Philological Considerations on the Whence of the Maori.* *
[Read before the Otago Institute, 8th July, 1873.]
In approaching the question our stand-point is naturally in New Zealand, from whence the subject must be traced (if possible) to its end. Having already dealt with the same from an ethnological point of view,† † I may remark that the study of words in tribes or nations has the same position in relation to the above science as the tracing of fossils has towards geology. One has its material as much imbedded in the people as the other has its in the earth—where one class is as much preserved for ages as the other is for epochs—and both may be dug out from their encasements and displayed to the present generation. The conclusions that we may draw from thence can only be stated after mature consideration.
The subject divides itself into three headings, viz., Glossarial, Idiomatic, and Phonetic; and as the first forms the easiest approach to what may prove a tedious and difficult enquiry, I will commence with it.
Primary words, i.e., those that express first wants in men in their infancy—and, equally so, tribes or nations in their infancy—are the most tenacious of existence. These are common nouns, pronouns, and verbs, but more particularly the first—such as man, woman, son, daughter, food, fruit, fish, etc.; or, I, you, he, we, etc.; or, go, come, give, kill, etc. In elucidating a subject such as this, therefore, we apply our enquiries to primary terms, which we may denominate as the fossils of the languages, so that we may, from their coincidence or approximations in different and distant communities, weigh the affinities of race or blood in the communities themselves.
But while primary words are the most lasting, yet they even are subject to slow and gradual change as ages roll on. In English, Chaucer gives a ready example of this; and turning to the Portuguese, as one of the modern nations of Europe, who, more than any other, initiated the great spread of the
[Footnote] * In this paper I am indebted for assistance to the following works, viz.:—Malagasi Grammar, by Griffiths; Tamil Grammar, by Rhenius; Tongan Grammar, by West; and Maori Grammar, by Williams; Malayan Dictionary, by Marsden; Tongan Dictionary, by Mariner; Maori Dictionary, by Williams; Vocabularies of the Indian Archipelago, by Wallace; also of the Kayan Language (Borneo), by Burns; of the Timor Language, by Windsor Earle; of the Silong Tribe, by Ed. O'Riley; and some collections of words, by J. R. Logan, in Journ. Indian Arch.
[Footnote] † See Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. IV., 1871, p. 23.
Caucasian families over the earth, I have observed this change more aptly illustrated in different copies of the Lisbon and Colombo Bible. But another process goes on, both in single and separate tribes, that tends to divergence, i.e., in their applying radical expressions to parallel and convertible ideas and objects; and confining ourselves to the regions over which this enquiry will extend, we give below some examples of such as have taken place amongst the various tribes scattered over the vast extent to which we are led. Thus, in Malay, bunga is the radical expression for flowers; by parallel it is applied to sparks—bunga api, the flower of fire; to rent bunga tannah, the flower of land. Again, in Malay, bua is the radical expression for fruit; by parallel it becomes cannon balls—bua meriam, the fruit of cannon; and by conversion it becomes flowers in Maori, viz., pua. Again, in Malay, lima signifies five; by conversion it becomes lima, the hand, in Salayer, Salibabo, Cajeli, and Lariki, tribes in the Moluccas; and by parallel it becomes penglima, an admiral, or hand of the sovereign. Finally, the word mata in Malay and several other languages, meaning the eye, has extensive application in this manner: thus, by parallel mata ayer means a fountain, or eye of water; mata wang means hard cash, or the eye of money; mata hari means the sun, or the eye of the day; while, by conversion, the same word (mata) in Maori becomes the face.
It will be seen that these primitive people have dabbled a little in political economy, for, while they call bua wang (the fruit of money) profit, they call bunga wang (the flower of money) interest. Whether this be correct science or not I ask the followers of Adam Smith to answer. So also, as naturalists, while they call bua fruit, they call eggs by the same expression, i.e., the fruit of fowls—a hint that even Darwin might not take exception to.
Some illustrations of the application of radical expressions applied to parallel or convertible ideas and objects:—
Buah or bua, fruit; buah raga, football; buah pari, dice; buah chatur, draughtsman; buah pelu, testiculi; buah meriam, cannon balls; anak buah, dependents of a chief; buah permata, jewels; sa buah nigri, one town; sa buah ruma, one house; sa buah kapal, one ship; buah wang, profit, in Malay; pua, flowers; hua, eggs, in Maori.
Bunga, flowers; bunga pala, mace; bunga karang, coral; bunga api, sparks; bunga wang, interest; bunga tannah, rent, in Malay; bunga nea, fruit, in Bolang-hitam.
Kaki, feet; kaki, legs; debawah kaki, at your disposal, in Malay.
Aallah, the Almighty; alah, to overcome, in Malay; ber allah, an idol, in Bajow.
Hulu or ulu, the head of men or beasts, source of a river or of events, handle of a sword or knife, interior of a country; ulu-nian, aboriginal inhabitants; bulu, feathers, down, hair; bulu mata, eyelashes; buluh, bamboo cane; de hulu, before, in contradistinction to de blakang, behind; pengulu, a leader or chief on land, in Malay; huru huru, coarse hair; huru, brushwood, in Maori; huru, feathers, in Liang; bulu, feathers, and uhu, hair, in Salayer.
Lima, five; penglima, a leader at sea (an admiral); lima, the hand, in Salayer, Salibabo, Cajeli, and Lariki; also, olima, in Bouton; rilma, in Menado; rima, in Bolanghitam,
Liang, and Saparua; lemnatia, in Amblaw; limaka, in Morella; limawa, in Batumerah; limamo, in Camarian; limacolo, in Teluti; niman, in Ahtiago; and limin, in Teor.
Mata, the eye; mata ayer, a fountain; mata pisau, the blade of a knife; mata wang, hard cash; mata banda, property; mata jalan, advanced guard; mata mata, an overseer; mata hari, the sun (literally the eye of the day), in Malay; mata alo, the sun, in Salayer; also, mata roa, in Menado; ria mata, in Liang; lia mata, in Lariki, etc.; mata, face, in Maori.
Muka, the face; muka papan, effrontery (literally, flat board-faced), in Malay.
Rupa, face, in Salayer; rupa, likeness, in Malay.
Angkat, to lift; mang kat, to die (applied only to princes); anak angkat, the adopted child; angkatan, an expedition by sea or land; angkas, ethereal space, in Malay.
Panas, warm, in Malay; bahaha, in Cajeli; bafanat, in Ahtiago; mahana, the day, in Maori.
Hangat, hot, in Malay; hangat, the sun, in Wayapo.
Mata hari, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Malay.
Mata alo, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Salayer.
Ria mata, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Liang.
Lia matei, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Morella.
Lia mata, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Lariki.
Riamatani, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Saparua.
Liamatan, the sun; and matan, the eye, in Ahtiago.
Matalon, the sun; and mata, the eye, in Bajow.
Kom-aru, the sun; and karu, the eye, in Maori.
The above are a few examples of the tendencies to divergency in languages by operations within themselves; but they are by no means so forcible as influences from without, caused by inroads of conquering tribes, mercantile communication, and the aptitude for borrowing expressions from more cultivated races, yet, notwithstanding, these primary terms in tropical, and indeed in other races, are all but irradicable, excepting by the extirpation of the people themselves. Of this fact most enquirers will have seen abundant proof.
The nearest cognate race to the New Zealand Maori is that which inhabits the Tonga or Friendly Islands. This group is sub-divided into three well marked sub-groups, viz., Tongatabu, Haabai, and Haafuluhao. Whether the middle group—Haabai—be the Hawaiki of the Maoris, and Tongatabu be the roro, or gate thereto, spoken of in their traditions, I will leave others to decide; certain it is that the languages have a most remarkable affinity, when, after considering the above causes of deterioration, we find after the lapse of centuries of separation so much glossarial coincidence. Captain Cook properly remarks, “that they are but dialects of one tongue, having less divergence than many counties in Great Britain.”
For the sake of comparison with the languages of the Indian Archipelago, I have adopted the same selection of words as is given by Mr. Wallace in his comparative vocabularies of that region, though there is some disadvantage in
this course, inasmuch as many objects are not known to the Polynesian races which are common in the archipelago, and some words do not express primary wants.
On examination of the list of words below, it will appear that in allowing for differences in articulation which has caused the elision or transposition of vowels and consonants, there are sixty-six of the hundred-and-two words common to both. Thus we have in Maori and Tongan respectively, hua, fua, fruit; pai, mea, good; wera, vela, hot; rahi, lahi, large; wahine, fafine, woman; etc. But in this list fifteen words have no expression either in one dialect or both, owing to the object not being known to them, such as deer, monkey, etc. Thus the ratio of common words to the whole should be as 66:87. It may be noticed, in passing, that the word for pig in Maori, viz., poaka, being radically the same as the Tongan term, buaka, must have been either preserved by tradition or introduced by natives of Polynesia after the advent of the European. This word, in its various modifications, has extensive range, puaka, buaka, phua'a, etc., and is supposed by J. R. Logan to be of Asiatic origin, as phak, Thibet; phag, Bhutan, Limbu, etc.; wok, Kyen, Champang, etc.; wak, Magar; vak, Naga, Garu; piak, Chepang.
|Come||Haere mai||How my|
|Nail (finger)||Maikuku||Gnedji nima|
N.B.—Mariner's “Vocabulary of the Tongan Language” has been followed here, and as it is in the old system of spelling, oo stands in it for u, ow for au, c for k, y for ai, etc. In copying the words from the above we have altered the orthography to the new system, though they stand here as given by their author.
We now come to a comparison between the glossaries of the Maori and those of the Indian Archipelago. A list is given below of nine English words, against which are put the various expressions in Maori; and after the latter are placed equivalents found amongst fifty-nine languages of the Indian Archipelago. It will be seen that in every case they have one, two, or more equivalents, even though the expressions vary. Thus, in the various expressions in Maori for the word “small,” three were found in the archipelago—iti, riki, moroiti; and the words for fire, ahi, and water, wai, have very extensive range under various modifications. Of the following nine words, four only are Malay.
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
|1. Black||mangu||(manga, Malagasi)|
|pango||ngoa, Batchian; ngeo, Rotti|
|2. Fire||ahi||api, Malay and thirteen other languages; ahu, Cajeli; afu, Amblaw; uku, Ternati and two others; whu, Sahoe; aow, Liang and seven other languages; hao, Saparua and Camarian; yafo, Teluti; yaf, Ahtiago; aif, Gah; hai, Goram and three others; ai, Brissi and Savu|
[Footnote] * ? is appended when word is derived from modern European language.
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|3. Large||nui||naaik, Brissi; naiki, Vaiqueno|
|rahi||ilahe, Awaiya; ilahil, Saparua|
|4. Nose||ihu||iru, Lariki; iri, Saparua; ino, Vaiqueno; inur, Teto E.; niru, Allor; irung, Sulor; nirun, Ké Islands; irun, Ratahan; irong, Javanese; idong, Malay and three others|
|iti||ki-iti, Wahai; ichi-ichi, Ternati; kitchil, Malay|
|6. Tongue||arero||kelo, Goram; weo, Savu|
|7. Tooth||niho||nio, Saparua; nifoa, Matabello; nifan, Ahtiago|
|8. Water||wai||wai, Salibabo and seven others; woya, Kaioa; waiyr, Gani and Mysol; wehr, Morella and four others; wehl, Batumerah, and three others; waeli, Awaiya and Camarian; welo, Teluti; waiin, Ahtiago; waar, Dorey; ve, Teto; hoi, Vaiqueno; oii, Brissi; oee, Rotti; we, Allor; boi, Bajau; aer, Salayer; aie, Sasak; ayer, Malay|
|honu||manu, Bouton and Tomore|
|9. White||ma||ma-puti, Bugis and three others; ma-wuroh, Ratahan and two others; ma-bidah, Kemah and Bantik.|
The next list, as given below, contains 102 English words with their various expressions in Maori, to which are appended their equivalents as found amongst thirty-three languages of the Indian Archipelago. On examination it will be seen that, with the exception of sixteen words, all others have one or more of the several Maori terms displayed in some of these languages. Thus, the two expressions for rain in Maori are ua and awha; the former is found in various languages as uan, huya, ulah, hura, hulan, and the latter as oha and wao. The approximations are too close (that is when not actually the same), and the divergences too gradual, to admit a doubt as to common origin.
The sixteen words that have not their equivalents consist principally of articles and objects not known in New Zealand prior to the coming of the European, such as banana, chopper, cocoanut, honey, etc. Thus eighty-six words out of 102 are common between Maori and the languages of the Indian Archipelago, as against sixty-six words out of the same, common between Maori and Tongan. Then, as the latter are dialects of admittedly one language, the affinity of Maori glossaries to more distant races has forcible exposition, and
it should not escape remark that of the 102 words compared, nineteen of these only are Malay, the great majority belonging to the groups of Molucca, Ceram, and Timor, situated at the east end of the archipelago. Hence a glossarial link is clearly proved viâ Tongatabu, expressively called in Maori tradition the roro, or gate to Hawaiki, their home country, wherever that had been.
Maori compared with 102 words in thirty-three languages of the Indian Archipelago.*
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|Bad||kino||hina, (low) Malay|
|Bird||manu||manu, Menado and five others; manok, Javanese and eight others; manui, Cajeli and Awaiya; manuti, Wayapo and Massaratty; manik, Gani; malok, Wahai|
|Boat||poti?||oti, Tidore; lopi, Salayer; owe, Mysol|
|Body||tinana||nanau, Amblaw; nana-ka, Liang; anana, Lariki|
|Bone||iwi||hoi, Sula; riri, Saparua; nili, Camarian|
|Cold||makariri||makariki, Ahtiago; mariri, Wahai; giridin, Mysol; aridin, Matabello; periki, Liang and Morella|
|Come||haere mai||mai, Lariki and six others; mari, Malay|
|ahu mai||omai, Cajeli and Batumerah; ikomai, Wayapo; gumahi, Massaratty; uimai, Liang; oimai, Morella|
[Footnote] * ?is appended when derived from modern European language.
|Day||ao||ao-aaoa, Lariki; heo, Bouton; allo, Salayer|
|ra||rau, Menado; lau, Bajow|
|Door-post||tuturu||metouru, Lariki; metoro, Saparua|
|Ear||taringa||talinga, Malay and four others; telilan, Cajeli; linga-nami, Massaratty; terina, Liang and four others|
|Egg||hua||munte-loa, Batumerah; mantir-hui, Morella|
|Face||mata||mata-lalin, Wahai; mati-noin, Teor; muti-no, Masol|
|Father||pa papa||bapa, Malay and Gani, baba, Javanese and Tidore|
|matua tane||tua (elder) Malay|
|Feather||hou||owhu, Bouton; huru, Liang|
|koikara||kokowa-na, Sula; kukur, Wahai|
|Fire||ahi||ahu, Cajeli; efi, Matabello; api, Malay and three others; yaf, Teor; yap, Mysol; hao, Saparua|
|Fish||ika||ikan, Malay and five others; iyan, Liang and nine others; ein, Mysol|
|Flower||puawai||buah (fruit), Malay|
|rango||rango, Bolang-hitam; lango, Sanguir; langow, Bajow; ralngoh, Menado|
|Foot||waewae||oei, Bouton; raedai, Menado; laidi, Sanguir; wed, Gani; aiva, Batumerah; ai, Lariki and six others; matwey, Mysol|
|te kaokao||tekay-ap, Mysol|
|Fruit||hua||hua, Liang and two others; ai-hua, Lariki; huwai, Camarian; huan, Teluti; vuan, Tobo; phuin, Teor; bua, Malay and five others; wowoan, Javanese; fuan, Wayapo and Massaratty; buani, Amblaw; aihuwana, Batumerah|
|whiu||aeo, Awaiya and Camarian|
|Good||pai||bai, Malay; baji, Salayer; pia, Sula; parei, Amblaw; fiar, Gani; ia, Liang and two others; mai, Lariki and Camarian; fei, Mysol|
|Hair||huruhuru||uhu, Salayer; hutu, Tidore and Galela; uwohoh, Saparua; ulufuim, Ahtiago|
|Handful||kutanga||Tongan, Malay, and two others, for hand|
|pakari||kras, Malay and two others|
|Head||upoko||oyuko, Teluti; obaku, Bouton; uruka, Liang and Morella|
|karu||kahutu, Myson; uru, Saparua and Awaiya|
|anga anga||nganga-sahi, Galela|
|House||whare||balry, Menado; boré, Bolang-hitam|
|Husband||tahu||tau, Sula; nau, Tidore|
|Island||motu||li-wuto, Bouton; ri-wuto, Bolang-hitam|
|rahi||lehai, Cajeli; ilahe, Awaiya|
|Leaf||rau||laun, Saprua; ai-rawi, Lariki; daun, Malay, and four others|
|iti||ki-iti, Wahai; kidik-idi, Bouton; ro-it, Wayapo|
|Louse||kuku||kutu, Malay and nine others; kota, Sula; koto, Wayapo and Massaratty; uru and utu, Amblaw and nine others; hut, Teor; ut and uti, Mysol|
|Man||tangata||tau-mata, Menado; tomata, Salibabo; tumata, Saparua and two others|
|tapau||tepoh, Bajow; tupur, Salayer|
|Mother||matua-whine||ma (mother), tua (old), bini (wife), Malay|
|Mouth||mangai||nanga, Bouton; nganga, Bolang-hitam|
|Nail(finger)||maikuku||kuku, Malay and three others; kanuka or kanuko, Menado and three others; wuku, Gah|
|Night||po||po-tu, Saparua; po-tuun, Ahtiago|
|kuhukuhu||hahu, Morella and five others|
|Prawn crayfish?||koura||uran, Javanese and three others|
|Rain||ua||uan, Gah; oha, Bolang-hitam; huya, Sula; ulah, Amblaw; hura, Galela; hulan, Liang; huran, Bajow; ujan, Malay|
|Red||whero||merah, Malay and four others|
|paka||kao, Liang and five others|
|River||awa||uve, Bouton; sawan, Sanguir|
|Road||ara||dara, Bouton; lora, Bolang-hitam; aya, Sula; lalan, Morella and three others; lahan, Liang; laran, Matabello; jalan, Malay|
|Root||aka-aka||akar, Malay and three others; wa-ata, Liang; ai-aha, Mataello|
|Sea||moana||tahi, Matabello; tasi, Ahtiago|
|au||aow-pot, Lariki; aowaht, Morella|
|Star||whetu||bituy, Menado; fatui, Sula; betol; Gani; toi, Ahtiago|
|Sun||ra||ria-mata, Liang; matarou, Menado; lia, Massaratty|
|Tooth||niho||nio, Saparua; nifoa, Matabello|
|Water||wai||wai, Ahtiago, Tobo, and six others; wai-im, Ahtiago, Alfuras; waili, Cajeli and two others; wayr, Mysol; ayer, Malay|
|Wife||wahine||wewina, Teor; babineh, Salibabo; pipina, Saparua; invina, Ahtiago; bini, Malay|
|Wing||parirau||pani-dey, Menado; pori-pikia, Bolang-hitam; fanik, Teor|
|Woman||wahine||bawine, Bouton; mahoweni, Sanguir; mahina, Liang and four others; mewina, Teor; vina, Ahtiago|
|Wood||rakau||okao, Bouton; kao, Sula and three others; kai, Teor; kayu, Malay and three others; kaju, Salayer|
Being thus done with the Malayo-Polynesian glossarial connection, before we proceed in our enquiries it is necessary to mention that the Silong tribe of the islands of Mergui, near Burmah, are the furthest north-westward having distinct affinity with the above families. The negro islanders of Andaman are known to be ideologically connected, but their language, as far as I have gathered, has been too slightly investigated for final opinion. At Mergui, therefore, practically ends the influence of the peculiar phase of fossil words that we have been considering. Beyond this point the vast area of South Asia is met with, where now, at this period, Thibetan, Arian, and Semitic languages cover the space; and it is not till we come to the great island of Madagascar that we find traces of the material of which we are in search.
Captain Cook, the renowned navigator, indicates this fact as a circumstance known at his time. After him Humboldt supports the hypothesis of the language of Madagascar being identical in construction with those of the Indian Archipelago, but how far that great authority had analysed the languages is unknown to me. The bare fact of his support is all the information that I have been able
to gain. Subsequent writers discourage the idea, and the latest that I have been able to consult (Griffiths) says the following of the connection :—“The Malagasi bears some analogy to the Malay and the Arabic in the sound and signification of many of the words, and in the inflection of certain verbs; but to say that on this account it is a dialect of either the Malay or the Arabic would be as unreasonable as to say that the Arabic is a dialect of Hebrew, or the Hebrew a dialect of the Arabic.” On reading this opinion the thought struck me that, as from my own personal knowledge the Malay has no affinity to Arabic, the author in comparing Malagasi to two dissimilar things might not have investigated either with the completeness necessary; so, in taking up Ellis' “Madagascar Revisited” and opening its pages at random, I was struck with the strong resemblance of the beautiful woodcut giving the portrait of a native, to the common cast of countenance found in the Indian Archipelago amongst the Bajow, or Sea Malays. A copy of this (Pl. I.) I am enabled to show to the Society through the skill of Mr. Alexander McColl, who has transferred it by the photo-lithographic process. Dipping further into the work I found almost every fifth word to have Malayan affinities, and coming to the capital, which I may take by way of example, I found it called Antananarivo, or the City of a Thousand Towns or Villages. Now, allowing for the differences of articulation, this is precisely the same as the Malay word Tana-saribu; the word tanana in Malagasi, denuded of the prefix, being used in a more restricted sense than it is generally in Malay—though even here a Malay uses the word in a very restricted sense occasionally, as when he talks of his tana bindang, or rice plot; tana campong, his village area, etc.
Thus led on, I was induced to proceed with picking out the word fossils of the language, i.e., so far as the excellent grammar of the Rev. Mr. Griffiths afforded material. Out of this work I collected 146 words, as given below, ninety-five of which proved to be Malayan, and eighty Malayo-Polynesian. Of the list of words twenty-nine only had no equivalents. Of course it would be improper were I not to remark that primary words alone were selected, and not the secondary or tertiary that are given in all dictionaries. Again, comparing the Malagasi words given below that are also found in Wallace's and Earle's comparative vocabularies of the Indian Archipelago, I found that of forty-seven words forty-two had their equivalents in one or other, or several, of the dialects and languages. Thus in the primary words—in the bases of their languages—close affinity is clearly indicated.
Instancing particular words in Malagasi, it is interesting to examine their dispersion. Thus the word vorona, bird, is found in the Indian Archipelago slightly altered to burong, urong, etc., but the most usual term is manok, manu, manik, mano, etc. The former term is African, the other Asian; and in examining the various vocabularies we see that one seems to have striven to
displace the other, the Asian one being the more victorious. The word volo, hair, is found nearly perfectly preserved at Massaratty and Wayapo, near Ceram, as olofolo and folo respectively. In Tonga it is fulu; in New Zealand, huru; and in Malay, bulu; in Africa, vulu; and in Asia (Thibet), pul. The two words vava and mur, the mouth, have each their preservers—(1st) in New Zealand, waha; in Viti (Feejee), fafa; in Bouton, bawa; in Wokan (Arru), fafahi; (2nd) in Kaffraria (Africa), mlumu; and in Malaya, mulut. Lastly, the words nif, nifo, tooth, have been nearly extirpated in the Indian Archipelago, but are preserved in New Zealand, as niho; in Tonga, as nifo; in Matabello, near Keh Islands, as nifoa; etc.
One hundred and forty-six words of Malagasi compared with Malayan, Maori, and Tongan Dictionaries, to which are added some African and East Indian cognations.
|Axe||famaky, vilahy, famatsika||bliung (adze)|
|Anger||tezitra||stru (enmity)||aritarita, Maori|
|Blood||ra, rany||dara||ra'aru, Kissa|
|Belly||kibo||—||kopu, Maori; kabin, Teor|
|Bird||vorona||burong||burong, Salayer and Batumerah;|
|Bad||ratay||—||ahati, Wahai; rahat, Bajow and Matabello|
|Body||vatang||badan (body) batang(trunk)||watan, Matabello; fatan, Wayapo; badan, Sanguir; padan, Mysol|
|Cattle||omby aombe, fiary||domba (sheep)||lombe, gnombai, Sauhili (Africa); ‘gombi, Kwillimani|
|Child||angumbi zanaka||anak||anak, Javanese and five others|
|Cry aloud||minene||menyeni (sing)|
|Day||andro||—||ao, Maori; aho, Tongan; allo, Salayer; dowa, Wayapo; rou, Menado|
|Dead||maty||mati||mate, Maori and Tongan; maki, Kissa|
|Drink||sotro||minum||inu, Maori and Tongan; nomon, Kissa|
|Dog||amboa||—||kirehe, Maori; muntoa, Bouton; ahua,|
|kivahy, fandroaka||Kissa; yahoa, Keh; ambua, African; aai, Silong|
Note.—y in Malagasi terminations has same sound as i in other words.
|Earth||tany||tana||one-one, Maori; tana, Kayan|
|Eye||maso||mata||mata, Tongan; moto, Javanese;|
|macho, Sauhili (African)|
|Fire||afo||api||ahi, Maori; afi, Tongan; afu, Amblaw; aow, Liang and five others; apoi, Silong|
|Fish||loaka||ikan||ika, Maori and Tongan; iwak, Indonesia. (Roots: ka, Siam; in, Teochew) akan, Silong|
|Fruit||voa||boa||hua, Maori; fua, Tongan; vuan, Ahtiago; woya, Gah; fuan, Wayapo|
|Father||ray||—||hunarei, Maori; amay, Kayan|
|Good||tsara||—||ala, Bajow; laha, Tidore; saya, Kayan|
|Growth||tombo||tumbo-an||tupu, Maori; tubu, Tongan|
|Great||lehibe||libeh (more)||lahi, Tongan; lalahap, Kissa|
|High||avo||—||mow, Tongan; bo, Kayan|
|Heaven||lanitra||langit||rangi, Maori; langi, Tongan|
|Hole||lavaka||lobang||poka, Maori; luoava, Tongan|
|Head||loha||ulu||loha, alo, lua, kulu, African|
|Horns||tandrok||tandok||tanro, tando, African; tang, Thibetan|
|Hot||hafana||panas||umpana, Amblaw; bafanat, Ahtiago; buhaha, Sula; mana, Kissa|
|Hair||volo||bulu||huru, Maori; fulu, Tongan; olofolo,|
|maromanana||Massaratty; folo, Wayapo; vulu,
African; pul, Thibet
|He||izy||dya or iya||ia, Maori and Tongan|
|I||aho||aku||ahau, Maori; au, Tongan|
|Island||nosy||—||nusa, Javanese and eleven others|
|Liver||aty||ati||ate, Maori and Tongan|
|Mouth||vava||—||fafa, Viti; bawa, Bouton; suara, Batumerah; fafahi, Wokan|
|mur, mamu||mulut||mlumu, Kafir (African)|
|Man||alona||orong||malona, Liang and two others; kolonan, Kayan|
|Mother||reny||—||inai, Ahtiago; inany, Menado; inei, Kayan|
|Nose||uru, orong||idong||ihu, Maori and Tongan; uroh, Bajow; oanu, Bouton; irong, Javanese; iru, Lariki; urong, Kayan|
|Pig||lambu||limbu (cow)||burui Sauhili (Africa); burum, Erob
(Torres Strait); inverse form of Malagasi term
|Root||faka||akar||aka-aka, Maori and Tongan|
|River||ony||songi||uve, Bouton; ongagu, Bolang-hitam|
|Rice||vary||padi||halai, Cajeli; allai, Batumerah; pary, Kayan|
|Raw||manta||manta||mata, Maori; awta, Tongan|
|Sing||mihira||menyeni||hihi, Maori; hiva, Tongan; nahinari, Kissa|
|Swine||kisoa||—||suar, Hindee; soho, Tidore|
|Sweet||mamy||manis||mameko, Bouton; mami, Tidore; may, Kayan|
|Sea||rano masina||ayer masing (sea water)|
|Sun||maso andro||mata ari||ra, Maori; mata alo, Salayer; matin|
|fanjavabe, maheny||dow, Kayan|
|Skin||hoditra||kulit||holit, Teor; kurito, Bolang-hitam|
|To-day||anio hiany||ini hari||inaianei, Maori|
|Teeth||nif, nifo||—||niho, Maori; nifo, Tongan; nifoa,|
|Matabello; nifin, Teor; nio, Saparua|
|Way||aleha||alaman||ara, Maori; hala, Tongan|
|White||fotsy||puti||boti, Sula and two others; umpoti, Cajeli; maphuti, Matabello|
|Walk||mandeha||—||eva, Tongan; malaha, Kissa|
|Water||rano||—||manu, Bouton; oira, Kissa|
|Woman||vehivavy||—||wahine, Maori; vina, Ahtiago; fele|
|Wonderful||mahagaga||maha (great)||maharo, Maori|
|Yams||ovi||ubi||uwhikaho, Maori; ufi, Tongan; uwi, Kissa|
|Year||taona||taun||tau, Maori and Tongan.|
Having thus completed the Glossarial branch of the inquiry in as far as materials and space will allow, I now proceed to the second branch, viz., the Idiomatic, and in this I will pursue the same course as in the other, viz., from New Zealand north and westward, making the Malay language the link of comparison, it being the representative one amongst many others at the west end of the Indian Archipelago and best known to Europeans, and consequently best illustrated in literature. First, then, we commence with Maori and Malay, as follows:—
The alphabet is composed of thirteen letters, viz., five vowels, a, e, i, o, u, and eight consonants—h, k, m, n, p, r, t, w. The New Zealanders had no literature before the advent of Europeans.
When Roman characters are used the alphabet is composed of twenty-one letters, viz., five vowels and eighteen consonants— i.e., counting h soft and h hard as separate consonants.
A great portion of both languages can be traced to monosyllables and dissyllables, some consisting of the root only, and others of a root and a prefixed syllable.
Adjectives and verbs are modified, both in form and meaning, by the reduplication of one or both of the syllables of the root. An adjective with the first syllable of the root doubled becomes plural, thus he rakau pai—a good tree; he rakau pai pai—good trees. It is to be observed, however, that the simple form is used both as singular and plural.
The effect of doubling both syllables of the root is to diminish the intensity of the meaning of the adjective, thus: mate—sick; mate mate, sickly.
In the case of verbs, the effect of the two kinds of reduplication is somewhat different. Thus, kimo denotes winking of the eyes; kikimo—closed and kept so; kimo kimo, frequent winking.
Nouns and adjectives and verbs may all have a prefix—whaka or wha—the effect of which is to make a causal verb; thus whakatangata signifies to make a man or treat as a man; whakanoho—to cause to sit; whakamohio—to cause to know.
The usual passive terminations of verbs are a, ia, hia, kia, mia, ngia, ria, tia, whia, na, ina, and whina. Thus
Poro becomes porou
Waru " waruhia
Horo " horomia
Intransitive, as well as transitive, verbs have a passive voice requiring the addition of a preposition in English to make the sense complete. Thus: noho—sit; nohia— be sat upon.
Nouns of circumstance are derived from adjectives, participles, or verbs by the following suffixes:—Nga, anga, hanga, manga, ranga, tanga, inga, the choice of termination being somewhat arbitrary. Thus:
Mahi makes mahinga
Noho " nohoanga
Titiro " tirohanga
Numerals have certain prefixes—e, ko, toko, hoko, and taki.
Passive verbs sometimes have the suffix tanga. The force of the same is difficult to determine, sometimes having the same effect as ana, thus: hiko tonu ia ki nga ngarehu, apuatanga—he immediately snatched up the burning coals, and crammed them into his mouth.
The syllable nge is sometimes prefixed to personal or possessive pronouns, as nge-au, nge-ona; and sometimes it appears as a suffix to the adverbs pea and koa, thus: peange, koange, but not affecting the meaning thereof.
Well-known words may sometimes be met with in such a disguise that it is difficult, at first sight, to recognise them at all.
Reduplication of adverbs, nouns, and verbs has an intensitive as well as a multiple effect; the doubling of an adjective does not pluralise the noun, but the doubling of the noun itself does so, as sa poko bai—a good tree; poko poko bai —good trees. Also the simple form without the article prefixed may be singular or plural.
The effect of doubling the syllables of the root is to intensify the meaning of the adjective, as sakit, sick; sakit sakit, very sick.
Here kejap signifies to wink; kejap kejap—to wink continuously; but tutup mata signifies to close the eyes.
Here the prefixes bekan or boat are used in nearly a similar manner, as bekan betul —straighten; boat gila—pretend madness.
Verbs, active or passive, have properly no inflections, and are expressed as follows:—-
Habes becomes habes ulih ku
Chukur " chukur ulih ku
Anchor " anchor ulih nia
Here the distinctions are made as follows: bunoh—to kill; ter bunoh—to be killed; the passive voice being here rendered by a prefix.
Here the same principle is carried out by the suffix an. Thus:
Kreja makes kreja-an
Dudu " dudu-an
Tingo " tingo-an
Numerals have no prefixes.
Expression by passive verbs is very common in the written language, the preposition ulih being used after the verb. Thus: Arang berniala sabintur de sintak ulih nia dan masokan mulut nia—burning charcoal was immediately snatched by him, and crammed into his mouth.
Here it does not have an equivalent.
In the search for camphor the Malays disguise the words by inversion, in order to propitiate the hautus, or spirits, whose
One of the causes of this is the possibility of trouble arising from the accidental resemblance of the word to the name of some chief. The mere fact of his name, or a word similar to it, being used in a manner considered disrespectful, might be the cause of a quarrel. The following may serve as an illustration of this:—Some years ago the child of a chief of the Ngatiporou tribe received the name of Te Wairama, In consequence of this the word honu came into common use for water, and the usual word (wai) was avoided for fear of giving offence.
The same word may at different times assume functions of several parts of speech. Thus, nouns are frequently used as adjectives to denote the material of which the thing is made. Thus: he whare raupo—a house built of raupo; he roto tuna--a lake in which eels abound.
The accent is on the first syllable as a general rule.
Scheme of a Maori Verb.
assistance they invoke. The word sungei, a river, is a term of opprobrium in Jambi, where the word moara is used instead. Any Scotchman so unfortunate as to have the name of McIntyre is a great cause of difficulty to the Malays, who will, in wellbred circles, not pronounce his name on any account.
Here we have the same principle, as: Sa ruma atap—a house made of thatch; lahar ikan mati—a pool of dead fish.
This obtains in Malay.
Scheme of a Malay Verb.
1. Inceptive—Past or Future.
Ka karanga ia—he called or began to call; he will call or will begin to call.
Kahore ia e karanga—he began or will begin not to call.
De pangil nia—he called or began to call.
Mau pangil nia—he will call or will begin to call.
Tida pangil pun mulai dya—he began, etc.
Tida mau pangil pun mulai dya—he will, etc.
2. Imperfect—Past, Present, or Future.
He karanga ana ai—he was, is, or will be calling.
Kahore ia e karanga ana—he was not, is not, or will not be calling.
Dya ada pangil—he is calling.
Dya suda ada pangil—he was, etc.
Dya nanti pangil—he will, etc.
Dya tida pangil—he was or is not calling.
Dya tida nanti pangil, or he will not, etc.
Tida nanti de pangil ulih nia
3. Perfect—Past, Present, or Future.
Kua karanga ia—he had, has, or will have called.
Kahore ia kia karanga—he had not, has not, or will not have called.
Suda ada de pangil—he had or has, etc.
Nanti suda de pangil—he will, etc.
Tida suda de pangil—-he had not, etc.
Tida suda nanti de pangil—he will not, etc.
4. Indefinite Past.
I karanga ia—he called.
kihai ia i karanga—he did not call.
Dya pangil, or pangil ulih nia—he called.
Tida de pangil ulih nia—he did not, etc.
5. Indefinite Future.
E karanga ia—he will call.
E kore ia e karanga—he will not call.
Dya mau pangil—he will, etc.
Dya tida mau pangil—he will not, etc.
6. Narrative Form.
Karanga ana ia—he called.
Dya suda (or ada) pangil—he called.
Kaua e karanga—do not call.
Jangan pangil—do not call.
Kia karanga ia—that he should call.
Sebab de pangil ulih nia—that he, etc.
Me e karanga ana ia—If he were calling.
Kalau ada de pangil—If he, etc.
He karanga—to call.
As we have a more extended grammar than the above of the Tongan (or Tonguese), with which the Maori may be considered to be intimately connected, both being dialects of the same Polynesian language that extends from the Samoa group, or Navigator Islands, over the Society, Marquesas, and Sandwich groups, a few comparisons with it will not be inappropriate, seeing that there are some constructive and glossarial differences.
The alphabet consists of seventeen letters, five of which are vowels and twelve of which are consonants, viz., a, e, i, o, u, and b, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, s, t, v respectively. Duplication of words takes place, as in Malay and Maori, under very similar conditions, thus: toji, to peck, when doubled (tojitoji) means to peck repeatedly; noko, the hip, when doubled (nokonoko) means a large hip. Of this class of words there are many examples. In other cases no new idea is suggested in connection with the primitive term, as in the above examples; but its meaning is made emphatic or becomes intensified. Thus the word niji, vain or vanity, when doubled means the same thing in a strong or superlative sense. There are, however, exceptions to the above rule which need not be entered into here.
There are two classes of articles: (1st) those which precede common nouns—koe, ae, he, and the indefinite article ha; (2nd) those which are only used before proper nouns, viz., ko and a.
The masculine and feminine genders are formed by the words tangata (male) and fafine (female) following the noun, of which there are parallel examples in Malay and Maori.
The plural signs are gaahi, kau, tunga, faga, otu, and fuifui. The uses of these are various. Our space will allow of only one or two examples by way of comparison.
Kaun-kreja, or Kaun ber kreja fellow workmen.
In the declension of nouns there are no inflections, which is also the case in Malay. Adjectives follow the noun in Tongan, with few exceptions, which also holds good in Malay.
The personal pronouns form a class of words in the Tongan and the Polynesian dialects generally more numerous than in most other languages, and they are always used with peculiar precision. They have also the power of indicating, by different prefixial and terminal particles or letters, the inclusive and exclusive sense in the dual and plural numbers of the first person only.
From the above cause the declensions of these pronouns are more elaborate, of which an example is given below :—
Nom. Ko au—I, or me.
Ko kita—(familiar only)
Gen. Ooku—of, or belonging to me.
Dat. Kiate au—to me.
Iate au—in me.
The personal pronouns have great variety, and in their uses nicety of meaning, thus :—
Aku. used in literature principally.
Goh used vulgarly.
Hamba tuan used by inferiors in speaking to superiors.
Angkau used in literature principally.
Lu—used by superiors in speaking to inferiors.
Inchi used between equals.
It is considered to be rude to use the pronoun when speaking to masters, fathers, grandfathers, mothers, or grandmothers, thus tuan, pa, to or dato, ma or ma nenek
Abl. E au—by me.
Meiate au—from me.
The form and changes of the verb in Tongan are exceedingly simple. In fact, it may be said that there is but one conjugation for the regular verbs of every description; but the auxiliary signs of the verb vary in the past and future tenses.
Euphonic terminations are a or i, and ekina, eina, aki, hia, atu, and age; as oku ou tabu'i koe. With slight exceptions verbal roots undergo no changes in conjugation; they are destitute of those inflexions which indicate moods, tenses, number, or person. The conjugation of the Tongan verb is therefore accomplished by the use of certain auxiliary signs, particles, and words. Example:
are used under such circumstances respectively.
Dya, before a verb used indifferently.
Nia, after a verb
The same sentiment prevails when speaking of masters, fathers, etc.; and the same rule applies in the third person.
By the proper use of the pronouns I have seen the key to the goodwill of the villagers effectually used. By a critical knowledge in these, courtesy, contempt, arrogance, love, candour, dissimulation, etc., can be indicated. The natives have a keen perception of the various shades of meaning.
This is also the case with Malay verbs.
Euphonic terminations occur in tau, taui —to know; ajar, ajari—to learn; etc. The other principal suffixes are kan and an, as boat, boat-kan—to do.
These remarks also apply to Malay, as below:
Conjugation of a Regular Verb.
1. Affirmative Form.
Oku au alu—I go, or am going.
Aku ada purgi—go, etc.
Oku ma alu we two go (exclusive)
Oku ta alu (inclusive)
Kita dua purgi—we two, etc.
Oku mau alu—we go (ex.)
Oku tau alu— (in.)
Kita purgi—we go.
2. Negative Form.
Oku ikai teu alu—I go not.
Aku tida purgi—I go, etc.
Oku ikai te ma alu—we two go not.
Kita dua purgi—we two, etc.
Oku ikai te ma alu—we go not.
Kita tida purgi—we go, etc.
Past or Imperfect Tense.
Neu alu—I went.
Aku suda purgi—I went.
Naa ma alu—we two went.
Kita dua suda purgi—we two went.
Naa mau alu—we went.
Kita suda purgi—we went.
Perfect and Pluperfect.
Kuou alu—I have gone.
Aku suda ada purgi—I have, etc.
Kuo ma alu—we two have gone.
Kita dua suda ada purgi—we two, etc.
Kuo mau alu—we have gone.
Kita suda ada purgi—we have, etc.
Teu and keu alu—I shall or will go.
Ahu mau purgi—I shall, etc.
Te or ke ma alu—we two shall or will go.
Kita dua mau purgi—we two, etc.
Te or ke mau alu—we shall or will go.
Kita mau purgi—we shall, etc.
Alu koe—go thou.
Purgi angkau—go thou.
Alu akimoua—go you two.
Purgi angkau dua—go you two.
Alu akimoutolu—go ye.
Purgi kamu—go ye.
Alu or ke alu—to go.
Of adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections, no remarks are called for further than that there are some words, or nearly similar words, common to both languages.
General remarks on the above branch will be better left till near the conclusion of this paper. I will therefore proceed to the next step, viz., a consideration of the idioms of the Malagasi and Malayan tongues, as follows :—
The emphasis is placed on the penultimate of dissyllables, and on the anti-penultimate of trisyllables and polysyllables, as in—
The emphasis is placed on the penultimate of dissyllables, as ia—
But in the case of tri- and poly-syllables, accent varies with the terminations, as in—
Having no literature, when Roman letters are used twenty-one suffice, sixteen of which are consonants and five are vowels, viz., a, b, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, v, y, z.
Having no known primitive literature, its alphabet is borrowed from the Arabs, composed of thirty-six letters, thirty-two of which are consonants and four of which are vowels; but when the Roman alphabet is used twenty-three letters suffice, eighteen of which are consonants and five of which are vowels, viz., a, b, t, j, d, r, z, s, f, p, h, k, g, l, m, n, u, o, w, h (soft), i, e, y.
A great portion of the roots of both languages can be traced to monosyllables and dissyllables, as—
Roots, in general, are nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. When they are common substantives or adjectives they become verbs by adding a vowel or syllable, or by changing the last syllable, as: sotro—drink;
Roots may be nouns, adjectives, or verbs. When the former they become verbs by prefixing a syllable, and sometimes by suffixing a vowel, as: mula—beginning; memula or mula-i—to commence. When the
Note.—y in the Malagasi vocabulary, when used as a termination to a word, has the same sound as i on the Continent of Europe or e in English.
sotroy—let it be drunk; hanina—food; hano—eat, or let it be eaten.
There are also certain prefixes added to roots of derivative nouns, such as fi, faha, etc., and suffixes, as ana, na, vana, etc., which affect the initial and ultimate letters of each word, a few examples of which are given below by way of illustration :—
Faoka, s. Clearing off
Mamoaka, v. To clear off
Fara, s. Anything rubbed
Mamara, v. To rub or scrape
Farana, ad. Level
Mamarana, v. To level
Feno, ad. Full
Mameno, v. To fill
Fody, s. Returning home
Mamody, v. To return home
Fono, s. Shrouded like a corpse
Mamono, v. To kill
Fotsy, ad. White
Mamotsy, v. To Whiten
Hahy, s. The dried by fire
Mamahy, v. To dry by fire
Hay, s. Knowledge
Mahay, v. To know
Hantona, s. Hanging
Menantona, v. To hang
Hariva, s. Evening.
Hataka, s. A petition
Mangataka, v. To beg
Hatona, s. Approach
Mamatona, v. To approach
Havokavoka, s. Beating
Manavokavoka, v. To beat
Helatra, s. Lightning
Manelatra, v. To flash
Heloka, s. Iniquity
Manameloka, v. To condemn
Hevitra, s. Thought
Mihievitra, v. To think
Hinaka, s. Pomelling
Maninaka, v. To beat
Hofa, s. Rent
Manofa, v. To pay rent
Hombo, s. Nail
Manombo, v. To cause to grow
Hozona, s. Shaking
Manozongozona, v. To shake
Kekitra, s. A bite
Manekitra, v. To bite
Lalo, s. A passing by
Mandalo, v. To pass by
Lama, s. Slipperiness
Mandama, v. To lubricate
Lanto, s. The act of arranging
Mandanto, v. To arrange
root is a verb, the word becomes a substantive by a suffix, as: makan—to eat; makanan—food.
The prefixes to roots are me, men, meng, pe, pel, pen, ber, etc.; and the suffixes are an, kan, i, etc., the former of which sometimes affect the initial letters, either by elision or substitution. Thus, surat—writing, becomes meniurat—to write. Other examples are below :—
Buka, s. Clearing off (as of forest)
Membuka, v. To clear off
Tara, s. A rub
Meniara, v. To rub or scrape
Rata, ad. Level
Memratakan, v. To level
Peno, ad. Full
Memeno, v. To fill
Mudy, v. To go up a stream
Memudy, v. Ditto; a common mode of travelling in Malaya
Buno, v. To kill
Pembuno, s. A murderer
Pembunohan, s. An execution
Memuno, v. To kill
Iambuno, s. The kill
Perbunohan, s. A place of execution
Putih, ad. White
Memuti, v. To whiten
Api, s. Fire
Taro de api, v. Dry it
Panday, ad. Clever. Pandian, s. Clever[ness]
Berpanday, v. To be clever
Gantongan, s. Act of hanging
Memantong, v. To hang; but gantong in general use
Hari suda pitang, s. Evening
Mintakan, s. The act of begging
Memintakan, v. To beg
Dataugan, s. The act of approaching
Menatang, v. To approach
Pukulan, s. A beating
Memukul, v. To beat
Halilintar, s. Thunderbolt
Berkilat, v. To flash
Chelaka, s. Misfortune.
Berchelaka, v. To cause misfortune
Fikiran, s. Thought
Memikir, v. To think (fikir usually)
Gasa, s. A beatin
Meniasa, v. To beat
Upa, s. Hire
Meniupa, v. To hire
Tumbo, s. A sprout or spike
Menumbo, v. To sprout
Goyangan, s. Shaking
Bergoyang-goyang, v. To shake
Bakiran, s. Cut, as with a file
Bukikir, v. To file
Lalu-an, s. A passing by
Menialu, v. To pass by
Lema limbut, ad. Softly
Ber-limbutkan, v. To smooth
Ator-an, s. The act of arranging
Berator, v. To arrange
Latsa-bato, s. Dropping a stone
Mandatsaka, v. To drop
Lavaka, s. Hole
Mandavaka, v. To make a hole
Lemy, s. Softness
Malemy, v. To be soft
Loto, s. Filth
Maloto, v. To be dirty
Mandoto, v. To make dirty
Safo, s. The act of caressing
Manafo, v. To caress
Sara, s. Hire of a canoe, etc.
Manara, v. To hire
Sasa, s. The act of washing
Manasa, v. To wash
Setra, s. Obstruction
Manetra, v. To face opposition
Soratra, s. Writing
Manoratra, v. To write
Tady, s. A rope
Manady, v. To make rope
Taingina, s. Act of mounting
Manaingina, v. To raise up
Takalo, s. Barter
Manakalo, v. To barter
Tambatra, s. Heap
Manambatra, v. To heap
Tanty, s. A basket
Mananty, v. To endure
Taranaka, s. Generation
Manaranaka, v. To produce the same species
Tenona, s. Weft
Manenona, v. To weave
To, s. Truth
Mankato, v. To follow truth
Tondro, s. Pointer
Manondro, v. To point
Vala, s. A small rice field embankment
Mamala, v. To partition
Valy, s. An answer
Marmaly, v. To reply
Vela, s. Dung
Mamela, v. To leave
Voa, s. Fruit
Mamoa, v. To bear fruit
Vono. See Fono
Zaitra, s. Needlework
Manjaitra, v. To sew
Zaka, s. Strength
Manjaka, v. To rule
A compound word is formed either by repeating the same, or by uniting others to it, as: kely—small; kelikely—rather small; sain'olona—human mind, from saina, mind, and olona, man.
The succeeding word in a compound expresses the quality of the preceding, as: zanaka-lahy—son or sons, from zanaka, child, and lahy, male; tanan'ankavanana—right hand.
Lattakan-batu, s. Dropping a stone
Melatta, v. To drop
Lobang, s. A hole
Bekan-lobang, v. To make a hole
Lema, s. Soft
Berlema, v. To soften
Kotor, s. Filth
Berkotor, v. To be dirty
Meniotor, v. To make dirty
Sapu-an, s. The act of cleaning with the hand, etc.
Meniapu, v. To clean
Sewa, s. Hire of anything
Meniewa, v. To hire or rent
Basa, s. The washing of one's hands
Memasa, v. To wash
Stru, ad. Unfriendly
Ber stru, v. To be unfriendly
Suratan, s. Writing
Meniurat, v, To write
Taly, s. A rope
Memboat taly, v. To make ropes
Naikan, s. The act of mounting
Menaikan, v. To get up
Tukuran, s. Barter
Ber tukar, v. To barter
Tambahan, s. A heap
Menambah, v. To heap
Menanti, v. To wait
Anak anak, s. Offspring
Per-anakan, v. To beget
Tanunan, s. Weft
Bertanun, v. To weave (usually tanun only)
Tunto, ad. Certain
Bekan tunto, v. To make certain
Tunju-an, s. Pointer
Menunju, v. To point
Batas, s. A rice field embankment, or small dam
Mematas, v. To embank
Bali-an, s. A return
Membalas jawab, v. To reply
Berah, s. Dung
Memberah, v. To stool (usually berah only)
Bua, s. Fruit
Ber-bua, v. To bear fruit
Jaitan, s. Needlework
Menjait, v. To sew
Gaga-an, s. The act of applying force
Bergaga, v. To strive.
So, also, we have kitchi—small; kitchi-kitchi—very small; and s'orong—one man, from sa, one, and orong, a man.
So, also, we have anak-laki—son or sons; tangan-kanan—right hand.
When there is an elision of a vowel it is specified by an apostrophe, as: tanan'olona—human hand; or otherwise, as in masoandro—sun, from maso, eye, and andro, day.
There are three definite articles—i, ra, and ny; i and ra are prefixed to names of persons to distinguish them from common terms; i is prefixed only to proper names of places. The article ny is applied to nouns, and is definite.
Verbal nouns are derived from verbs, and are formed by changing m into mp and f, as: manoratra—to write; mpanoratra—writer; fanoratra—mode of writing; fanoratana—things used for writing.
Nouns have three numbers—singular, dual, and plural.
Singular. Omby iray—a bullock.
Dual. Anabavy—a brother and sister; kambana—twins; izy roa lahy—the two men.
Plural. Olona maro—many people; omby ireo—these cattle; tranon-tsikia—our house.
The above are only a very few examples.
Gender.—The masculine and feminine genders are distinguished by different words, or by adding the words lahy and vavy—male and female.
Case.—The nominative precedes the verb when the agent is the most emphatic word; but it follows when the opposite, as: miteny aho—I speak; mitoetra aho—I stay.
Nouns in the possessive case are expressed as follows: tanan' olona—a man's hand; tendrok' omby—a bullock's horn.
Nouns in the objective case are thus placed: manoraty ny taratsy ny zazalahy—the boys write the copies.
So, also, have we di'orong—they, from dya, these, and orong, men; again, matahari—the sun, from mata, eye, and hari, day.
Definition is effected by the use of the words di and itu, as: di orong—the men; itu orong—these men. There is no indefinite article, but the word si is sometimes used in place thereof, as: si-anu—a person, or so-and-so.
And here we have surat or meniurat—to write; peniurat—a writer; meniuratan—mode of writing; per-suratan—things used for writing.
The numbers do not take so elaborate a form, but yet they have exposition, thus:
Singular. Domba satu—a sheep.
Dual. Ade-brade—Brother and sister; kambari—twins.
Plural. Orong baniak—many people; domba itu—these sheep; ruma-kita—our house.
Here we have laki and bini, as applied to man and wife; and jantan and betina, as generally applied to beasts.
Limbu jantan—a bull.
Limbu betina—a cow.
Anak laki—a son.
Anak betina or perampuan—a daughter.
The noun both precedes and follows the verb, the latter the more so in the written language, as: aku kata or kata ku—I speak; minanti ku or aku minanti—I wait.
The possessive case takes a similar position, as: tangan orang—a man's hand; tundok limbu—a bullock's horn.
Here: meniuratan turut-i ulih anak laki—the boys follow the writing.
An adjective follows the noun when the latter is the most emphatic word, as: lehi-lahy hendry—wise man; but when the contrary, so the position is altered, as: hendry ny lehilahy.
The system is doubtful, both positions being in force, as: laki bijak—a man wise; and busoh nama—a bad name. These are transposable by the context.
Up to ten have already been described (see Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. V.). The teens are differently constructed from the Malay, but twenty, thirty, forty, etc., are precisely similar.
The Malagasi numbers being more similar to those of other races in the Indian Archipelago than to the Malay, one or two examples are here only given.
Sa ratus—one hundred.
Faha roa—the second.
Faha dimy—the fifth.
Faha zato—the hundredth.
The possessive pronouns are ko, nao, ny—my, thy, his or her; and nay, ntsikia, or tsikia, nareo, ny, or njareo or jareo—our, your, their.
The demonstrative adjectives have various forms, the primary ones of which are-given, as under:
They precede and follow the words, thus: ity lamba ity—this cloth; ireo zaza ireo— —these children.
Participial adjectives are derived from verbs: mividy—buying; nividy—bought; hividy—about to buy; voavidy—bought:
Compound adjectives are formed of two simple words or more with hyphen between, as: fotsi-volo—white haired.
Conditional adjectives are formed by adding koa raha, as: tsara koa raha tsara—better if there be any one good.
The superlative degree is used when the quality of one thing exceeds that of two or more.
|Tsara.||Tsara noho.||Tsara indrindra.|
|Ratsy.||Ratsy kokoa noho.||Ratsy indrindra|
The pronominal affixes ko, nao, ny—singular; nay, ntsikia, nareo, ny, or njareo—plural, have the same power and signification, when joined to verbs in the passive voice, with that of the personal pronoun in the nominative case with verbs in the active voice, as: manoratra aho—I write; soratako—written by me, i.e., I write.
The relative pronouns are ilehy or lehy—that; izay—that which, etc., as: ny omby izay no vonoiny ny olona—the bullocks which were killed by the people.
Examples of reflective pronouns are as follows: izaho tena hiany—I my own self alone; izaho tena mahafantatra—I my own self know.
Ka dua—the second.
Ka lima—the fifth.
Ka ratus—the hundredth.
After nouns, possessives are ku, kau, and nia—my, thy, his or her; and kami, kamu, and diorang—ours, yours, theirs. Before nouns, punia is interplaced, as: aku-punia—my or mine.
The forms are as follow:
The plural being denoted by baniak (many) after the words, thus: ini kain—this cloth; ini anak baniak— these children.
Membili—buying; suda bili—bought; na bili—about to buy.
Bulu (feather) putih (white)—white feathers or down.
Here by adding kalau ada, as: libih baik kalau ada baik—better if there be any good.
Here the form is:
Baik—good. Libih baik—better. Ter libih baik or baik sakali—best.
Korang — bad. Libih korang — worse. Ter libih korang or korang sakali—worst.
The same forms are used, according to contexts, as: aku meniurat or meniurat aku—I write; surat ku or surat ulih ku—written by me.
The relative pronouns are itu—that; eiya itu—that which, etc., as: limbu itu iang de buno ulih orang.
Here: aku sorong kindiri—I alone, myself; aku kindiri mengatau-i—my own self know.
The verbs in their various phases are so elaborate that salient points can only be noticed. They are simple and reduplicative, as: mandehandeha—to walk often about, the simple verb being mandeha; miteny—to talk; miteniteny—to be talkative.
In their moods there are peculiar inflections, according to the terminal consonants,
Reduplication also takes place, thus: ber jalan—to walk; ber jalan-jalan—to be walking continuously; ber-chakup—to speak; ber-chakupchakup—to hold conversation.
There are properly no inflections, but incipient indications may be noted in the
Note.—k and h final are not sounded in Malay.
the list of which is too long to copy and which also are very intricate and artificial, as, in the imperative: B, ba, be, by; beaza, baza, boa; bao, beazo, boy.
Ex.—To bathe—mandro, mandroa, androy.
The auxiliaries consist of verbs, as: efa—done; voa—shot; tafa—past; mahay—able; avelao—let be. Adjectives.—Tokony — expedient; and mendrikia — proper. Adverbs. — Aza — let not; aoka—enough; mainkia—rather; etc.
words: bermula, bermulai—to begin; ajar, ajari—to teach; tau, taui—to know; lalu, lalui—to pass.
The auxiliaries consist of verbs, as: suda — done; ber—let; bri — give; etc. Adjectives.—Patut—expedient; baik—proper; etc. Adverbs.—Suda—enough; hales—finished; etc.
Indicative Mood — Present Tense.
1st person. Mampianatra aho—I teach.
2nd person. Mampianatra hiano — Thou teachest.
3rd person. Mampianatra izy—He teaches.
1st person. Meng-ajar ku or aku—I teach.
2nd person. Meng-ajar kau or angkau—Thou teachest.
3rd person. Meng-ajar nia or dya—He teaches.
1st person. Mampianatra izahey—We teach.
2nd person. Mampianatra hianareo—You teach.
3rd person. Mampianatra izareo—They teach.
1st person. Meng-ajar kami—We teach.
2nd person. Meng-ajar kamu—You teach.
3rd person. Meng-ajar diorang—They teach.
1. Nampianatra aho—I taught.
1. Ada meng-ajar ku.
1. Hampianatra aho—I shall or will teach.
1. Nanti meng-ajar ku.
1. Efa mampianatra aho—I have taught.
1. Suda meng-ajar ku.
1. Efa nampianatra aho—I had taught.
1. Suda ada meng-ajar ku.
1. Efa hampianatra aho—I shall or will have taught.
1. Suda aku habis ajar.
1. Izaho mampianatra—I teach.
1. Aku meng-ajar.
1. Izaho no mampianatra—It is I that teaches.
1. Aku lah iang meng-ajar.
1. Aoka hampianatra aho—Let me teach.
1. Berkan meng-ajar ku.
1. Raha mampianatra aho—If I teach.
1. Kalau meng-ajar ku.
1. Mahampianatra aho—I can teach.
1. Bulih meng-ajar ku.
Present. Mampianatra—to teach, or teaching.
Present. Meng-ajar kan.
The Simple Passive.—Indicative Mood.
1. Ampianarina aho—I am taught.
1. Ada bel-ajar ku.
1. Aoka hampianarina aho—Let me be taught.
1. Ber-aku bel-ajar.
1. Raha ampianarina aho—If I be taught.
1. Kalau bel-ajar ulih mu.
1. Ahampianarina aho—I can be taught.
1. Bulih aku bel-ajar.
Potentative Verb.—Passive Voice.
1. Raha ahampianarina aho—If I can be taught.
1. Kalau aku bulih bel-ajar-i.
The Pronominal Adjunctive.—Indicative Mood.
1. Ampianariko ny ankizy—the children are taught by me.
1. Belajarkan anak ulih ku.
1. Raha ampianariko anareo—If you be taught by me.
1. Kalau bel-ajarkan angkau ulih ku.
1. Aoka hampianariko anareo—Let you be taught by me.
Ber ajar-kan angkau ulih ku.
1. Ahampianariko anareo—You can be taught by me.
Buli-lah angkau de ajari ulih ku.
Cardinal. Iray monja—only one.
Cardinal. Satu sejak—only one.
Ordinal. Dua kali—twice.
Anio—to-day; anio hiany—this very day; miarakaminizay—instantly; sahady—already; rahateo—before-hand; taloha—before; omaly—yesterday; afak'omaly—before yesterday; hiara kaminizay—immediately; ampitzo—to-morrow; isam bolana—monthly; isan-taona—yearly; tsia—no.
Ini hari—to-day; hari ini—this very day; sakarang ini—instantly; sadiah—already; hadapan—before-hand; dehulu—before; kalamarin—yesterday; kalamarin dehulu—before yesterday; sakarang ini—immediately; beso—to-morrow; ber-bulan—monthly; ber-taun—yearly; tida—no.
Ety—here; tany—there; manodidina—around; na ato na eny—whether here or there.
Sini — here; sana — there; koliling—around; sini atau sana—here or there.
Be brapa—how much; samomoa—all.
Lakas lakas—be very quick; tida—no.
Of conjunctions, interjections, and repletives, there are no close affinities between the two languages.
The article I is prefixed to the names of places, towns, and villages, and also to the names of persons, as: Iambohipeno—the village called Ambohipeno; Ifaralahy—the name of a man.
The article Ra is only prefixed to the names of persons when they are addressed with respect or with a consideration of superiority, as: Ra-lahimatoa—the name of a man Ramatoa.
The article Si is prefixed to villages, as: Si-rangun—the village of Rangun; and to persons, as: Si-japar—the man called Japar.
The article Tun or Tuan is prefixed to the names of Europeans and Arabs by way of special consideration, and as a mark of superiority, as: Tuan Smith or Tun Hajee.
The adjective is generally placed after the noun, as: lehilahy antitra—an old man.
The same adjective precedes and follows the noun, as: ity lehilahy ity—this man; ity vato ity—this stone; ireo olona ereo—these people.
The pronominal affix of a noun governs the possessive or genitive cases, i.e., the
The adjectives follow or precede the nouns according to context, as: laki laki tua—an old man; baik rupa nia—good appearance. The adjective is not repeated, as: laki laki itu.—this man; itu batu—this stone; orang itu—these people.
Here the phrase is wang orang, or wang de orang—the money of the people; or
noun that follows it is put in apposition: volony ny olona—the people's money, or the money of the people.
The pronominal affixes that are joined to nouns have the same signification with the English adjective pronouns of the possessive kind.
orang punia wang—the people's own money.
Here the same rule applies, as below:—
Tranoko—my house, i.e., house of me.
Volunao—thy money, i.e., money of thee.
Ombiny—his cattle, i.e., cattle of him.
Ruma ku—my house, etc.
Wang kau—thy money, etc.
Limbu nia—his cattle, etc.
One verb governs another in the infinitive mood, as: mikiasa hanotra aho—I intended to write.
The transitive passive with the pronominal affixes govern nouns and pronouns in the objective case. Soatako ny taratasy—the letter is written by me, i.e., I write the letter.
Here: handak meniurat ku—I intend to write.
Here we have this example: Surat ter surat ulih ku—the letter is written by me, etc.
The adverb qualifies the verb, as: mano-ratra tsara izy—he writes well.
Here: Meniurat baik dya—he writes well.
Conjunctions connect words in the following manner: tany sy lanitra—earth and heaven; nandeha izahay fa nitoetra hianareo—we went away, but you remained.
The copulative conjunction dia connects words that are put in apposition and verbs, as: Izaho mivavaka aminy Iehovah dia Andriamanitra Tompony ny lanitra sy ny tany—I worship Jehovah, even God the Lord of heaven and earth.
Here: Tana* dan langit—earth and sky; pigilah kita tingal-lah angkau—we went, etc.
Here it is: iya itu, as, aku memuji pada Yahowah iya itu Alat Allah iang ada Tuhan de surga dun bumi (The terms langit dan tana—sky and earth—would not convey the correct idea to the Malay as it seems to do in Malagasi.)
Interjections are placed before personal pronouns, as: lozako re—woe is me.
The interrogative repletives moa and va, are placed before nouns and pronouns, and often verbs and adjectives, as: tezitra va ny olona?—are the people angry?
Here the expression is: rosakan saya—woe is me, or destruction is upon me.
Here the expression is ka; thus: satru-ka di orang?—are the people at enmity?
The accent is placed on the first of dissyllables, on the second of trisyllables, and on the antipenultimate of polysyllables.
Refraining from remarks on the above till we reach near the conclusion of this paper, I now proceed to the last branch, viz., Phonetic Comparison, commencing with the Maori, as previously done.
Vowels are simple sounds properly, and consonants articulations; by the junction of these the illimitable expressions of all languages are recordable.
[Footnote] * In terminations h and k are used unnecessarily by following the Arab orthography.
But in this branch of the enquiry we have more to do with the mode of creating the sounds and articulations. This is, for the most part, effected by a slightly opened mouth, by the breath, the tongue, and the lips. As the vowels are expressed by the simply opened mouth, they have no other designation; but it is otherwise with the consonants. In the languages under review consonants are divided into labial, sibilant, palatal, dental, aspirate, and compound articulations, viz., dento-labial and dento-palatal, and also, in a small degree, palato-nasal. Neither the intonations of the Chinese, the deep gutturals of the Hindustanee, the rolling vibrations of the Tamil, nor the harsh sibilants of the Arab have existence. Now, it may be surmised that this principle prevails with primitive tribes as it does with single beings in their infancy—that the more primitive or infantile they are the fewer will be their articulations, the less their known wants, the less elaborate their modes of expression. Thus, in the manner that water finds its own level, the first outpourings travelling furthest, so we find in tribes and languages that a parallel exists. I have already stated some cases of this in my former paper, and I need only here allude to the furthest travelled of the Polynesian tribes, viz., the Sandwich Islanders, who have only six consonants in their alphabet. The particular tribes that we now have to do with, have, as regards the Maori, only eight consonants, and as regards the Tongan, only twelve. In observing children of any nation commencing to articulate, it will have been noticed by most of you that labials are first mastered, as in pa and ma; probably next aspirates, and then dentals, then others according to the chapter of happy accidents that make nature's operations so varied and interesting. Thus, in the word “ship,” one child may fall on a dental for the first consonant and another on an aspirate; or for the word “food,” one may choose a labial, another a palatal. Hence we see a clue to the great variety of articulation of the same word fossilized or preserved in different and distant tribes who have parted in past ages. As an example of this principle I may mention the case of a country-born lady in India, who had never left her native country, telling us that “she was dirty, but her husband was dirty more,” meaning that “she was thirty, but her husband was more than thirty.” In thus speaking she merely used the articulation and idiom of her native country. So much seems necessary, by way of preface, before we commence at New Zealand, and institute a phonetic comparison between the Maori and Tongan; but before doing so I must also remark on the common transmutation of vowels—many cases may be quoted in our English tongue—but confining our examples to the languages under review, I may state that the Malay of Menangkabau terminates his words with o, while the Malay of Malacca does so with a, as sayo, saya. Again, in other dialects, i is transmuted into e, and a, into u, yet the words so altered may be from one root.
Maori and Tongan.
Each language, or more properly dialect, of the great Polynesian language, has five vowels, but, as stated before, the Maori has only eight consonants, while the Tongan has twelve. Each have two labials, m being common to both. Maori has no sibilants, Tongan only one. Maori has only one palatal, Tongan two. Each have only one dental. Maori has two aspirates, Tongan one. Maori has no dento-labials, Tongan two; and Maori has two dento-palatals, Tongan three, as shown below:—
|Maori||p, m||—||k||t||h, w||—||n, r|
|Tongan||b, m||s||k, g||t||h||f, v||j, n, l|
Now, looking at the influence of this selection of their articulations in their respective dialects, we will see the effects on their phonologies in the following words:—
Potiki, a child, in Maori, becomes bibigi in Tongan.
Kuri, a dog, in Maori, becomes guli in Tongan.
Taringa, the ear, in Maori, becomes telinga in Tongan.
Ahi, fire, in Maori, becomes aft in Tongan.
Pua, a flower, in Maori, becomes fua in Tongan.
Ngaro, a fly, in Maori, becomes lango in Tongan.
Wera, hot, in Maori, becomes vela in Tongan.
Puaka, a pig, in Maori, becomes buaka in Tongan.
and so on. Thus we see how, in a closely allied dialect, divergences commence by the simple, unregulated action of the tongue on different parts of the mouth; also by one tribe having, in process of time or by contact with more highly developed languages, gained and adopted more.
Again, by reducing both dialects to one system of spelling, we find that by taking several sentences of twenty words each, at random, the Maori has 100 vowels for every sixty-three consonants, while the Tongan has 100 vowels for every sixty-two consonants; thus, though differing in the number of consonants in their respective alphabets, they may be said to be nearly equally soft or vocalic in their speech.
Maori and Malay.
Proceeding on the same principle, we come now to compare Maori and Malay phonetically. The Malay alphabet, as stated before, has five vowels and eighteen consonants, i.e., if we allow h soft and h hard to count as two; but, as I doubt the propriety of this, I may suggest that there should be only seventeen consonants. The h soft phonetically really has no existence, and has been adopted by European writers who blindly follow the Arabic system, where the paucity of vowel characters has necessitated the introduction of the final letter “ha” to many words actually ending in a, e, i, o, or u.
It will be seen below that Malay has three labials to the Maori two, two sibilants to the Maori none, two palatals and dentals to the Maori one, three
aspirates to the Maori two, one dento-labial to the Maori none, and four dento-palatals to the Maori two.
|Malay||b, p, m||s, z||k, g||d, t||h, w, y||f||j, n, l, r|
|Maori||p, m||—||k||t||h, w—||n, r|
The effects of this on the languages will be seen by the following examples:—
Huka, agree, in Maori, becomes suka in Malay.
Ahi, fire, in Maori, becomes api in Malay.
Hua, fruit, in Maori, becomes bua in Malay.
Huruhuru, hair, in Maori, becomes bulubulu in Malay.
Kohatu, stone, in Maori, becomes batu in Malay.
Mahana, warm, in Maori, becomes panas in Malay.
Ngahuru, ten, in Maori, becomes sapulu in Malay.
Rima, five, in Maori, becomes lima in Malay.
Tokutohu, direct, in Maori, becomes tuju in Malay.
and so on. Thus, with a knowledge of the bases of orthography in different languages, one radical may be traced (even though it may assume a different form) to great distances. The cause is seen in the result, so, because the Maoris have no letter b, they pronounce bua as hua, etc., yet the radical, wherever it germinated, was common to both.
Again, by comparing several sentences in each language, we find that in Malay vowels are to consonants as 100: 122, against 100: 63 in Maori. This indicates a wide difference in articulation, due no doubt to the approach of the Malay to the consonantal languages of Asia, from whence they borrowed. Hence Malay is phonetically more forcible in expression than the languages of Polynesia.
Malagasi and Malay.
The Malagasi language, as stated before, has five vowels and sixteen consonants. Comparing the latter with Malay, each have three labials, two sibilants, two palatals, and two dentals; the Malagasi has one aspirate to three in the Malay, two dento-labials for one of Malay, each having four dento-palatals. Thus, their orthography rests on a nearly equal basis, as below:—
|Malay||b, p, m||s, z||k, g||d, t||h, w, y||f||j, n, l, r|
|Maori||b, p, m||s, z||k, g||d, t||h||f, v||j, n, l, r|
The effects of this will be seen in the phonology, thus:—
Toaka, toddy, in Malagasi, becomes tuwak in Malay.
Ova, change, in Malagasi, becomes ubah in Malay.
Ovy, yam, in Malagasi, becomes ubi in Malay.
Vono, kill, in Malagasi, becomes buno in Malay.
Voa, fruit, in Malagasi, becomes bua in Malay.
Rivotra, wind, in Malagasi, becomes ribut in Malay.
and so on. Hence the same original expressions are clothed in the articulation peculiar to each language, so as to conceal their identity until the principle of their construction is set forth.
Now, comparing several sentences in each language, we find that in Malagasi the vowels are to the consonants as 100: 92, against 100: 122 in Malay. Thus, as the consonantal languages of Asia are departed from, the speech becomes more soft and vocalic—a principle which we have seen has, had more extended effect in the spread of the cognate tongues easterly, i.e., over Polynesia.
Reverting, then, to the glossarial branch of the subject, in order to fairly weigh the respective affinities of the different races under review, as read by language, I must recall your attention to the fact stated in my former paper as to the relative number of primary words retained by an European language after eight hundred years of disconnection; these amount to only about one twenty-sixth of the whole. Mr. John Crawford, by his investigations, has declared that one fifty-seventh of the Malagasi and one-fiftieth of the Maori dictionaries were Malay, thus proving a connection whose intimacy on European experience can be approximately calculated. But I may venture to remark, from my own enquiries on the same subject, that had the above ethnographer or myself had the advantage of a critical knowledge of both or all languages, instead of only one (the Malay), double the equivalents might be found, and the approaches thus drawn nearer by half. Thus, Crawford states that out of 8,000 Malagasi words he detected only 140 Malayan; while I, out of Griffiths' grammar, containing certainly not more than 500 words, detected eighty, in words that have had preservation throughout the whole region. The effects of peculiar articulation are shown in the following examples:—
and so forth.
Then, as to idiomatic comparison, it will be seen that Malay, Maori, and Tongan are virtually the same, the divergences in structure being slight. In the declension of nouns, or the conjugations of verbs, there are virtually no inflections. The duplication of words, to weaken or intensify their meanings, are common to the three dialects or languages, and the curious elaboration of the pronouns has more or less existence. The relative position of adverbs, verbs, nouns, and pronouns, in the construction of their sentences, also follows one plan. The parallel is remarkably carried through to Madagascar, excepting in the formation of moods and tenses of verbs, where inflection takes place; and in this respect the Malagasi imitates the Tamil of South India, though their glossaries have no relation to each other. In this latter language, as with Malagasi, the tenses are formed by the aid of certain particles called “words standing in the middle,” which are inserted between the root and the pronominal affixes, subject to various changes required by their rules of
grammar. As the pronominal affixes are the same in all tenses, these middle words become the characteristics by which each tense is distinguished. Thus, in this portion of idiom the Malagasi has strong Tamilian affinities, due (if the theory I formerly enunciated be admitted) to the archaic connection with South Hindustan or Barata, and not, in any way, to its more distant connection by relation with Malayo-Polynesia.
In phonetic comparison it will have been noticed that Malay is nearer to Malagasi than to Tongan or Maori, the number of consonants being seventeen to sixteen respectively, the letter v being absent in the former, and w and y in the latter. Yet the Malagasi is much more vocalic than Malay. It may be here stated that there are three dialects spoken in Madagascar—the Ankova, the Betsimisaraka, and Sakalava. The former is by far the most copious, regular, and extensive, and is the only one as yet in which anything has been written or printed. Mr Griffiths characterizes the language as mellifluous and soft, and, equally with the students of Malay in the Indian Archipelago, he panegyrizes it as the Italian of the South. I could never see this, though I have often heard the same sentiment expatiated on. If softness be admirable, then we have it advancing to extreme weakness in the eastern and southern parts of Polynesia, where six to eight consonants are all that are possessed by cognate tribes. Taking Malay as the middle tongue, it is more masculine than the Maori or Tongan, and less vibratory than the Malagasi; thus—
Langit, sky, in Malay, becomes lanitra in Malagasi.
Kilat, lightning, in Malay, becomes helatra in Malagasi.
Kulit, skin, in Malay, becomes hoditra in Malagasi.
Here the Malay expressions have abrupt terminations, while those of the Malagasi vibrate at the end. In this characteristic the phonology of South Hindustan indicates its influence.
Embracing the whole subject then, we have this fact made patent to us: that confined within fifteen degrees of the equator we have one family of languages spreading from Madagascar to New Guinea, and thence easterly to the extremes of Polynesia, New Zealand inclusive; but a breach in which, in this present era, occurs by the breadth of the Indian Ocean. The two portions of the one family situated on the borders of the breach are glossarially and phonetically closer to each other than either of these are to those portions stretching into Polynesia; while, idiomatically, the portion on the west side of the breach—that is Madagascar—shows Tamilian or South Indian affinities. What does this view indicate?
That they all are parts of one original family there can be no question, for when we advance beyond the limit above assigned, as shown before, we meet with Asiatic or Australian nations and tribes, whose languages are of entirely different genius. I have already brought to your notice the
ethnological considerations; these, therefore, should be touched on here as slightly as possible. I will consequently only trouble you in this direction by stating that one author suggests the populating of Madagascar by storm-driven. Malay proas; but physical geography is entirely against this theory. Another suggests the sinking of the earth's surface, so that what was once dry land is now the deep ocean; but the teachings of geology forbid this within the period required, for the deltas of the Ganges, Indus, Euphrates, and Zambesi prove that practical quiescence has reigned for these last 100,000 years, while much under that period is abundance for the displacement or movement of races that we have to enquire into.
In primitive races slave-hunting is the first necessity, for by it they obtain ministers to their ease and lust; mercantile adventure follows. Archaic Hindustan, as one of the most prolific nurseries of the human race, would soon have recourse to these great causes of migration and conquest. Lesser ranges than that shown in Plate III. existed in full force up to within very recent times, and yet in a curtailed manner exist, viz., in the Indian Archipelago, whose basis is in Mindanao, and on the east coast of Africa, whose basis is in Yemen. That the Malagasi migration had taken place from archaic India before the age of letters, their want of literature proves; for we may accept it as an axiom that letters once attained to by a race are never lost. Thus two or more small tribes in Sumatra have letters peculiar to themselves, and the small island of Bali, near Java, has preserved for ages not only a Hindu literature, but a dead language—this against the assaults of Mahommedan zeal and Christian power.
Then, if the migration from South Hindustan to Madagascar took place before the age of letters, we have an indication of its antiquity by the cuneiform letters and hieroglyphics of Assyria and Egypt, whose crude attempts at recording words or deeds date not beyond 3,400 years. At that time South India, or Hindustan, would be extending her expeditions east and west, she being the great centre of trade, and, having the necessities, would also at the same time acquire letters of her own, or borrow them from those close neighbours. That her trade expanded, we may judge by the date of the foundation of Tyre by those great East Indian merchants, the Phœnicians, 3,120 years ago; and that the powerful and wealthy partook of or used their merchandize we may judge of by the Song of Solomon, which, 2,900 years ago, celebrated the camphire of Sumatra and the cinnamon of Ceylon, whose chief marts were South India.* Thus the fossil words of Barata were planted westward
[Footnote] * Vasco da Gama, the first direct European trader to India, at the end of the fifteenth century found the stores of Cannanor, Calicut, and Cochin filled with pepper, ginger, nutmegs, cloves, etc., the produce of South India, as well as of Sumatra, Java, the Moluccas, etc. He also found a Hindoo trader on the coast of Africa, as far south as Sofola. This, in a measure, indicates the influence of ancient India, and proves her the centre of great movements.
in Madagascar over 3,400 years ago. The date of their migration eastward must rest on other grounds than history. That it was very much more remote in past ages than that to Madagascar may be inferred from the incomplete articulations of the Polynesians, who, as the first outpourings, bore away only the first and earlier attempts of a primitive people to express their circumscribed wants in language. When, or at what time, these wonderful people—the Barata—were themselves extruded and obliterated from their original seat by the Thibetan and Arian incursions on Hindustan, we need not now surmise. We may only so far remark that the physiognomy of the modern Malagasi is more Thibetan than Arian.
But, returning to the more immediate object of this paper, it may be truly said that there is no example of a tribe or nation accepting foreign words for their own primary ones. Take, for instance, our own English words for our near relations, the parts of the body, such as head, ears, nose, mouth, etc., or for common objects, such as cow, horse, pig, corn, etc.; all these Teutonic fossil words are indelibly fixed in our language, notwithstanding all its present high culture and the acceptation of French, Latin, and Greek exotics. So it is with the family of languages or dialects under review. The Maori, Malay, and Malagasi, by their fossil-primary words, prove the common origin of their races, i.e., emanation from one focus of dispersion. Again, philology supports our previous ethnological reasons, not only by the above data, but by common idiomatic structure and phonology; and the Tamilian affinities of the Malagasi, disclosed in this enquiry, add evidence to the theory that that focus was in South Hindustan.
Another circumstance may be mentioned, but I do not give great weight to it, viz.: in races so nearly allied by name—the Malayala of South India, the Malaya of Sumatra, and the Malagasi of Madagascar—having each their seats in the mountains of their respective countries, similar conditions may have promoted the migrations, and similar conditions preserved the remnants.
Thus, had Madagascar not existed, or had it not been populated by its present race, our search for the whence of the Maori, as we proceeded westward, might have stopped at the Silong tribe of Mergui, on the eastern shores of the Bay of Bengal; but the above circumstances we have set forth force us to proceed across the bay, and point out, as I did in my former paper, that peninsula, fecund of people, viz., South Hindustan, alone commanding all possible eastern or western maritime migrations, as the only possible “whence” of the Maori.
|Resemble||ahuka huka||sarupa rupa|
|To warm||whaka ahuru||bekan suh||bekan is a causative auxiliary verb, not much used, of the same signification as boat or ber, and is the nearest approach to the whaka of the Maori|
|Fibrous root||aka aka||akar akar|
|Onwards||ake||akhir||last in time|
|Sickness||aitu||sakit pait||literally—sick, deadly|
|To teach||whaka ako||bekan ajar||literally—make learn|
|Swell on sea||amai||omba|
|Light air||angi||angin||wind generally|
|Liberal||atamai||ati bai||literally—heart good|
|Away||atu||situ||thereaway, as pointed by speaker|
|Smoke||auahi||awap api||literally—vapour of fire|
|Pay for||whakaea||bekan beiar||literally—make pay|
|Breathe||whakaha||bekan hawa||literally—make breath (not in use)|
|Scrape||hakuku||kuku||nails of fingers|
|Collect||whaka hiapo||bekan impun|
Note.—Roots, where necessary, are given in italics, and the Malay words here are spelt independent of Arabic orthography, which is usually and improperly followed.
|Hail||huka whatu||ujan batu||literally—rain-stone|
|Grasping||huiropa||rapas ambil||to take forcibly|
|Coarse hair||huru huru||bulu bulu|
|He||ia||dia, or eia|
|That||ia||ia, or eia|
|Raft||kahupapa||kayu papan||literally—wood boards|
|Tree||kai||kaiu||generally wood, but used thus—poko kaiu, trees|
|To eat||kame||makan||inverted, as the basa cappor|
|Old man||karana||katua||the elders|
|Stone of fruit||karihi||biji|
|Pronounced bad||whaka hino||bekan hina||seldom used|
|Thin||kohoi||kurus||or kurui in Kedda|
|Watery||kopu wai||punoh aier||literally—full of water|
|Not||kore||korang||as in korang bai—not good|
|Old man||karaua||orong tua|
|North wind||kotiu||tiup||to blow with the mouth|
|To split open||kowha||bla|
|Maggots||kutu kutu||kutu kutu||many lice|
|For me||maku||ku||I, or me|
|To show respect||mana aki||menaiki||to raise, as with respect|
|To terrify||whaka mataku||bekan takut|
|To teach||whaka matau||bekan tau||seldom used|
|Fountain||mata wai||mata aier|
|Filled with tears||mata waia||mata ber aier||literally—eyes watering|
|Put to death||whaka mate||bekan mati||not used|
|Nail of finger||mati kuku||kuku|
|Cry of distress||ngangi||tangis|
|Shake||whaka oioi||bekan goiang|
|Make good||whaka pai||bekan bai|
|Adorn||whaka pai pai||bekan bai bai|
|Flat roofed||paparu||papan||board, or flat as a stone|
|Short||poto||si potong||a bit cut off|
|Old person||poua||tua||or, orong tua|
|Begin to rise||whakapuke||naik bukit|
|Rotten wood||pukorukoru||phun buru buru||literally—tree rotten|
|To be raised||rangui||angkat|
|Sole of foot||raparapa||tapa|
|Same||rata||rata||as smooth and level|
|In fragments||rikiriki||kichi kichi|
|Old woman||ru wahine||tua bini||properly bini tua (wife old)|
|Sea shore||taha tai||tepi tasi||shore of lake|
|Husband||tahu||tua||head of family|
|Canoe balingplace||taingawai||toang-aier||pour water|
|Slack water||tai mate||tasi mati||not used, but aier mati is the phrase|
|Trample||takahi||takan||to press down|
|Mat to sleep upon||takupau||tekar|
|Sea coast||takut ai||dekat aier||near water|
|Sea shore||tapa tai||tepi tasi||near lake|
|Cause to light||whakatau||bekan tau||cause to know|
|Strange land||tau whenua||benua||land|
|Axe||titaha||titahan||an instrument to cut with|
|Stone||toka||toko bisi||a hammer or iron stone|
|Push forth||whaka toro||bekan tola||not used|
|My lady||tua wahine||tua bini||properly bini tua—first wife, who is always the highest in rank|
|Mainland||tua whenua||tua benua||old country—properly benua tua|
|Write||tuhi tuhi||tulis tulisan||many writings|
|Cause to grow||whakatupu||bekan tumbu||doubtful if used|
|Heart of tree||uho||tubo|
|Yam||uwhikaho||ubi kaiu||literally—yams of wood, or woody yams; applied in Malay to tapioca|
|Flood||wai puke||aier bukit||water of hills|
|Milk||waiu||susu||in Maori the root is u, in Malay su, the former being composed of two words—wai and u, i.e., water of pap, the latter, being merely a duplication|
|Sit||noho||dudu||the root is o, converted in Malay to u. Both words are mere duplications. d not being pronounceable in Maori, n and h have been taken instead|
|People||hunga||orung||the root is un, the Maori having the usual suffix, the Malay a prefix|
|Age||tau||tua||by transposition of vowels|
|Argue||totohe||tutur||to commune. Vowels convertible|
|Artist||tohunga||tokung||Malay has no suffix|
|To charge or rush||amo||amo||to charge fiercely with bloody intent|
|To boast||whaka ranga ranga||bekan garang||to simulate boldness|
|Hail||whatu||batu||literally—stone; hail in Malay being called batu ujan, or stone rain|
On referring to Crawfurd's investigation of this subject, it will be seen that he states (see Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. IV., p. 28) that in a Maori dictionary of 5,500 words he found 107 that were Malay, i.e. one fifty-first part, or about twenty to the 1,000. In the above list it will be seen that I have detected 235 Malay words in a Maori dictionary containing about 6,000, i.e., one twenty-fifth part, or about thirty-nine words to the 1,000. I have no doubt that a person familiar with both languages, instead of with only one, would detect double the words that I have; at the same time I must remark that of the 235 words sixteen are compounds, and thus mere repetitions, but this is also greatly the case with the dictionary itself, which goes a long way to swell its volume. The ratio I have given may therefore not be considered unfair.
In as far as I had opportunity to compare the glossaries thoughout, from Madagascar to New Zealand, it is my opinion that Malay is nearer to Malagasi than it is to Maori, and I may venture the suggestion that some of the languages of the Molucca group or of Ceram—such as the Lariki or Ahtiago—will be found very much nearer to Maori than Malay is.
In looking over the above list it should be borne in mind that the articulation of the Maori, as compared with Malay, is imperfect, the former having only the following eight consonants, viz.: h, k, m, n, p, r, t, w. Thus the greater comprehensiveness or elaboration of the Malay will be found in the following comparison :—
Thus, in most instances, the causes of difference are to be seen in the imperfect articulation in the Maori, or want of the required consonants to give the words the full character, not in any radical divergence of sound.
I have not alluded to the Maorioris of New Zealand in this paper, as I have been unable to obtain a vocabulary of their dialect or language. I would suggest that in the interest of philology this should be obtained from the Chatham Islands, where a remnant of the race yet exists.
|English.||Maori (Murihiku Dialect).||Malay Archipelago.|
|Boat (canoe)||waka||waga, Waiapo, etc.|
|Chopper||tuki-tuki||toko (hammer), Malay|
|Husband (companion)||hoa||koan (companion), Malay|
|Yellow||whero||mera (red), Malay.|
The numerals of the Murihiku Maori are distinguished by prefixes, viz., ko in the first, and e in the rest. This principle is developed in Polynesia and the islands of and near Timorlaut.
Note.—The Rev. I. F. H. Wohlers, of Ruapuke Island, Foveaux Straits, was so good as to compare Wallace's 117 words belonging to thirty-three dialects of the Malay Archipelago with the Murihiku Maori, and to send me a list of the same. The above extract of it represents the variations and differences from the North Island dialects as given in Williams' dictionary.