbers are rather too high, owing to the conversion of some of the gum and starch of the plant into sugar by means of the treatment to which the aqueous extract had been submitted. But though 5 ½ per cent. of sugar is probably an extravagant estimate, I am inclined to think that it is not more than 1 per cent. in excess of the truth; so far, at least, as the richness of English grown leaves is concerned.

D.—The Bitter Principle.

A notion appears to prevail that the bitter principle of the Phormium tenax is a coloured substance: this is quite incorrect. Doubtless when an aqueous or alcoholic extract of the leaf is made, the bitter principle, thus dissolved out, is accompanied by colouring matters, but these matters merely accompany the true bitter principle. If reference be made to the report, p. xix., 1871, of the Flax Commissioners, * it will be seen that the bitter principle is therein spoken of as coloured—“purity of colour can only be obtained by thoroughly washing out the bitter principle from the plant.” Again, in the appendix to the above-named report, at page 84, Capt. Hutton states, “The bitter principle might perhaps be used as a dye or stain for wood,” etc. The mixed nature of the substances extracted from the plant by water, and the subsequent changes which some of the substances undergo in the presence of air and moisture, account for the mistake which I have pointed out. As I shall have again to refer to the colouring matters of Phormium in the next section, I will now merely describe the method by which the bitter principle was obtained in a state approaching purity.

The selected leaves were cut into small pieces and then carefully dried. About a pound of the dry matter was then exhausted with boiling alcohol. The hot alcoholic extract (or rather extracts) was then filtered, some wax (see § 1 B) being deposited on the filter during the passage of the liquid through it. The filtered liquid was then evaporated, first in a retort, then at 100° centigrade, and finally in vacuo. The residue corresponded to 19.6 per cent. of the dried leaves taken. It was, of course, free from starch and gum, but contained many other substances besides the bitter principle. In order to isolate this principle the following plan was adopted:—The last-described residue was boiled in abundance of water, and then the liquor was filtered.

[Footnote] * App. to Journ. H. of R., 1871, G. No. 4.

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To the clear filtrate basic lead acetate was added so long as it occasioned a precipitate. [This precipitate, consisting chiefly of the lead-salts of organic acids, will be referred to further on in this section of the report, under the heading F.] This precipitate was then filtered off, and the clear filtrate purified further, as follows:—Excess of hydrosulphuric acid was passed into it, it was filtered, warmed, and finally evaporated in vacuo. The syruppy residue of this evaporation consisted mainly of sugar, but contained also a large proportion of the total quantity of the bitter principle present, as well as some acid substances. To separate the bitter principle, the concentrated liquor was shaken up with ether, in which the acids as well as the sugar are almost entirely insoluble. The ethereal solution was then decanted off and evaporated: it left a residue which was slightly yellow in colour and resinous in appearance. On boiling this residue with much water and a little powdered animal charcoal, the greater part of the bitter principle was withdrawn from solution by the charcoal, which latter substance again yielded it up to strong boiling alcohol. Thus extracted, the bitter principle of Phormium tenax is colourless, and exhibits but very doubtful traces of crystallization. Its bitter taste is not disagreeable nor persistent. It does not come within the scope of a chemical report to discuss the possible medicinal value of this bitter principle, but it may be assumed that it possesses active properties, and I am inclined to think that these are tonic rather than poisonous.

E.—Colouring Matters.

The chief colouring matter of the Phormium leaf is the usual green colouring matter of plants, namely, chlorophyll. This substance is extracted by alcohol from the dry leaves in abundance, but it is left behind in an altered or decomposed state when the alcoholic extract is evaporated, and then boiled out with water. It is not necessary to dwell upon the properties of so universally distributed a substance as chlorophyll, particularly as there seems little or no probability of its being turned to account in the arts. Its interest in connection with the present inquiry appears wholly to lie in the following consideration. In preparing Phormium fibre the chlorophyll may give rise to stains or discolourations if it be not rapidly and thoroughly removed in the first processes to which the leaves are submitted; for though chlorophyll may be removed easily from the fresh leaf-cells containing it, yet this colouring matter is susceptible of certain changes, the products of which, having a dull green or brown colour, are not very easily dissolved from the stained fibre. They seem to find their way into the central cavities of the fibres, from which it is difficult to remove them. But the chlorophyll is accompanied by another colouring matter, which appears to give rise to certain reddish-brown stains on the Phormium leaf and fibre. I am inclined to think that this colouring

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matter originates in a peculiar principle, of an acid character, which not only exists in the healthy and vigorous leaves of this plant, but which may actually be developed by an alteration of one of the constituents of the fibre itself. I refer to the substance mentioned in my former report under the name “pyrocatechin” (see page 18 of that report). A large quantity of this substance, which has the chemical formula C6 H6 O2, appears to be formed, as I previously concluded, from the mere heating of the Phormium fibre with water to a temperature of 150° centigrade, when about one-fifth of the weight of the dressed fibre taken is dissolved and transformed into soluble matter. My conclusions on this point have been lately confirmed by another chemist, F. Hoppe-Seyler, who has made pyrocatechin by heating pure linen filter-paper to a temperature of 210° centigrade, for four to six hours, with water. But the action on the Phormium fibre, though requiring a much lower temperature, is far more extensive than is the case with flax, with hemp, or even with Manilla. We have, therefore, in the natural occurrence of pyrocatechin in the Phormium leaf, and in its easy production by the action of heat and moisture upon the very substance of the fibre itself, a mode of accounting for some at all events of the discolourations and alterations to which the Phormium fibre is liable under some modes of treatment. For it must be remembered that pyrocatechin gives rise to a variety of colour-reactions under the influence of chemical re-agents etc. Of this matter I shall, however, speak in the next heading of the present section.

F.—Organic Acids of the Phormium Leaf.

In describing the mode adopted of separating the bitter principle of the Phormium leaf, I mentioned the lead subacetate precipitate, formed from the extract of the plant, as containing the lead compounds of the organic acids present. When this lead precipitate has been washed with water and decomposed with hydro-sulphuric acid, it yields a mixture of several acid substances. From the small quantity obtained of these bodies, and the difficulty of separating them, I can give but very slight indications as to the acids of the Phormium plant. These appear to be oxalic and citric acids in small proportions, and pyrocatechin in greater amount. This latter substance has been already alluded to under the heading E. It has many of the characters of an acid. Its occurrence in the extractive matters of Phormium tenax was recognized by—


The formation of a precipitate with neutral lead acetate, and the solubility of this precipitate in acetic acid.


The volatility and odour of the substance.


The darkening of the solution by the addition of lime-water and exposure to the air.

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The dark green colour produced by the addition of ferric chloride, and the subsequent change of this colour to a red or purplish red by the addition of an alkali.

§ 2.—Mineral Matter or Ash of the Leaf of Phormium tenax.

The amount of ash in the whole leaf of this plant was recorded in my last report. * The percentage of ash in the fresh plants corresponds to 1.59 per cent; in the dry plant it is no less that 5.56 per cent. There is, however, according to a recent determination made in my laboratory, rather a higher percentage of ash in the lower part of the leaf than in the whole leaf. A fair sample of the lower part of the leaves—from one-third to one-quarter of their total length—was prepared, and a careful burning gave, of ash, 6.91 per cent. Of this ash the most valuable, but not the most abundant, constituent is probably potash. An estimation of this substance in the ash prepared as above described, showed the presence of 12.45 per cent of potassium oxide (K2O), corresponding to 18.28 per cent of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). It may be roughly calculated that 100lbs. of the fresh butts of the Phormium leaves would yield, on burning, an amount of ash containing at least one-third of a pound of pearl-ash. This fact may be of some utility in connection with the preparation of the leaf for the after processes by which the fibre is separated; the ash of the rejected parts of the leaves being applicable to the preparation of a lye, by which the valuable parts of the leaf could be partially cleansed.

§ 3.—Experiments with Prepared Fibre.

Most of the experiments now to be detailed are connected with the oiling of the Phormium fibre. The samples used were submitted to certain tests so far as regards their hygroscopic condition, ash, and natural grease, with the following results:—

Description of Fibre. Moisture. Ash. Percentages of Volatile Oil. Fixed Oil. Total Oil.
A. Native—good 13.74 .74 .29 .20 .49
B. Machine dressed—good 13.32 .63 .14 .29 .43
C. Machine dressed—ordinary 12.79 .51 .38 .26 .64
D. Nichol's process 14.17 .70 .56 .36 .92

In the following series of experiments, the samples called A, B, and C, in the above table were employed.

Oiling Experiments, Series I.

Oil used, paraffin lubricating or machinery oil, having the specific gravity .9243. The fibres used were in their ordinary condition as to hygroscopic moisture. They were thoroughly saturated with the oil, and then submitted to pressure and hammering to remove all excess of oil. The following numbers

[Footnote] * App. to Journ. H. of R., 1871, G. No. 4a., p. 12.

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represent the final percentages of oil absorbed and retained by the several samples of Phormium fibre, two experiments being made in each case, and numerous weighings:—

Absorption of Mineral Oil (Paraffin Oil) by Fibres.

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A. Native—Good. B. Machine—Good. C. Machine—Ordinary.
Percentage of oil retained 12.11 19.41 22.25
13.30 20.66 24.97
Mean 12.70 20.03 23.61

In order to see how far these numbers really represented the percentages of oil retained by the several samples, it was necessary to ascertain whether the absorption of oil had been accompanied by any loss of hygroscopic moisture. The samples used in this series were therefore reweighed and dried till constant in weight in vacuo over oil of vitriol. The loss of water they then suffered sufficiently proved that the absorption of the oil had driven out but little, if any, of the natural moisture of the fibres.

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A. Native—Good. B. Machine—Good. C. Machine—Ordinary.
Percentage of water lost byin vacuo. 10.79 9.52 8.91
oiled fibres 11.63 10.34 9.64
Mean 11.21 9.93 9.30

It thus appears that the fine native dressed fibre absorbs least oil and retains during such absorption the highest percentage of hygroscopic moisture.

In order further to test the accuracy of the determinations of oil retained by the fibres, direct determinations by means of the “ether process” were made. The prepared and oiled samples which had been dried in vacuo contained the following amounts of oil in 100 parts:—

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A. Native—Good. B. Machine—Good. C. Machine—Ordinary.
Percentage of oil retained 11.00 17.14 20.88
by the fibre, but removed by ether 11.54 18.91 20.26
Mean 11.27 18.03 20.57

These numbers accord as closely as could be expected with those given in the first table, and show that the fine native dressed fibre retains the least oil amongst the samples tried.

Oiling Experiments, Series II.

The oil used was the same as that of Series I., but the fibres were dried at 100° centigrade (212° Fahrenheit) previous to their being soaked in the oil. It was thought that the removal of the hygroscopic moisture from the fibres would increase the quantity of oil absorbed, and render its penetration into the fibres more thorough. This anticipation was not realized, for less oil was absorbed under the single altered condition (of previous drying) of these

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experiments. The percentages of oil retained by dry fibre, after pressing and hammering, as in Series I., were as follows:—

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A. Native—Good. B. Machine—Good. C. Machine—Ordinary.
Percentage of oil retained 8.31 12.34 15.67
by fibre which had been previously dried. 8.19 14.65 15.36
Mean 8.25 13.50 15.52

Thus we learn that dry fibres absorb less oil than those which are naturally moist; and that the fine native fibre retains the same position as to the percentage of oil which it held in the first series of experiments. From other trials I conclude that drying the fibres previous to oiling or tarring them will prevent the sufficient absorption of the liquid used, while submitting the fibres to a moisture-laden atmosphere may prove beneficial, especially if they be subsequently dried—that is, after the treatment with oil, etc.

Oiling Experiments, Series III.

The oil now used was a colza oil, of sp. gr. .910. The fibres used were from the same samples as before; the operations of pressing and hammering were conducted in the same manner. The experiments, however, were not very successful or uniform in their results; and the inferiority of a vegetable oil for such purposes was shown by the appearance of the samples after treatment. The following results are selected from a large number which were obtained, but which I do not think would be of any service if introduced into this report:—

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A. Native—Good. B. Machine—Good. C. Machine—Ordinary.
Percentage of oil (colza) retained by moist fibres 13.6 17.0 14.6
Percentage of oil (colza) retained by dried fibres dried at 100° c. 13.3 13.9 16.3

Oiling Experiments, Series IV.

An animal oil (sperm oil), having the sp. gr. .927, was used for these experiments, which were in other respects conducted as before. As in Series III., the previous drying of the fibres made but little difference in the amount of oil retained after pressure and hammering. However, the character of the treated fibres showed a distinct superiority over those dressed with vegetable oil. A few of the results are here given:—

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A. Native—Good. B. Machine—Good. C. Machine—Ordinary.
Percentage of oil (sperm) retained by moist fibres 12.8 13.4 13.4
Percentage of oil (sperm) retained by fibres dried at 100° c. 10.8 15.2 14.1
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It will be seen that in all the series no appreciable advantage was gained by drying the fibre previous to treating it with oil. When paraffin machinery oil was used, the result was distinctly disadvantageous when dried fibres were employed. It should be added that the fibres which had been oiled after drying re-absorbed a large proportion of their original percentage of moisture on subsequent exposure to the air.

Colouration of Phormium Fibre.

Mr. Skey records some experiments of his own upon the presence in Phormium fibres of a substance “susceptible of some striking colourific changes.” (See Appendix to Commissioners' 1871 Report, p. 92). * The observation is not new, full details concerning this staining of the fibre by the successive application of chlorine and ammonia having been published by M. Vincent in the Comptes Rendus of the Paris Academy a quarter of a century ago. (Comptes Rendus, xxvi., p. 598, 1848.) M. Vincent, indeed, recommended the following plan for detecting Phormium fibre:—Soak the fibre in chlorine water for two or three hours; then wash it with ammonia water; a violet or pink colour will be developed. But when M. Payen, in 1849 (Comptes Rendus, xxix., p. 491), submitted this plan for distinguishing Phormium from other fibres to further scrutiny, he was unable to regard it as satisfactory if applied to thoroughly bleached and cleaned fibres, though it might serve to distinguish Phormium fibre from crude, unbleached, roping fibres of different origin. M. Payen regarded the principle which gave rise to the colour as not essential to the Phormium fibre, but merely adherent to it. The experiments of Mr. W. Skey scarcely sanction such a conclusion, but rather point to the intimate union subsisting between this principle and the cellular substance of the fibre. I cannot doubt, from my own experiments on this point, that the “encrusting” matter of the fibre is the true origin of the substance which gives the coloured re-action in question. The following experiments seem conclusive on this point, unless, indeed, they go further, and prove that the pure cellulose of the fibre is itself capable of such a transformation—a position which it would be difficult to accept.

1st. Experiment on the Pink Colouration of Phormium Fibre after Purification.

One gram of fine native white Phormium fibre (No. 1 of old report was treated with twelve grams of nitric acid of specific gravity 1.10, and 0.8 gram potassium chlorate, for eighteen days, at a temperature of from 12° centigrade to 18° centigrade. At the conclusion of the experiment, and after suitable purification of the residual cellulose, a proportion of that substance amounting to 83.8 per cent. of the original fibre taken remained. This

[Footnote] * App. to Journ. H. of R., 1871, G. No. 4.

[Footnote] † loc. cit., G. No. 4a, p. 12.

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cellulose did not acquire any colour by treatment with ammonia, but chlorine water followed by ammonia water did stain it pink. When this fibre, so treated (with nitric acid and potassium chlorate), was further acted on by means of water at a temperature of 150° centigrade for four hours, it gave a yellow acid liquid, and lost a considerable portion of its weight. And yet, after this second and most severe purification, the residual cellulose still gave the characteristic pink colour after a few minutes' soaking in chlorine water and the subsequent application of ammonia. It is impossible to regard the substance susceptible of the colour-change as other than a transformation-product of the very substance of the fibre itself.

2nd. Experiment on the Pink Colouration, etc.

A similar purified sample of Phormium fibre, but in the preparation of which the acid and alkali method had been employed, gave a dark red-brown colouration with chlorine water followed by ammonia.

Miscellaneous Observations on Phormium Fibre and the Fresh Plant itself.

Some experiments on the action of an ammoniacal solution of copper upon the constituents of the fibre were made with the hope of gaining some further insight into the cellulosic constituents of Phormium. The results were not accordant with each other, nor with the deductions from the results of other methods of analysis. It was found that the above-named re-agent dissolved out only 21 per cent. of cellulose from a fair sample of machine dressed Phormium fibre, but that it extracted no less than 40 per cent. of cellulose from a sample of the same fibre which had been treated with nitric acid and potassium chlorate. Thus it appeared that this latter treatment opened up the fibre to the more complete penetration and solvent action of the ammoniacal copper solution. In another experiment the residue of the action of oil of vitriol upon a sample of Phormium fibre was submitted to the action of the re-agent for cellulose. In this case the presence of some cellulose was also indicated, although the previous treatment with sulphuric acid (of sp. gr. 1.53) should have removed it altogether.

It is difficult to effect a complete separation of the various soluble constituents of the Phormium plant by means of precipitation with basic lead-acetate, as described in § 1 of this report. The following table gives some idea of the partial separations thus effected:—

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Lead precipitate contains pyrocatechin and acids, a little bitter principle on agitation with ether. Filtrate from lead precipitate contains much sugar and much bitter principle on agitation with ether.
The residue contains the acids. The ethereal solution contains traces of the bitter principle and resin. The residue contains the whole of the sugar. The ethereal solution contains the bitter principle nearly pure.
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Appendix to Report.

The following analyses of the seeds and capsules of the Phormium tenax were made in 1865 by Dr. Adriani. In the belief that they may prove a useful addition to a report on Phormium tenax, I add them here as an Appendix. I here not had the materials for verifying them at my disposal.

Analyses ofPhormium tenax.

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Seeds. Capsules.
Moisture 8.0 10.7 per cent.
Oil 20.1 1.0 "
Resin 3.8 2.6 "
Mucilage 14.3 24.0 "
Albuminoids or flesh-formers 18.3 6.9 "
Fibre 31.0 47.9 "
Ash 4.5 6.9 "
100.0 100.0