The Climate of New Zealand.
The following Tables, etc., are published in anticipation of the Report of the Inspector of Meteorological Stations for 1873.
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|Place.||Mean Annual Temp.||Mean Temp. for (Spring) Sept., Oct., Nov.||Mean Temp. for (Summer) Dec., Jan., Feb.||Mean Temp. for (Autumn) Mar., Apl., May.||Mean Temp. for (Winter) June, July, Aug.||Mean daily range of Temp. for year.||Extreme range of Temp. for year.|
|Means, etc., for North Island||57.9||56.5||64.6||59.7||50.3||15.4||56.0|
|Means, etc., for South Island||52.9||51.6||60.2||53.8||44.9||15.9||58.2|
|Means for Nth. and Sth. Islands||55.4||54.0||62.4||56.7||47.6||15.6||58.2|
[Footnote] * Returns not reliable.
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|Place.||Mean Barometer reading for year.||Range of Barometer for year.||Mean Elastic Force of Vapour for year.||Mean Degree of Moisture for year.||Total Rainfall.||Mean Amount of Cloud.|
|North Island.||Inches.||Inches.||Inches.||Sat. = 100.||Inches.||0 to 10.|
|Means for Nth. Island||29.982||1.584||.362||77||49.027||5.2|
|Means for Sth. Island||29.903||1.616||.312||76||48.924||5.7|
|Means for Nth. & Sth. Islands||29.942||1.600||.337||76||48.975||5.4|
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|Place.||Average Daily Velocity in miles.||Number of days it blew from each point.|
[Footnote] * These returns refer to the particular time of observation, and not to the whole twenty-four hours, and only show that no direction was recorded for the wind on that number of days.
|Mean Annual Temp.||Mean daily range of Temp. for year.||Extreme range of Temp. for year.||Mean Barometer reading for year.||Range of Barometer for year.||Mean Elastic Force of Vapour for year.||Mean Degree of Moisture for year.||Total Rainfall.||Mean Amount of Cloud.|
|0 to 10.
Table V.—Earthquakes reported in New Zealand during 1873.
|5||17, 19||8* 12 13, 18* 22* 29*||4, 5||29*||11* 21||18||8, 16*||23|
|Wellington||17, 18 22||1* 14 17*||12||29||1||2||8, 16*||12|
|Mana Island||16*||1* 17||12||8, 29||6|
The figures denote the days of the month on which one or more shocks were felt. Those with an asterisk affixed were described as smart; those with a dagger as severe shocks. The remainder were only slight tremors, and no doubt escaped record at most stations, there being no instrumental means employed for their detection. This table is therefore not reliable so far as indicating the geographical distribution of the shocks.
[Footnote] * Reduced to sea level.
Table VI.—Comparative Abstract for 1873, and previous Years.
|Stations.||Barometer.||Temperature from Self-registering Instruments read in Morning for Twenty-four hours previously.||Computed from Observations.||Rain||Wind.||Cloud.|
|Mean Reading.||Extreme Range.||Mean Temp. in Shade.||Mean Daily Range of Temp.||Extreme Range of Temp.||Max. Temp. in Sun's Rays.||Min. Temp. on Grass.||Mean Elastic Force of Vapour.||Mean Deg. of Moisture. (Saturation=100).||Total Fall in Inches.||No. of Days on which Rain fell.||Average daily force in Miles for Year.||Maximum Velocity in Miles in any 24 hours, and date.||Mean Amount (0 to 10).|
|Mongonui||29.986||1.592||61.8||15.6||54.0||154.0||—||—||—||63.720||158||146||672 on 6 Oct.||4.5|
|Previous 7 years||29.972||—||59.7||—||—||—||—||.417||76||52.868||167||—||—||—|
|Auckland||29.981||1.596||59.3||13.9||49.3||159.8||13.4||.409||80||41.237||170||296||780 on 8 Feb.||7.1|
|Previous 9 years||29.925||—||59.7||—||—||—||—||.413||76||45.432||187||—||—||—|
|Taranaki||29.975||1.601||58.1||16.7||51.0||—||26.0||—||—||53.120||181||225||630 on 6 Jan.||6.6|
|Previous 9 years||29.929||—||57.4||—||—||—||—||.373||73||57.001||157||—||—||—|
|Napier||29.960||1.630||58.0||16.9||54.0||140.0||—||.375||77||42.380||143||245||900 on 21 Jan. and 26 April.||2.6|
|Previous 5 years||29.909||—||58.2||—||—||—||—||.393||75||34.308||84||—||—|
|Wanganui||30.053||1.550||55.2||17.9||56.0||149.0||—||.328||74||38.720||122||249||670 on 21 Jan.||5.0|
|Wellington||29.942||1.540||55.4||11.9||45.0||145.0||28.0||.336||76||54.985||173||215||845 on 18 Dec.||5.4|
|Previous 9 years||29.885||—||54.4||—||—||—||—||.328||72||50.416||154||—||—||—|
|Previous 9 years||29.905||—||55.5||—||—||—||—||.370||75||62.368||88||—||—||—|
|Christchurch||29.940||1.639||52.9||14.4||60.0||160.0||13.5||.332||81||26.330||134||138||647 on 15 Jan.||6.1|
|Previous 9 years||29.864||—||53.8||—||—||—||—||.327||77||25.660||115||—||—||—|
|Previous 5 years||29.787||—||46.2||—||—||—||—||.259||81||100.621||178||—||—||—|
|Hokitika||29.951||1.621||53.7||12.9||49.0||106.0||22.8||.348||83||96.170||161||189||507 on 31 Aug.||4.4|
|Previous 7 years||29.930||—||52.5||—||—||—||—||.360||87||115.537||194||—||—||—|
|Dunedin||29.786||1.723||50.6||13.8||50.0||180.0||—||.290||78||35.825||167||168||670 on 29 Sept.||5.9|
|Previous 9 years||29.883||—||50.7||—||—||—||—||.279||73||32.711||166||—||—||—|
|Queenstown||29.987||1.443||50.8||16.4||58.2||155.7||—||.249||67||32.300||131||139||367 on 30 Sept.||5.4|
|Southland||29.886||1.730||—||—||—||156.0||—||—||—||37.480||191||187||580 on 24 Oct.||6.8|
|Previous 8 years||29.798||—||49.9||—||—||—||—||.274||75||46.817||156||—||—||—|
[Footnote] * 2,104 feet above sea level.
Notes on the Weather during 1873.
January.—Unseasonable weather generally at all the stations during this month; heavy falls of rain, and frequently stormy, with thunder and hail; very wet in South. High atmospheric pressure on 30th, and very low on the 8th throughout; storm occurred on latter date.
February.—Excessive rain at some of the northern stations, with strong S.E. winds, but otherwise the weather was remarkably fine and dry, with light northerly winds; in the South, easterly winds with greatly reduced rainfall, especially in mountainous districts.
March.—The weather throughout was, on the whole, fine, with small rainfall and moderate winds; no storms of importance occurred at any of the stations; the average temperature for the month is high in nearly every case.
April.—Unusual prevalence of easterly weather, accompanied by excessive rainfall in the North and on the East Coast, while the rain was deficient on the West Coast and among the Alps.
May.—Mild weather throughout for season of year. In the North temperature above and rainfall below the average for previous years; prevailing winds westerly. In the South several storms, with snow, hail, and thunder.
June.—Remarkably fine, mild, calm weather, except on the West Coast of South Island, where it was frequently squally and wet; and at Wellington it was stormy in latter part of month. Temperature on the whole higher than average, and rainfall less than usual.
July.—Rainfall at some of the Northern stations in excess, but on West Coast and in the South it was considerably below the usual average, and the weather was tolerably fine for time of year. The prevailing wind throughout was from S.W., but no violent storms occurred. The temperature throughout was below the average, and frequently cold, severe weather occurred, with snow, hail, and thunder.
August.—The weather on the whole was mild throughout for the time of year, but the rainfall was in excess, and occasionally it was stormy and severe. Winds prevailed from westward. Very high atmospheric pressure at beginning of month, reaching to 30.54 inches, and about the 18th it fell to 29.2, when the weather was wet and squally throughout.
September.—The weather throughout was excessively wet and stormy. Westerly winds prevailed, and at some stations violent gales occurred, accompanied with severe thunder, heavy rain, and hail. In the extreme South, although the rain was excessive, yet the wind was not so strong.
October.—Occasionally stormy rough weather, but on the whole seasonable. In the North rain was in excess, and in the South considerably less than the average. The atmospheric pressure low throughout, and temperature about the average.
November.—Generally fine, pleasant, and seasonable, with a fair amount of rain; no storms of any note took place, but thunder was in some parts frequent.
December.—Seasonable weather during this month; temperature rather above the average, rainfall on the whole less than usual; prevailing N. W. winds, and at some stations strong gales occurred; exceedingly hot and oppressive at times.
Philological Considerations on the Whence of the Maori.* *
[Read before the Otago Institute, 8th July, 1873.]
In approaching the question our stand-point is naturally in New Zealand, from whence the subject must be traced (if possible) to its end. Having already dealt with the same from an ethnological point of view,† † I may remark that the study of words in tribes or nations has the same position in relation to the above science as the tracing of fossils has towards geology. One has its material as much imbedded in the people as the other has its in the earth—where one class is as much preserved for ages as the other is for epochs—and both may be dug out from their encasements and displayed to the present generation. The conclusions that we may draw from thence can only be stated after mature consideration.
The subject divides itself into three headings, viz., Glossarial, Idiomatic, and Phonetic; and as the first forms the easiest approach to what may prove a tedious and difficult enquiry, I will commence with it.
Primary words, i.e., those that express first wants in men in their infancy—and, equally so, tribes or nations in their infancy—are the most tenacious of existence. These are common nouns, pronouns, and verbs, but more particularly the first—such as man, woman, son, daughter, food, fruit, fish, etc.; or, I, you, he, we, etc.; or, go, come, give, kill, etc. In elucidating a subject such as this, therefore, we apply our enquiries to primary terms, which we may denominate as the fossils of the languages, so that we may, from their coincidence or approximations in different and distant communities, weigh the affinities of race or blood in the communities themselves.
But while primary words are the most lasting, yet they even are subject to slow and gradual change as ages roll on. In English, Chaucer gives a ready example of this; and turning to the Portuguese, as one of the modern nations of Europe, who, more than any other, initiated the great spread of the
[Footnote] * In this paper I am indebted for assistance to the following works, viz.:—Malagasi Grammar, by Griffiths; Tamil Grammar, by Rhenius; Tongan Grammar, by West; and Maori Grammar, by Williams; Malayan Dictionary, by Marsden; Tongan Dictionary, by Mariner; Maori Dictionary, by Williams; Vocabularies of the Indian Archipelago, by Wallace; also of the Kayan Language (Borneo), by Burns; of the Timor Language, by Windsor Earle; of the Silong Tribe, by Ed. O'Riley; and some collections of words, by J. R. Logan, in Journ. Indian Arch.
[Footnote] † See Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. IV., 1871, p. 23.
Caucasian families over the earth, I have observed this change more aptly illustrated in different copies of the Lisbon and Colombo Bible. But another process goes on, both in single and separate tribes, that tends to divergence, i.e., in their applying radical expressions to parallel and convertible ideas and objects; and confining ourselves to the regions over which this enquiry will extend, we give below some examples of such as have taken place amongst the various tribes scattered over the vast extent to which we are led. Thus, in Malay, bunga is the radical expression for flowers; by parallel it is applied to sparks—bunga api, the flower of fire; to rent bunga tannah, the flower of land. Again, in Malay, bua is the radical expression for fruit; by parallel it becomes cannon balls—bua meriam, the fruit of cannon; and by conversion it becomes flowers in Maori, viz., pua. Again, in Malay, lima signifies five; by conversion it becomes lima, the hand, in Salayer, Salibabo, Cajeli, and Lariki, tribes in the Moluccas; and by parallel it becomes penglima, an admiral, or hand of the sovereign. Finally, the word mata in Malay and several other languages, meaning the eye, has extensive application in this manner: thus, by parallel mata ayer means a fountain, or eye of water; mata wang means hard cash, or the eye of money; mata hari means the sun, or the eye of the day; while, by conversion, the same word (mata) in Maori becomes the face.
It will be seen that these primitive people have dabbled a little in political economy, for, while they call bua wang (the fruit of money) profit, they call bunga wang (the flower of money) interest. Whether this be correct science or not I ask the followers of Adam Smith to answer. So also, as naturalists, while they call bua fruit, they call eggs by the same expression, i.e., the fruit of fowls—a hint that even Darwin might not take exception to.
Some illustrations of the application of radical expressions applied to parallel or convertible ideas and objects:—
Buah or bua, fruit; buah raga, football; buah pari, dice; buah chatur, draughtsman; buah pelu, testiculi; buah meriam, cannon balls; anak buah, dependents of a chief; buah permata, jewels; sa buah nigri, one town; sa buah ruma, one house; sa buah kapal, one ship; buah wang, profit, in Malay; pua, flowers; hua, eggs, in Maori.
Bunga, flowers; bunga pala, mace; bunga karang, coral; bunga api, sparks; bunga wang, interest; bunga tannah, rent, in Malay; bunga nea, fruit, in Bolang-hitam.
Kaki, feet; kaki, legs; debawah kaki, at your disposal, in Malay.
Aallah, the Almighty; alah, to overcome, in Malay; ber allah, an idol, in Bajow.
Hulu or ulu, the head of men or beasts, source of a river or of events, handle of a sword or knife, interior of a country; ulu-nian, aboriginal inhabitants; bulu, feathers, down, hair; bulu mata, eyelashes; buluh, bamboo cane; de hulu, before, in contradistinction to de blakang, behind; pengulu, a leader or chief on land, in Malay; huru huru, coarse hair; huru, brushwood, in Maori; huru, feathers, in Liang; bulu, feathers, and uhu, hair, in Salayer.
Lima, five; penglima, a leader at sea (an admiral); lima, the hand, in Salayer, Salibabo, Cajeli, and Lariki; also, olima, in Bouton; rilma, in Menado; rima, in Bolanghitam,
Liang, and Saparua; lemnatia, in Amblaw; limaka, in Morella; limawa, in Batumerah; limamo, in Camarian; limacolo, in Teluti; niman, in Ahtiago; and limin, in Teor.
Mata, the eye; mata ayer, a fountain; mata pisau, the blade of a knife; mata wang, hard cash; mata banda, property; mata jalan, advanced guard; mata mata, an overseer; mata hari, the sun (literally the eye of the day), in Malay; mata alo, the sun, in Salayer; also, mata roa, in Menado; ria mata, in Liang; lia mata, in Lariki, etc.; mata, face, in Maori.
Muka, the face; muka papan, effrontery (literally, flat board-faced), in Malay.
Rupa, face, in Salayer; rupa, likeness, in Malay.
Angkat, to lift; mang kat, to die (applied only to princes); anak angkat, the adopted child; angkatan, an expedition by sea or land; angkas, ethereal space, in Malay.
Panas, warm, in Malay; bahaha, in Cajeli; bafanat, in Ahtiago; mahana, the day, in Maori.
Hangat, hot, in Malay; hangat, the sun, in Wayapo.
Mata hari, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Malay.
Mata alo, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Salayer.
Ria mata, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Liang.
Lia matei, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Morella.
Lia mata, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Lariki.
Riamatani, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Saparua.
Liamatan, the sun; and matan, the eye, in Ahtiago.
Matalon, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Bajow.
Kom-aru, the sun; and karu, the eye, in Maori.
The above are a few examples of the tendencies to divergency in languages by operations within themselves; but they are by no means so forcible as influences from without, caused by inroads of conquering tribes, mercantile communication, and the aptitude for borrowing expressions from more cultivated races, yet, notwithstanding, these primary terms in tropical, and indeed in other races, are all but irradicable, excepting by the extirpation of the people themselves. Of this fact most enquirers will have seen abundant proof.
The nearest cognate race to the New Zealand Maori is that which inhabits the Tonga or Friendly Islands. This group is sub-divided into three well marked sub-groups, viz., Tongatabu, Haabai, and Haafuluhao. Whether the middle group—Haabai—be the Hawaiki of the Maoris, and Tongatabu be the roro, or gate thereto, spoken of in their traditions, I will leave others to decide; certain it is that the languages have a most remarkable affinity, when, after considering the above causes of deterioration, we find after the lapse of centuries of separation so much glossarial coincidence. Captain Cook properly remarks, “that they are but dialects of one tongue, having less divergence than many counties in Great Britain.”
For the sake of comparison with the languages of the Indian Archipelago, I have adopted the same selection of words as is given by Mr. Wallace in his comparative vocabularies of that region, though there is some disadvantage in
this course, inasmuch as many objects are not known to the Polynesian races which are common in the archipelago, and some words do not express primary wants.
On examination of the list of words below, it will appear that in allowing for differences in articulation which has caused the elision or transposition of vowels and consonants, there are sixty-six of the hundred-and-two words common to both. Thus we have in Maori and Tongan respectively, hua, fua, fruit; pai, mea, good; wera, vela, hot; rahi, lahi, large; wahine, fafine, woman; etc. But in this list fifteen words have no expression either in one dialect or both, owing to the object not being known to them, such as deer, monkey, etc. Thus the ratio of common words to the whole should be as 66:87. It may be noticed, in passing, that the word for pig in Maori, viz., poaka, being radically the same as the Tongan term, buaka, must have been either preserved by tradition or introduced by natives of Polynesia after the advent of the European. This word, in its various modifications, has extensive range, puaka, buaka, phua'a, etc., and is supposed by J. R. Logan to be of Asiatic origin, as phak, Thibet; phag, Bhutan, Limbu, etc.; wok, Kyen, Champang, etc.; wak, Magar; vak, Naga, Garu; piak, Chepang.
|Come||Haere mai||How my|
|Nail (finger)||Maikuku||Gnedji nima|
N.B.—Mariner's “Vocabulary of the Tongan Language” has been followed here, and as it is in the old system of spelling, oo stands in it for u, ow for au, c for k, y for ai, etc. In copying the words from the above we have altered the orthography to the new system, though they stand here as given by their author.
We now come to a comparison between the glossaries of the Maori and those of the Indian Archipelago. A list is given below of nine English words, against which are put the various expressions in Maori; and after the latter are placed equivalents found amongst fifty-nine languages of the Indian Archipelago. It will be seen that in every case they have one, two, or more equivalents, even though the expressions vary. Thus, in the various expressions in Maori for the word “small,” three were found in the archipelago—iti, riki, moroiti; and the words for fire, ahi, and water, wai, have very extensive range under various modifications. Of the following nine words, four only are Malay.
|1. Black||mangu||(manga, Malagasi)|
|pango||ngoa, Batchian; ngeo, Rotti|
|2. Fire||ahi||api, Malay and thirteen other languages; ahu, Cajeli; afu, Amblaw; uku, Ternati and two others; whu, Sahoe; aow, Liang and seven other languages; hao, Saparua and Camarian; yafo, Teluti; yaf, Ahtiago; aif, Gah; hai, Goram and three others; ai, Brissi and Savu|
[Footnote] * ? is appended when word is derived from modern European language.
|3. Large||nui||naaik, Brissi; naiki, Vaiqueno|
|rahi||ilahe, Awaiya; ilahil, Saparua|
|4. Nose||ihu||iru, Lariki; iri, Saparua; ino, Vaiqueno; inur, Teto E.; niru, Allor; irung, Sulor; nirun, Ké Islands; irun, Ratahan; irong, Javanese; idong, Malay and three others|
|iti||ki-iti, Wahai; ichi-ichi, Ternati; kitchil, Malay|
|6. Tongue||arero||kelo, Goram; weo, Savu|
|7. Tooth||niho||nio, Saparua; nifoa, Matabello; nifan, Ahtiago|
|8. Water||wai||wai, Salibabo and seven others; woya, Kaioa; waiyr, Gani and Mysol; wehr, Morella and four others; wehl, Batumerah, and three others; waeli, Awaiya and Camarian; welo, Teluti; waiin, Ahtiago; waar, Dorey; ve, Teto; hoi, Vaiqueno; oii, Brissi; oee, Rotti; we, Allor; boi, Bajau; aer, Salayer; aie, Sasak; ayer, Malay|
|honu||manu, Bouton and Tomore|
|9. White||ma||ma-puti, Bugis and three others; ma-wuroh, Ratahan and two others; ma-bidah, Kemah and Bantik.|
The next list, as given below, contains 102 English words with their various expressions in Maori, to which are appended their equivalents as found amongst thirty-three languages of the Indian Archipelago. On examination it will be seen that, with the exception of sixteen words, all others have one or more of the several Maori terms displayed in some of these languages. Thus, the two expressions for rain in Maori are ua and awha; the former is found in various languages as uan, huya, ulah, hura, hulan, and the latter as oha and wao. The approximations are too close (that is when not actually the same), and the divergences too gradual, to admit a doubt as to common origin.
The sixteen words that have not their equivalents consist principally of articles and objects not known in New Zealand prior to the coming of the European, such as banana, chopper, cocoanut, honey, etc. Thus eighty-six words out of 102 are common between Maori and the languages of the Indian Archipelago, as against sixty-six words out of the same, common between Maori and Tongan. Then, as the latter are dialects of admittedly one language, the affinity of Maori glossaries to more distant races has forcible exposition, and
it should not escape remark that of the 102 words compared, nineteen of these only are Malay, the great majority belonging to the groups of Molucca, Ceram, and Timor, situated at the east end of the archipelago. Hence a glossarial link is clearly proved viâ Tongatabu, expressively called in Maori tradition the roro, or gate to Hawaiki, their home country, wherever that had been.
Maori compared with 102 words in thirty-three languages of the Indian Archipelago.*
|Bad||kino||hina, (low) Malay|
|Bird||manu||manu, Menado and five others; manok, Javanese and eight others; manui, Cajeli and Awaiya; manuti, Wayapo and Massaratty; manik, Gani; malok, Wahai|
|Boat||poti?||oti, Tidore; lopi, Salayer; owe, Mysol|
|Body||tinana||nanau, Amblaw; nana-ka, Liang; anana, Lariki|
|Bone||iwi||hoi, Sula; riri, Saparua; nili, Camarian|
|Cold||makariri||makariki, Ahtiago; mariri, Wahai; giridin, Mysol; aridin, Matabello; periki, Liang and Morella|
|Come||haere mai||mai, Lariki and six others; mari, Malay|
|ahu mai||omai, Cajeli and Batumerah; ikomai, Wayapo; gumahi, Massaratty; uimai, Liang; oimai, Morella|
[Footnote] * ?is appended when derived from modern European language.
|Day||ao||ao-aaoa, Lariki; heo, Bouton; allo, Salayer|
|ra||rau, Menado; lau, Bajow|
|Door-post||tuturu||metouru, Lariki; metoro, Saparua|
|Ear||taringa||talinga, Malay and four others; telilan, Cajeli; linga-nami, Massaratty; terina, Liang and four others|
|Egg||hua||munte-loa, Batumerah; mantir-hui, Morella|
|Face||mata||mata-lalin, Wahai; mati-noin, Teor; muti-no, Masol|
|Father||pa papa||bapa, Malay and Gani, baba, Javanese and Tidore|
|matua tane||tua (elder) Malay|
|Feather||hou||owhu, Bouton; huru, Liang|
|koikara||kokowa-na, Sula; kukur, Wahai|
|Fire||ahi||ahu, Cajeli; efi, Matabello; api, Malay and three others; yaf, Teor; yap, Mysol; hao, Saparua|
|Fish||ika||ikan, Malay and five others; iyan, Liang and nine others; ein, Mysol|
|Flower||puawai||buah (fruit), Malay|
|rango||rango, Bolang-hitam; lango, Sanguir; langow, Bajow; ralngoh, Menado|
|Foot||waewae||oei, Bouton; raedai, Menado; laidi, Sanguir; wed, Gani; aiva, Batumerah; ai, Lariki and six others; matwey, Mysol|
|te kaokao||tekay-ap, Mysol|
|Fruit||hua||hua, Liang and two others; ai-hua, Lariki; huwai, Camarian; huan, Teluti; vuan, Tobo; phuin, Teor; bua, Malay and five others; wowoan, Javanese; fuan, Wayapo and Massaratty; buani, Amblaw; aihuwana, Batumerah|
|whiu||aeo, Awaiya and Camarian|
|Good||pai||bai, Malay; baji, Salayer; pia, Sula; parei, Amblaw; fiar, Gani; ia, Liang and two others; mai, Lariki and Camarian; fei, Mysol|
|Hair||huruhuru||uhu, Salayer; hutu, Tidore and Galela; uwohoh, Saparua; ulufuim, Ahtiago|
|Handful||kutanga||Tongan, Malay, and two others, for hand|
|pakari||kras, Malay and two others|
|Head||upoko||oyuko, Teluti; obaku, Bouton; uruka, Liang and Morella|
|karu||kahutu, Myson; uru, Saparua and Awaiya|
|anga anga||nganga-sahi, Galela|
|House||whare||balry, Menado; boré, Bolang-hitam|
|Husband||tahu||tau, Sula; nau, Tidore|
|Island||motu||li-wuto, Bouton; ri-wuto, Bolang-hitam|
|rahi||lehai, Cajeli; ilahe, Awaiya|
|Leaf||rau||laun, Saprua; ai-rawi, Lariki; daun, Malay, and four others|
|iti||ki-iti, Wahai; kidik-idi, Bouton; ro-it, Wayapo|
|Louse||kuku||kutu, Malay and nine others; kota, Sula; koto, Wayapo and Massaratty; uru and utu, Amblaw and nine others; hut, Teor; ut and uti, Mysol|
|Man||tangata||tau-mata, Menado; tomata, Salibabo; tumata, Saparua and two others|
|tapau||tepoh, Bajow; tupur, Salayer|
|Mother||matua-whine||ma (mother), tua (old), bini (wife), Malay|
|Mouth||mangai||nanga, Bouton; nganga, Bolang-hitam|
|Nail(finger)||maikuku||kuku, Malay and three others; kanuka or kanuko, Menado and three others; wuku, Gah|
|Night||po||po-tu, Saparua; po-tuun, Ahtiago|
|kuhukuhu||hahu, Morella and five others|
|Prawn crayfish?||koura||uran, Javanese and three others|
|Rain||ua||uan, Gah; oha, Bolang-hitam; huya, Sula; ulah, Amblaw; hura, Galela; hulan, Liang; huran, Bajow; ujan, Malay|
|Red||whero||merah, Malay and four others|
|paka||kao, Liang and five others|
|River||awa||uve, Bouton; sawan, Sanguir|
|Road||ara||dara, Bouton; lora, Bolang-hitam; aya, Sula; lalan, Morella and three others; lahan, Liang; laran, Matabello; jalan, Malay|
|Root||aka-aka||akar, Malay and three others; wa-ata, Liang; ai-aha, Mataello|
|Sea||moana||tahi, Matabello; tasi, Ahtiago|
|au||aow-pot, Lariki; aowaht, Morella|
|Star||whetu||bituy, Menado; fatui, Sula; betol; Gani; toi, Ahtiago|
|Sun||ra||ria-mata, Liang; matarou, Menado; lia, Massaratty|
|Tooth||niho||nio, Saparua; nifoa, Matabello|
|Water||wai||wai, Ahtiago, Tobo, and six others; wai-im, Ahtiago, Alfuras; waili, Cajeli and two others; wayr, Mysol; ayer, Malay|
|Wife||wahine||wewina, Teor; babineh, Salibabo; pipina, Saparua; invina, Ahtiago; bini, Malay|
|Wing||parirau||pani-dey, Menado; pori-pikia, Bolang-hitam; fanik, Teor|
|Woman||wahine||bawine, Bouton; mahoweni, Sanguir; mahina, Liang and four others; mewina, Teor; vina, Ahtiago|
|Wood||rakau||okao, Bouton; kao, Sula and three others; kai, Teor; kayu, Malay and three others; kaju, Salayer|
Being thus done with the Malayo-Polynesian glossarial connection, before we proceed in our enquiries it is necessary to mention that the Silong tribe of the islands of Mergui, near Burmah, are the furthest north-westward having distinct affinity with the above families. The negro islanders of Andaman are known to be ideologically connected, but their language, as far as I have gathered, has been too slightly investigated for final opinion. At Mergui, therefore, practically ends the influence of the peculiar phase of fossil words that we have been considering. Beyond this point the vast area of South Asia is met with, where now, at this period, Thibetan, Arian, and Semitic languages cover the space; and it is not till we come to the great island of Madagascar that we find traces of the material of which we are in search.
Captain Cook, the renowned navigator, indicates this fact as a circumstance known at his time. After him Humboldt supports the hypothesis of the language of Madagascar being identical in construction with those of the Indian Archipelago, but how far that great authority had analysed the languages is unknown to me. The bare fact of his support is all the information that I have been able
to gain. Subsequent writers discourage the idea, and the latest that I have been able to consult (Griffiths) says the following of the connection :—“The Malagasi bears some analogy to the Malay and the Arabic in the sound and signification of many of the words, and in the inflection of certain verbs; but to say that on this account it is a dialect of either the Malay or the Arabic would be as unreasonable as to say that the Arabic is a dialect of Hebrew, or the Hebrew a dialect of the Arabic.” On reading this opinion the thought struck me that, as from my own personal knowledge the Malay has no affinity to Arabic, the author in comparing Malagasi to two dissimilar things might not have investigated either with the completeness necessary; so, in taking up Ellis' “Madagascar Revisited” and opening its pages at random, I was struck with the strong resemblance of the beautiful woodcut giving the portrait of a native, to the common cast of countenance found in the Indian Archipelago amongst the Bajow, or Sea Malays. A copy of this (Pl. I.) I am enabled to show to the Society through the skill of Mr. Alexander McColl, who has transferred it by the photo-lithographic process. Dipping further into the work I found almost every fifth word to have Malayan affinities, and coming to the capital, which I may take by way of example, I found it called Antananarivo, or the City of a Thousand Towns or Villages. Now, allowing for the differences of articulation, this is precisely the same as the Malay word Tana-saribu; the word tanana in Malagasi, denuded of the prefix, being used in a more restricted sense than it is generally in Malay—though even here a Malay uses the word in a very restricted sense occasionally, as when he talks of his tana bindang, or rice plot; tana campong, his village area, etc.
Thus led on, I was induced to proceed with picking out the word fossils of the language, i.e., so far as the excellent grammar of the Rev. Mr. Griffiths afforded material. Out of this work I collected 146 words, as given below, ninety-five of which proved to be Malayan, and eighty Malayo-Polynesian. Of the list of words twenty-nine only had no equivalents. Of course it would be improper were I not to remark that primary words alone were selected, and not the secondary or tertiary that are given in all dictionaries. Again, comparing the Malagasi words given below that are also found in Wallace's and Earle's comparative vocabularies of the Indian Archipelago, I found that of forty-seven words forty-two had their equivalents in one or other, or several, of the dialects and languages. Thus in the primary words—in the bases of their languages—close affinity is clearly indicated.
Instancing particular words in Malagasi, it is interesting to examine their dispersion. Thus the word vorona, bird, is found in the Indian Archipelago slightly altered to burong, urong, etc., but the most usual term is manok, manu, manik, mano, etc. The former term is African, the other Asian; and in examining the various vocabularies we see that one seems to have striven to
displace the other, the Asian one being the more victorious. The word volo, hair, is found nearly perfectly preserved at Massaratty and Wayapo, near Ceram, as olofolo and folo respectively. In Tonga it is fulu; in New Zealand, huru; and in Malay, bulu; in Africa, vulu; and in Asia (Thibet), pul. The two words vava and mur, the mouth, have each their preservers—(1st) in New Zealand, waha; in Viti (Feejee), fafa; in Bouton, bawa; in Wokan (Arru), fafahi; (2nd) in Kaffraria (Africa), mlumu; and in Malaya, mulut. Lastly, the words nif, nifo, tooth, have been nearly extirpated in the Indian Archipelago, but are preserved in New Zealand, as niho; in Tonga, as nifo; in Matabello, near Keh Islands, as nifoa; etc.
One hundred and forty-six words of Malagasi compared with Malayan, Maori, and Tongan Dictionaries, to which are added some African and East Indian cognations.
|Axe||famaky, vilahy, famatsika||bliung (adze)|
|Anger||tezitra||stru (enmity)||aritarita, Maori|
|Blood||ra, rany||dara||ra'aru, Kissa|
|Belly||kibo||—||kopu, Maori; kabin, Teor|
|Bird||vorona||burong||burong, Salayer and Batumerah;|
|Bad||ratay||—||ahati, Wahai; rahat, Bajow and Matabello|
|Body||vatang||badan (body) batang(trunk)||watan, Matabello; fatan, Wayapo; badan, Sanguir; padan, Mysol|
|Cattle||omby aombe, fiary||domba (sheep)||lombe, gnombai, Sauhili (Africa); ‘gombi, Kwillimani|
|Child||angumbi zanaka||anak||anak, Javanese and five others|
|Cry aloud||minene||menyeni (sing)|
|Day||andro||—||ao, Maori; aho, Tongan; allo, Salayer; dowa, Wayapo; rou, Menado|
|Dead||maty||mati||mate, Maori and Tongan; maki, Kissa|
|Drink||sotro||minum||inu, Maori and Tongan; nomon, Kissa|
|Dog||amboa||—||kirehe, Maori; muntoa, Bouton; ahua,|
|kivahy, fandroaka||Kissa; yahoa, Keh; ambua, African; aai, Silong|
Note.—y in Malagasi terminations has same sound as i in other words.
|Earth||tany||tana||one-one, Maori; tana, Kayan|
|Eye||maso||mata||mata, Tongan; moto, Javanese;|
|macho, Sauhili (African)|
|Fire||afo||api||ahi, Maori; afi, Tongan; afu, Amblaw; aow, Liang and five others; apoi, Silong|
|Fish||loaka||ikan||ika, Maori and Tongan; iwak, Indonesia. (Roots: ka, Siam; in, Teochew) akan, Silong|
|Fruit||voa||boa||hua, Maori; fua, Tongan; vuan, Ahtiago; woya, Gah; fuan, Wayapo|
|Father||ray||—||hunarei, Maori; amay, Kayan|
|Good||tsara||—||ala, Bajow; laha, Tidore; saya, Kayan|
|Growth||tombo||tumbo-an||tupu, Maori; tubu, Tongan|
|Great||lehibe||libeh (more)||lahi, Tongan; lalahap, Kissa|
|High||avo||—||mow, Tongan; bo, Kayan|
|Heaven||lanitra||langit||rangi, Maori; langi, Tongan|
|Hole||lavaka||lobang||poka, Maori; luoava, Tongan|
|Head||loha||ulu||loha, alo, lua, kulu, African|
|Horns||tandrok||tandok||tanro, tando, African; tang, Thibetan|
|Hot||hafana||panas||umpana, Amblaw; bafanat, Ahtiago; buhaha, Sula; mana, Kissa|
|Hair||volo||bulu||huru, Maori; fulu, Tongan; olofolo,|
|maromanana||Massaratty; folo, Wayapo; vulu,
African; pul, Thibet
|He||izy||dya or iya||ia, Maori and Tongan|
|I||aho||aku||ahau, Maori; au, Tongan|
|Island||nosy||—||nusa, Javanese and eleven others|
|Liver||aty||ati||ate, Maori and Tongan|
|Mouth||vava||—||fafa, Viti; bawa, Bouton; suara, Batumerah; fafahi, Wokan|
|mur, mamu||mulut||mlumu, Kafir (African)|
|Man||alona||orong||malona, Liang and two others; kolonan, Kayan|
|Mother||reny||—||inai, Ahtiago; inany, Menado; inei, Kayan|
|Nose||uru, orong||idong||ihu, Maori and Tongan; uroh, Bajow; oanu, Bouton; irong, Javanese; iru, Lariki; urong, Kayan|
|Pig||lambu||limbu (cow)||burui Sauhili (Africa); burum, Erob
(Torres Strait); inverse form of Malagasi term
|Root||faka||akar||aka-aka, Maori and Tongan|
|River||ony||songi||uve, Bouton; ongagu, Bolang-hitam|
|Rice||vary||padi||halai, Cajeli; allai, Batumerah; pary, Kayan|
|Raw||manta||manta||mata, Maori; awta, Tongan|
|Sing||mihira||menyeni||hihi, Maori; hiva, Tongan; nahinari, Kissa|
|Swine||kisoa||—||suar, Hindee; soho, Tidore|
|Sweet||mamy||manis||mameko, Bouton; mami, Tidore; may, Kayan|
|Sea||rano masina||ayer masing (sea water)|
|Sun||maso andro||mata ari||ra, Maori; mata alo, Salayer; matin|
|fanjavabe, maheny||dow, Kayan|
|Skin||hoditra||kulit||holit, Teor; kurito, Bolang-hitam|
|To-day||anio hiany||ini hari||inaianei, Maori|
|Teeth||nif, nifo||—||niho, Maori; nifo, Tongan; nifoa,|
|Matabello; nifin, Teor; nio, Saparua|
|Way||aleha||alaman||ara, Maori; hala, Tongan|
|White||fotsy||puti||boti, Sula and two others; umpoti, Cajeli; maphuti, Matabello|
|Walk||mandeha||—||eva, Tongan; malaha, Kissa|
|Water||rano||—||manu, Bouton; oira, Kissa|
|Woman||vehivavy||—||wahine, Maori; vina, Ahtiago; fele|
|Wonderful||mahagaga||maha (great)||maharo, Maori|
|Yams||ovi||ubi||uwhikaho, Maori; ufi, Tongan; uwi, Kissa|
|Year||taona||taun||tau, Maori and Tongan.|
Having thus completed the Glossarial branch of the inquiry in as far as materials and space will allow, I now proceed to the second branch, viz., the Idiomatic, and in this I will pursue the same course as in the other, viz., from New Zealand north and westward, making the Malay language the link of comparison, it being the representative one amongst many others at the west end of the Indian Archipelago and best known to Europeans, and consequently best illustrated in literature. First, then, we commence with Maori and Malay, as follows:—
The alphabet is composed of thirteen letters, viz., five vowels, a, e, i, o, u, and eight consonants—h, k, m, n, p, r, t, w. The New Zealanders had no literature before the advent of Europeans.
When Roman characters are used the alphabet is composed of twenty-one letters, viz., five vowels and eighteen consonants— i.e., counting h soft and h hard as separate consonants.
A great portion of both languages can be traced to monosyllables and dissyllables, some consisting of the root only, and others of a root and a prefixed syllable.
Adjectives and verbs are modified, both in form and meaning, by the reduplication of one or both of the syllables of the root. An adjective with the first syllable of the root doubled becomes plural, thus he rakau pai—a good tree; he rakau pai pai—good trees. It is to be observed, however, that the simple form is used both as singular and plural.
The effect of doubling both syllables of the root is to diminish the intensity of the meaning of the adjective, thus: mate—sick; mate mate, sickly.
In the case of verbs, the effect of the two kinds of reduplication is somewhat different. Thus, kimo denotes winking of the eyes; kikimo—closed and kept so; kimo kimo, frequent winking.
Nouns and adjectives and verbs may all have a prefix—whaka or wha—the effect of which is to make a causal verb; thus whakatangata signifies to make a man or treat as a man; whakanoho—to cause to sit; whakamohio—to cause to know.
The usual passive terminations of verbs are a, ia, hia, kia, mia, ngia, ria, tia, whia, na, ina, and whina. Thus
Poro becomes porou
Waru " waruhia
Horo " horomia
Intransitive, as well as transitive, verbs have a passive voice requiring the addition of a preposition in English to make the sense complete. Thus: noho—sit; nohia— be sat upon.
Nouns of circumstance are derived from adjectives, participles, or verbs by the following suffixes:—Nga, anga, hanga, manga, ranga, tanga, inga, the choice of termination being somewhat arbitrary. Thus:
Mahi makes mahinga
Noho " nohoanga
Titiro " tirohanga
Numerals have certain prefixes—e, ko, toko, hoko, and taki.
Passive verbs sometimes have the suffix tanga. The force of the same is difficult to determine, sometimes having the same effect as ana, thus: hiko tonu ia ki nga ngarehu, apuatanga—he immediately snatched up the burning coals, and crammed them into his mouth.
The syllable nge is sometimes prefixed to personal or possessive pronouns, as nge-au, nge-ona; and sometimes it appears as a suffix to the adverbs pea and koa, thus: peange, koange, but not affecting the meaning thereof.
Well-known words may sometimes be met with in such a disguise that it is difficult, at first sight, to recognise them at all.
Reduplication of adverbs, nouns, and verbs has an intensitive as well as a multiple effect; the doubling of an adjective does not pluralise the noun, but the doubling of the noun itself does so, as sa poko bai—a good tree; poko poko bai —good trees. Also the simple form without the article prefixed may be singular or plural.
The effect of doubling the syllables of the root is to intensify the meaning of the adjective, as sakit, sick; sakit sakit, very sick.
Here kejap signifies to wink; kejap kejap—to wink continuously; but tutup mata signifies to close the eyes.
Here the prefixes bekan or boat are used in nearly a similar manner, as bekan betul —straighten; boat gila—pretend madness.
Verbs, active or passive, have properly no inflections, and are expressed as follows:—-
Habes becomes habes ulih ku
Chukur " chukur ulih ku
Anchor " anchor ulih nia
Here the distinctions are made as follows: bunoh—to kill; ter bunoh—to be killed; the passive voice being here rendered by a prefix.
Here the same principle is carried out by the suffix an. Thus:
Kreja makes kreja-an
Dudu " dudu-an
Tingo " tingo-an
Numerals have no prefixes.
Expression by passive verbs is very common in the written language, the preposition ulih being used after the verb. Thus: Arang berniala sabintur de sintak ulih nia dan masokan mulut nia—burning charcoal was immediately snatched by him, and crammed into his mouth.
Here it does not have an equivalent.
In the search for camphor the Malays disguise the words by inversion, in order to propitiate the hautus, or spirits, whose
One of the causes of this is the possibility of trouble arising from the accidental resemblance of the word to the name of some chief. The mere fact of his name, or a word similar to it, being used in a manner considered disrespectful, might be the cause of a quarrel. The following may serve as an illustration of this:—Some years ago the child of a chief of the Ngatiporou tribe received the name of Te Wairama, In consequence of this the word honu came into common use for water, and the usual word (wai) was avoided for fear of giving offence.
The same word may at different times assume functions of several parts of speech. Thus, nouns are frequently used as adjectives to denote the material of which the thing is made. Thus: he whare raupo—a house built of raupo; he roto tuna--a lake in which eels abound.
The accent is on the first syllable as a general rule.
Scheme of a Maori Verb.
assistance they invoke. The word sungei, a river, is a term of opprobrium in Jambi, where the word moara is used instead. Any Scotchman so unfortunate as to have the name of McIntyre is a great cause of difficulty to the Malays, who will, in wellbred circles, not pronounce his name on any account.
Here we have the same principle, as: Sa ruma atap—a house made of thatch; lahar ikan mati—a pool of dead fish.
This obtains in Malay.
Scheme of a Malay Verb.
1. Inceptive—Past or Future.
Ka karanga ia—he called or began to call; he will call or will begin to call.
Kahore ia e karanga—he began or will begin not to call.
De pangil nia—he called or began to call.
Mau pangil nia—he will call or will begin to call.
Tida pangil pun mulai dya—he began, etc.
Tida mau pangil pun mulai dya—he will, etc.
2. Imperfect—Past, Present, or Future.
He karanga ana ai—he was, is, or will be calling.
Kahore ia e karanga ana—he was not, is not, or will not be calling.
Dya ada pangil—he is calling.
Dya suda ada pangil—he was, etc.
Dya nanti pangil—he will, etc.
Dya tida pangil—he was or is not calling.
Dya tida nanti pangil, or he will not, etc.
Tida nanti de pangil ulih nia
3. Perfect—Past, Present, or Future.
Kua karanga ia—he had, has, or will have called.
Kahore ia kia karanga—he had not, has not, or will not have called.
Suda ada de pangil—he had or has, etc.
Nanti suda de pangil—he will, etc.
Tida suda de pangil—-he had not, etc.
Tida suda nanti de pangil—he will not, etc.
4. Indefinite Past.
I karanga ia—he called.
kihai ia i karanga—he did not call.
Dya pangil, or pangil ulih nia—he called.
Tida de pangil ulih nia—he did not, etc.
5. Indefinite Future.
E karanga ia—he will call.
E kore ia e karanga—he will not call.
Dya mau pangil—he will, etc.
Dya tida mau pangil—he will not, etc.
6. Narrative Form.
Karanga ana ia—he called.
Dya suda (or ada) pangil—he called.
Kaua e karanga—do not call.
Jangan pangil—do not call.
Kia karanga ia—that he should call.
Sebab de pangil ulih nia—that he, etc.
Me e karanga ana ia—If he were calling.
Kalau ada de pangil—If he, etc.
He karanga—to call.
As we have a more extended grammar than the above of the Tongan (or Tonguese), with which the Maori may be considered to be intimately connected, both being dialects of the same Polynesian language that extends from the Samoa group, or Navigator Islands, over the Society, Marquesas, and Sandwich groups, a few comparisons with it will not be inappropriate, seeing that there are some constructive and glossarial differences.
The alphabet consists of seventeen letters, five of which are vowels and twelve of which are consonants, viz., a, e, i, o, u, and b, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, s, t, v respectively. Duplication of words takes place, as in Malay and Maori, under very similar conditions, thus: toji, to peck, when doubled (tojitoji) means to peck repeatedly; noko, the hip, when doubled (nokonoko) means a large hip. Of this class of words there are many examples. In other cases no new idea is suggested in connection with the primitive term, as in the above examples; but its meaning is made emphatic or becomes intensified. Thus the word niji, vain or vanity, when doubled means the same thing in a strong or superlative sense. There are, however, exceptions to the above rule which need not be entered into here.
There are two classes of articles: (1st) those which precede common nouns—koe, ae, he, and the indefinite article ha; (2nd) those which are only used before proper nouns, viz., ko and a.
The masculine and feminine genders are formed by the words tangata (male) and fafine (female) following the noun, of which there are parallel examples in Malay and Maori.
The plural signs are gaahi, kau, tunga, faga, otu, and fuifui. The uses of these are various. Our space will allow of only one or two examples by way of comparison.
Kaun-kreja, or Kaun ber kreja fellow workmen.
In the declension of nouns there are no inflections, which is also the case in Malay. Adjectives follow the noun in Tongan, with few exceptions, which also holds good in Malay.
The personal pronouns form a class of words in the Tongan and the Polynesian dialects generally more numerous than in most other languages, and they are always used with peculiar precision. They have also the power of indicating, by different prefixial and terminal particles or letters, the inclusive and exclusive sense in the dual and plural numbers of the first person only.
From the above cause the declensions of these pronouns are more elaborate, of which an example is given below :—
Nom. Ko au—I, or me.
Ko kita—(familiar only)
Gen. Ooku—of, or belonging to me.
Dat. Kiate au—to me.
Iate au—in me.
The personal pronouns have great variety, and in their uses nicety of meaning, thus :—
Aku. used in literature principally.
Goh used vulgarly.
Hamba tuan used by inferiors in speaking to superiors.
Angkau used in literature principally.
Lu—used by superiors in speaking to inferiors.
Inchi used between equals.
It is considered to be rude to use the pronoun when speaking to masters, fathers, grandfathers, mothers, or grandmothers, thus tuan, pa, to or dato, ma or ma nenek
Abl. E au—by me.
Meiate au—from me.
The form and changes of the verb in Tongan are exceedingly simple. In fact, it may be said that there is but one conjugation for the regular verbs of every description; but the auxiliary signs of the verb vary in the past and future tenses.
Euphonic terminations are a or i, and ekina, eina, aki, hia, atu, and age; as oku ou tabu'i koe. With slight exceptions verbal roots undergo no changes in conjugation; they are destitute of those inflexions which indicate moods, tenses, number, or person. The conjugation of the Tongan verb is therefore accomplished by the use of certain auxiliary signs, particles, and words. Example:
are used under such circumstances respectively.
Dya, before a verb used indifferently.
Nia, after a verb
The same sentiment prevails when speaking of masters, fathers, etc.; and the same rule applies in the third person.
By the proper use of the pronouns I have seen the key to the goodwill of the villagers effectually used. By a critical knowledge in these, courtesy, contempt, arrogance, love, candour, dissimulation, etc., can be indicated. The natives have a keen perception of the various shades of meaning.
This is also the case with Malay verbs.
Euphonic terminations occur in tau, taui —to know; ajar, ajari—to learn; etc. The other principal suffixes are kan and an, as boat, boat-kan—to do.
These remarks also apply to Malay, as below:
Conjugation of a Regular Verb.
1. Affirmative Form.
Oku au alu—I go, or am going.
Aku ada purgi—go, etc.
Oku ma alu we two go (exclusive)
Oku ta alu (inclusive)
Kita dua purgi—we two, etc.
Oku mau alu—we go (ex.)
Oku tau alu— (in.)
Kita purgi—we go.
2. Negative Form.
Oku ikai teu alu—I go not.
Aku tida purgi—I go, etc.
Oku ikai te ma alu—we two go not.
Kita dua purgi—we two, etc.
Oku ikai te ma alu—we go not.
Kita tida purgi—we go, etc.
Past or Imperfect Tense.
Neu alu—I went.
Aku suda purgi—I went.
Naa ma alu—we two went.
Kita dua suda purgi—we two went.
Naa mau alu—we went.
Kita suda purgi—we went.
Perfect and Pluperfect.
Kuou alu—I have gone.
Aku suda ada purgi—I have, etc.
Kuo ma alu—we two have gone.
Kita dua suda ada purgi—we two, etc.
Kuo mau alu—we have gone.
Kita suda ada purgi—we have, etc.
Teu and keu alu—I shall or will go.
Ahu mau purgi—I shall, etc.
Te or ke ma alu—we two shall or will go.
Kita dua mau purgi—we two, etc.
Te or ke mau alu—we shall or will go.
Kita mau purgi—we shall, etc.
Alu koe—go thou.
Purgi angkau—go thou.
Alu akimoua—go you two.
Purgi angkau dua—go you two.
Alu akimoutolu—go ye.
Purgi kamu—go ye.
Alu or ke alu—to go.
Of adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections, no remarks are called for further than that there are some words, or nearly similar words, common to both languages.
General remarks on the above branch will be better left till near the conclusion of this paper. I will therefore proceed to the next step, viz., a consideration of the idioms of the Malagasi and Malayan tongues, as follows :—
The emphasis is placed on the penultimate of dissyllables, and on the anti-penultimate of trisyllables and polysyllables, as in—
The emphasis is placed on the penultimate of dissyllables, as ia—
But in the case of tri- and poly-syllables, accent varies with the terminations, as in—
Having no literature, when Roman letters are used twenty-one suffice, sixteen of which are consonants and five are vowels, viz., a, b, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, v, y, z.
Having no known primitive literature, its alphabet is borrowed from the Arabs, composed of thirty-six letters, thirty-two of which are consonants and four of which are vowels; but when the Roman alphabet is used twenty-three letters suffice, eighteen of which are consonants and five of which are vowels, viz., a, b, t, j, d, r, z, s, f, p, h, k, g, l, m, n, u, o, w, h (soft), i, e, y.
A great portion of the roots of both languages can be traced to monosyllables and dissyllables, as—
Roots, in general, are nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. When they are common substantives or adjectives they become verbs by adding a vowel or syllable, or by changing the last syllable, as: sotro—drink;
Roots may be nouns, adjectives, or verbs. When the former they become verbs by prefixing a syllable, and sometimes by suffixing a vowel, as: mula—beginning; memula or mula-i—to commence. When the
Note.—y in the Malagasi vocabulary, when used as a termination to a word, has the same sound as i on the Continent of Europe or e in English.
sotroy—let it be drunk; hanina—food; hano—eat, or let it be eaten.
There are also certain prefixes added to roots of derivative nouns, such as fi, faha, etc., and suffixes, as ana, na, vana, etc., which affect the initial and ultimate letters of each word, a few examples of which are given below by way of illustration :—
Faoka, s. Clearing off
Mamoaka, v. To clear off
Fara, s. Anything rubbed
Mamara, v. To rub or scrape
Farana, ad. Level
Mamarana, v. To level
Feno, ad. Full
Mameno, v. To fill
Fody, s. Returning home
Mamody, v. To return home
Fono, s. Shrouded like a corpse
Mamono, v. To kill
Fotsy, ad. White
Mamotsy, v. To Whiten
Hahy, s. The dried by fire
Mamahy, v. To dry by fire
Hay, s. Knowledge
Mahay, v. To know
Hantona, s. Hanging
Menantona, v. To hang
Hariva, s. Evening.
Hataka, s. A petition
Mangataka, v. To beg
Hatona, s. Approach
Mamatona, v. To approach
Havokavoka, s. Beating
Manavokavoka, v. To beat
Helatra, s. Lightning
Manelatra, v. To flash
Heloka, s. Iniquity
Manameloka, v. To condemn
Hevitra, s. Thought
Mihievitra, v. To think
Hinaka, s. Pomelling
Maninaka, v. To beat
Hofa, s. Rent
Manofa, v. To pay rent
Hombo, s. Nail
Manombo, v. To cause to grow
Hozona, s. Shaking
Manozongozona, v. To shake
Kekitra, s. A bite
Manekitra, v. To bite
Lalo, s. A passing by
Mandalo, v. To pass by
Lama, s. Slipperiness
Mandama, v. To lubricate
Lanto, s. The act of arranging
Mandanto, v. To arrange
root is a verb, the word becomes a substantive by a suffix, as: makan—to eat; makanan—food.
The prefixes to roots are me, men, meng, pe, pel, pen, ber, etc.; and the suffixes are an, kan, i, etc., the former of which sometimes affect the initial letters, either by elision or substitution. Thus, surat—writing, becomes meniurat—to write. Other examples are below :—
Buka, s. Clearing off (as of forest)
Membuka, v. To clear off
Tara, s. A rub
Meniara, v. To rub or scrape
Rata, ad. Level
Memratakan, v. To level
Peno, ad. Full
Memeno, v. To fill
Mudy, v. To go up a stream
Memudy, v. Ditto; a common mode of travelling in Malaya
Buno, v. To kill
Pembuno, s. A murderer
Pembunohan, s. An execution
Memuno, v. To kill
Iambuno, s. The kill
Perbunohan, s. A place of execution
Putih, ad. White
Memuti, v. To whiten
Api, s. Fire
Taro de api, v. Dry it
Panday, ad. Clever. Pandian, s. Clever[ness]
Berpanday, v. To be clever
Gantongan, s. Act of hanging
Memantong, v. To hang; but gantong in general use
Hari suda pitang, s. Evening
Mintakan, s. The act of begging
Memintakan, v. To beg
Dataugan, s. The act of approaching
Menatang, v. To approach
Pukulan, s. A beating
Memukul, v. To beat
Halilintar, s. Thunderbolt
Berkilat, v. To flash
Chelaka, s. Misfortune.
Berchelaka, v. To cause misfortune
Fikiran, s. Thought
Memikir, v. To think (fikir usually)
Gasa, s. A beatin
Meniasa, v. To beat
Upa, s. Hire
Meniupa, v. To hire
Tumbo, s. A sprout or spike
Menumbo, v. To sprout
Goyangan, s. Shaking
Bergoyang-goyang, v. To shake
Bakiran, s. Cut, as with a file
Bukikir, v. To file
Lalu-an, s. A passing by
Menialu, v. To pass by
Lema limbut, ad. Softly
Ber-limbutkan, v. To smooth
Ator-an, s. The act of arranging
Berator, v. To arrange
Latsa-bato, s. Dropping a stone
Mandatsaka, v. To drop
Lavaka, s. Hole
Mandavaka, v. To make a hole
Lemy, s. Softness
Malemy, v. To be soft
Loto, s. Filth
Maloto, v. To be dirty
Mandoto, v. To make dirty
Safo, s. The act of caressing
Manafo, v. To caress
Sara, s. Hire of a canoe, etc.
Manara, v. To hire
Sasa, s. The act of washing
Manasa, v. To wash
Setra, s. Obstruction
Manetra, v. To face opposition
Soratra, s. Writing
Manoratra, v. To write
Tady, s. A rope
Manady, v. To make rope
Taingina, s. Act of mounting
Manaingina, v. To raise up
Takalo, s. Barter
Manakalo, v. To barter
Tambatra, s. Heap
Manambatra, v. To heap
Tanty, s. A basket
Mananty, v. To endure
Taranaka, s. Generation
Manaranaka, v. To produce the same species
Tenona, s. Weft
Manenona, v. To weave
To, s. Truth
Mankato, v. To follow truth
Tondro, s. Pointer
Manondro, v. To point
Vala, s. A small rice field embankment
Mamala, v. To partition
Valy, s. An answer
Marmaly, v. To reply
Vela, s. Dung
Mamela, v. To leave
Voa, s. Fruit
Mamoa, v. To bear fruit
Vono. See Fono
Zaitra, s. Needlework
Manjaitra, v. To sew
Zaka, s. Strength
Manjaka, v. To rule
A compound word is formed either by repeating the same, or by uniting others to it, as: kely—small; kelikely—rather small; sain'olona—human mind, from saina, mind, and olona, man.
The succeeding word in a compound expresses the quality of the preceding, as: zanaka-lahy—son or sons, from zanaka, child, and lahy, male; tanan'ankavanana—right hand.
Lattakan-batu, s. Dropping a stone
Melatta, v. To drop
Lobang, s. A hole
Bekan-lobang, v. To make a hole
Lema, s. Soft
Berlema, v. To soften
Kotor, s. Filth
Berkotor, v. To be dirty
Meniotor, v. To make dirty
Sapu-an, s. The act of cleaning with the hand, etc.
Meniapu, v. To clean
Sewa, s. Hire of anything
Meniewa, v. To hire or rent
Basa, s. The washing of one's hands
Memasa, v. To wash
Stru, ad. Unfriendly
Ber stru, v. To be unfriendly
Suratan, s. Writing
Meniurat, v, To write
Taly, s. A rope
Memboat taly, v. To make ropes
Naikan, s. The act of mounting
Menaikan, v. To get up
Tukuran, s. Barter
Ber tukar, v. To barter
Tambahan, s. A heap
Menambah, v. To heap
Menanti, v. To wait
Anak anak, s. Offspring
Per-anakan, v. To beget
Tanunan, s. Weft
Bertanun, v. To weave (usually tanun only)
Tunto, ad. Certain
Bekan tunto, v. To make certain
Tunju-an, s. Pointer
Menunju, v. To point
Batas, s. A rice field embankment, or small dam
Mematas, v. To embank
Bali-an, s. A return
Membalas jawab, v. To reply
Berah, s. Dung
Memberah, v. To stool (usually berah only)
Bua, s. Fruit
Ber-bua, v. To bear fruit
Jaitan, s. Needlework
Menjait, v. To sew
Gaga-an, s. The act of applying force
Bergaga, v. To strive.
So, also, we have kitchi—small; kitchi-kitchi—very small; and s'orong—one man, from sa, one, and orong, a man.
So, also, we have anak-laki—son or sons; tangan-kanan—right hand.
When there is an elision of a vowel it is specified by an apostrophe, as: tanan'olona—human hand; or otherwise, as in masoandro—sun, from maso, eye, and andro, day.
There are three definite articles—i, ra, and ny; i and ra are prefixed to names of persons to distinguish them from common terms; i is prefixed only to proper names of places. The article ny is applied to nouns, and is definite.
Verbal nouns are derived from verbs, and are formed by changing m into mp and f, as: manoratra—to write; mpanoratra—writer; fanoratra—mode of writing; fanoratana—things used for writing.
Nouns have three numbers—singular, dual, and plural.
Singular. Omby iray—a bullock.
Dual. Anabavy—a brother and sister; kambana—twins; izy roa lahy—the two men.
Plural. Olona maro—many people; omby ireo—these cattle; tranon-tsikia—our house.
The above are only a very few examples.
Gender.—The masculine and feminine genders are distinguished by different words, or by adding the words lahy and vavy—male and female.
Case.—The nominative precedes the verb when the agent is the most emphatic word; but it follows when the opposite, as: miteny aho—I speak; mitoetra aho—I stay.
Nouns in the possessive case are expressed as follows: tanan' olona—a man's hand; tendrok' omby—a bullock's horn.
Nouns in the objective case are thus placed: manoraty ny taratsy ny zazalahy—the boys write the copies.
So, also, have we di'orong—they, from dya, these, and orong, men; again, matahari—the sun, from mata, eye, and hari, day.
Definition is effected by the use of the words di and itu, as: di orong—the men; itu orong—these men. There is no indefinite article, but the word si is sometimes used in place thereof, as: si-anu—a person, or so-and-so.
And here we have surat or meniurat—to write; peniurat—a writer; meniuratan—mode of writing; per-suratan—things used for writing.
The numbers do not take so elaborate a form, but yet they have exposition, thus:
Singular. Domba satu—a sheep.
Dual. Ade-brade—Brother and sister; kambari—twins.
Plural. Orong baniak—many people; domba itu—these sheep; ruma-kita—our house.
Here we have laki and bini, as applied to man and wife; and jantan and betina, as generally applied to beasts.
Limbu jantan—a bull.
Limbu betina—a cow.
Anak laki—a son.
Anak betina or perampuan—a daughter.
The noun both precedes and follows the verb, the latter the more so in the written language, as: aku kata or kata ku—I speak; minanti ku or aku minanti—I wait.
The possessive case takes a similar position, as: tangan orang—a man's hand; tundok limbu—a bullock's horn.
Here: meniuratan turut-i ulih anak laki—the boys follow the writing.
An adjective follows the noun when the latter is the most emphatic word, as: lehi-lahy hendry—wise man; but when the contrary, so the position is altered, as: hendry ny lehilahy.
The system is doubtful, both positions being in force, as: laki bijak—a man wise; and busoh nama—a bad name. These are transposable by the context.
Up to ten have already been described (see Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. V.). The teens are differently constructed from the Malay, but twenty, thirty, forty, etc., are precisely similar.
The Malagasi numbers being more similar to those of other races in the Indian Archipelago than to the Malay, one or two examples are here only given.
Sa ratus—one hundred.
Faha roa—the second.
Faha dimy—the fifth.
Faha zato—the hundredth.
The possessive pronouns are ko, nao, ny—my, thy, his or her; and nay, ntsikia, or tsikia, nareo, ny, or njareo or jareo—our, your, their.
The demonstrative adjectives have various forms, the primary ones of which are-given, as under:
They precede and follow the words, thus: ity lamba ity—this cloth; ireo zaza ireo— —these children.
Participial adjectives are derived from verbs: mividy—buying; nividy—bought; hividy—about to buy; voavidy—bought:
Compound adjectives are formed of two simple words or more with hyphen between, as: fotsi-volo—white haired.
Conditional adjectives are formed by adding koa raha, as: tsara koa raha tsara—better if there be any one good.
The superlative degree is used when the quality of one thing exceeds that of two or more.
|Tsara.||Tsara noho.||Tsara indrindra.|
|Ratsy.||Ratsy kokoa noho.||Ratsy indrindra|
The pronominal affixes ko, nao, ny—singular; nay, ntsikia, nareo, ny, or njareo—plural, have the same power and signification, when joined to verbs in the passive voice, with that of the personal pronoun in the nominative case with verbs in the active voice, as: manoratra aho—I write; soratako—written by me, i.e., I write.
The relative pronouns are ilehy or lehy—that; izay—that which, etc., as: ny omby izay no vonoiny ny olona—the bullocks which were killed by the people.
Examples of reflective pronouns are as follows: izaho tena hiany—I my own self alone; izaho tena mahafantatra—I my own self know.
Ka dua—the second.
Ka lima—the fifth.
Ka ratus—the hundredth.
After nouns, possessives are ku, kau, and nia—my, thy, his or her; and kami, kamu, and diorang—ours, yours, theirs. Before nouns, punia is interplaced, as: aku-punia—my or mine.
The forms are as follow:
The plural being denoted by baniak (many) after the words, thus: ini kain—this cloth; ini anak baniak— these children.
Membili—buying; suda bili—bought; na bili—about to buy.
Bulu (feather) putih (white)—white feathers or down.
Here by adding kalau ada, as: libih baik kalau ada baik—better if there be any good.
Here the form is:
Baik—good. Libih baik—better. Ter libih baik or baik sakali—best.
Korang — bad. Libih korang — worse. Ter libih korang or korang sakali—worst.
The same forms are used, according to contexts, as: aku meniurat or meniurat aku—I write; surat ku or surat ulih ku—written by me.
The relative pronouns are itu—that; eiya itu—that which, etc., as: limbu itu iang de buno ulih orang.
Here: aku sorong kindiri—I alone, myself; aku kindiri mengatau-i—my own self know.
The verbs in their various phases are so elaborate that salient points can only be noticed. They are simple and reduplicative, as: mandehandeha—to walk often about, the simple verb being mandeha; miteny—to talk; miteniteny—to be talkative.
In their moods there are peculiar inflections, according to the terminal consonants,
Reduplication also takes place, thus: ber jalan—to walk; ber jalan-jalan—to be walking continuously; ber-chakup—to speak; ber-chakupchakup—to hold conversation.
There are properly no inflections, but incipient indications may be noted in the
Note.—k and h final are not sounded in Malay.
the list of which is too long to copy and which also are very intricate and artificial, as, in the imperative: B, ba, be, by; beaza, baza, boa; bao, beazo, boy.
Ex.—To bathe—mandro, mandroa, androy.
The auxiliaries consist of verbs, as: efa—done; voa—shot; tafa—past; mahay—able; avelao—let be. Adjectives.—Tokony — expedient; and mendrikia — proper. Adverbs. — Aza — let not; aoka—enough; mainkia—rather; etc.
words: bermula, bermulai—to begin; ajar, ajari—to teach; tau, taui—to know; lalu, lalui—to pass.
The auxiliaries consist of verbs, as: suda — done; ber—let; bri — give; etc. Adjectives.—Patut—expedient; baik—proper; etc. Adverbs.—Suda—enough; hales—finished; etc.
Indicative Mood — Present Tense.
1st person. Mampianatra aho—I teach.
2nd person. Mampianatra hiano — Thou teachest.
3rd person. Mampianatra izy—He teaches.
1st person. Meng-ajar ku or aku—I teach.
2nd person. Meng-ajar kau or angkau—Thou teachest.
3rd person. Meng-ajar nia or dya—He teaches.
1st person. Mampianatra izahey—We teach.
2nd person. Mampianatra hianareo—You teach.
3rd person. Mampianatra izareo—They teach.
1st person. Meng-ajar kami—We teach.
2nd person. Meng-ajar kamu—You teach.
3rd person. Meng-ajar diorang—They teach.
1. Nampianatra aho—I taught.
1. Ada meng-ajar ku.
1. Hampianatra aho—I shall or will teach.
1. Nanti meng-ajar ku.
1. Efa mampianatra aho—I have taught.
1. Suda meng-ajar ku.
1. Efa nampianatra aho—I had taught.
1. Suda ada meng-ajar ku.
1. Efa hampianatra aho—I shall or will have taught.
1. Suda aku habis ajar.
1. Izaho mampianatra—I teach.
1. Aku meng-ajar.
1. Izaho no mampianatra—It is I that teaches.
1. Aku lah iang meng-ajar.
1. Aoka hampianatra aho—Let me teach.
1. Berkan meng-ajar ku.
1. Raha mampianatra aho—If I teach.
1. Kalau meng-ajar ku.
1. Mahampianatra aho—I can teach.
1. Bulih meng-ajar ku.
Present. Mampianatra—to teach, or teaching.
Present. Meng-ajar kan.
The Simple Passive.—Indicative Mood.
1. Ampianarina aho—I am taught.
1. Ada bel-ajar ku.
1. Aoka hampianarina aho—Let me be taught.
1. Ber-aku bel-ajar.
1. Raha ampianarina aho—If I be taught.
1. Kalau bel-ajar ulih mu.
1. Ahampianarina aho—I can be taught.
1. Bulih aku bel-ajar.
Potentative Verb.—Passive Voice.
1. Raha ahampianarina aho—If I can be taught.
1. Kalau aku bulih bel-ajar-i.
The Pronominal Adjunctive.—Indicative Mood.
1. Ampianariko ny ankizy—the children are taught by me.
1. Belajarkan anak ulih ku.
1. Raha ampianariko anareo—If you be taught by me.
1. Kalau bel-ajarkan angkau ulih ku.
1. Aoka hampianariko anareo—Let you be taught by me.
Ber ajar-kan angkau ulih ku.
1. Ahampianariko anareo—You can be taught by me.
Buli-lah angkau de ajari ulih ku.
Cardinal. Iray monja—only one.
Cardinal. Satu sejak—only one.
Ordinal. Dua kali—twice.
Anio—to-day; anio hiany—this very day; miarakaminizay—instantly; sahady—already; rahateo—before-hand; taloha—before; omaly—yesterday; afak'omaly—before yesterday; hiara kaminizay—immediately; ampitzo—to-morrow; isam bolana—monthly; isan-taona—yearly; tsia—no.
Ini hari—to-day; hari ini—this very day; sakarang ini—instantly; sadiah—already; hadapan—before-hand; dehulu—before; kalamarin—yesterday; kalamarin dehulu—before yesterday; sakarang ini—immediately; beso—to-morrow; ber-bulan—monthly; ber-taun—yearly; tida—no.
Ety—here; tany—there; manodidina—around; na ato na eny—whether here or there.
Sini — here; sana — there; koliling—around; sini atau sana—here or there.
Be brapa—how much; samomoa—all.
Lakas lakas—be very quick; tida—no.
Of conjunctions, interjections, and repletives, there are no close affinities between the two languages.
The article I is prefixed to the names of places, towns, and villages, and also to the names of persons, as: Iambohipeno—the village called Ambohipeno; Ifaralahy—the name of a man.
The article Ra is only prefixed to the names of persons when they are addressed with respect or with a consideration of superiority, as: Ra-lahimatoa—the name of a man Ramatoa.
The article Si is prefixed to villages, as: Si-rangun—the village of Rangun; and to persons, as: Si-japar—the man called Japar.
The article Tun or Tuan is prefixed to the names of Europeans and Arabs by way of special consideration, and as a mark of superiority, as: Tuan Smith or Tun Hajee.
The adjective is generally placed after the noun, as: lehilahy antitra—an old man.
The same adjective precedes and follows the noun, as: ity lehilahy ity—this man; ity vato ity—this stone; ireo olona ereo—these people.
The pronominal affix of a noun governs the possessive or genitive cases, i.e., the
The adjectives follow or precede the nouns according to context, as: laki laki tua—an old man; baik rupa nia—good appearance. The adjective is not repeated, as: laki laki itu.—this man; itu batu—this stone; orang itu—these people.
Here the phrase is wang orang, or wang de orang—the money of the people; or
noun that follows it is put in apposition: volony ny olona—the people's money, or the money of the people.
The pronominal affixes that are joined to nouns have the same signification with the English adjective pronouns of the possessive kind.
orang punia wang—the people's own money.
Here the same rule applies, as below:—
Tranoko—my house, i.e., house of me.
Volunao—thy money, i.e., money of thee.
Ombiny—his cattle, i.e., cattle of him.
Ruma ku—my house, etc.
Wang kau—thy money, etc.
Limbu nia—his cattle, etc.
One verb governs another in the infinitive mood, as: mikiasa hanotra aho—I intended to write.
The transitive passive with the pronominal affixes govern nouns and pronouns in the objective case. Soatako ny taratasy—the letter is written by me, i.e., I write the letter.
Here: handak meniurat ku—I intend to write.
Here we have this example: Surat ter surat ulih ku—the letter is written by me, etc.
The adverb qualifies the verb, as: mano-ratra tsara izy—he writes well.
Here: Meniurat baik dya—he writes well.
Conjunctions connect words in the following manner: tany sy lanitra—earth and heaven; nandeha izahay fa nitoetra hianareo—we went away, but you remained.
The copulative conjunction dia connects words that are put in apposition and verbs, as: Izaho mivavaka aminy Iehovah dia Andriamanitra Tompony ny lanitra sy ny tany—I worship Jehovah, even God the Lord of heaven and earth.
Here: Tana* dan langit—earth and sky; pigilah kita tingal-lah angkau—we went, etc.
Here it is: iya itu, as, aku memuji pada Yahowah iya itu Alat Allah iang ada Tuhan de surga dun bumi (The terms langit dan tana—sky and earth—would not convey the correct idea to the Malay as it seems to do in Malagasi.)
Interjections are placed before personal pronouns, as: lozako re—woe is me.
The interrogative repletives moa and va, are placed before nouns and pronouns, and often verbs and adjectives, as: tezitra va ny olona?—are the people angry?
Here the expression is: rosakan saya—woe is me, or destruction is upon me.
Here the expression is ka; thus: satru-ka di orang?—are the people at enmity?
The accent is placed on the first of dissyllables, on the second of trisyllables, and on the antipenultimate of polysyllables.
Refraining from remarks on the above till we reach near the conclusion of this paper, I now proceed to the last branch, viz., Phonetic Comparison, commencing with the Maori, as previously done.
Vowels are simple sounds properly, and consonants articulations; by the junction of these the illimitable expressions of all languages are recordable.
[Footnote] * In terminations h and k are used unnecessarily by following the Arab orthography.
But in this branch of the enquiry we have more to do with the mode of creating the sounds and articulations. This is, for the most part, effected by a slightly opened mouth, by the breath, the tongue, and the lips. As the vowels are expressed by the simply opened mouth, they have no other designation; but it is otherwise with the consonants. In the languages under review consonants are divided into labial, sibilant, palatal, dental, aspirate, and compound articulations, viz., dento-labial and dento-palatal, and also, in a small degree, palato-nasal. Neither the intonations of the Chinese, the deep gutturals of the Hindustanee, the rolling vibrations of the Tamil, nor the harsh sibilants of the Arab have existence. Now, it may be surmised that this principle prevails with primitive tribes as it does with single beings in their infancy—that the more primitive or infantile they are the fewer will be their articulations, the less their known wants, the less elaborate their modes of expression. Thus, in the manner that water finds its own level, the first outpourings travelling furthest, so we find in tribes and languages that a parallel exists. I have already stated some cases of this in my former paper, and I need only here allude to the furthest travelled of the Polynesian tribes, viz., the Sandwich Islanders, who have only six consonants in their alphabet. The particular tribes that we now have to do with, have, as regards the Maori, only eight consonants, and as regards the Tongan, only twelve. In observing children of any nation commencing to articulate, it will have been noticed by most of you that labials are first mastered, as in pa and ma; probably next aspirates, and then dentals, then others according to the chapter of happy accidents that make nature's operations so varied and interesting. Thus, in the word “ship,” one child may fall on a dental for the first consonant and another on an aspirate; or for the word “food,” one may choose a labial, another a palatal. Hence we see a clue to the great variety of articulation of the same word fossilized or preserved in different and distant tribes who have parted in past ages. As an example of this principle I may mention the case of a country-born lady in India, who had never left her native country, telling us that “she was dirty, but her husband was dirty more,” meaning that “she was thirty, but her husband was more than thirty.” In thus speaking she merely used the articulation and idiom of her native country. So much seems necessary, by way of preface, before we commence at New Zealand, and institute a phonetic comparison between the Maori and Tongan; but before doing so I must also remark on the common transmutation of vowels—many cases may be quoted in our English tongue—but confining our examples to the languages under review, I may state that the Malay of Menangkabau terminates his words with o, while the Malay of Malacca does so with a, as sayo, saya. Again, in other dialects, i is transmuted into e, and a, into u, yet the words so altered may be from one root.
Maori and Tongan.
Each language, or more properly dialect, of the great Polynesian language, has five vowels, but, as stated before, the Maori has only eight consonants, while the Tongan has twelve. Each have two labials, m being common to both. Maori has no sibilants, Tongan only one. Maori has only one palatal, Tongan two. Each have only one dental. Maori has two aspirates, Tongan one. Maori has no dento-labials, Tongan two; and Maori has two dento-palatals, Tongan three, as shown below:—
|Maori||p, m||—||k||t||h, w||—||n, r|
|Tongan||b, m||s||k, g||t||h||f, v||j, n, l|
Now, looking at the influence of this selection of their articulations in their respective dialects, we will see the effects on their phonologies in the following words:—
Potiki, a child, in Maori, becomes bibigi in Tongan.
Kuri, a dog, in Maori, becomes guli in Tongan.
Taringa, the ear, in Maori, becomes telinga in Tongan.
Ahi, fire, in Maori, becomes aft in Tongan.
Pua, a flower, in Maori, becomes fua in Tongan.
Ngaro, a fly, in Maori, becomes lango in Tongan.
Wera, hot, in Maori, becomes vela in Tongan.
Puaka, a pig, in Maori, becomes buaka in Tongan.
and so on. Thus we see how, in a closely allied dialect, divergences commence by the simple, unregulated action of the tongue on different parts of the mouth; also by one tribe having, in process of time or by contact with more highly developed languages, gained and adopted more.
Again, by reducing both dialects to one system of spelling, we find that by taking several sentences of twenty words each, at random, the Maori has 100 vowels for every sixty-three consonants, while the Tongan has 100 vowels for every sixty-two consonants; thus, though differing in the number of consonants in their respective alphabets, they may be said to be nearly equally soft or vocalic in their speech.
Maori and Malay.
Proceeding on the same principle, we come now to compare Maori and Malay phonetically. The Malay alphabet, as stated before, has five vowels and eighteen consonants, i.e., if we allow h soft and h hard to count as two; but, as I doubt the propriety of this, I may suggest that there should be only seventeen consonants. The h soft phonetically really has no existence, and has been adopted by European writers who blindly follow the Arabic system, where the paucity of vowel characters has necessitated the introduction of the final letter “ha” to many words actually ending in a, e, i, o, or u.
It will be seen below that Malay has three labials to the Maori two, two sibilants to the Maori none, two palatals and dentals to the Maori one, three
aspirates to the Maori two, one dento-labial to the Maori none, and four dento-palatals to the Maori two.
|Malay||b, p, m||s, z||k, g||d, t||h, w, y||f||j, n, l, r|
|Maori||p, m||—||k||t||h, w—||n, r|
The effects of this on the languages will be seen by the following examples:—
Huka, agree, in Maori, becomes suka in Malay.
Ahi, fire, in Maori, becomes api in Malay.
Hua, fruit, in Maori, becomes bua in Malay.
Huruhuru, hair, in Maori, becomes bulubulu in Malay.
Kohatu, stone, in Maori, becomes batu in Malay.
Mahana, warm, in Maori, becomes panas in Malay.
Ngahuru, ten, in Maori, becomes sapulu in Malay.
Rima, five, in Maori, becomes lima in Malay.
Tokutohu, direct, in Maori, becomes tuju in Malay.
and so on. Thus, with a knowledge of the bases of orthography in different languages, one radical may be traced (even though it may assume a different form) to great distances. The cause is seen in the result, so, because the Maoris have no letter b, they pronounce bua as hua, etc., yet the radical, wherever it germinated, was common to both.
Again, by comparing several sentences in each language, we find that in Malay vowels are to consonants as 100: 122, against 100: 63 in Maori. This indicates a wide difference in articulation, due no doubt to the approach of the Malay to the consonantal languages of Asia, from whence they borrowed. Hence Malay is phonetically more forcible in expression than the languages of Polynesia.
Malagasi and Malay.
The Malagasi language, as stated before, has five vowels and sixteen consonants. Comparing the latter with Malay, each have three labials, two sibilants, two palatals, and two dentals; the Malagasi has one aspirate to three in the Malay, two dento-labials for one of Malay, each having four dento-palatals. Thus, their orthography rests on a nearly equal basis, as below:—
|Malay||b, p, m||s, z||k, g||d, t||h, w, y||f||j, n, l, r|
|Maori||b, p, m||s, z||k, g||d, t||h||f, v||j, n, l, r|
The effects of this will be seen in the phonology, thus:—
Toaka, toddy, in Malagasi, becomes tuwak in Malay.
Ova, change, in Malagasi, becomes ubah in Malay.
Ovy, yam, in Malagasi, becomes ubi in Malay.
Vono, kill, in Malagasi, becomes buno in Malay.
Voa, fruit, in Malagasi, becomes bua in Malay.
Rivotra, wind, in Malagasi, becomes ribut in Malay.
and so on. Hence the same original expressions are clothed in the articulation peculiar to each language, so as to conceal their identity until the principle of their construction is set forth.
Now, comparing several sentences in each language, we find that in Malagasi the vowels are to the consonants as 100: 92, against 100: 122 in Malay. Thus, as the consonantal languages of Asia are departed from, the speech becomes more soft and vocalic—a principle which we have seen has, had more extended effect in the spread of the cognate tongues easterly, i.e., over Polynesia.
Reverting, then, to the glossarial branch of the subject, in order to fairly weigh the respective affinities of the different races under review, as read by language, I must recall your attention to the fact stated in my former paper as to the relative number of primary words retained by an European language after eight hundred years of disconnection; these amount to only about one twenty-sixth of the whole. Mr. John Crawford, by his investigations, has declared that one fifty-seventh of the Malagasi and one-fiftieth of the Maori dictionaries were Malay, thus proving a connection whose intimacy on European experience can be approximately calculated. But I may venture to remark, from my own enquiries on the same subject, that had the above ethnographer or myself had the advantage of a critical knowledge of both or all languages, instead of only one (the Malay), double the equivalents might be found, and the approaches thus drawn nearer by half. Thus, Crawford states that out of 8,000 Malagasi words he detected only 140 Malayan; while I, out of Griffiths' grammar, containing certainly not more than 500 words, detected eighty, in words that have had preservation throughout the whole region. The effects of peculiar articulation are shown in the following examples:—
and so forth.
Then, as to idiomatic comparison, it will be seen that Malay, Maori, and Tongan are virtually the same, the divergences in structure being slight. In the declension of nouns, or the conjugations of verbs, there are virtually no inflections. The duplication of words, to weaken or intensify their meanings, are common to the three dialects or languages, and the curious elaboration of the pronouns has more or less existence. The relative position of adverbs, verbs, nouns, and pronouns, in the construction of their sentences, also follows one plan. The parallel is remarkably carried through to Madagascar, excepting in the formation of moods and tenses of verbs, where inflection takes place; and in this respect the Malagasi imitates the Tamil of South India, though their glossaries have no relation to each other. In this latter language, as with Malagasi, the tenses are formed by the aid of certain particles called “words standing in the middle,” which are inserted between the root and the pronominal affixes, subject to various changes required by their rules of
grammar. As the pronominal affixes are the same in all tenses, these middle words become the characteristics by which each tense is distinguished. Thus, in this portion of idiom the Malagasi has strong Tamilian affinities, due (if the theory I formerly enunciated be admitted) to the archaic connection with South Hindustan or Barata, and not, in any way, to its more distant connection by relation with Malayo-Polynesia.
In phonetic comparison it will have been noticed that Malay is nearer to Malagasi than to Tongan or Maori, the number of consonants being seventeen to sixteen respectively, the letter v being absent in the former, and w and y in the latter. Yet the Malagasi is much more vocalic than Malay. It may be here stated that there are three dialects spoken in Madagascar—the Ankova, the Betsimisaraka, and Sakalava. The former is by far the most copious, regular, and extensive, and is the only one as yet in which anything has been written or printed. Mr Griffiths characterizes the language as mellifluous and soft, and, equally with the students of Malay in the Indian Archipelago, he panegyrizes it as the Italian of the South. I could never see this, though I have often heard the same sentiment expatiated on. If softness be admirable, then we have it advancing to extreme weakness in the eastern and southern parts of Polynesia, where six to eight consonants are all that are possessed by cognate tribes. Taking Malay as the middle tongue, it is more masculine than the Maori or Tongan, and less vibratory than the Malagasi; thus—
Langit, sky, in Malay, becomes lanitra in Malagasi.
Kilat, lightning, in Malay, becomes helatra in Malagasi.
Kulit, skin, in Malay, becomes hoditra in Malagasi.
Here the Malay expressions have abrupt terminations, while those of the Malagasi vibrate at the end. In this characteristic the phonology of South Hindustan indicates its influence.
Embracing the whole subject then, we have this fact made patent to us: that confined within fifteen degrees of the equator we have one family of languages spreading from Madagascar to New Guinea, and thence easterly to the extremes of Polynesia, New Zealand inclusive; but a breach in which, in this present era, occurs by the breadth of the Indian Ocean. The two portions of the one family situated on the borders of the breach are glossarially and phonetically closer to each other than either of these are to those portions stretching into Polynesia; while, idiomatically, the portion on the west side of the breach—that is Madagascar—shows Tamilian or South Indian affinities. What does this view indicate?
That they all are parts of one original family there can be no question, for when we advance beyond the limit above assigned, as shown before, we meet with Asiatic or Australian nations and tribes, whose languages are of entirely different genius. I have already brought to your notice the
ethnological considerations; these, therefore, should be touched on here as slightly as possible. I will consequently only trouble you in this direction by stating that one author suggests the populating of Madagascar by storm-driven. Malay proas; but physical geography is entirely against this theory. Another suggests the sinking of the earth's surface, so that what was once dry land is now the deep ocean; but the teachings of geology forbid this within the period required, for the deltas of the Ganges, Indus, Euphrates, and Zambesi prove that practical quiescence has reigned for these last 100,000 years, while much under that period is abundance for the displacement or movement of races that we have to enquire into.
In primitive races slave-hunting is the first necessity, for by it they obtain ministers to their ease and lust; mercantile adventure follows. Archaic Hindustan, as one of the most prolific nurseries of the human race, would soon have recourse to these great causes of migration and conquest. Lesser ranges than that shown in Plate III. existed in full force up to within very recent times, and yet in a curtailed manner exist, viz., in the Indian Archipelago, whose basis is in Mindanao, and on the east coast of Africa, whose basis is in Yemen. That the Malagasi migration had taken place from archaic India before the age of letters, their want of literature proves; for we may accept it as an axiom that letters once attained to by a race are never lost. Thus two or more small tribes in Sumatra have letters peculiar to themselves, and the small island of Bali, near Java, has preserved for ages not only a Hindu literature, but a dead language—this against the assaults of Mahommedan zeal and Christian power.
Then, if the migration from South Hindustan to Madagascar took place before the age of letters, we have an indication of its antiquity by the cuneiform letters and hieroglyphics of Assyria and Egypt, whose crude attempts at recording words or deeds date not beyond 3,400 years. At that time South India, or Hindustan, would be extending her expeditions east and west, she being the great centre of trade, and, having the necessities, would also at the same time acquire letters of her own, or borrow them from those close neighbours. That her trade expanded, we may judge by the date of the foundation of Tyre by those great East Indian merchants, the Phœnicians, 3,120 years ago; and that the powerful and wealthy partook of or used their merchandize we may judge of by the Song of Solomon, which, 2,900 years ago, celebrated the camphire of Sumatra and the cinnamon of Ceylon, whose chief marts were South India.* Thus the fossil words of Barata were planted westward
[Footnote] * Vasco da Gama, the first direct European trader to India, at the end of the fifteenth century found the stores of Cannanor, Calicut, and Cochin filled with pepper, ginger, nutmegs, cloves, etc., the produce of South India, as well as of Sumatra, Java, the Moluccas, etc. He also found a Hindoo trader on the coast of Africa, as far south as Sofola. This, in a measure, indicates the influence of ancient India, and proves her the centre of great movements.
in Madagascar over 3,400 years ago. The date of their migration eastward must rest on other grounds than history. That it was very much more remote in past ages than that to Madagascar may be inferred from the incomplete articulations of the Polynesians, who, as the first outpourings, bore away only the first and earlier attempts of a primitive people to express their circumscribed wants in language. When, or at what time, these wonderful people—the Barata—were themselves extruded and obliterated from their original seat by the Thibetan and Arian incursions on Hindustan, we need not now surmise. We may only so far remark that the physiognomy of the modern Malagasi is more Thibetan than Arian.
But, returning to the more immediate object of this paper, it may be truly said that there is no example of a tribe or nation accepting foreign words for their own primary ones. Take, for instance, our own English words for our near relations, the parts of the body, such as head, ears, nose, mouth, etc., or for common objects, such as cow, horse, pig, corn, etc.; all these Teutonic fossil words are indelibly fixed in our language, notwithstanding all its present high culture and the acceptation of French, Latin, and Greek exotics. So it is with the family of languages or dialects under review. The Maori, Malay, and Malagasi, by their fossil-primary words, prove the common origin of their races, i.e., emanation from one focus of dispersion. Again, philology supports our previous ethnological reasons, not only by the above data, but by common idiomatic structure and phonology; and the Tamilian affinities of the Malagasi, disclosed in this enquiry, add evidence to the theory that that focus was in South Hindustan.
Another circumstance may be mentioned, but I do not give great weight to it, viz.: in races so nearly allied by name—the Malayala of South India, the Malaya of Sumatra, and the Malagasi of Madagascar—having each their seats in the mountains of their respective countries, similar conditions may have promoted the migrations, and similar conditions preserved the remnants.
Thus, had Madagascar not existed, or had it not been populated by its present race, our search for the whence of the Maori, as we proceeded westward, might have stopped at the Silong tribe of Mergui, on the eastern shores of the Bay of Bengal; but the above circumstances we have set forth force us to proceed across the bay, and point out, as I did in my former paper, that peninsula, fecund of people, viz., South Hindustan, alone commanding all possible eastern or western maritime migrations, as the only possible “whence” of the Maori.
|Resemble||ahuka huka||sarupa rupa|
|To warm||whaka ahuru||bekan suh||bekan is a causative auxiliary verb, not much used, of the same signification as boat or ber, and is the nearest approach to the whaka of the Maori|
|Fibrous root||aka aka||akar akar|
|Onwards||ake||akhir||last in time|
|Sickness||aitu||sakit pait||literally—sick, deadly|
|To teach||whaka ako||bekan ajar||literally—make learn|
|Swell on sea||amai||omba|
|Light air||angi||angin||wind generally|
|Liberal||atamai||ati bai||literally—heart good|
|Away||atu||situ||thereaway, as pointed by speaker|
|Smoke||auahi||awap api||literally—vapour of fire|
|Pay for||whakaea||bekan beiar||literally—make pay|
|Breathe||whakaha||bekan hawa||literally—make breath (not in use)|
|Scrape||hakuku||kuku||nails of fingers|
|Collect||whaka hiapo||bekan impun|
Note.—Roots, where necessary, are given in italics, and the Malay words here are spelt independent of Arabic orthography, which is usually and improperly followed.
|Hail||huka whatu||ujan batu||literally—rain-stone|
|Grasping||huiropa||rapas ambil||to take forcibly|
|Coarse hair||huru huru||bulu bulu|
|He||ia||dia, or eia|
|That||ia||ia, or eia|
|Raft||kahupapa||kayu papan||literally—wood boards|
|Tree||kai||kaiu||generally wood, but used thus—poko kaiu, trees|
|To eat||kame||makan||inverted, as the basa cappor|
|Old man||karana||katua||the elders|
|Stone of fruit||karihi||biji|
|Pronounced bad||whaka hino||bekan hina||seldom used|
|Thin||kohoi||kurus||or kurui in Kedda|
|Watery||kopu wai||punoh aier||literally—full of water|
|Not||kore||korang||as in korang bai—not good|
|Old man||karaua||orong tua|
|North wind||kotiu||tiup||to blow with the mouth|
|To split open||kowha||bla|
|Maggots||kutu kutu||kutu kutu||many lice|
|For me||maku||ku||I, or me|
|To show respect||mana aki||menaiki||to raise, as with respect|
|To terrify||whaka mataku||bekan takut|
|To teach||whaka matau||bekan tau||seldom used|
|Fountain||mata wai||mata aier|
|Filled with tears||mata waia||mata ber aier||literally—eyes watering|
|Put to death||whaka mate||bekan mati||not used|
|Nail of finger||mati kuku||kuku|
|Cry of distress||ngangi||tangis|
|Shake||whaka oioi||bekan goiang|
|Make good||whaka pai||bekan bai|
|Adorn||whaka pai pai||bekan bai bai|
|Flat roofed||paparu||papan||board, or flat as a stone|
|Short||poto||si potong||a bit cut off|
|Old person||poua||tua||or, orong tua|
|Begin to rise||whakapuke||naik bukit|
|Rotten wood||pukorukoru||phun buru buru||literally—tree rotten|
|To be raised||rangui||angkat|
|Sole of foot||raparapa||tapa|
|Same||rata||rata||as smooth and level|
|In fragments||rikiriki||kichi kichi|
|Old woman||ru wahine||tua bini||properly bini tua (wife old)|
|Sea shore||taha tai||tepi tasi||shore of lake|
|Husband||tahu||tua||head of family|
|Canoe balingplace||taingawai||toang-aier||pour water|
|Slack water||tai mate||tasi mati||not used, but aier mati is the phrase|
|Trample||takahi||takan||to press down|
|Mat to sleep upon||takupau||tekar|
|Sea coast||takut ai||dekat aier||near water|
|Sea shore||tapa tai||tepi tasi||near lake|
|Cause to light||whakatau||bekan tau||cause to know|
|Strange land||tau whenua||benua||land|
|Axe||titaha||titahan||an instrument to cut with|
|Stone||toka||toko bisi||a hammer or iron stone|
|Push forth||whaka toro||bekan tola||not used|
|My lady||tua wahine||tua bini||properly bini tua—first wife, who is always the highest in rank|
|Mainland||tua whenua||tua benua||old country—properly benua tua|
|Write||tuhi tuhi||tulis tulisan||many writings|
|Cause to grow||whakatupu||bekan tumbu||doubtful if used|
|Heart of tree||uho||tubo|
|Yam||uwhikaho||ubi kaiu||literally—yams of wood, or woody yams; applied in Malay to tapioca|
|Flood||wai puke||aier bukit||water of hills|
|Milk||waiu||susu||in Maori the root is u, in Malay su, the former being composed of two words—wai and u, i.e., water of pap, the latter, being merely a duplication|
|Sit||noho||dudu||the root is o, converted in Malay to u. Both words are mere duplications. d not being pronounceable in Maori, n and h have been taken instead|
|People||hunga||orung||the root is un, the Maori having the usual suffix, the Malay a prefix|
|Age||tau||tua||by transposition of vowels|
|Argue||totohe||tutur||to commune. Vowels convertible|
|Artist||tohunga||tokung||Malay has no suffix|
|To charge or rush||amo||amo||to charge fiercely with bloody intent|
|To boast||whaka ranga ranga||bekan garang||to simulate boldness|
|Hail||whatu||batu||literally—stone; hail in Malay being called batu ujan, or stone rain|
On referring to Crawfurd's investigation of this subject, it will be seen that he states (see Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. IV., p. 28) that in a Maori dictionary of 5,500 words he found 107 that were Malay, i.e. one fifty-first part, or about twenty to the 1,000. In the above list it will be seen that I have detected 235 Malay words in a Maori dictionary containing about 6,000, i.e., one twenty-fifth part, or about thirty-nine words to the 1,000. I have no doubt that a person familiar with both languages, instead of with only one, would detect double the words that I have; at the same time I must remark that of the 235 words sixteen are compounds, and thus mere repetitions, but this is also greatly the case with the dictionary itself, which goes a long way to swell its volume. The ratio I have given may therefore not be considered unfair.
In as far as I had opportunity to compare the glossaries thoughout, from Madagascar to New Zealand, it is my opinion that Malay is nearer to Malagasi than it is to Maori, and I may venture the suggestion that some of the languages of the Molucca group or of Ceram—such as the Lariki or Ahtiago—will be found very much nearer to Maori than Malay is.
In looking over the above list it should be borne in mind that the articulation of the Maori, as compared with Malay, is imperfect, the former having only the following eight consonants, viz.: h, k, m, n, p, r, t, w. Thus the greater comprehensiveness or elaboration of the Malay will be found in the following comparison :—
Thus, in most instances, the causes of difference are to be seen in the imperfect articulation in the Maori, or want of the required consonants to give the words the full character, not in any radical divergence of sound.
I have not alluded to the Maorioris of New Zealand in this paper, as I have been unable to obtain a vocabulary of their dialect or language. I would suggest that in the interest of philology this should be obtained from the Chatham Islands, where a remnant of the race yet exists.
|English.||Maori (Murihiku Dialect).||Malay Archipelago.|
|Boat (canoe)||waka||waga, Waiapo, etc.|
|Chopper||tuki-tuki||toko (hammer), Malay|
|Husband (companion)||hoa||koan (companion), Malay|
|Yellow||whero||mera (red), Malay.|
The numerals of the Murihiku Maori are distinguished by prefixes, viz., ko in the first, and e in the rest. This principle is developed in Polynesia and the islands of and near Timorlaut.
Note.—The Rev. I. F. H. Wohlers, of Ruapuke Island, Foveaux Straits, was so good as to compare Wallace's 117 words belonging to thirty-three dialects of the Malay Archipelago with the Murihiku Maori, and to send me a list of the same. The above extract of it represents the variations and differences from the North Island dialects as given in Williams' dictionary.
On the Botany of Tahiti.
Manuscript (Author unknown) found amongst the papers of the late William Swainson, F.R.S.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 12th November, 1870.]
I Have somewhere seen the observation that “the botany of islands is particularly interesting”; this may be the case, but I think it must be construed merely to mean that the study of the plants is interesting, for assuredly in general the plants of isolated islands are in themselves particularly uninteresting, so far as their mere beauty is concerned, and, for myself, I must confess that I always feel a sensation of fatigue at the idea of hunting out the name of a plant which does not recommend itself by beauty, utility, odour, or curiosity of structure. In the botany of Tahiti I do not know of more than three Phænogamous plants peculiar to the island which deserve cultivation for their beauty or utility; the ferns possess many handsome species, but nothing very remarkable, unless it is in one which is spiny, but which I have never seen, and in another (Angiopteris erecta) for its enormous size. The Lycopodiaceæ are very numerous and beautiful, like all the tribe, and in some measure make up by their abundance for the paucity of flowering plants; there are on Tahiti and the adjoining island of Morea about sixteen or seventeen species, and perhaps one hundred and sixty of ferns. Of flowering plants I cannot find more than three hundred in all the catalogues put together, and, doubtless, many plants will have been counted twice, or even three times, in this computation, because many plants would be called different names by the different botanists who found them; and, moreover, I have included every common plant (such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), even although it may be well known by the natives not to be indigenous. The list is also swelled by those common plants which are found on all the tropical islands of each ocean, and which in reality belong to no country in particular, as I see in the list published in the “Ann. Nat. Hist.,” by Professor Henslow, of the plants of the Keeling Islands, that all the species common to those islands and Timor are also to be found on the shores of the small islands about Tahiti, except Acacia farnesiana; an Acacia is found, but it is not farnesiana, but an unarmed, downy species, which I have never seen in flower. There is also a much larger species, with leaves resembling those of lophantha, but with pods four times as large. Garlandinea bonduc is scarce; Ochrosia parviflora is not marked as being at Timor, but is abundant here.
The littoral plants found here, in addition to those of the Keelings, are two species Pandanus, Pisonia inermis and procera, one of which was probably the tree which Mr. Darwin saw at the Keelings, and which attains a diameter of five or
six feet, with particularly soft wood. The wood is considerably softer than the lower part of a cabbage stump, but it is nevertheless used by the natives for canoes when they cannot get any better wood. Paritium tricuspis, Ximeria elliptica, a Capparis with angular fruit, Ipomœa pes-caprœ, and several others. Convolvulus braziliensis, Agati coccinea, Erythrina indica, Hernandia sonora, Morinda citrifolia, Suriana maritima, Heliotropium aromaticum, a Mucuna, Sophora tomentosa, Canavalia littoralis, with Barringtonia speciosa, very rare. A little further from the sea will in some places be seen a considerable variety of plants, the most conspicuous of which are Barringtonia, Terminalia glabrata (very rare), Calophyllum inophyllum in stony places, Ficus tinctoria and prolixa, Spondias dulcis, and Inocorpus edulis, mixed with great quantities of Hibiscus tiliaceus and tricuspis (Partitium), and, more rarely Thespisia populnea and Aluerites triloba. In some districts there are also found in this region whole woods of the Ito, Casuarina equisetifolia.
In the more cultivated parts of Tahiti all these plants have been nearly exterminated, and their room is filled by the bread-fruit, cocoa-nut, and orange trees, with an underwood composed entirely of the guava. This plant, which has been introduced within the memory of man, is now the most common plant and the most complete weed in the island. It covers the whole of the low land, and also the hills to the height of about 500 feet, forming a dismal-looking scrub of about ten feet high; above the height of 500 feet it has not yet been able to contend successfully with the thick growth of fern and higher still the native forest, but you see it springing up in every open spot in every part of the island: never was there an instance of a plant so completely taking possession of a country. Four other exotic plants are found among the guavas—Cassia purpurea, Asclepias carassavica in moist spots, an Indigofera with long spikes of copper-coloured very small flowers, and a blue flowered Indian Crotalaria, of which I forget the specific name; this last is the only one which accompanies the guava in its excursions up-hill. These four plants form almost all the common weeds of waste places. The weeds of cultivated soils are very few in number, and may likewise have been introduced; the most common are a Bœmeria and a Phyllanthus.
After passing the region of guavas the hills are generally entirely covered with Gleichenia hermanni, growing on the steep sides so strongly that it is almost impossible to pass through it. Occasionally interspersed are bushes of Metrosideros villosa, and, as you get still higher, M. lucida (?) in much greater abundance.
At about 800 to 1,000 feet the Gleichenia becomes almost lost in the scrub of Metrosideros lucida, Dodonœa viscosa (?), Melastoma taitense, and a species of Vaccinium which was called by Bertuo Arbutus mucronata. These plants are bound together by two large species of Lycopodium, and underneath them are
to be found magnificent specimens of Schizœa forsteri. After passing this belt of dry shrubs the numbers of species increase. Often the native forest reaches the crests of the hills, but if it does not the Gleichenia becomes mixed up with grasses, Cyperaceœ, and other ferns, and Lycopodiums; this sort of vegetation continues to the tops of the highest hills that anybody has ever yet ascended —about 3,000 feet; if, however, the hills are moist and covered with wood vast numbers of ferns will be found at the elevation of 1,500 feet, and it is probable that if one could reach the highest peaks (4,500 feet) a still greater number would be found; but I do not expect that there would be a like increase of exogenous plants, because I find the same species of trees very widely dispersed in respect to height after passing the true valley region; but perhaps this might not be the case in the centre of the island, which I have never been able to visit in consequence of the war.
The chief portion of the wood in the upper portions of the hills, in sheltered situations, is composed of Aleurites triloba, with interspersed trees of Weinmannia, Carissa grandis of Bertuo, and one or two Urticaceœ and Euphorbiaceœ, which I have not seen in flower. The more exposed sides are generally covered with Rhus apapi of Bertuo, the largest tree which belongs exclusively to these islands; it may sometimes, but rarely, be found 18 inches diameter and 15 feet high. As the apapi is a tree which does not give much shade, the ground beneath is generally covered with an under-bush of greater variety than is found in other places, among which the most common are Alstonia costata, Cyrtandra biflora, and another species much resembling it, Omalanthus, sp., Bradleia, Melastoma justense, Commersonia echinata, Grewia, and one or two other Byttrenaceœ, besides the ubiquitous Metrosideros lucida and Dodonœa viscosa, the whole bound together by the large species of Freycinetia, with its red bracts, Jasminum didymum, some Mucunas, and two Alyxias. These portions of the mountains are undoubtedly the richest in varieties of shrubs; unfortunately they are always so steep that it is next to impossible to explore them. The botanist must confine himself to the mere ridge, where the path runs, which ridge is generally not more than a foot broad; if it should spread out it again becomes covered with fern and ti, or Dracœna plants. The extreme ridges of all the hills I have visited have been covered with Metrosideros, Dodonœa, Nelitris jambosella, and Vaccinium bushes; on one or two places I have found a Coprosma.
Immediately under these sharp crests, with their heads reaching to the level on which grow the more hardy plants, are often to be seen, in tempting but disappointing proximity, many plants which are apparently to be found nowhere else, but which it is impossible to reach, while, at the same time, they are almost within one's grasp. The crests are, as I said, very steep and narrow—in fact, mere walls of earth; they are covered with thick fern and
bushes, so that the abyss on each side is completely hidden from view, and even if it was possible to stick on to a bank of slippery earth, few people would like to try the experiment if they could not see a bottom to arrive at in case they slipped. I am a tolerably good climber myself over rocks or up trees, but I confess that I never could muster courage to descend any of those earth cliffs, particularly after a small experiment which I made one day in climbing up a steep earthy ridge about as wide as a horse's back, which experiment resulted in my slipping back about fifty feet, to the great detriment of my nails and breeches in front, and thinking myself exceedingly lucky at last to fall in with a Metrosideros bush, which brought me up just at the edge of a still further descent of about 150 feet, where I should not have had the advantage of slipping down astride. After this, when I saw any tempting-looking plants just beneath me, on the crest of a hill, I contented myself with speculating on the probable distance I should have to travel ere I reached the bottom if I over-reached myself, at the same time taking particular care not to do so.
The most common tree to be found in such situations is a large Araliaceous plant, with compressed leaves and about ten consolidated styles, also a plant-perhaps of the Celastroma, which was procured by my friend M. Vesco, in flower, with tufted entire leaves, like a Daphne, and axillary racemes of flowers with an irregular number of lobes and stamens, and apparently a large disk in place of style. I send you a bad specimen of it, which was all I could get.
The common tree-fern of the mountains (a Cyathea) is the ugliest I ever saw, and at the same time one of the most curious; it is slender, and quite smooth in the trunk, showing the scars only at considerable intervals, and, apparently in consequence of its great rapidity of growth, the leaves have their bases quite distinct from one another, and more than an inch apart, instead of being, as in all the other species I have seen, quite closely overlapping. It is also curious in throwing out a species of tuberous offset from the upper part of the trunk; these are attached by a small neck to the parent, and in time throw out leaves. I suppose that in time they become too heavy and fall off, making young plants. I hope to send you one or two of them alive to England. There is also a Cyathea, very like C. dealbata of New Zealand, but it is very rare; it is not proliferous. A slender one, not proliferous, and a very handsome one, with a stout stem, the leaves of which much resemble those of C. medullaris of New Zealand; it is sparingly proliferous. I think I have live plants of this also. I do not know of any more species of tree-ferns, but the natives, who call the curious wool of the Sandwich Island tree-fern mamau (mammow), say that the same substance is found, although very rarely, in their own mountains; it is, however, possible that they allude to
the hairs which cover the bases of the leaf-stalks of the large Cyathea I have just mentioned, and which resembles the mamau, or puru as it is called in the Sandwich Islands, in colour.
I do not find that any of these are eatable in the young state, like C. medullaris, but one of the species of Angiopteris produces a curious sort of sheathing process at the base of the fronds, which, when roasted, is very good food for a hungry man—very solid and, I should think, nourishing. The other species of Angiopteris I have occasionally seen with leaves fifteen feet long, and a root stock of a nearly spherical shape and two feet in diameter; it is, without exception, the most enormous fern I ever saw; the leaves emit an agreeable perfume when bruised or cut. I think there are three species, but am not certain if the one with somewhat digitately-branched leaves, which I have only once seen in the valley of Piré, is different from the eatable one.
I observe in the “Companion to the Bot. Mag.” what I think must be an error, although by whom or how made, I cannot at present point out. In the “Specimen of the Botany of New Zealand,” under the head of Gleichenia hermanni, is appended an observation purporting to be by Forster, which can only apply to the plant which I have always supposed to be Pteris esculenta, and which is the common fern of New Zealand, growing everywhere and universally eaten by the natives. I am nearly certain that they do not eat the root of any species of Gleichenia, in fact the Gleichenias have small, hard, wiry rhizomes. G. hermanni is the common fern of Tahiti; I do not believe the same species grows in New Zealand, and am sure that it is not eaten or eatable in Tahiti. Again, under the head of Pteris esculenta, is attached a doubt if it is a native of New Zealand, and it is stated that Forster gathered it at Tahiti. Now, if I am right with regard to the identity of Pteris esculenta with the common fern of New Zealand, no such species of Pteris grows in Tahiti, nor do the natives of this island eat the rhizome of any Pteris whatever—at least I have made every enquiry among the natives, and am also assured that it has not been met with by either one of four very industrious collectors (French officers) who have been in the habit of making botanical excursions for the last two or three years whenever their customary avocations permitted, and I have often heard from them expressions of wonder as to what the Pteris esculenta of the catalogue could be. I therefore think that there must have been some changing of labels or mixture of specimens, which has led to a confusion of two very different species of plants.
Among the few eatable plants peculiar to the South Sea Islands, and apparently indigenous in Tahiti, may be mentioned, as deserving the first rank from its utility, the féi (fé-i), Musa fehi of Bertuo. This plant in many places covers the mountain sides almost to the exclusion of every other vegetable, and forms a great portion of the food of the natives at all times of the year.
The young plants may be easily distinguished from the banana by their pointed and wrinkled leaves, but the larger ones only by the presence of black patches on the stem, which are not always very apparent, or by cutting it through, when it throws out a great quantity of deep purple juice. The plant when well grown is as large as the largest size banana, and bears a large upright scape of green flowers, about six under each bract or spathe, which is also green. The fruit, which, even when ripe, is completely hidden by the leaves, is of a dark orange-yellow colour, very closely crowded on the scape, the whole raceme being of a somewhat conical form, from the lower fruit being the largest. The eatable part is of a bright yellow colour, like gamboge, and is hardly eatable in a raw state; not being sweet it is a very good vegetable when cooked; or, when fully ripe, if well baked, it closely resembles baked sweet apples. It has the curious property of colouring the urine of a bright yellowish-green colour, which, however, does not continue; but although the same quiantity of the féi may be eaten every day, after about a week the original colour of the secretion will be restored. I am not aware that it has any particular effect on the urinary organs, but the Europeans in general imagine that it has. The plant appears difficult to cultivate at the sea level, and I am afraid I shall not succeed in carrying any living ones even to New South Wales. It does not in general bear seed; I have once seen it, but the seeds were abortive. Nevertheless, there is a plant in sparing cultivation at Tahiti which is evidently a hybrid between the féi and the banana, producing an enormous spike of fruit, which takes a horizontal direction. From the circumstance of the féi not producing seed, I have been disposed to doubt its being really indigenous to Tahiti; I should like much to know if there are any well-known instances of plants being barren in their true natural locality. An indigenous banana in New Holland produces seed abundantly.
The restrictions on personal liberty imposed by the French authorities at Tahiti, in consequence of the war, are very vexatious. It is necessary to go to the “Ministre des Affaires Euroéennes” for a permission every time one wishes to go outside the posts, which are, all but one, quite in the town. I had a special permission to pass the more distant post whenever I pleased, in order to go to a garden formed by Capt. Bonard, of the frigate “Uranie,” where I had planted a number of my plants. This permission was headed “Permission jusqu'a nouvel ordre”; nevertheless I was once turned back by the sergeant of the guard, under the pretence that all permissions required to be renewed each month, and mine was dated two months before. I was so well known that I was generally suffered to pass without any interruption. It was very little satisfaction to complain, and have the man reprimanded for his stupidity; and this led me into a rather amusing collision with the sentries at another advanced post. A friend of mine, M. Eugene Vesco, a
young surgeon belonging to the “Uranie,” had agreed with me to go on an excursion up the mountain immediately behind Papeite (the settlement), but, in consequence of some rumours of native attacks, the authorities, when he applied the day before for permission, refused to allow him to expose himself. As I was in no danger I received a pass for myself and a native; however, the native was afraid to go, and so I was obliged to go by myself. As the ascent of the mountain would take several hours I set out before daylight, in order to get over the hard work in the cool of the morning, and consequently passed the advanced post for which my permit was granted before the sentries were well able to see me. After passing this post (where I was not asked for my pass), I immediately began my ascent, and the dawn overtook me on the narrow crest of a hill which was in full view of another block-house, distant about a quarter of a mile, but separated by a small valley divided into two by a small hill rising in the middle of it. When the sentries first discovered me I was just on the top of the first ascent, and at the commencement of a long, nearly level, crest, about five feet wide, which led towards the higher hills, but in a direction nearly parallel with the crest or range on which the blockhouse was placed. I had gone on perhaps two hundred yards, when I noticed somebody calling; I had heard it before, but never thought it was for me. I looked round, and saw a great commotion among the soldiers, five or six of whom had run down the side of their hill, and were in the first little valley. However, seeing that I stopped, one of them called out to me to know where I was going. I told him, and that I had a permission, which I took out and held up for him to see; this did not satisfy him, and he said I must come dow and show it. I told him that I had passed the post in the valley of St. Emilie, and that I would not take the trouble to go so far out of my way as to go to him, but that I would wait for him if he chose to come to me. “If you don't come we'll fire “—muskets pointed accordingly; but as I was determined not to undergo the detention and unnecessary fatigue of climbing up and down three steep hills merely to gratify the curiosity of a French soldier, I merely said—“tirez si vous voulez,” and jumping off the crest on to the slope was out of their sight in an instant. Not exactly liking to trust the “tigre-singe,” in case they should pursue me, I made the best of my way along the side of the hill, well knowing that by the time they arrived at the place where they saw me I should have quadrupled my distance from them, because I was progressing along a nearly level line, while they were climbing two very steep hills; and I was quite right in my calculation. When I came to the end of the ridge, and in order to continue my ascent was obliged to show myself, I saw that only one had reached the path where I had been, and at the distance which I had reached I did not much fear his one musket, especially as I knew that he must be tolerably out of breath with his exertions.
I sat down on a stone and knocked the dirt out of my shoes, just to vex him, and in five minutes more was in a place where I knew very well he would not dare venture to pursue me.
The tops of these first ranges of hills are frequently quite bare of vegetation, apparently owing to some poisonous ingredient in the soil, which is of a bright red colour, like ochre; when anything does grow on these red patches, which are always very much cut up by watercourses, it is the Metrosideros villosa, which clings to any small portion of brown soil that may have been brought down from a higher level by the rains, and makes a miserable sort of living in the midst of desolation. Where the soil is not red it is covered, in patches only, with a few dry grasses, particularly a Cenchrus, Bidens australis, stunted grasses, and Gleichenia. After passing these barren spots I came to a path along the side of a hill, which was more fertile, and was covered with other grasses, a pretty Hedysarum with purplish flowers, stray Diosmeas and Tamuses, also a large plant which I never saw anywhere else, and which appeared to be a Smilax, but it was not in flower. Several species of Cucurbitaceœ and Convolvulaceœ grow among the grass, and also several ferns worth collecting.
At the bottom of this slope, just where the path entered the bushy fringe of the little stream, is a tree of a species of Pittosporum, with insignificant greenish flowers, rare in most parts of Tahiti, but not uncommon in Morea; in general appearance, when in fruit, it strongly resembles P. undulatum. The path crosses the stream just above a pretty little cascade, overshadowed by a clump of bamboos, which grow from near the bottom; on the other side, in a sort of niche, is a plant of the féi. There are two little basins of rock through which the water passes before it falls, and it is altogether a charming place for a pic-nic. I have once or twice made my breakfast there before going further; as it is the last water on the road it is necessary to fill your bottles here for the day's supply. I intended to have made this spot a sort of wild garden, but had only time to plant one tree, a Bixa oullana, which some future botanist will perhaps wonder at finding in such a spot. On the burau and pirita trees here (Hibiscus tiliaceus and Nauclea nitida) are to be seen four or five kinds of orchideous epiphytes (Dendrobium biflorum and D. myosurus), the plant called Cgontidium umbellatum, and the two orchids so common on the small islands of the group, one with equitant leaves, and the other without any leaves at all, but merely a mass of green roots with a little scape of almost invisible flowers; I suppose them to be the plants called Epidendrum fasciolata and equitans in the catalogues, because formerly every plant which was not a Dendrobium was an Epidendrum, and vice versα.
It is no use to ascend this valley; I came down it once, and got nothing for my trouble but torn clothes. On crossing this little stream I passed under
an orange tree, and found a path leading up the face of the hill. On reaching the top I found that the crest was not over a foot wide in many places, and that on the other side was a little valley, a tributary of the Vallée de la Reine, full, apparently, of bamboos, and therefore not inviting a descent. Along the crest is to be found abundance of a curious little Ophioglossum about an inch high in the larger specimens; also good specimens of the universal Vandellia crustacea. About half a mile further up the ridge, the valley to the right begins to show some variety of vegetation; there are several fine trees of pua (Carissa grandis, But.), Weinmannias, Rhus apapi, and one species of Cyrtandra with large flowers and small leaves, which is, perhaps, different from the common ones found further up the mountain. There are also several good ferns to be found here. About a mile further on the path led alongside of a precipice, which forms one of the sides of the deep Vallée de la Reine, bare of vegetation in consequence of fires. Here are those large rambling Lycopodiums in great abundance, a curious Restiaceous (?) plant with leaves so exactly like those of an Iris that before I saw the fruit I thought it must be a Libulia, several Carices, two or three species or varieties of Metrosideros lucida, two species or varieties of Vaccinium, Arthropodium sp., erroneously calledcirrhatum (a very rare plant), and Schizœa forsteri, and many other plants. Along the side of the valley he will see Commersonia echinata, Grewia mallococca, and perhaps one or two other plants resembling them, Aplonia costata, and many other trees. On the opposite side of the valley, to the left, near the highest point of the range, I found the only specimen I have seen of a Euphorbiaceous tree, with cordate downy leaves, and the female flowers strongly resembling Stillingia.
Following on the side of the precipice, I came at last to the commencement of the bushy top of the mountain. Just before I entered the wood I found, on a tree of Dodonœa viscosa, two orchids, which I have never seen anywhere else, and, which, I believe, nobody else has ever succeeded in finding. At the time I discovered it the tree was quite covered with the plants. They are two of the smallest orchideous epiphytes I ever saw; the most abundant consisted of a green root only, of a triangular or doubly-keeled shape, running along and closely adhering to the bark, just in the way of the roots of Gunnia; the flowers were very small and inconspicuous. The other had leaves like a Gamya, but the flowers were almost invisible, and the scape was covered with very large foliaceous bracts. As I fortunately preserved the only two flowering plants in spirit, you will be able to determine the genera from the specimens.
I had now entered the damp bush surrounding the top of the mountain—the richest locality for plants that I know of in Tahiti—and every step added something new or rare to my collection. Here are to be found together
all four species of Cyathea, the commonest being the large hairy species, one of the handsomest I know, Ophioglossum sp., and O. pendulum, an excessively rare plant,* two or three Acrostichums, aBotrychium, two beautiful epiphytal Lycopodiums, and a most exquisite terrestrial flat-branched species resembling a fern in appearance, two species of Angiopteris, the gigantic sweet-scented species, nai or nahi of the natives, of which there is here the largest specimen I ever saw, with leaves fifteen feet long, and the smaller eatable species, or pura (purra), which the natives tell me is only found in three places in the island. I observe that they are very difficult to distinguish in the dry state; when alive they are easily distinguished by the leaflets of the pura being somewhat crumpled or bullate, while those of A. erecta are longer and quite flat. Here, too, is the prickly fern found by M. Vesco, but overlooked by me; in fact, the wood is full of rare ferns, both terrestrial and epiphytal. Here I found a plant which I should feel certain was a Commelina if I had not been before deceived with what I afterwards found to be an orchid. I have never been able to find it in flower, but have live plants doing well. I have also found anAstelia, but forgot to pick up the specimen which I tore down from the tree which I had ascended for the purpose.
Passing the wood I began to ascend a steep wall of earth which forms the extreme summit of the range, finding on the ascent a plant of the Restiaceœ, with leaves like a Marica five feet long, and, at the top, the Coprosma (which, however, I need not have gone so high for), and the plant I have previously mentioned as possibly one of the Celastraceœ, and which has, hitherto, been only found in this place. There is almost as great a variety among the trees and shrubs as among the ferns, but I do not recollect more than two or three peculiar to this locality; one is an Urticaceous tree with spikes of fruit resembling a Piper; another, a very large-leaved Cyrtandra, making the fifth species in Tahiti. Four species may be found at this spot: two of them slender, twiggy shrubs, and the other two strong, upright-growing plants, with leaves a foot long, and huge heads of sweet-scented white flowers, as large as Achimenes grandiflora; one species is very common in all damp situations inland, whether mountain or valley; it has thin wrinkled leaves; the species which I have only seen here has equally large leaves, but they are fleshy, smooth, and white underneath. It is a strange thing that I have never but once found a fruit on the common kind, although all the others ripen and seed abundantly. In the common sort the peduncles are very short, and the immature seed vessels appear always to be destroyed by the rotting of the great fleshy mass of decaying bracts and calices surrounding them. They would
[Footnote] * It was discovered by my friend M. Vesco that the sporules of Ophioglossum are inflammable, like those of Lycopodium, which they exactly resemble in appearance. Is this generally known?
be superb plants in a stove, and I hope I may succeed in sending them alive to England, as this is the only way by which you will be able to see them, it being quite impossible to dry specimens; they will rot in spite of anything that can be done. I am very sorry I never thought of taking some bottles of spirit up the mountains with me to put them in, or of writing descriptions of them on the spot. There is also growing here another very large-leaved plant, which I at first took for another Cyrtandra; it, however, turned out to be a Cinchoniaceous plant, with enormous deciduous stipules and thick downy flowers three inches long, which I never found but once.
One great disadvantage of going alone on these expeditions was that I could not carry any paper with me, and by the time I returned to Papeite the greater portion of my large specimens of ferns was spoiled by the heat, or by having been crammed too hard into my tin box; and as I had but very little time to spare, and it was very difficult to get any person to do anything out of the ordinary way, I never could manage to find time to make any kind of straps for carrying a portfolio on my shoulders, and it would have been quite beyond my powers to have carried it any other way up the Tahitian mountains.
In coming back I lost my way, in consequence of overlooking the proper place for descending from the main ridge to the watering place I have spoken of. I found out my error in time to have rectified it if I had pleased, but knowing that I was on a ridge which must lead down to the Vallée de la Reine, which I was perfectly acquainted with, I thought I would try if it might not be an easier road than the one by which I came. I had, however, abundant occasion to repent of my temerity, for when I arrived at the end of the high part of the ridge; and had descended a long slope of earth which it was impossible to think of climbing again, I found myself cut off from the valley by a precipice, which I was obliged to skirt for about a mile, through long grass which cut my face and hands, and bind-weeds which constantly tripped me up, over logs and stones, momentarily in danger of falling over the face of the cliff, which, after all, was only about 50 feet high. I at length found a break in the rock through which I managed to slip, and the rest of the way down to the valley, although it was over loose stones over which I was obliged to make my way in a sitting posture for fear of falling, was comparatively easy. If it had not been raining a deluge the whole time not one of my specimens would have been worth anything by the time I got to Papeite; they would have been dry; as it was they were terribly bruised and torn, and, of course, many lost. Another time I lost my whole day's work through missing my way in a valley at the commencement of my journey in the dark, and trying to recover myself by climbing the side of a hill covered with fern (Gleichenia), which turned out to be so strong and high that, although I had not above
half a mile to go before I got to the top, where it was reasonably good walking, I was fairly tired out before I reached any place where I could expect to find any plants worth collecting.
Another time I will give you an account of a journey I made to the camp of the “enemy,” or insurgents, as the French call the independent Tahitians.
Fataua is the name of a valley through which a stream runs that passes within a mile of Papeite, and which was, before the war, the chief bathing-place of the inhabitants. The stream, like most of the others in Tahiti, appears to increase in size as you ascend it, so that at the first crossing place, about four miles from the sea, it appears almost worthy of the name of river, which no one would think of applying to it lower down. In or about six miles after entering the valley there is nothing to be found in it worthy of looking after, it being a dry open valley, and consequently full of guava trees which always exclude all the indigenous vegetation. After crossing the stream about sixteen times you arrive at a division of it into two nearly equal parts. I once followed up the left-hand branch, but found my progress stopped after going about two miles, by the narrowing of the valley, and by the chasm through which the stream flowed being choked up by rocks; the vegetation, too, consisted of Scitamineœ and féis, the neighbourhood of which is always a very good, harvest ground for the conchologist, but very bad for the botanist.
The right-hand stream appears at the first to be smaller than the other, but if followed for about half a mile it again branches into two; this time the left-hand one is decidedly the largest, and, in fact, it is the main stream of Fataua. If it could be followed for about a mile I have no doubt but that a rich harvest of mosses, etc., might be collected from the rocks at the bottom of the cascade, where it falls about 250 feet clear into the centre of a large amphitheatre of perpendicular rocks. This fall I have only seen from above, and I do not know if anybody has ever visited the lower part, or whether it is possible so to do. The scenery—with the mountains sloping down on each side towards the great cavern into which the stream appears to be engulfed— is magnificent in the extreme. Instead of following either stream, I one day mounted the ridge dividing the two lower ones, and, after a little search, found a well-beaten path, which, after following about two miles, brought me in sight of the chief pa, or fort of the natives, which consists of a mud wall with embrasures crossing the valley on the top of a small lateral ridge, just above the waterfall, and facing the shelving precipice along which leads the path by which every one who wishes to enter the upper valley must approach. As the wall of rock below is quite perpendicular for a considerable distance, and the mountains above almost too steep for anything even to grow upon, and, moreover, composed of a soft crumbly sort of greywacke, which is always coated
“with a thin covering of greasy soil; this fort may reasonably be considered as impregnable, in fact ten men might defend it against ten thousand. Nothing here so much convinced me of the cowardice of the Tahitians as seeing this place, and knowing that when the French marched to attack it, they not only advanced to within two hundred yards of it, but that when they got there the natives who were in the fort ran away after firing one or two muskets; fortunately, or unfortunately, the French received orders to return just at the same time, and never knew that the defence was abandoned. As I had this account from the natives themselves at the spot, there can hardly be any doubt of its truth. When I asked them why they did not stay in the fort and kill every Frenchman who attempted to cross the narrow path, they said that there were very few men in the fort, and they were so astonished at the hardihood of the soldiers in coming so far that they never thought of fighting, but threw away their muskets and ran up the mountains as fast as they could. The cowardice and imbecility of the defenders (!!!) of this valley can hardly be understood by a person who does not know the country, but you may have some idea of it when I tell you that the valley must be as narrow and more difficult than the Kyber Pass, with the additional advantage to the defenders of the sides of the mountains being covered with trees, which would effectually shelter them from the fire of the attacking party, and that of 800 soldiers who marched up it, only about forty altogether were killed and wounded. Who can feel any interest in such a pack of cowards? Had they been any other people in the world than Tahitians there can be no doubt that not a Frenchman would have returned alive to tell the tale.
On the road to the pa I found a tree in flower, with handsome leaves growing at the ends of the branches, like a Terminalia, and with a vast profusion of flowers growing out of the trunk and root as well as the branches; these flowers were hexandrous, and appeared to resemble those of Laurinœ, but the fruit was just like that of ægiurus; the leaves of this were lanceolate and simple, but M. Vesco tells me that he found, at Borabora, another tree with the same flowers and mode of inflorescence, of which the leaves were digitate, like Caroliniœ.
Before I had left the stream I saw some way up the mountain what appeared to be a tree with red flowers, but as I had never heard of such a thing in the island I was obliged to content myself (as I could not approach it) with thinking that it might only be the stipules of Nauclea. However, just before I came to the foot I saw, almost ten feet below me, another plant, which I immediately recognized to be the same, and to be an Erythrina, which I take it is quite new, unless it should be the one attributed to the Sandwich Islands under the name of Monosperma. When I arrived at the narrow path it was nearly dark, but I could see a great commotion in the pa; however, I walked
on without taking any notice until I was close enough to hear what they said, when I found that that they had immediately recognized me for a Piritani, or Englishman, and that I was quite welcome. My attendant, a long Yankee of full six feet, presently made his appearance, having lagged behind because he considered it the most prudent course to keep his precious person out of sight until he discovered how I was received. I soon recognized two or three women as old acquaintances, and through their good report was soon made quite at home in the house of the chief, which, not being a large one, was given up to me for a sleeping apartment. After making a good tea with the things I had brought with me, I had a long talk with the natives about the war, and elicited the information I have given you above. Next morning, at six o'clock, I started up the valley, by which I hoped to reach the summit of the high triangular peak of the Crown mountain, as it is called, which is nearly as high as any point in the island.
The valley widened out considerably more after leaving the pa, but as the greater portion had been in cultivation or was covered with fei trees, I did not find much. I found, however, one rock covered with a plant I had previously only seen in the valley of Piré, and which I had then taken for one of the Commelineœ; it was here in flower, and turned out to be orchideous, but very insignificant. It had round, upright, fleshy stems and pointed oval somewhat serrated leaves, so that I think I might be excused the mistake. The first new plants I saw were on a small ridge which we crossed in order to avoid a long bend of the stream; I here found Alyxia stellata, Nelitris jambosella, and the Arthropodium for the first time, besides one or two Myrtaceœ not in flower. About a mile further on I saw a very handsome downy-leaved Metrosideros growing out of a rock in the middle of the stream, and on a hill, which I ascended by mistake, I found two species of a curious tree with jointed branches, like a pepper, opposite oval serrated leaves and long lax racemes of small, blackish fruit. This is not an uncommon plant, but I have never seen it in flower. On the side of this hill I saw great numbers of my new Erythrina in full flower, but only one within reach. They varied in colour from almost white to scarlet, and unfortunately the one I was able to get at was a pale flesh-coloured one; it was entirely without prickles, and had a very downy calyx, and fruit which appeared to be monospermous, but were too young to be certain of. The trees were entirely naked, but some twigs which I brought with me have grown in my plant cases, so that I shall be able to describe it from cultivated specimens. This was the very last plant I found of any interest. I continued on up the valley until about two o'clock without finding anything more. At the point where I turned I passed a tree quite covered with a sweet-scented orchideous epiphyte, which I had not seen before, except in one spot, and Lobelia arborea was very common; but
although this would have been very interesting to my French friends, it was not so to me, as it had happened, curiously enough, that I had never gone out by myself without finding it, and they only knew it from my specimens, having never been able to meet with it, even when I directed them to the spot where I had gathered it. It is a curious enough plant from its true arborescent habit, but the flowers are not handsome, being dark green, stained on the lip with purple; they are somewhat remarkable for their coriaceous texture and for being sweet-scented, a character I do not recollect among Lobeliaceœ. There is a closely allied species at the island of Raiatea, which is much regarded by the natives, who consider it in some manner as sacred to the Queen. It is, I believe, very rare. The flower is white, but otherwise just like the other, save that I do not hear that it is “noa-noa” (sweet-scented); the stems appear very succulent, and the leaves are lanceolate, finely serrated, and very much crowded on the ends of the branches. The native name is “tiari apatai”; “tiari” means a flower, or more particularly the flower of the Gardenia; I never could discover the meaning of the second word. I promised a woman who was going to Raiatea a new handkerchief if she would bring me up seeds or a plant of it, but she did not return before I left. I also promised a sister of the Queen's to give her a plant of the double Gardenia, of which I was the sole possessor, and which is so much coveted that I might have got for it almost anything I had chose to ask. I left the Gardenia with a friend who will give her the plant and forward the seed to me when she gets it, which, through her sister, she will no doubt be able to do.
I found that it would take, as the natives had told me at the pa, a whole day at least to get to the top of the Crown, and I therefore was obliged to give up the attempt for the time, fully intending to return some other day when I had more time at my disposal, but just when I was thinking of again making the attempt I received a message from the natives to request me not to come, because the natives at Punaria, another stronghold at the other end of the pass, were jealous of my having been there. I should still have made the attempt before I left the island if I had not been attacked with an illness which made me fear the effects of walking so much in the water, as I should have been obliged to do in ascending the valley.
Abstract of Lecture on New Guinea.
[Read before the New Zealand Institute, 20th September, 1873.]
The lecturer first pointed out that though New Guinea had been discovered prior to any other island in the Australasian seas—no less than 347 years ago—yet it still remained almost the only terra incognita of the inhabited world, and said he should show geographical features and national characteristics wholly at variance with all preconceived opinions of the shores and people of that great island. He then gave an historical sketch of the different visits made to New Guinea from the year 1526 to the present time, including an outline of the encroachments of the Dutch on the western shores, and illustrated, by an account of the cruel massacre of the crew of the German schooner Franz in last March by the natives under the Dutch rule, how little that nation had done to civilize the western races of New Guinea. Before describing the cruise of the “Basilisk,” the lecturer called attention to the fact that two distinct races inhabit the southern shores of New Guinea—the black Papuans and the light-coloured Malay race. The former occupy the low, swampy, malarious coast from the head of the Gulf of Papua for nearly 1,000 miles to the west. They are perfect savages, the males going entirely naked, and are only elevated above the degraded Australian natives in having fixed homes and in slightly cultivating the land. The latter occupy the southern shores from the head of the same gulf to the extreme east, and are much higher in the scale of civilization, being all decently clothed, good agriculturists, and well acquainted with the art of rude pottery.
The “Basilisk” left Sydney in December, 1872, for the purpose of suppressing the illegal practices against the Polynesians on the pearl shell and běche-de-mer fisheries in Torres Strait. Having made prizes of several vessels which had taken natives from the Polynesian Islands without a license, she proceeded to the S.E. coast of New Guinea, the first point touched at being Yule Island. Between Yule Island and Hood Point—120 miles—the whole of the coast line was laid down by Captain Stanley, of H.M.S. “Rattlesnake,” in 1849; but the only point landed on was Redscar Bay, where, after a very brief intercourse with the natives, hostilities were anticipated, and the party at once returned to the ship.
When about twenty-five miles E.N.E. of Yule Island, the “Basilisk” found herself, at daylight, off a vast extent of drift-wood and uprooted trees of great size. They were first reported as reefs, causing considerable anxiety until daylight revealed their real nature. This led them to suppose that inside Yule Island they would find a large river which might prove a road to
the interior of New Guinea. Yule Island lies off the entrance to a large, well-sheltered sheet of water, now named Robert Hall Sound, where the “Basilisk” remained several days. The island is about 550 feet in height, well cultivated, and fertile. The mainland, excepting some bold headlands, is one vast extent of flat swampy-ground, extending six or eight miles inland to a low range of hills, which are backed up by range after range until they culminate in the magnificent Owen Stanley Mountains, 12,000 to 13,000 feet high. They were not successful in finding a river leading to these high lands. One river, which looked capacious enough to raise their hopes greatly, proved, after its sluggish course had been followed for many miles, to lead nowhere, and to be merely the drainage of the immense surrounding fresh-water swamps. A rapid river emptied itself into that just referred to, but its current was too powerful to admit of the captain's six-oared galley ascending its course far. It was from this latter river probably that the drift-wood seen at sea was derived. The scenery on the banks was monotonous in the extreme. There was a dense growth of mangroves and other moisture-loving trees. With the exception of flying-foxes and screaming, gaudy-coloured birds, there was an entire absence of animal life. Occasionally they came to ill-made native huts, from which a track through the swamp led to some acres of raised ground like an oasis in a desert; these were carefully cleared, and cultivated with yams, taros, bananas, etc. Here also were permanent houses, built, as usual, on poles some eight feet from the ground, with one room only, common to the whole family. Immediately on their appearance the natives hid themselves in the swamp. It appeared marvellous how human life could exist in such a malarious place. Even in the glare of a noon-day sun the air was thick with mosquitoes.
In Robert Hall Sound the ship was always crowded with natives, fresh parties from distant parts of the coast arriving each day. They are a dark copper-coloured race, combining both dark and light shades, decently clothed—the men wearing a breech cloth, the women the usual ti-ti, or South Sea petticoat. The men have their hair frizzled out in a mop, but the women cut theirs short, and tattoo their bodies extensively, which the men never do. They ornament themselves with black, white, and red pigments, variously laid on, and fasten bunches of bright flowers and the plumes of the Birds of Paradise to their heads and shoulders. Occasionally the great beak of the Toucan was worn as horns on each side of the head. The men's mouths were all much disfigured from the excessive use of the betel-nut. Their weapons are bows, arrows, spears, and clubs made of wood and stone. They were totally unacquainted with the use of iron, and infinitely preferred their own stone hatchets to our axes. The barter they most liked was the polished pearl-shells of Torres Strait.
None of their villages are visible from the sea, being placed in the bush in cleared spaces, which are very neat and cleanly kept. In the rear of the villages are generally extensive, well-fenced plantations of yams, bananas, etc. They gladly received their white visitors at the villages. No signs of cannibalism were visible, and they appeared to be a friendly, intelligent people.
Being so distinct a race from the black, naked New Guinea men of Torres Strait, it will be very interesting to ascertain where the line of demarcation occurs. It is, however, probably not far to the west of Yule Island, for at Cape Possession (25 miles to the west), in 1846, Lieut. Yule remarks that the natives varied in shade from nearly black to a light copper colour. Perhaps it is at some spot where the betel-nut first grows to the east of Torres Strait, for the black race never use this, while the light race always do. Some fine specimens of steel sand were found on the mainland near the sea.
During the south-east monsoon Redscar Bay is a wild, exposed anchorage, the surrounding country low, swampy, and malarious, and intersected by many large streams flowing from the Owen Stanley range. Four or five days were spent in vain efforts to reach the mountains by means of these rivers, but in every case after ascending 12 or 14 miles, where the country began to be somewhat open, the current was so rapid, and snags and uprooted trees so numerous, that it was impossible to go further. The river banks are very similar to those at Robert Hall Sound, but are more frequently fringed with a kind of palm without any trunk, but with gigantic leaf-branches forty or fifty feet arching across the river. Some smaller species were armed with innumerable hooks on the edges of the leaves, which lacerated the explorers when, trying to avoid the current, they kept close to the bank. When clear of the swamp the rivers ran between dense tropical forests, the trees of no great girth, but towering to almost fabulous heights—200 to 250 feet—but even this height could not save them from the destructive climbing parasites, which, reaching to the loftiest branches, destroyed their life and hung round the dead limbs in most weird and fantastic shapes.
The largest of the rivers was blocked by an accumulation of logs and snags, which, having become interlaced, formed a bridge over the river, and being continually added to from above had assumed the shape of large vegetated islands, under which the river rushed and foamed furiously. Just below these islands the river was about 80 yards broad, 20 feet deep, and very rapid. At night they suffered terribly from mosquitoes. Not a sign of natives was anywhere seen, but the natives at Redscar Bay said a powerful tribe lived inland, of whom they were much afraid.
Redscar Bay is the ill-chosen site of a Polynesian native mission, belonging
to the London Missionary Society, where the unfortunate teachers, little better than children themselves, are left to their own resources, and are dying off rapidly.
Immediately to the east of Redscar Head the outlying Barrier reef rears itself to the surface of the water, at a distance varying from three to eight miles from the shore, and guards the coast uninterruptedly as far as Hood Point from any rough seas. Simultaneously with the appearance of this guarding reef the entire features of the country change. The whole coast between Torres Strait and Redscar Head is, as a rule, low and swampy, and has probably been formed during the course of ages by the alluvial deposits of the numberless large streams that descend from the great Owen Stanley range. Here precipitous, round-topped, grassy hills, openly timbered and bearing a strong family likeness to each other, spring from the white coral and sand beach, and are backed up by higher ranges inland, while fertile valleys lie between. The coast is strewn with villages, always marked by a grove of cocoa-nut trees. The houses are built after the Malay fashion, on poles, some standing far out on the shore reefs in quiet waters, while others cluster among plantations on the hill-sides. Perhaps this singularly sudden change from a low, muddy, mangrove-bound coast, to boldness, coral, shells, and white sand is caused by the courses which the rivers from the mountains take. From Redscar Head to Hood Point not a single stream was seen emptying itself into the sea; small trickling rivulets and water-holes were found, but no clear, running stream. The soil is of a peaty, black, spongy nature, and probably absorbs the rain as it falls.
Close to the Fisherman Islands of Captain Stanley, the “Basilisk” passed inside the Barrier reef by one of those narrow bottomless openings peculiar to these seas, and anchored in a fine roomy harbour within a harbour (now named Port Moresby and Fairfax Harbour), previously discovered by the boats. The ship remained here some days whilst running surveys were made and the coast explored. In the neighbourhood of Port Moresby the valleys are intensely rich and tropical in their vegetation, but the hills, of which the greater part of the country consisted, were perfectly Australian in their appearance. They had very poor soil, covered with large stones, scattered gum trees, and grass. On some of the hills large quantities of quartz were found, some specimens being impregnated with gold, but no trace of gold was ever discovered among the natives.
The description of the Yule Island natives may generally be applied to the natives of this part of the coast, but they appear even a more harmless and inoffensive race, only one having been seen armed during the month spent amongst them. The canoes, which trade up and down the coast for long distances, calling at different villages, were frequently examined and found to
be equally destitute of weapons. Many of their canoes were of the kind described by Lieut. Yule, of H.M.S. “Bramble,” in 1846, viz., double canoes with a cane deck or platform passing over all and fastening the canoes together. They are propelled by large mat-sails spread between two poles in the shape of the letter V, and steered with long paddles. Their length was about 40 feet, and extreme beam about 8 feet. No treble or quadruple canoes of this description were seen.
In their houses these natives had rough wood spears, and occasionally stone clubs, but no bows. “We roamed over the country and visited their villages as freely as if they were English people. If any of our fellows got lost in the bush the natives took them to their villages, fed them, and offered every hospitality before bringing them back to the ship. Apparently they had never before seen a white man, and their curiosity was great to see and touch our white skins.” From their proximity to Redscar Bay they had learnt the use of iron, and eagerly took axes in barter. Their fishing nets, made from the fibre of a small nettle-like plant, are precisely similar to an English seine, quite as strong, and are universally used from Yule Island to East Cape. Wallabies were the only wild animals; pigs and dogs, the domesticated ones, seen.
Commencing at Heath Point—where Captain Stanley began his running survey of New Guinea—distant about 40 miles from the then supposed south-eastern extremity, the chart shows an unbroken continuation of the Owen Stanley Range to near the supposed South-East Cape. The north-east shores of New Guinea had never been examined, but all the charts agree in representing its eastern termination to be in the shape of a wedge, with D'Entrecasteaux Island on its north-east board. “The reality we have found to be very different, as the rough tracing will show. You will observe that New Guinea finishes its enormous length to the eastward in the form of a broad fork. Heath Point of Captain Stanley is a lofty island lying off the mainland. Thus Captain Stanley, in reality, commenced his survey at the extreme south-east point of New Guinea without being aware of it. It was probably thick weather when his soundings were taken within two miles of Heath Island. Under any circumstances, from the westward, Heath Island shuts out all view of the strait named by me ‘China Strait.’ The tracing will obviate my making any lengthened remarks on the unexpected configuration of the land which it has been our lot to discover. I will briefly say that the south-east extremity of New Guinea sweeps precipitously down from a height of about 2,000 feet to the tranquil shores of China Strait.” On the opposite side is Hayter Island, irregularly shaped, rising to a height of about 800 feet. Hayter Island is separated by a narrow pass (riven asunder by some mighty convulsion of nature) from Mourilyan Island. The latter is of a moderate
height on its southern board, but to the north-east rises to about 1,200 feet, and is separated by Fortescue Strait from Moresby Island, a noble island with peaks nearly 2,000 feet high.
“It is a curious question how it has come about that the mistake of supposing New Guinea to end in a wedge-like shape should have occurred. It may have been that D'Entrecasteaux and the old navigators knew of the existence of the north-east fork, and placed their discoveries relatively correct with regard to it, while they knew nothing of the south-east fork. Modern navigators—making the land from the south—knowing nothing of the north-east fork, and seeing high land of that part of New Guinea over the low land of Mourilyan Island, hastily jumped to the conclusion that it must be D'Entrecasteaux Island. Thus confusion arose and the fork was shut up. It is clear enough now.
“I am strongly of opinion that the route between China and Australia will eventually lead through China Strait, which is free from danger and has safe anehorage everywhere. A ship leaving Sydney would follow the outside route to the great north-east channel, a clear, free sea from that well-known track leading to China Strait, thence to East Cape is a clear run.” There the “Basilisk” was brought up by reefs. Unfortunately a want of stores and fuel prevented them looking for a passage to the south of Lydia Island, which Captain Moresby thinks will undoubtedly be found. He examined the northern shores of New Guinea for about 25 miles in a boat. “Once round East Cape New Guinea is washed by a grand, clear, reefiess sea. A ship might literally sail with her sides rubbing against the coral wall which binds the shore, and find good anchorage in any of the bays where a beach is seen. How far to the westward this description would apply remains to be proved. Of the beauty and fertility of these islands and shores of New Guinea it is impossible to speak too highly. In its general features it strongly reminded me of Jamaica. The precipitous wooded mountains are to a considerable extent cleared and terraced to their very summits with taro and yam plantations, in a way that even a Chinaman might envy, while the valleys produce cocoa-nuts, sago, palms, bananas, sugar-cane, oranges, guavas, pumpkins, and other tropical productions. Mountain streams abound, and contain a delicious eating fish, almost identical in taste and appearance with the English trout.” The torrents which discharge into Sir Alexander Milne Bay are very numerous and large.
At the head of Sir Alexander Milne Bay fine specimens of steel-sand were obtained. At East Cape the natives possessed large lumps of obsidian, but they did not observe that it was used to barb spears or make knives of, as at the Admiralty Islands.
The whole of these coasts, except where the mountains rise too precipitously
from the sea to give foothold to man, which is often the case, are thickly populated. The natives are of a lighter copper-colour than those previously described, slightly limbed and active, with bright, intelligent features, some of them of a decidedly Jewish cast, with light hair. Many would be good-looking but for the disfigurement caused by the betel-nut. Their taste in painting themselves is peculiar. At one time they make themselves a sooty black with charcoal and oil; at another they will paint black spectacles round their eyes, blacken the nose, and lime their cheeks and chins white, giving themselves a most grotesque appearance. They are fond of wearing bright flowers, birds' plumage, and long ornamented streamers of the Pandanus fastened to their shoulders. In some instances the septum of the nose was perforated and a polished bone thrust through. Occasionally they wore human jaw and spinal bones as bracelets and ornaments. The women wore their hair short and were extensively tattooed, the men never. They are fond of making pets of parrots, cassowaries, and different species of a sloth-like marsupial little animal, which, from being somewhat like the Australian bear, was named the opossum bear. One species, with a soft greyish fur, was very beautiful, but attempts to keep them alive on board ship were unsuccessful. The men appear to do all the canoe work, fishing, etc., leaving the field labour for the women, who, nevertheless, appeared to have their say, and make the men do as they pleased in matters of barter. The men were frequently seen nursing little children with much affection.
A striking distinguishing mark of the superior civilization of the light-coloured race to the black New Guinea men is the acquaintance of the latter with the art of common pottery. At all their villages earthenware pots of various sizes were seen, and others were in process of manufacture. They are neatly moulded by hand to the required shape, and then baked by heaping fire round the clay.
Their weapons are handsomely-carved wooden swords, clubs, and shields, wooden spears and stone tomahawks, but no bows. They were perfectly aware of the value of iron, specimens being found in every village, which were doubtless obtained from the eastern islands, with which constant communication is maintained by means of large trading canoes 40 to 50 feet long. The bottom of the canoes is a hollowed tree, which is built upon, and the top-sides secured by a strong cane lacing and large wooden knees. They are propelled by an oval-shaped mat sail, are very skilfully handled, and quite capable of making long voyages. “Meeting them at sea, the ‘Basilisk’ going five knots, they easily sailed round us, and, luffing up under our lee, were with difficulty prevented from boarding whilst we were under way.” The other canoes are small, and the catamaran is universal. Besides these each village has several long, narrow war canoes, highly ornamented after a barbarous fashion, carved
and painted, which are capable of holding 40 or 50 men. They are kept very carefully hauled up under sheds, and have the appearance of being but seldom used.
“With these people our intercourse was of a most satisfactory and pleasant nature. At first they were a little shy, but this was speedily got over, and a free interchange of barter went on, pieces of hoop-iron being the great medium of exchange. They eagerly gave their handsome stone hatchets and other valuables for a piece of the coveted iron, with which many tons of the finest yams were also bought. Looking glasses seemed at first to alarm them. On all possible occasions I gave our ship's company liberty to go on shore and mix freely with the natives, and the results were all I could desire—perfect good feeling and confidence on both sides; nor was there a single instance of our men insulting the women, or of the natives making immoral offers. The greater part of our surveys being done in boats, I had frequent occasion to land in my six-oared galley at large populous villages, 18 or 20 miles from the ship, surrounded by large crowds, yet we were always received in the same friendly, hospitable spirit as if in sight of the ship, nor do I think they had any idea that we possessed weapons more powerful than their own. They would, if possible, pilfer when on board, but in bartering were strictly honest. Taking them altogether they are as genial and pleasant a race of savages as could well be met. At the same time I have no doubt they do a little cannibalism among themselves. They took pains to make us understand, as an event they were proud of, that they had eaten the former owners of the skulls hung up in their villages, and of the human bone ornaments which they wore; but as the skulls are few and apparently of ancient date, and they have superabundance of food, I am inclined to think it is only on very rare occasions that they make a raid or do any fighting among themselves. I never saw a wounded man amongst them. I think it not at all unlikely that the inhabitants of the large outlying islands stand very much in relation to the New Guinea men as the Danes and Norsemen of old did to the ancient Britons. On one occasion, when lying in Fortescue Strait, we were visited by some large island canoes, and immediately they appeared every mother's son of the New Guinea men cleared out, and were seen no more until the strangers had left.
“We could not trace any sign of religious worship amongst any of these copper-coloured races, unless stringing up thousands of cocoa-nuts on poles fixed on the reef in front of their villages—in fact, everywhere—may be regarded as a propitiatory offering. They never were out after dark, and probably, like other savages, have a belief in and dread of devils and evil spirits, but no knowledge of any good spirit. At Killerton Island, before they opened a friendly intercourse, they brought a dog on board and knocked
out its brains on the quarter-deck, looking upon the rite as a ratification or sealing of friendship—at least so we understood it.
“The natives appeared to be subject to a kind of leprosy and other skin diseases, but elephantiasis—so common in Torres Strait as a cause of malformation—was scarcely ever seen.
“The meteorology of the coast of New Guinea, from Yule Island to the eastward, was found—during the months of February, March, April, and May—to differ materially from that of Torres Strait. Leaving Torres Strait the first week in February, when heavy rains and occasional stormy breezes with dirty weather from the north-west prevailed, we remained in the neighbourhood of Redscar Bay until the first week in March, during which time we only had one day's wet weather and strong breeze; all the rest were fine with calms and light variable winds. At Cape York, again, in March, we had a constant succession of heavy rains and dirty weather. On March 30th we were again at New Guinea, with lovely weather, and thus it continued, excepting two days' rain (27th and 28th April), until we finally left China Strait, on 7th May. On 10th May, off Mount Suckling, the south-east monsoon set in strong, with rain. This was immediately following after three days dead calm. At Cape York the south-east monsoon had been blowing steadily since the end of March.
“The barometer had been steady at 29.80, or thereabouts, and the thermometer has ranged between 82° and 88°, but the heat was rarely felt oppressive, and our ship's company—although they have served almost continuously for the last eighteen months in tropical climates, and our boats' crews have been much exposed in surveying the rivers and creeks—have enjoyed general good health.
“Referring again to the natives, I think you will now agree with me that the ferocious character assigned, on no authority, to these poor New Guinea savages may be dropped. Wandering through their peaceful, luxuriantly-planted villages, it often made me sad to think that our discoveries must inevitably, sooner or later, bring white men among these contented creatures, with sin, disease, and misery in their train.”
A Catalogue of the Neuropterous Insects of New Zealand; with Notes and Descriptions of new Forms.
[Reprinted from Ann. and Mag. N.H., July, 1873.]*
It has been represented to me that the entomologists of New Zealand are greatly in need of classified lists of the insects of that colony, and that any contribution in this way would be welcome. Acting upon this suggestion, I have drawn up a catalogue of the New Zealand Neuroptera (in the Linnean sense). The task has not been difficult; for, including three new species here described, the total number of insects of the order at present known to inhabit the colony barely exceeds forty-five species; and some of these are yet doubtful, pending further information. Nearly half of them are Trichoptera, which division appears to be the best represented; or it may be that they are best known only because a friend, knowing my penchant for these insects, has collected them more assiduously.
Owing to the proximity of New Zealand to the Australian continent, and to the fact that some few species are common to both, it may not be uninteresting to give a brief comparative sketch of the various Neuropterous families as regards their numerical strength in the two districts, so far as present knowledge will permit. The physical conditions of Australia and New Zealand are so different that a considerable discrepancy might naturally be expected; but, owing to its ramified water system and comparative freedom from drought, the advantage ought to be on the side of the latter. Let us see, then, how this idea is affected by the apparent facts. I will commence with the Odonata (Dragonflies). In Australia all the tribes (excepting Calopterygina) are tolerably abundant. From New Zealand I know of only eight species; the great tribe Libellulina is wholly absent; the Corduliina are represented by three species of Australian facies; the æschnina by one Australian species; the Gomphina by one (Uropetala), a magnificent insect of an Australian group; the Calopterygina are absent, but are almost so in Australia; of the Agrionina there are only three species. Of other Pseudo-Neuroptera the Termitidæ, Ephemeridæ, and Perlidæ have a few representatives in both; the Psocidæ are not known from New Zealand, and but few have been noticed in Australia; but this is probably owing to their minute size. Among the Planipennia, New Zealand and Australia have each a species of Sialidæ (Chauliodes); the former has only one ant-lion (Myrmeleontidæ), though they are common in the latter; Ascalaphidæ appear to be wanting in the former, and tolerably well represented in the latter; and the same remark will apply to Chrysopidæ and Mantispidæ. Australia has one species of Nemopteridæ
[Footnote] * Printed at the suggestion of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury. See Report of Cant. Phil. Inst. for 1873, presented 5th Nov., 1873, in Proceedings (post).—ED.
and a few Panorpidæ, neither of which are known from New Zealand; while Hemerobiidæ and Osmylidæ are feebly represented in both; the Nymphidæ, an almost peculiarly Australian family, are unknown in New Zealand. In Trichoptera alone does New Zealand appear to have the advantage over Australia.
The paucity of species of Dragonflies is very remarkable; and one is tempted to believe that in New Zealand there must be a scarcity of aquatic insects both as larvæ and otherwise, and of those aërial insects upon which the perfect Dragonflies prey. Another point strikes me; and that is the small number of aphidivorous Planipennia, the chief of which (the Chrysopidæ) are unrepresented. Can it be that indigenous Aphides are happily almost unknown there? It may be that the ideas here thrown out are based upon erroneous premises; and if so it behoves the entomologists of New Zealand to set me right by producing a fair sample of the insect fauna of their colony.
The list of Trichoptera here given is scarcely more than a reprint of that already published by me in the ‘Journal of the Linnean Society' (Zoology), vol. x. Much of the material from which the entire list is compiled has been received from my friend Mr. R. W. Fereday, of Christchurch, and from Mr. H. Edwards, who was for some time at Auckland; nor must the collections formed by Dr. Sinclair, Mr. Colenso, Dr. Hooker, Col. Bolton, the naturalists of the ‘Novara,’ etc., be forgotten. No special localities are given, because many of the insects are noted simply as from New Zealand without further indication.
In the references I have indicated by an asterisk where the best description of each species may be found; and if this sign occurs so frequently in connection with my own descriptions, the reader must please consider that I do not claim for them any special excellence, and that it is owing to the fact that in most cases no others exist.
Genus Calotermes, Hagen.
1. Calotermes insularis, White.
Termes insularis, White, Zool. of Voyage of ‘Erebus’ and ‘Terror’;† † Walk. Brit. Mus. Cat. Neuropt. pt. iii. p. 522. Calotermes insularis, Hagen, Linnæa Entomologica, Band xii. p. 42*; id. Brit. Mus. Cat. Neuropt. (Termit.), p. 2.
Also found in New Holland.
2. Calotermes improbus, Hagen.
Calotermes improbus, Hagen, Linnæa Entomologica, Band xii. p. 44*; id. Brit. Mus Cat. Neuropt. (Termit.), p. 6; Brauer, Reise der ‘Novara,’ Neuropt. p. 45.
Hagen described a wingless example from Van Diemen's Land. Brauer described the winged form of what he considers to be the same species from New Zealand.
[Footnote] † I have not been able to verify this reference.
Genus Stolotermes, Hagen.
3. Stolotermes ruficeps, Brauer.
Stolotermes ruficeps, Brauer, Reise der ‘Novara,’ Neurop. p. 46.*
Genus Stenoperla, M'Lachlan.
4. Stenoperla prasina, Newman.
Chloroperla prasina, Newman, Zoologist, 1845, p. 853.* Hermes prasinus, Walk. Brit. Mus. Cat. Neuropt. pt. ii. p. 206. Stenoperla prasina, M'Lachl. Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, vol. v. p. 354.*
Genus Perla, Geoffroy.
5. Perla (?) cyrene, Newman.
Chloroperla cyrene, Newman, Zoologist, 1845, p. 853.* Perla (?) cyrene, Walk. Brit. Mus. Cat. Neuropt. pt. i. p. 168.
This insect is certainly not a Chloroperla, nor is it a Perla as restricted. The wings are densely reticulate with cross veinlets. I have seen no examples in good condition.
Genus Leptoperla, Newman.
6. Leptoperla opposita, Walker (?).
Perla opposita. Walk. Brit. Mus. Cat. Neuropt. pt. i. p. 171.
Walker mentions two examples from Van Diemen's Land and one from New Zealand; but I much doubt if this latter is specifically identical with those from Tasmania.
I have seen two or three more species of Perlidæ from New Zealand, but await additional information before describing them. One is an insect with the facies of Nemoura or Tœniopteryx, but with short caudal setæ.
Genus Leptophlebia, Westwood;
Eaton, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1871, p. 77.
7. Leptophlebia dentata, Eaton.
Leptophlebia dentata, Eaton, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1871, p. 80, p1. iv., figs, 18 & 18 a-d (details).*
8. Leptophlebia nodularis, Eaton.
Leptophlebia nodularis, Eaton, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1871, p. 81, p1. iv., figs. 20 & 20 a-d (details).*
Ann. & Mag. N. H. Ser. 4. Vol. xii.
Genus Coloburus, Eaton, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1871, p. 132.
9. Coloburus humeralis, Walker.
Palingenia humeralis, Walk. Brit. Mus. Cat. Neuropt. pt. iii. p. 552 (female subimago). Baetis remota, Walk. op. cit. p. 564 (imago). Coloburus humeralis, Eaton, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 132, p1. iii. fig. 3 (wing), p1. vi. figs 6 & 6 a, b (details).*
I possess yet two species of Ephemeridæ from New Zealand, one of which may be the Australian Leptophlebia costalis, Burmeister.
Genus Cordulia, Leach, Selwys.
10. Cordulia smithii, White.
Cordulia smithii, White, Zoology of Voyage of ‘Erebus’ and ‘Terror,” pt. xi. pl. vi. fig. 2 (female); Selys, Syn. Cordulines, p. 27. C. novæ-zealandiæ, Brauer, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1865, p. 501; id. Reise der ‘Novara,’ Neuropt. p. 78, t. ii. figs. 3--3b.*
Genus Epitheca, Charpentier.
11. Epitheca grayi, Selys.
Epitheca (Somatochlora) grayi, Selys, Syn. Cordulines, p. 49.*
12. Epitheca braueri, Selys.
Epitheca (Somatochlora) braueri, Selys, Syn. Cordulines, p. 50.*
Genus Uropetala, Selys.
13. Uropetala carovei, White.
Petalura carovei, White, Zoology of Voyage of ‘Erebus’ and ‘Terror,’ pt. xi. pl. vi. fig. 1 (male); id. in Dieffenbach's Travels in New Zealand, vol. ii p. 281; Selys, Syn. Gomphines, p. 92. Uropetala carovei, Selys, Mon. Gomphines, p. 370, pl. xix. fig. 2 (details)*; id. Secondes Addit. Syn. Gomphines, p. 42.
Genus æschna, Fabricius.
14. æschna brevistyla, Rambur.
æschna brevistyla, Ramb. Hist. Névropt. (Suites à Buffon), p. 205.*
I received three examples of this Australian species from Mr. Henry Edwards, labelled “New Zealand;” and although that gentleman also collected in the neighbourhood of Melbourne, there is no reason to suspect any confusion of locality. The æschnina are insects of notoriously wide distribution and great power of wing.
Genus Lestes, Leach.
15. Lestes colensonis, White.
Agrion colensonis, White, Zoology of Voyage of ‘Erebus’ and ‘Terror,’ pt. xi. pl. vi. fig. 3 (male). Lestes colensonis, Selys, Syn. Agrion. (Lestes), p. 44.*
Genus Telebasis, Selys.† †
16. Telebasis zealandica,‡ ‡, n. sp.
M. Caput supra nigrum, longe brunneo-pilosum, antice et postice cum nasi margine labroque (macula mediana nigra excepta) sanguineum; ore flavido. Pronotum nigrum, marginibus maculisque tribus sanguineis; margine postico fere semicirculari. Thorax supra niger, inter alas sanguineus, lineis duabus sanguineis; ad latera rubescens, lineis duabus brevibus ad alarum bases nigris. Pedes sanguinei,
[Footnote] † The characters of Telebasis are briefly indicated in a note appended to the introduction to his ‘Synopsis des Agrionines,’ 5me légion, p. 4. The chief character is that the wings are petiolated up to the first basal postcostal nervule.
[Footnote] ‡ De Selys, MS.
nigro-spinosi, tarsorum apicibus nigro-terminatis. Abdomen sanguineum, ad apicem obscurius; macula quadrata ad basin segmenti basalis, juncturis lineaque utrinque apicem versus nigris; segmento ultimo supra in medio exciso; appendicibus superioribus parvis, sanguineis, intus tuberculo nigro instructis; inferioribus elongatis, subforcipatis, sanguineis, nigro terminatis. Alæ vitreæ; pterostigmate rufo-brunneo vel flavido.
F. Caput thoraxque fere ut in M, sed colore sanguineo in flavum mutato; labro postice evidenter nigro-marginato. Pedes pallidiores; femoribus supra infuscatis. Abdomen supra nigrum, juncturis (ad apicem exceptis) flavis; infra flavum.
M. Long. corp. 14–15‴, long. abdom. 11–12‴; exp. alar. 16–17‴, long. alæ postic. 8–8½‴. F Long. corp. 15‴, long. abdom. 11½‴; exp. alar. 19‴, long. alæ postic. 9‴.
Male. Head and thorax above black, with long brownish hairs. Hinder and anterior margins of the head, the front margin of the nasus, and the labrum wholly (excepting a black spot in the middle) red; under lip yellowish; second joint of the antennæ red, black at the apex. Pronotum with the margins and three discal spots red; posterior margin nearly semicircular, very slightly produced in the middle. Two bright red lines on the thorax above; the sides reddish, with two short black streaks, one under the base of each wing; there is also an appearance of two lines paler than the ground-colour. Legs bright red, with black spines; the tips of the tarsal joints black. Abdomen bright blood-red; a quadrate black spot above at the base of the first segment; the sutures of all the segments with a black ring; on the sides a black subapical line, commencing at the apex of segment 6, continuous on segment 7, and nearly so on segment 8, but not there reaching the margins; segment 10 excised in the middle above; superior-appendages short, only slightly exserted, subtriangular, red, with a black tubercle internally; inferior appendages somewhat forcipate, long, red, with the tips black and pointed. Wings hyaline, narrow; veins black, slightly reddish at the base; pterostigma reddish brown (yellowish in immature examples), in the form of an irregular lozenge, the upper edge much longer than the lower, surmounting one cellule; in the anterior wings the upperside of the quadrilateral is more than one-half shorter than the lower, in the posterior wings about one third shorter; thirteen to fourteen post-cubital nervules in the anterior wings; three cellules between the quadrilateral and the nodus.
Female.—All the markings of the head and thorax that are red in the male are here yellow; the base of the labrum has a distinct black line; on the prothorax there are only two spots instead of three. Legs yellowish, the femora fuscous above. Abdomen bronzy black above, pale yellowish beneath; segments 1–6 above with a yellow half-ring at the base of each; appendages short, conical, blackish; vulvar valves yellow, the terminal appendages black.
I have examined several males and females of this species.
17. Telebasis sobrina, n. sp.
M. T. zealandicœ valde affinis, sed major; appendices superiores multo longiores, inferioribus dimidio tantum breviores. Long. corp. 18‴, long. abdom. 15‴; exp. alar. 22‴, long. alæ postic. 10 ½‴.
Very closely allied to T. zealandica, but considerably larger; on the abdomen the basal spot at the base of segment 1 is divided; the superior appendages are much exserted, scarcely one half shorter than the inferior, subtriangular, the lower edge concave, hence the tips are much curved downward (the black tubercle is present as in T. zealandica). There are four cellules between the quadrilateral and the nodus in all the wings, and the pterostigma is larger and surmounts fully two cellules; fifteen postcubital nervules in the anterior wings.
Notwithstanding the great similarity I must, for the present, consider this insect specifically distinct from T. zealandica. Only one male has been examined, and that rather immature, the red markings on the head and thorax not being fully developed and more or less yellowish, and the pterostigma dusky yellow.
Genus Chauliodes, Latreille.
18. Chauliodes diversus, Walker.
Hermes diversus, Walk. Brit. Mus. Cat. Neuropt. pt. ii. p. 205. H. dubitatus, Walk. op. cit. p. 204* (cf. M'Lachlan, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. July 1869, pp. 37 & 39).
This insect varies much in size. Of five individuals in my collection the smallest (male) has an expanse of wings of only 25‴, the largest (female) expands to 41‴. The structure of the antennæ is the same in both sexes.
Genus Myrmeleon, Linné, Hagen.
19. Myrmeleon acutus, Walker.
Myrmeleon acutus, Walk. Brit. Mus. Cat. Neuropt. pt. ii. p. 377.*
Appears to be the sole representative in New Zealand of this extensive family. The hind wings of the male possess a “pelote” or knob at the extreme base of the inner margin, as in many other species.
Genus Stenosmylus, M'Lachlan.
The New Zealand species might be transferred to a new genus on account of the subfalcate wings and excised apical margin; but the Australian S. pallidus is in some respects intermediate between them and the typical species; hence their retention in this genus will answer every purpose, at any rate for the present.
20. Stenosmylus incisus, M'Lachlan.
Osmylus incisus, M'Lachl., Journ. of Entom. vol. ii. p. 112, pl. vi. fig. 1* (cf. M'Lachl., Entom. Monthly Mag. vol. vi. p. 195).
21. Stenosmylus citrinus, n. sp.
S. forma S. incisi. Citrinus. Frons obscurior, supra nigricans. Thorax utrinque niger. Tibiæ anticæ et intermediæ (femoraque postica) ad apices et in medio fusco semicinctæ. Alæ anticæ punctis nigris conspersæ; macula discali subapicali, nonnullisque parvis ad marginem apicalem et internum albidis, nigro marginatis; posticæ pallidiores, punctis nigris subobsoletis solum ad costam, maculis albidis nullis. Abdomen infuscatum. Long. corp. 7‴; exp. alar. 27‴.
The whole insect is of a delicate citron colour, excepting the abdomen, which is infuscate; but the colour of this part is probably changed in dry examples. On the face the colour becomes obscured, and below the base of the antennæ it is blackish. On the pronotum anteriorly there is a trace of a black median longitudinal line, and the sides are broadly black, with black hairs; the meso- and metanota have the sides broadly infuscate, bordered by a black line. The anterior and intermediate tibiæ have a black spot at each end and in the middle; the posterior femora are somewhat infuscate, darker at each end, and with a trace of a black spot in the middle; all the legs are clothed with citron-coloured hairs. The anterior wings have many small black dots, those below the radius, and two discal ones, larger than the others; at the end of the first branch of the sector and the upper cubital vein, before the apex, is a conspicuous irregular whitish spot margined with black, and along the excised apical margin and on the inner margin are smaller whitish spots, margined with blackish internally, or with a blackish dot on each side; the sector has sixteen principal branches; the inner series of gradate nervules is rudimentary. The posterior wings are paler than the anterior, without whitish spots; and the black dots are only faintly indicated on the costal margin.
A very beautiful insect, of the same form as S. incisus.
Genus Drepanopteryx† †, Leach.
22. Drepanopteryx instabilis, M'Lachlan.
Drepanopteryx instabilis, M'Lachl. Journ. of Entom. vol. ii. p. 115, t. vi. fig. 4.*
Found also in Australia without apparent specific difference. Most of the New Zealand examples (but not all) pertain to the variety indicated at fig. 4* with a large whitish costal spot in the fore wings; but at present I see nothing to indicate that these form a distinct species.
23. Drepanopteryx humilis, M'Lachlan.
Drepanopteryx humilis, M'Lachl. Journ. of Entom. vol. ii. p. 116, pl. vi. fig. 5.*
Found also at Moreton Bay. The smaller size seems to indicate that this is not a form of D. instabilis.
[Footnote] † According to the characters of the genera Drepanopteryx and Megalomus as laid down by Brauer (cf. ‘Verhandl. zool.-bot. Gesellschaft in Wien,’) 1866, p. 987, the two New Zealand species and the Australian D. binoculus ought perhaps to be placed in the last-named genus.
Genus Micromus, Rambur.
24. Micromus tasmaniœ, Walker.
Hemerobius tasmaniœ, Walk. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 2, vol. v. p. 186.*
I have two examples which scarcely appear to differ specifically from others from Australia; but it is desirable that long series of both Australian and New Zealand specimens should be compared. The insect has the costal area of the fore wings narrowed at the base, and without a recurrent nervule, and hence is a Micromus and not a Hemerobius as restricted.
Genus œconesus, M'Lachlan.
25. œconesus maori, M'Lachlan.
œconesus maori, M'Lachl. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, vol. i. p. 303;* id. Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. vol. x. p. 211, pl. ii. fig. 1 (neuration), male.
I now possess the female of this insect; it differs from the male in its larger size; the neuration of the anterior wings is regular; and in the posterior wings there are two additional apical forks. The maxillary palpi are 5-jointed, the basal joint very short, the second slightly longer, the third to fifth still longer and nearly equal inter se.
Genus Olinx, M'Lachlan.
26. Olinx feredayi, M'Lachlan.
Olinx feredayi, M'Lachl. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. x. p. 198, pl. ii. figs. 2–2d (details).*
Genus Ptcnocentria, M'Lachlan.
27. Pycnocentria funerea, M'Lachlan.
Pycnocentria funerea, M'Lachl. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, vol. v. p. 252, pl. xviii. fig. 1 (details).*
28. Pycnocentria evecta, M'Lachlan.
Pycnocentria evecta, M'Lachl. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. x. p. 199, pl. ii. fig. 3 (details).*
29. Pycnocentria aureola, M'Lachlan.
Pycnocentria aureola, M'Lachl. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. x. p. 200, pl. ii. figs. 4 & 4a (details).*
This term was applied to certain cases of the larvæ of Trichoptera found in Europe, which depart from the usual forms and assume a spiral condition, thus resembling small Helices, formed of sand grains neatly cemented together; and this resemblance has often deceived conchologists, who have described them as shells. They have since been found in streams almost all over the world, and their real nature has long been known. Recently in North America the perfect insect of one species has been bred. Three forms occur in New Zealand (cf. M'Lachlan, Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. x. p. 200). There is yet much mystery about the species that form them; and it is possible that
they are the work of more than one genus of Sericostomatidæ. The European forms have not been referred to any particular insects; and in Europe no insect has been discovered that absolutely agrees generically with that bred in America. The same remark applies to those from New Zealand; and I have a suspicion that they may be the work of species of Pycnocentria. It is much to be desired that colonial entomologists will investigate this matter; the cases are probably found attached to stones in streams.
Genus Tetracentron, Brauer.
30. Tetracentron sarothropus, Brauer.
Tetracentron sarothropus, Brauer, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. in Wien, 1865, p. 418; id. Reise der ‘Novara,’ Neurop. p. 12, t. i. fig. 5 (details).* Pseudonema obsoleta, M'Lachl. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, vol. i. p. 305 (cf. M'Lachl. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. xi. p. 128).
31. Tetracentron amabile, M'Lachlan.
Tetracentron amabile, M'Lachl. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. x. p. 201, pl. ii. figs. 5–5d (details).*
Genus Notanatolica, M'Lachlan.
32. Notanatolica cognata, M'Lachlan.
Leptocerus cognatus, M'Lachl. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, vol, i. p. 306.* Notanatolicœ cognata, M'Lachl. loc. cit. vol. v. p. 258.
33. Notanatolica cephalotes, Walker.
Leptocerus cephalotes, Walk. Brit. Mus. Cat. Neuropt. pt. i. p. 73 (cf. M'Lachl. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. x. p. 213).
A doubtful species.
Genus Leptocerus, Leach, Hagen.
34. Leptocerus (?) alienus, M'Lachlan.
Leptocerus (?) alienus, M'Lachl. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. x. p. 202.*
This insect is not a true Leptocerus as restricted.
Genus Setodes, Rambur.
35. Setodes unicolor, M'Lachlan.
Setodes unicolor, M'Lachl. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. x. p. 203, pl. ii. fig. 7 (details).*
Genus Hydropsyche, Pictet, Hagen.
36. Hydropsyche fimbriata, M'Lachlan.
Hydropsyche fimbriata, M'Lachl. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, vol. i. p. 309.*
37. Hydropsyche colonica, M'Lachlan.
Hydropsyche colonica, M'Lachl. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. xi. p. 131, t. iv. fig. 16 (details).*
Genus Polycentropus, Curtis.
38. Polycentropus puerilis, M'Lachlan.
Polycentropus puerilis, M'Lachl. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. x. p. 204, t. ii. figs. 6–8 b (details).*
Genus Hydrobiosis, M'Lachlan.
39. Hydrobiosis frater, M'Lachlan.
Hydrobiosis frater, M'Lachl. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. x. p. 207, t. ii. figs. 9–9b (details).*
40. Hydrobiosis umbripennis, M'Lachlan.
Hydrobiosis umbripennis, M'Lachl. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. x. p. 208, t. ii. figs. 9 c, d (details).*
Genus Psilochorema, M'Lachlan.
41. Psilochorema mimicum, M'Lachlan.
Psilochorema mimicum, M'Lachl. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, vol. v. p. 274, pl. xviii. fig. 4 (details).*
42. Psilochorema confusum, M'Lachlan.
Psilochorema confusum, M'Lachl. Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool. vol. x. p. 210, t. ii. figs. 10–10b (details).*
Genus Philanisus, Walker.
43. Philanisus plebejus, Walker.
Philanisus plebejus, Walk. Brit. Mus. Cat. Neuropt. pt. i. p. 116. Anomalostoma alloneura, Brauer, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. in Wien, 1865, p. 422; id. Reise der ‘Novara,’ Neurop. p. 16, t. i. fig. 6 (details).*
Genus Oxyethira, Eaton.
44. Oxyethira albiceps, M'Lachlan.
Hydroptila albiceps, M'Lachl. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, vol. i. p. 304. Oxyethira albiceps, Eaton, loc. cit. 1873, p. 145.*
This species was accidentally omitted in my list in ‘Journ. Linn. Soc.,’ Zool. vol. x.
New Zealand Institute.
Drury, Captain Byron, R. N.
Finsch, Otto, Ph.D. of Bremen
Flower, W. H., F.R.S., F.R.C.S.
Hochstetter, Dr Ferdinand von
Hooker, Joseph D., C.B., M.D., P.R.S.
Mueller, Ferdinand von, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S.
Owen, Richard, D.C.L., F.R.S.
Richards, Rr.-Adml. G.H., C.B., F.R.S.
Darwin, Charles, M.A., F.R.S.
Gray, J. E., Ph.D., F.R.S.
Lindsay, W. Lauder, M.D., F.R.S.E.
Grey, Sir George, K.C.B., D.C.L.
Huxley, Thomas H., LL.D., F.R.S.
Stokes, Vice-Admiral J. L.
Bowen, Sir George Ferguson, G. C. M. G.
Cambridge, The Rev. O. Pickard, M.A., C.M.Z.S.
Günther, A., M.D., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S.
Lyell, Sir Charles, Bart., D.C.L., F.R.S.
Wellington Philosophical Society.
Allan, A. S.
Allan, J. A.
Andrew, Rev. J. C., Wairarapa
Baird, J. D., C.E.
Bannatyne, W. M.
Barleyman, John, Blenheim
Barron, C. C. N.
Batkin, C. T.
Beetham, W., Hutt
Bell, C. N., C.E.
Betts, F. M., Wanganui
Bidwill, C. R., Wairarapa
Blackett, J., C.E.
Blundell, H., senior
Blundell, Henry, Treasury
Bothamley, A. T.
Bowden, T., B.A.
Bradshaw, J. B., M.H.R., Dunedin
Braithwaite, A., Hutt
Brandon, A. de B., junior
Brandon, H. E.
Bull, James, Rangitikei
Buller, J. W., Wanganui
Buller, W. L., D.Sc., F.L.S., F.G.S., ditto
Calders, Hugh, ditto
Carruthers, John, C.E.
Colenso, W., F.L.S., Napier
Collins, R., Wairarapa
Cowie, G., Melbourne
Crawford, J. C., F.G.S.
Davies, George H.
Dobson, A., C.E.
Duigan, J., Wanganui
Edwards, Major, Wanganui
Edwin, Commander, R.N.
Featherston, I. E., M.D., London
Ferard, B. A., Napier
France, Charles, M.R.C.S.E.
Fraser, The Hon. Capt., F.R.G.S., Dunedin
George, J. R.
Gillon, E. T.
Gore, R. B.
Gould, George, Christchurch
Grace, The Hon. M. S., M.D.
Graham, C. C.
Hamilton, W. S
Hardy, C. J., B.A.
Harrison, C. J.
Hart, The Hon. Robert
Hector, James, M.D., F.R.S.
Hodge, Matthew Vere, Wanganui
Holdsworth, J. G.
Holmes, R. L., F.M.S., Fiji
Hood, T. Cockburn, F.G.S. Waikato
Hulke, Charles, Wanganui
Hutton, Captain F. W., F.G.S., C.M.Z.S.
Jackson, H., F.R.G.S., Hutt
Jebson, John, Canterbury
Johnson, The Hon. G. Randal, Napier
Johnston, The Hon. John
Jones, W. Haskayne, Auckland
Knight, Charles, F.R.C.S.
Knight, C. G.
Krull, F. A.
Levin, W. H.
Locke, Samuel, Napier
Logan, H. F.
Lomax, H. A., Wanganui
Lowe, E. W.
Ludlam, A., Hutt
Lyon, W., F.G.S.
Mantell, The Hon. W. B. D., F.G.S.
Marchant, J. W. A.
Marten, Chas. Rous, F.R.G.S., F.M.S.
Mason, Thomas, Hutt
Mills, E. W.
Moorhouse, W. S.
Nairn, C. J., Hawke Bay
Nation, George Michell
Nelson, F., Napier
Nicholas, H. E.
Ollivier, F. M.
Park, R. G.
Parsons, W. F.
Pearce, E., M.H.R.
Pharazyn, C., Wairarapa
Pharazyn, The Hon. C. J.
Pharazyn, R., F.R.G.S., Wanganui
Potts, T. H., F.L.S., Lyttelton
Powles, C. P.
Purnell, Charles W., Wanganui
Quick, W. H.
Reid, W. S.
Rhodes, The Hon. W. B.
Richardson, C. S.
Richmond, The Hon. J. C., Nelson
Samuels, W. R. G., M.R.C.S.E., Wanganui
Seymour, His Honour A. P., Superintendent of Marlborough
Smith, Charles, Wanganui
Stewart, J. T., Manawatu
Toxward, C. J.
Travers, H. H.
Travers, W. T. L., F.L.S.
Tuckey, H. E., B.A.
Waterhouse, The Hon. G. M., F.R.G.S.
West, The Rev. W. H.
Williams, James Nelson
Wilson, G. H.
Woon, R. W., Wanganui
Young, T. W.
Allen, J. E.
Allom, A. J., Shortland
Allwright, H., C.E.
Arney, Sir G. A., Chief Justice
Atkin, W., Tamaki
Baber, J., C.E.
Ball, T., Mongonui
Barstow, R. C., R.M., Epsom
Bates, Rev. J., Devonport
Beere, D. M., Shortland
Biss, S. B.
Breen, J., B.A., C.E.
Brookfield, F. M. P.
Bruce, Rev. D.
Buckland, W. T., Remuera
Buller, Rev. J., Christchurch
Campbell, J. L., M.D.
Cawkwell, W. J.
Chamberlin, The Hon. H., Parnell
Chapman, G. T.
Cheeseman, T. F., F.L.S., Remuera
Clark, A., ditto
Clark, J. M., ditto
Clark, W. H., C.E., Ngaruawahia
Clarke, H. T., Wellington
Codrington, Rev. R. H., Norfolk Island
Cook, C.E., Onehunga
Cowie, The Right Rev. W. G., D.D., Bishop of Auckland
Cox, Alfred, Hamilton
Cruicksbank, D. B.
Daldy, W. C.
Davy, G. B.
Dawson, F. W. H., M.D.
Day, R., M.D.
Dickson, E. B.
Drake, W., Shortland
Dyson, R. W.
Earl, W., Remuera
Edmonstone, G. F., Parnell
Fairburn, J., ditto
Farmer, The Hon. J., Remuera
Fergusson, His Excellency the Right Hon. Sir James, Bart., P.C.
Firth, J. C.
Floyd, W. H.
Ford, S. H., M.D., Russell
Fox, A., M.R.C.P., Shortland
Fraser, J. M.
Gibbons, E., Onehunga
Gillies, T. B., M.H.R.
Goldsboro, C. F., M.D., Parnell
Goodall, J., C.E., Epsom
Goodfellow, W., Otara
Graham, W. K., London
Hall, J. W., Grahamstown
Hankey, E. A., London
Hannaford, M., Remuera
Haultain, The Hon. Col. T. M.
Hay, D., Parnell
Hay, W., M.H.R., Papakura
Henderson, J., C.E., Wellington
Henderson, T., jun.
Higginson, H. P., C.E., Wellington
Hill, W., jun.
Hobbs, R., Pokeno
Hunt, R. R., Ngaruawahia
Hunt, W. A., Remuera
Jackson, S., ditto
Jordan, R. C., Tauranga
Kemp, H. T., Bay of Islands
Kenny, N., Ngaruawahia
Kidd, Rev. R., LL.D.
Kinder, Rev. J., D.D.
Kinloch, E., Otahuhu
Kirk, T., F.L.S., Wellington
Kirton, G., Napier
Kissling, G. S., Parnell
Kissling, T., ditto
Kissling, W. H., ditto
Knorrp, C. B., C.E.
Lamb, J., Riverhead
Larkworthy, F., London
Leaf, C. J., F.L.S., G.S., S.A., ditto
Lee, W., M.R.C.S.E.
Lodder, W., Remuera
Lusk, H. H.
Lyall, J. L., Epsom
MacCormick, J. C.
McDonald, D. E.
Macfarlane, J. S.
Macfarland, R. J., C.E., Grahamstown
Mackechnie, E. A.
Mackellar, H. S., Wellington
Mackelvie, J. S.
Maclean, B., Tamaki
Maclean, The Hon. D., Napier
Maclean, The Hon. E., Howick
Mair, Captain G., Tauranga
Mair, H. A., Parnell
Mair, R., Whangarei
Mair, Major W. G., Alexandra
Maning, F. E., Hokianga
Mason, J., Parnell
Maunsell, the Ven. Archdeacon, ditto
Meinertzhagen, F. M., Napier
Mitford, G. M., Parnell
Morton, H. B.
Monro, H. A. H.
Moss, F. H.
Murdoch, D. L., Epsom
Nathan, L. D.
Nation, Colonel, Parnell
Nelson, Rev. C. M., M.A.
Nicholson, J. R., M.D.
Ormond, The Hon. J. D., Napier
O'Rorke, The Hon. G. M., Onehunga
O'Sullivan, R. J.
Owen, G. B., Epsom
Palmer, W. J.
Payne, M. H., M.D., Shortland
Pearce, R. J.
Philips, P. A.
Pollen, The Hon. D., M.D., Whau
Pond, J. A.
Preece, J. W.
Purchas, Rev. A. G., M.R.C.S.E., Onehunga
Rapson, S., Kaukapakapa
Rayner, G., Ngaruawahia
Roberts, W. C., Hokitika
Robertson, J., Mangere
Scott, W., Paterangi
Sheehan, J., M.H.R.
Sheppard, A. M., Otahuhu
Shera, J. M.
Slowman, J. F.
Smales, Rev. G., East Tamaki
Smith, J. P.
Spencer, T., Grahamstown
Spencer, W. I., M.R.C.S., Napier
Steel, Capt., Hamilton
Stewart, J., C.E.
Stewart, T. M., Melbourne
Stockwell, R., M.D.
Stone, C. J.
Taylor, The Hon. C. J., Tamaki
Thorne, G., jun.
Tinne, T. F. S.
Vogel, The Hon. J., Wellington
Von der Heyde, G.
Waddington, E., M.D., Alexandra
Wallace, John, Flat Bush
Wark, J. N., Sydney
Wayland, J. M., Onehunga
Webster, J., Hokianga
Weetman, S., Mongonui
White, T. L.
Whitson, R. W.
Williams, H., Bay of Islands
Williams, H. M.
Williams, The Ven. Archdeacon W. L., Poverty Bay
Williamson, The Hon. James
Williamson, His Honor John, Super-intendent of Auckland
Wilson, Major J., Cambridge
Wilson, J. L., Whangarei
Wilson, W. C.
Wright, F. W., L.M.B. Toronto
Philosophical Institute of Canterbury.
Armstrong, A. F.
Aynsley, H. P. M.
Barker, A. C.
Blakiston, A. F. N.
Blakiston, C. R.
Bowen, C. C., F.R.G.S.
Bray, W. B.
Carruthers, W. D.
Condell, T. D.
Coster, J. L.
Coward, F. W. S., L.S.A.
Duncan, Thos. S.
Enys, J. D., F.G.S.
Fereday, R. W.
Frazer, Rev. C.
Gresson, His Honour Mr Justice, B.A.
Gresson, J. B.
Griffiths, E. G.
Haast, Julius, Ph.D., F.R.S.
Hall, The Hon. John
Hall, T. W.
Harper, The Right Rev. H. J. C., D.D., Bishop of Christchurch and Primate.
Hennah, H. H.
Hill, J. R.
Lane, W. H.
Maskell, W. M.
Montague, D. S.
Mountfort, B. W.
Parker, H. B.
Potts, T. H., F.L.S.
Powell, LI., M.D.
Prins, H. H.
Reade, G. A.
Rhodes, R. H., M.H.R.
Rolleston, His Honour W., B.A., Superintendent of Canterbury
Ross, J. V.
Smith, J. M.
Stack, Rev. W.
Tancred, H. J.
Tancred, T. S.
Thornton, G., C.E.
Turnbull, J. S., M.D.
Wakefield, C. M.
Webb, H. R.
Williams, J. S.
Wilson, The Venerable Archdeacon
Wright, F. E.
Wright, T. G.
Abel, H. J., Lawrence
Abram, G. P., M.A.
Adams, C. W.
Ashcroft, Jas., Oamaru
Baker, J. H., Invercargill
Barr, G. M., C.E.
Barnet, A. A.
Barton, Geo. E.
Bathgate, Alex. J.
Black, Professor, M.A., D.Sc.
Blair, W. N., C.E.
Borrows, Dr., R.N.
Brent, Daniel, M.A.
Buchanan, Hon. Dr.
Campbell, G. H.
Cargill, E. B.
Chapman, His Honour Mr. Justice
Chapman, F. R.
Dasent, Rev. A., M.A., Waikouaiti
Douglas, John, Mount Royal
Eccles, Alfred, F.R.C.S.
Fleming, A., M.D., Oamaru
Fraser, W., Earnscleugh
Fulton, F. C.
Gardiner, R. S.
Glasgow, W. T.
Granger, Rev. E. H., M.A.
Grant, A. J.
Haggitt, B. C.
Hardy, John, Oamaru
Hawthorne, Stuart, M.A.
Hocken, T. M., M.R.C.S.E.
Hodgkins, W. M.
Humphreys, E. W.
Hutton, Capt. F. W., F.G.S., C.M.Z.S.
Johnston, —, Waikari
Lubecki, A. D.
Macgregor, Professor, M. A.
Maclean, H. J.
Martin, R. B.
Martin, W., Green Island
May, J. T.
May, Mrs. J. T.
McKerras, J. T.
Murison, W. D.
Nevill, The Right Rev. S. T., D.D., Bishop of Dunedin
Penny, Rev. E. G., M.A.
Percival, W. J.
Purdie, A. C.
Quick, E. E. C.
Reynolds, W. H., M.H.R.
Ritchie, J. McF.
Roberts, F. C.
Ross, A. H.
Russell, G. G.
Sale, Professor, M.A.
Shand, Professor, M.A.
Shrimpton, G., Wanaka
Simpson, D. L.
Stewart, Alex., near Dunnedin
Stewart, Alex., M.D., Lawrence
Stewart, W. D.
Street, C. H.
Strode, A. R. C.
Stuart, Rev. Dr.
Thomson, Dr. A. T., Clyde
Thomson, J. T., F.R.G.S.
Thomson, George M.
Tolmie, W. A., M.H.R.
Turton, G. K.
Walcot, James A.
Walter, H. J.
Watson, J. T.
Watt, I. N.
Webb, J. S.
Webster, Dr. G. M.
Weldon, T. K.
Wohlers, Rev. F. H.
Yates, Dr. W. A.
Young, W. A., Palmersto
Nelson Association for the Promotion of Science and Industry.
Atkinson, A. S.
Batchelor, T. C.
Boor, Leonard, M.R.C.S.
Browne, C. Hunter
Carter, Thomas, Wairau
Catley, J. T.
Collins, A. S.
Cotterell, C.E., M.R.C.S.
Curtis, H. E.
Dick, S. J.
Dobson, A. D., C.E., Westport
Farrelle, W. K., L.R.C.S.E.
Fell, C. Y.
Gabb, C. P.
Greenwood, J. D., M.D., Motueka
Giles, Joseph, M.D., Westport
Hodgson, W. C.
Irvine, F. W., M.D.
Levastam, H. A.
Lightband, G. W.
Lowe, J. T.
Mackay, Thomas, C.E.
Monro, Sir David, M. D.
Moutray, J. C.
Renwick, The Hon. T.
Richmond, The Hon. J. C.
Sadd, J. B.
Sealey, W. B., M.D.
Simmons, F. C., M.A.Oxon
Squires, W. W., M.D.
Stafford, The Hon. E. W.
Suter, The Right Rev. A. B., D.D., Bishop of Nelson
Tatton, J. W.
Thorpe, The Rev. R. J., M.A.
Wakefield, Felix, F.L.S.
Williams, George, M.D.