Art. XXXV.—Notes on New Zealand Whales.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 12th Sept., 1874, and 10th Feb., 1875.]
Neobalæna Marginata. Gray, Trans. N. Z. Inst., V., 155.
Among a series of cetacean remains forwarded from the Auckland Museum for determination, I find the skull of a young calf of this species, which, notwithstanding its small size, presents the same proportions and other characters as the type specimen, the dimensions of which are given in Vol. II. of the Transactions at page 226. It measures as follows:—
|Length of beak from nasal bones||1||4.5|
|" vertical width||0||4|
|" width at middle||0||4|
The beak is slender, pointed and arched, the maxillaries being very narrow in front, and covered by the inter-maxillaries, which are rounded, and form an elevated ridge that projects two inches beyond the maxillaries.
The baleen is yellowish-white, with a narrow brown margin and yellow hair.
The ear-bones agree both in character and size with the type specimen, notwithstanding the great difference in the size of the skulls, but they are not so rough on the external surface, * which is the only indication of the difference in age.
I have seen during the past year several specimens of the baleen of this whale, but never of larger size than that first described as belonging to the type obtained on the island of Kawau. It appears to be found on all parts of the coast, but is described by the whalers as of rare occurrence. One qualified informant, on examining the baleen, said it belonged to the scrag whale (Balœna [Agaphilus] gibbosa, Gray ?) but he may have been misled by the white colour of the baleen.
The absence of an elevated coronoid process in the lower jaw clearly separates both skulls under consideration from the genus Agaphilus, as described by Cope (Gray, Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, 1871, p. 47.)
[Footnote] * Trans. N. Z. Inst., V., pl. vi., 3a and b. In the letterpress the references are 1a and b, the figures having been transposed.
On 12th January I was informed by Mr. Charles Traill of the capture of a small whale near his residence on the north end of Stewart Island, and that he had fortunately been able to secure the complete skeleton. Mr. Traill states it to be a finback, but from the description which he gives, especially of the baleen, I am inclined to think that it will prove to be a specimen of Neobalœna marginata, and as a considerable period may elapse before the skeleton reaches the museum, I extract the following particulars from Mr. Traill's letter.
The specimen seems to be a female. Colour black, with a light stripe on the belly; length, 15 feet 3 inches; breadth of tail-flukes, 3 feet 8 inches; pectoral fins situated immediately behind the head, each being 1 foot 3 inches long, 230 plates of baleen on each side, the largest being 18.5 inches long by 1.8 inches wide at base, and 0.1 inch thick; colour of baleen, yellowish-white with a dark margin. The ribs are at least seventeen pairs, and are very oblique. Most of them are nearly straight, broad, and flat, and very small towards the point of attachment, the form being suggestive of short swords or paper-knives, and from their shape and slight curvature very unlike ribs. The sternum is singular, bearing a striking resemblance to a scutcheon, and appearing only to have had one rib attachment on each lateral border. The seven cervical vertebræ were thoroughly anchylosed.
Mr. Traill gives no other particulars respecting this interesting specimen, which was captured among a large school of black-fish, many of which were taken at the same time.
Postcript, 21st December, 1874.—The skeleton of the whale above referred to having arrived at the museum, I am able to add the following description of this cetacean, which proves to be as I anticipated, the true Neobalœna, marginata, Gray. It will be observed that the only material difference from the information supplied by Mr. Traill is respecting the number of ribs, there being only fifteen pairs while he was of opinion that there had been seventeen pairs.
The characters afforded by the complete skeleton confirm the propriety of placing this cetacean in a separate family, intermediate between the true whales and the finners (Gray, Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, p. 41).
With the true whales (Balœnoidea) it has the following characters in common:—Baleen elongate and of fine quality; chest and belly smooth; tympanic bones rhombic; cervical vertebræ anchylosed; mandibular ramus without a coronoid process.
To the finners (or finbacks) * it has the following points of resemblance:—Body elongate and slender, the proportion of head being less than one fourth
[Footnote] * Whalers often speak of right whales as finners or fin-fish, from their yielding baleen or “fin,” as they term it.
of the length; has a dorsal fin; pectoral fin lanceolate, moderate, and with four fingers; scapula elongate, with coracoid and acromion processes. Its peculiar characters are the small number of vertebræ, 44; the short mandibles and remarkably broad straight ribs with feeble vertebral articulations.
Skeleton.—A general view taken from a photograph by W. T. L. Travers, Esq., is given in plate XVI. The total length of the skeleton, making proper allowance for intervertebral substance, is 14 feet 6 inches, consisting of:
|Cervical mass of vertebræ||3 "|
|17 dorsal vertebræ||35 "|
|11 lumbars||53·3 "|
|9 caudal||9 "|
making a total of 44 vertebræ, of which the above measurements are given without including either apophyses or intervertebral substance.
The skull resembles exactly in its proportions the original type specimen from Kawau (Trans. N. Z. I., II., p. 26), which is 57 inches in length, and also the skull of the young individual belonging to the Auckland Museum, which is only 34 inches long. In its general form it is triangular, widest behind, gradually contracting in width to over the orbit, then suddenly to opposite the blowhole, and thence tapering gradually to the tip of the beak, which is moderately arched and only slightly longer than the brain-case. The width of the skull behind is 19 inches, at the orbits 18 inches, across the nasals 10 inches, the lower jaw having the usual proportions, being 37 inches long by 4.6 wide, with a feeble articulation and no coronoid process. The blow-hole, which is deeply excavated, is directed forwards, forming an oval expansion 4.5 by 3.5 inches; the nasal bones are oblong and 3 inches long; intermaxillaries extend beyond the tip of the beak and are 3 inches wide, including half an inch of a groove dividing them; the occipital foramen is 2 by 1.5 inch; condyles triangular and divergent, being beneath rather than lateral to the foramen, which is directed very much upwards when the skull is laid in an horizontal position; the ear-bones, as already stated, have the perfect characters of the former specimens, being rhomboidal, compressed, with a wide flattened lip and a quadrate aperture which does not extend more than half the length of the bone.
The cervical mass (Plate XVII., figs. 2 and 2a) consists of seven vertebræ, completely united by their neural spines, and all but the last of the tips of the lateral spines; the articular surface of the atlas is 6 by 2 inches, shallow, and divided by a ligamentous area that is wide above but narrow below; the neural spines are coalesced to form a sharp keel and a laminated plate overhanging the posterior articulation as in the common black whale, Eubalœna (Macleayius) australis; there is only one inferior lateral process, forming a wing-like expansion on each side, angulate in front but concave behind; the
posterior articular surface of the mass is nearly circular, and 3 inches in diameter.
The first dorsal has the neural arch incomplete, but all the other vertebræ in the middle of the column have their expanded processes largely developed.
The cervical mass has six lateral foramina and seven overlapping laminæ in the united neural spine, for which reason I conclude it consists of seven vertebral segments. Following this, the first dorsal is very feebly developed, with the neural arch open above and short styliform lateral processes. The second has a complete neural arch, but the spine is low. The lateral process is also short and slender, and like the first has no costal facet.
The third to thirteenth dorsals have articular indentations on the broad outer margin of the lateral processes, but these become gradually indistinct. This agrees with the character of the vertebral end of the ribs, those belonging to the fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth dorsal segments tapering as if they had only a ligamentous attachment along their posterior border. This agrees with Mr. Traill's remark that the hinder ribs were set at a remarkably acute angle backwards on the vertebræ.
The transverse processes of all the vertebræ behind the second dorsal are greatly expanded and very thin; thus, that of the eleventh dorsal is 5.5 inches wide by 6.5 inches long, the neck of the process which springs from the vertebræ being only 3 inches, and the thickness of the blade of the process only 1/8 inch. They occupy nearly the same place throughout in relation to the bodies of the vertebræ.
The neural spines are at first directed forwards, but at the sixth dorsal begin to slope backwards and soon become very oblique. The centra also rapidly increase in length, that of the twenty-eighth being the longest. The measurements of the centra, taken without the epiphysial disks, are as follows:—
|10.||3rd " (first with a rib)||1.2|
|24.||17th " (last rib)||4.3|
|29.||1st caudal (with chevron)||4.5|
|34.||6th " (last neural spine)||2.8|
The twenty-ninth, thirtieth, and thirty-first have a well-marked ridge on the side of the body between the lateral and neural processes, lowest on the first and ascending obliquely backwards. There are no perforations in any of the lateral processes, which disappear altogether on the thirty-sixth vertebra; the thirty-fourth and thirty-fifth are damaged; the forty-first and forty-second are wanting, judging from the graduation of their diameter; the forty-third and forty-fourth are mere “buttons,” and there may have been a few more present, but if so they have been removed with the integument.
Chevron bones commence at the twenty-third vertebra, and all traces of a neural arch cease at the twenty-ninth.
The ribs are fifteen on each side. The first is single-headed, with feeble articulation, no angle, 13 inches long by 1.8 wide; the second is curved and has an expanded neck, 18 inches by 1.7; the third is bent at right angles with the neck, and has a distinct capitulum, being 27.5 inches in total length; the fourth and all succeeding are less bent, the articulation becoming feeble, while the blade of the rib expands to nearly 3 inches in width and is perfectly compressed.
The sternum is a small shield-shaped bone 4 inches by 4.2, with a small blunt keel in the middle and a single articular depression on each side. The sterno-hyoid is curved, and I1 inches long; sty.-hyoids are compressed with round ends, 8.5 inches in length.
The pelvic bones are blunt and curved, 4.5 inches long.
The scapula is a flat smooth bone without any supporting ridges on either side and with scarcely any perceptible concavity. It has both coracoid and acromion processes; the glenoid fossa is elongate-oval, 2 inches by 1.5; from the plane of the articular surface the posterior border of the bone is continued backwards in almost the same plane with only a slight curve in the outline close to the articulation; anteriorly the coracoid is strictly in the same plane as the articulation, being a feeble compressed process .5 inch in diameter and 1.3 long; the acromion is a flat wide process, commencing 1.5 above the articulation and projecting 1.5 by 1.5 inches in width; the anterior margin of the bone is nearly at right angles to the posterior margin of the bone and is 7 inches long; the flippers are 16 inches long by 3.5 wide, with an external lateral lobe; the manus consists of four fingers, one of which is almost rudimentary and the second the longest.
Megaptera Novæ-zealandlæ. Gray, Trans. N. Z. I., V., 156.
The New Zealand Humpback.
I have had an opportunity of observing a great many of the bones of this species, and have received two skulls at the museum. One of them, presented by Mr. E. R. Gooch, was killed and prepared by him at the Kaikoura Peninsula, and was determined at the time as being the true humpback
whale of the whalers, having the usual rounded lump or hump on the posterior part of the body. Unfortunately the other bones were not preserved, but the specimen is valuable as it has the ear-bones and the baleen attached, and its history may be relied on.
The second specimen was obtained at Porirua Harbour, on the north side of Cook Strait, and is the skull of a smaller individual, but in its proportions agrees with the Kaikoura specimen.
These skulls, which both resemble closely the skull of Balœnoptera rostrata, as figured by Dr. Gray (Synopsis of Whales and Dolphin, 1868, pl. 2), have the following dimensions:—
|Beak from nasal bone||4||6||4||0|
|Width of beak at notch||2||4||2||4|
|" " middle||1||9||1||9|
|Length from foramen magnum to front of edge of occipital bone||1||9||1||7|
|Width of intermaxillaries in front||0||6||0||6|
|" " at blow-hole||0||8||0||8|
|Length of blow-hole aperture||1||9||1||7|
|" lower jaw||7||0||6||10|
The foramen magnum is 3.5 inches in vertical and 2.5 inches in transverse diameter, and is bounded by two large condyles, separated below by a deep notch 1 inch wide, each condyle being 10.5 inches long and 5 inches wide.
The brain-case is triangular, sloping, and in A. is convex, with a mesial ridge, but in B. is concave on each side of the ridge, and has a more rounded outline in front.
The maxillaries are flat and gradually tapering in front of the blow-hole; the intermaxilliaries are slightly expanded in the middle and project 6 inches beyond the maxillaries to form a sharp-pointed beak; the nasal bones are solid, triangular, shelving on each side, with a keel-like ridge on the exterior superior margin.
The lower jaws are strong, curved, solid, rounded externally, with a flat internal surface, and a conical coronoid process that projects 3 inches, and is situated 16 inches from the articular end of each ramus.
The baleen consists of 300 plates on each side, the length of the concave surface to which it is attached being 5 feet; the longest plates, which are on the middle part, are 13 inches in length and 7 inches in width at base.
Their colour is either black or grey, or banded with dirty white, some of the plates being almost altogether of a light tint; each plate is fringed with coarse white hair.
Physalus Australis, Gray.
Stenobalœna xanthogaster, Gray, Ann. and Mag. N. H., Oct. 1874, p. 305.
On the 10th of June last a large whale, reported by the whalers to be a true sulphur-bottom, was cast ashore in Port Underwood, on the south side of Cook Strait, and an assistant (Mr. A. McKay) was despatched from the museum to secure the skeleton and take measurements.
The carcass was stranded on a rocky point close to deep water, and had to be dragged into a fresh position before it could be handled. It was so much decomposed that the skull and jaws dropped through the flesh during the removal, and on this account the external measurements are not very reliable. The whole of the skeleton was ultimately secured and placed out of reach of the tide to sweeten, the paddles and smaller bones being carefully buried.
The general form of the whale was slender in proportion to the height, the head appearing long and pointed, and the after part produced, so that the greatest girth was behind the shoulders. The throat and belly were strongly plaited with longitudinal bars of hard skin 2.5 inches wide, the interspaces having elastic skin.
The paddles appeared short in proportion to the general size, and there was a low recurved and pointed fin on the back just over the vent, and the same distance from the tip of the tail as the length of the head.
The brain-case is one third the length of the skull; the baleen slight, longer than broad, black on outside edge, shading to pure white inside the mouth. Width of base, 2 feet 6 inches.
The following measurements were obtained:—
|" of skeleton||67||3|
|Length of head||19||0|
|Occiput to last rib||14||0|
|Last rib to first caudal (i.e. vertebra with chevron bone)||16||0|
|Caudal series of vertebræ||18||3|
|Length of bones in the paddles, from the glenoid cavity||8||6|
|Width across phalanges||1||3|
|Distance from anus to tip of tail (penis 3 feet in front of anus)||17||0|
|Tip of tail to hump||18||0 H1|
|Height of hump||2||0|
|Length of base of hump||1||0|
The stomach contained a quantity of stones. Colour black above, and yellow on the belly.
Postcript, 21st December, 1874.—A short notice of this whale was sent to Dr. Gray and published in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, and from the character of the blade-bone Dr. Gray was inclined to make it into a new genus under the name of Stenobalœna xanthogaster. The drawing of the blade-bone sent to Dr. Gray and given in the paper referred to, was, however, only from a rough sketch by Mr. A. McKay, and is not like the macerated bone, several large cartilaginous prolongations included in his outline having disappeared. The correct form of the macerated bone is shown in pl. XVIII., fig. 6.
In September last Captain Fairchild of the Government steamer Luna successfully removed the whole of the skeleton from Port Underwood to Cow Bay, in Wellington Harbour, a sandy beach remote from the town; and since then all the bones except the skull, which had worked down the bank into ten feet water at low tide, have been cleaned and transferred to the Botanic Gardens. The skull, though cut into four parts, is so large that it must remain where it is until some means of removing it is available.
The following is a description of those parts of the skeleton which are available for examination:—
Skeleton.—Cervical vertebræ, free; second cervical with expanded alæform processes, with a small foramen at the base; third, fourth, fifth, and sixth with slender lateral arches; seventh, with incomplete lateral arches.
Atlas with the articular surfaces extending for four-fifths of the circumference of the central foramen, which is twice as high as wide and slightly constricted at two thirds of its height by the projection of the superior interior angles of the articular surfaces; the lower part receives the oblong odontoid process, the upper or neural arch being wider than high, and surmounted by a blunt triangular spine throwing forward a process that encloses a short anterior canal on each side of the base of the arch; the anti-basilar ligamentous groove separating the articular areas inferiorly is narrow linear, and only excavated to the depth of the cartilaginous layer; the superior lateral processes are short, solid, blunt, pointed, and feebly angulate in front; no inferior lateral process.
Axis with a rough odontoid area, but not an elevated process, surrounded by a horse-shoe shaped articular surface; centrum of this and all the
succeeding vertebræ quadrate, but wider than high; neural arches of the six posterior cervicals are thin with imperfectly developed central and lateral spines; eighth and ninth vertebræ have feeble neural spines, and the lateral processes expanded at the tip vertically; the lateral processes of the tenth and succeeding vertebræ are expanded in the horizontal plane, the tenth to twenty-second having articular facets excavated on their lower marginal surface; the first lumbar is only distinguished by having an articular facet.
Ribs fifteen, two belonging to the left side being lost; the first rib is broad and short and with a single elongated articular surface; the second and third have a strong expanded articular angle and a subcylindrical compressed capitulum; all the rest of the ribs have a blunt subquadrate articular surface; the seventh rib is longest, being more than twice the length of the first, and one-third longer than the fifteenth; the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth ribs are narrow, and irregular in outline and curvature.
The total number of vertebræ is fifty-seven; the chevron bones begin on the forty-second, and the neural arch disappears on the fifty-second; the lateral processes cease to be prominent on the forty-third, and are perforated by a foramen on the forty-fourth and succeeding vertebræ that have a lateral process.
The scapula is triangular, wider than high; the posterior edge is set at an angle of forty-five degrees to the plane of the glenoid cavity, and the anterior edge at seventy degrees; it has a strong curved and compressed acromion twice as long as a moderate pointed coracoid process, which is half the length of the fore and aft diameter of the glenoid cavity, and equal to its transverse diameter; the external surface of the scapula is rather concave, and both are marked by obscure ridges.
The humerus is stout and half the length of the fore-arm, which is equal to the length of the manus, which latter has four fingers.
The sternum is triangular with four articulations, and is attenuated posteriorly; hyoid bone is stout curved but simple. The total length of the skeleton without the skull, which measures 17 feet, is 50 feet 6 inches; the cervical region occupies 24 inches.
|Total length of skeleton, without skull||50||6|
|Length of skull||17||0|
|Width of atlas||2||3|
|Width of axis||4||6|
|2nd vertebra, height of centrum||1||0|
|2nd vertebra, width, of centrum||0||9|
|8th" length of centrum across lateral processes||3||0|
|" neural canal height||0||7|
|" " width||0||4|
|14th, " width across lateral processes||3||6|
|" length of centrum||0||8|
|" height of neural spine||2||4|
|22nd " length of centrum||0||10|
|" total height||2||4|
|43rd " length of centrum||0||11|
|" total height||2||5|
|" height of neural spine||1||2|
|" glenoid cavity diameter||1||3|
|Radius and ulna||2||9|
|Width at elbow joint||1||6|
|Baleen (largest plate) width||10.5|
|" " length||21·0|
Baleen coarse, with strong white bristles; light slate grey with vertical bands of black, some blades nearly white, yellowish-white, and polished towards the angle of the mouth with a hard enamelled surface.
Orca Pacifica, Gray.
The skull of the grampus, or more properly the “killer” mentioned by Mr. Purdie in Trans. N. Z. Inst., V., p. 435, and presented to the Otago Museum by Captain Fraser has been forwarded to me for examination, and proves to have the characters that distinguish the above species as described by Dr.
Gray in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 1870, p. 76. It, however, agrees well with the figure of Orca capensis given in the Voyage of the Erebus and Terror. A reduced drawing of this specimen is given in plate XVI., fig. 2, its dimensions being as follows:—
|Length of nose||15|
|" tooth series||12·5|
|" lower jaw||24|
|Width at notch||8·5|
|Width at middle of beak||8·3|
|" of intermaxillaries||3·3|
|Height of crest from occipital foramen||10|
A lower jaw of this same species is among the specimens from the Auckland Museum which have been submitted for determination.
Globiocephalus Macrorhynchus, Gray.
Cat. Seals and Whales, p. 320.
Two complete skeletons, male and female, of this species, were secured by Mr. Charles Traill, on Stewart Island in January, 1874, but are not yet prepared. From Mr. Traill's letter I gather the following notes of their external characters:—
Male.—Colour black, with a narrow strip of light grey running longitudinally along the belly, and expanding rather suddenly to form a large caudiform patch of the same colour under the head.
|Snout to flippers||2||4|
|" dorsal fin, anterior base||5||6|
|" " posterior base||8||2|
|" " tip||8||10|
|" generative organ||9||6|
|Length of flippers||4||1|
|Stretch of flukes||4||8|
The stomach was filled with the horny beaks of small cuttlefish and a few pearly eyes, probably of the same animal. There are eleven pairs of ribs and fifty-eight vertebræ; the cervical vertebræ—seven in number—being united (?) The pelvic bones are situated about twelve inches below the line of the vertebræ.
Two skulls—young and old—of this animal are in the Auckland Museum. Drawings of the younger specimen are given on plate XVI., figs. 3 and 4.
Berardius hectori, Gray.
Postscript, 12th January, 1875.—A complete specimen of this interesting form of ziphoid whale was cast ashore in Lyall Bay, and the following preliminary notes are given of the external form and measurements, and of the chief points of interest connected with the skeleton, which has been roughly prepared. I am indebted to Mr. H. H. Travers for informing me of the stranding of this whale, and although we were out by daylight the following morning, some mischievous boys had unfortunately been before us and had chopped off the point of the lower mandible for the sake of obtaining the teeth, and thereby injured to some extent the value of the specimen. There is no doubt, however, that in this case, as in the specimen which I described last year in Vol. VI., p. 86, as coming from the Kaikouras, the teeth were lateral and opposite the posterior edge of the symphysis of the lower jaw, and not at the tip as in the original type.
|Total length of body||15||6|
|Girth behind pectorals||7||6|
|Snout to eye||2||0|
|Snout to back fin||9||0|
|" anterior margin||1||4|
|Snout to blow-hole||1||9|
|Width between eyes||1||6|
|Diameter of eye||0||1|
Tail strongly keeled. Colour, black all over.
Form very compressed towards the tail, with a strong vertical ridge on the fluke basis.
|Height of compressed body in front of fluke||1||0|
|Base of fluke||1||3|
|Length of each fluke||1||9|
Posterior margin of flukes nearly straight. Genital organ directly under posterior margin of dorsal and 15 inches before the anus.
The outline is regular to opposite the dorsal, where there is a sudden
constriction or ascent in the lower profile, the vertical diameter decreasing from 4 feet 3 inches at one foot before dorsal to 3 feet.
|Pectoral extremity, length||1||6|
|" " width||0||6|
|Vertical diameter at point of beak||0||3|
|" " angle of gape||0||10|
|" " blow-hole and anterior of eye||1||2|
|" " anterior of pectoral fin||2||4|
|" " 6 feet||3||2|
|" " 8 "||4||3|
|" " 10 "||2||7|
|" " 12 "||1||8|
|" " 14 "||0||9|
|Width between pectoral extremities||1||1|
|Length of beak from notch||1||7|
|" " from anterior of blow hole||1||10|
|Width at notch||0||6·5|
|Height of occiput||0||7|
Nasal septum slightly to the left side. Right side of blow-hole has a larger area for receiving the valve than the left. Nasal crest overhanging the blow-hole; height, 3 inches. Mesorostral canal solid. Intermaxillaries much elevated. Seven cervical vertebræ, of which four or five are united. Ribs, ten. The first rib appears to articulate by its head with the last cervical, while the first seven articulate both with the lateral processes and with the centrum; the last three with the tips of the lateral processes alone.
Dorsal vertebræ, ten; pre-lumbar vertebræ, twelve; the posterior of the eleventh carrying the first chevron bone. Post-lumbar vertebræ, three; the third having the first fully developed chevron process. Caudal vertebræ, sixteen; the last seven of which are without processes, and the first three of which have short lateral processes.
Total number of vertebræ:—
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
Six ribs articulate with the sternum.
Length of sternum is 1 foot 8 inches—
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
|1st segment being||9|
|2nd " "||4|
|3rd " "||3|
|Last " "||3|
|Ribs—length of, 1st||1||3|
|" " 2nd||2||0|
|" " 3rd||2||2|
|" " last||1||3|
First rib curved and three inches wide at the angle; others compressed but of moderate width.
Spinous processes of first two dorsals feeble, the second being only 2 in. high; third, 5 in.; fourth, 6 in.; fifth, 6.5 in.; sixth, 7 in.; seventh, 7.25; eighth, 8 in.; ninth, 8 in.; tenth, 9in.; eleventh, 9 in.; twelfth, 9.25 in.; and the thirteenth, 10 inches.
The longest is the sixth lumbar, which is elevated fourteen inches above the floor of the neural canal.
|Length of bodies of twelve dorsals||2||6|
|Length of anterior lumbars||4||4|
|" longest lateral process, which is seventh lumbar||0||6|
|1st chevron bone—depth||0||1|
|2nd " "||0||1·5|
|3rd " "||0||3|
|4th " "||0||5|
The first three are rounded at the tip, and from the fourth they diminish in height towards the tail with an even continuous outline, but are inferior in length to the corresponding neural spines; the neural spine opposite the third chevron bone being eight inches high.
In the dorsal region the lateral processes are in the upper part of the dorsal centrum. In the lumbar region they spring from the middle, and are extended in a horizontal plane. In the anterior caudal region they ascend on the bodies of the vertebræ; the line of them forming an arch. The inferior portion of the centrum is compressed, so as to give the appearance of a pelvic cavity on each side of the column. Throughout the lumbar region there is a bold hæmal ridge along the lower surface of the column.
Scapula—triangular, posterior angle produced, with a wide acromion and a long narrow coracoid. Anterior angle rounded. Upper part slightly concave, the rest flat.
|Length from angle||1||1·5|
|Length of glenoid cavity||2·5|
|" posterior margin||9.|
|" anterior "||8.|
|" coracoid "||3.5 × 1.|
|" acromion "||4· × 1·7|
The acromion is directed upwards.
The flippers are twenty-one inches from the head of the humerus.
|Width at elbow-joint||4·5|
|" middle of manus||5·5|
Description of Plates XVI.—XVIII.
Fig. 1. General view of skeleton of Neobalœna, marginata. From a photograph by W. T. L. Travers, Esq., F.L.S.
2. Skull of Orca pacifica, side view.
3. Skull of Globiocephalus macrorhynchus, upper view.
3a. " " " side view.
Plate XVII. Neobalœna, marginata.—
Fig. 1. Skull of a calf.
2 and 2a. Cervical mass.
3. 1st dorsal vertebra.
6. 1st rib.
7. 3rd rib.
8. 17th rib.
9 and 9a. Sternum.
11 and 12. Sterno-hyoids.
Plate XVIII. Physalus antarcticus.—
Fig. 1. Atlas.
3. 1st cervical.
4. 1st dorsal.
5. 1st rib.
7. Pectoral extremity.