Art. III.—Notes on the Discovery of Moa and Moa-hunters' Remains at Pataua River, near Whangarei.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 6th December, 1875.]
Plates I., II., III.
In February, 1875, I picked up a few metatarsi and other bones of the Moa while travelling on the coast from Ngungururu to Whangarei Heads, and deposited them in a settler's hut at Pataua River.
An incredulous smile greeted my announcement of the fact in Auckland, as it was not believed that the Moa existed in the densely wooded country to the northward, and as great an authority as Hochstetter, p. 64, says, “The Moas consequently seem to have been distributed all over the southern part of the North Island, but are totally awanting upon the narrow north-western peninsula north of Auckland, where, to my knowledge, no trace of Moa bones has as yet been found.”
Since Hochstetter's time no authentic record has appeared of their existence. The northern limit of the Moa was then supposed to be a line from Bay of Plenty on the east to Kawhia on the west coast.
These bones were received after much delay, and exhibited at the second meeting of this session of our Institute, exciting some interest, from the fact of having been found 70 miles north of Auckland.
Although it was improbable, from the position in which the bones occurred, that I should succeed in obtaining a complete skeleton, this charm-ful subject so deeply interested me that I returned to the locality and spent two weeks in searching for and collecting relics of the past. My
labour was rewarded by the discovery of over 200 Moa bones; and on my return from Australia, in the early part of this month (November, 1875), I showed the result of my explorations to Mr. F. T. Cheeseman, F.L.S. By offering to act as guide among the muddy mangrove flats, which render travelling unpleasant in these parts, I induced him to visit the locality.
We spent a very pleasant time in observing and striving to read aright the story full of charming interest which these relics, implements, and tools before you are ever willing to teach. Everything in this world has a history, something to tell, or something to teach about what it was, or how it came where it is.
I should like to be able to add, even in a small degree, to the slender knowledge we possess of the mode of life and thought of those races whose bones, tools, and toys are exhibited.
Truly we may run back, in fancy, into the past, and think of these early men as hunting or fighting, their women loving, and their merry children gathering roots, fruits, and berries, or joining cheerfully in the exciting and dangerous chase of the gigantic Moa.
I will content myself, however, with narrating and describing accurately the simple facts as observed, leaving it to savants to propound theories in connection herewith.
From Whangarei Heads, after a few miles walk over the fern-clad hills, you reach the extensive Mangrove swamps of Pataua and Taiharuru Rivers; crossing the Pataua, about a mile from the sea, follow the north-west bank of the river to the mouth, which is bounded on the east by a rocky but beautifully wooded hill, 200 feet high, from which the river takes its name. *
Standing on sand-hills to the south-west, you see the river winding down its bed, fully half-a-mile in width from hill to hill. On either side are Mangrove flats and Pipi banks, leaving a silver thread of water, fifty yards broad, at low tide. Some beautiful Pohutukawa trees line the north bank of the river, and amongst them are some grand old specimens—one, whose trunk measures twenty-one feet in circumference, has seen some hundreds of summers, as the erosion of the shore from the spot where the tree first commenced to grow would witness, and Pipi shells form a perpendicular little cliff there fifteen feet high.
To the north-west, along the sea coast for thirteen miles and a quarter, a fine sandy beach reaches as far as a creek called the Kowhaitahi (Kowhai),
[Footnote] * Pa, fortification; taua, the fighting party. Therefore the word would mean, the fort of the warriors, and a truly impregnable fort it made. The tons of Pipi shells on the top add additional evidence as to the use and value of this pa taua in by-gone times.
tree; tahi, one; but the one Kowhai tree from which the creek takes its name has long disappeared).
Sand dunes, about thirty feet in height, form a ridge above the beach, and fall undulatingly back three hundred to four hundred yards into-extensive raupo and flax swamps. On these sand dunes the greatest number of relics were found, evidently accumulations of the hand of man; heaps of pipi shells, cockle, turbo, and mussels, oven-stones, charcoal, and ashes in the cooking places of the former inhabitants; close by, on the surface, are the bones of seals, fishes, human bones, and the bones of birds; amongst them these interesting remains of the Moa, which I collected with the greatest care, comprising:—
60 Toe bones and claws
27 Metatarsi (ankle)
14 Tibiæ (shin)
27 Femora (thigh)
A number of ribs, etc.
Portion of the head of a smaller species, and the lower beak of another species.
The Pelves are in a poor state of preservation, except one belonging to the smaller species of Moa, which is not much broken. We could have added great numbers of fragments of Tibiæ and Femora to our collection, but considered them worthless; whether these pieces were broken by tramping of horses and cattle accidentally, or cracked open for the marrow (if any) contained, is an interesting problem. If the natives were in the habit of breaking the bones, why did they not break all of them?
Of the more perfect specimens I append a table of measurements, which will, I trust, lead to the identification of some species.
This sandy ridge was a fine feeding place of old. The ovens are particularly numerous, especially at eight or ten spots where the sand has been well blown in shore; at these places the surface is composed of a bed of hardened fine brown sand. On this, evidently older surface, heaps of sharp oven stones, charcoal, etc., close by the bones of Moas, mark the kitchen middens; near at hand, also, are little heaps of worn quartz pebbles. These are very singular, and excite curiosity at once, presenting, as they do, a striking contrast to the waterworn stones and pebbles strewn all about, which latter are of a blue colour.
These little quartz pebbles I take to be “crop-stones,” swallowed by the Moa to aid digestion, although they are not as smooth as what I have seen exhibited in our own Museum for “Moa Stones;” they were probably in
full use at the time of the bird's death, and not ready for ejection; it has been observed, for instance, that the Ostrich and Emu eject stones similar to those in the Museum from time to time in order to swallow others less rounded.
At every place where we found Moa bones, there also we found “crop-stones,” which, on some spots, guided us to the discovery of Moa bones.
Obsidian chips or flakes were numerous, and occurred mostly on the surface of the old bed of hard fine brown sand. I carefully collected all I could find; at one place I found the “core” of obsidian, from which the flakes were chipped; the splinters and fragments around marking the site of the manufactory of their knives. At two other spots the fragments and splinters of obsidian would indicate similar workshops, but I failed to find the “cores.” Some of these knives are blunted, and show signs of use, but when first chipped off would present a keen cutting edge.
Dana informs us that in Mexico this volcanic glass was formerly used both for mirrors, knives, and razors. Plate III., figures No. 7, to 15, represent some of the most characteristic shapes found.
Egg-shell of the Moa occurred at three spots along this ridge, but the closest scrutiny only revealed about five ounces of small pieces belonging to various eggs. The fragments, however, are too small to attempt the reformation of a complete shell with any prospect of success; still the largest piece, about three inches long, is of sufficient size to measure the curve and allow the calculation of the diameter of an egg, which would give a diameter of 8.625 inches.
At the southern end of Pataua Beach, where the Pataua Hill breaks the force of the south-east gales, vegetation is still growing on the sand dunes close to the sea; but further north the drifting sand has cut the vegetation off and rendered the land barren 400 yards wide to the edge of raupo and flax swamps; the only plant growing amongst the sand is the Pingao (Desmochanus).
When I first visited this spot, in 1867, these sand dunes were covered on the swamp side with Manuka, Fern, Wi-wi, littoral plants, and several clumps of small trees, growing close to the sea beach. The dead limbs of those small trees are still to be seen heaped up with sand; the littoral plants have gone, the sandy bed in which they grew has been blown in shore, covering up the Fern, Manuka, and Wi-wi.
These sand dunes, between the swamp and sea, owe their origin primarily to blown sand, so that I am of opinion that the Pingao (Desmochanus) periodically heaps up the sand at the beach for a sufficient length of time to permit the plants at the back to grow; then a time arrives when the sand commences to drift in shore, to add another layer to the sand dunes near
the swamp; that this process was going on at the time when Moas and Moa-hunters lived here, and still continues, is evident to me, and I hope, before I have done, to prove it to you.
The Maori track, in 1867, was a little distance back from the beach, and amongst the plants which were then alive, but are now covered up with sand; owing to the tediousness of walking in loose sand, travellers—now following the ridge close to the beach on the pipi shells and kitchen middens—could not possibly escape observing the Moa bones, and as the Revs. W. Colenso and Williams, with others, must often have passed this way, without reporting the existence of these bones, I am forced to conclude that they were buried under sand and vegetation; so that to these simple natural causes must any merit of discovery be accorded.
The skulls of two dogs and a cat were found at the Kowhaitahi end of the ridge; but as they were amongst the driftwood and loose sand, they are probably recent.
I examined carefully every bone we saw for the marks, scratching or gnawing of dog's teeth, but failed to discover any; it may be that the natives had no domesticated dog at this time, if the contrary, dogs could not have been numerous, or the fragile bones of the small Moa Pelvis would surely have been gnawed and broken.
The bones of smaller birds, such as Kiwi, Gulls, &c., were also to be seen; we collected some in the hopes of getting them identified.
The two swamps at the back of the sand dunes were probably one some time ago; but are now divided by a small causeway of sand, which has advanced from the sea and met a clay spur from the hills, the larger swamp draining itself into the Kowhaitahi Creek, and the smaller one into the Pataua; both are quite impassible for cattle. The smaller one will be drained this summer, and careful search made for buried Moa remains.
Stone Hatchets or Adzes.—In the locality I am now speaking of I found seven, of various sizes and shapes (exhibited), weighing from 4 oz. to 3 lb.; some of them are well made and polished, and have seen good service, others again are sharp, perhaps first re-ground; but one or two appear to have been made by a clumsy workman, or tyro at the art, and the too much chipped stone spoilt and thrown away. Plate III., figures No. 1 to 4.
Human Skeletons.—I found the remains of two bodies only on the Pataua Beach. One of them is that of a large man, the almost perfect skeleton of whom I have lodged in the Museum; the teeth are complete, but much ground down. This individual had been buried about three feet below the recent surface, and three or four feet of sand intervened between him and the old bed of hardened brown sand to which I have alluded, with shells and stones on it, and is probably recent.
The other human remains were of a far more interesting character, and consisted of the larger bones of a man and part of a very thick skull, laid on and close by the stones of an oven, and, singularly enough, the bones were all much charred by fire. I exhibit the trochanter of a thigh bone, and also a piece of his enormously thick skull, shewing the effects of fire plainly. This charred skeleton was on the lowest bed of hard brown sand and was clearly burnt by design. I can hardly believe them to be the remains of an over-cooked cannibal feast; but am more inclined to look upon it as evidence that these Moa-hunters burnt their dead, as did, for example, the lowest races of men in Australia; a practice, too, which there is reason to believe was almost universal among the earliest races of men in past times.
Between Kowhaitahi Creek and Hora Hora River are several Tapu grounds of the Maoris, from one of which we brought the skull and thigh bone of a large man; further on the sandy beach is backed by soft clay hills, with perpendicular face seaward, and which, within half-a-mile of the Hora Hora, are composed of a yellow sandy clay, forty feet perpendicular to the sea, sloping back on the land side to small swamps, and covered with vegetation. In places the wind—having found a little break in the cliff—has, here and there, hollowed out three sides of a pit, and blown back large quantities of sand, leaving the rounded blue pebbles and stones in the bottom, and in some places the sand, blown seaward by the land breeze, lodges at the foot of the cliff; nearer still to the Hora Hora the drifting sand has gained complete mastery, having destroyed all the vegetation on the sand-hills. It has the appearance of shifting alternately to the seaward or the land side of the ridge, according to the prevalence of land or sea breezes. On the top of this sand hill, scattered all over the surface, are blue water-worn pebbles and a few heaps of shells and sharp oven stones.
I was once, after a very heavy gale of wind, at this spot, which is not tapu, and examined the remains of a cannibal feast, viz.—four large cooking stoves, and as many human skeletons close by them. The bones were in heaps; the skulls had rolled a little distance off; one of the skulls was pierced with some round instrument, leaving a hole, about an inch in diameter, on the crown of the forehead, inclined to the left hand side. This spectacle, so suggestive of rough and troublous times, is now hidden from view.
In one of the saddles of this ridge, which is composed of a yellow-coloured sand, and still thirty feet high—the hardened brown sand is wanting here; but the adjoining cliffs are of a yellow sandy clay—I found the portions of at least three Moas, one large stone axe, but no obsidian flakes.
The Moa bones got here consist of—
One of these birds was of large size, the tibia being nearly two feet long, and one of the most perfect bones obtained; but the bones of this and another smaller specimen are soft, yellow, and light, much lighter than any other bones we have found; they have, I think, lost all their gelatine, for, on touching a dry fracture of a bone with the tongue, the tongue will adhere to the lime; when damp, those yellow-coloured bones would crumble in your fingers; although the utmost care was used in digging them out, some of them were so fragile that they would not bear their own weight in the air when freed from sand. The rib bones were, apparently, not much disturbed, but fell to pieces on being lifted. Underneath these bones, and amongst the sand, were the little white quartz pebbles, similar to those at Patua. The most determined doubter must now admit that these curious stones are really “Moa stones.”
Adjoining this sand ridge is a clay flax-covered ridge, on the northern side of which, down to the south bank of the Hora Hora River, the Maoris recently had a nice cultivation, an isthmus washed by the sea on one side, and the river on the other joins the Hora Hora pa to the cultivation; on the sea-washed bank of this isthmus the skeleton of a man is to be seen. The Pa, which forms the south head of the river, is about 150 feet high, is very picturesque, and has a very fine double ditch or fosse round the only accessible side, and resembles in some respects Pataua Head.
The coast is rocky from this point to within a mile of Ngungururu River, there the shore is a low sandy flat, with a fine beach, but I observed no Moa remains.
We will now retrace our steps, cross the Pataua River on to Pataua Hill, for the purpose of examining the isthmus joining that hill to Taiharuru Island. This isthmus is a sandy ridge about 100 yards long, with the sea-beach on one side, mangrove mud flats on the other (vide Plate II., Secs. 3, 4, and 5). For the length of 50 yards this ridge has been completely denuded of the vegetation with which it was once covered, presents an oblique face to the sea, and the sand is being blown off the top and in shore, exposing heaps of pipi shells and cooking stones as the evidence of former eating places. The other end of this ridge is covered with a thick mat of plants which are thriving in all similar places in this locality, viz., the Muhlenbeckia; Coprosma acerosa, or sloeberry; the prickly little Leucopogon frazeri; and Desmoschœnus (Pingao). The seaward face of this part of the
ridge is over five feet higher than the bare sandy portion, and is almost perpendicular (Plate II. Secs. 3 and 5).
The gradations between the lower bare sandy ridge with its oblique face to the sea, and the higher verdure-clad ridge with its steep face to the sea is well observable, and, as our surmises received confirmation here, I describe the process as minutely as possible, for I wish you clearly to understand that these remains have been covered with sand and overgrown with thick littoral plants; and, since the oldest inhabitants knew nothing of these burying-places or camping-grounds, it is clear that these relics could not be observed till the surface had been removed and the old bed exposed to view.
A small channel is formed in the outer face of the ridge, either by the tramping of cattle or the encroachment of the sea, or both, down which the sand will run, and through which the wind rushes like as through a funnel, and soon the space widens; the sand is removed from the roots of the plants, the blowing sand cutting the leaves off, and the ridge is thus lowered in time to the bed of the old camping-ground. One of those small channels is already of considerable width, leaving on the sandy end a mound with a tuft of dying vegetation, its stringy roots hanging down all round. On the other end of this channel the face was steep, and a human skeleton was falling out of the bank; the skull had fallen out, but the other parts appeared in a horizontal position, with two feet of loose sand between the bones and pipi shells beneath (Plate II., Sec. 5). We brought this skull to Auckland and marked it. Portions of two other human skeletons were exposed on the bare sandy end of the ridge. We could not discover any traces of the Moa in this spot.
About two miles south-east, across the Taiharuru River, is a snug little cove, with a horse-shoe beach one-third of a mile in length, called by the Nova Scotians, Baleladech Bay (I failed to learn the native name); it is at the north end of the farm of Wm. M'Leod, and close to his house, at the head of this bay, is a sandy ridge about 20 to 30 feet high, 100 yards long. Each end is bounded by soft clay rocks, with the sea on one side and a swamp of the Taiharuru River on the other.
The blown sand here covers about four acres, and the present surface is literally strewn with human remains. I distinguished the heaps of bones belonging to 24 human skeletons, and I was shewn a spot where ten additional had been covered up again with sand. Kitchen middens are heaps of shell-fish and tools. I obtained here some of the finest obsidian chips and one ill-formed adze. After very careful search I found embedded, in brown hardish sand, about three yards apart, portions of the skeletons of two Moas, a large species and a smaller one, as will be seen from the ten vertebræ and fragments of leg, thirteen toe bones, and portions
of two pelves. These bones are much decomposed, and were lying fully six feet below the present top of the highest mound of cooking stones, pebbles, and shells. W. M'Leod informed me that seven years ago this ridge was covered with a beautiful carpet ofMuhlenbeckia and coprosma; no sand was visible at all, and he was not less surprised than the Maoris to see these skeletons unearthed as the vegetation died and the sand was drifted in-shore.
I have five of these human skulls here marked; amongst them is one of a child (probably a girl of thirteen or fourteen years); it is the only skull I observed exhibiting marks of violence, viz., an abrasion of the skull at the back of the head.
In one of the human skeletons, the small and large bones of the legs were doubled up, evidently undisturbed since burial; the bones of the upper part of the body were scattered around, but the distal (ankle) ends of the tibiæ (shin), and the proximal (upper) ends of the femora (thigh) were embedded in sand, shewing that this individual was buried in a cramped posture.
The Maoris knew not of the existence of this burying-place till exposed to view gradually during the past seven years, by the disappearance of the vegetation and removal of the sand.
At Whale Cove, a little rocky inlet, with a small beach at its head, the sand commenced to drift only three or four years ago, and has now covered about four acres, being curiously blown up hill to the left, owing to the height of the cliff. Of Moa bones, an imperfect metatarsus was all I found here; but in the coprosma-covered bank, a human skeleton was falling out of the sand; some bones remained in the bank as evidence where it had lain. I also found the wing bone of a bird (probably albatros) broken in the middle, one end ground smoothly off, with four little holes very neatly bored, two in each side. It had been used perhaps as a musical instrument, but more probably hung as an ornament (see Plate III., Figs. 16, 17, 18).
At Stockyard Bay, a mile or two further south, on Captain Eyre's land, is a semicircular cove, with a beach for a quarter mile. The sandy ridge here, as at M'Leod's Bay, is a saddle between the sea and a swamp of the Taiharuru River; vegetation has not been destroyed by wind and sand, except in a place where an old stockyard once stood; here, on an old cooking-place, I found one vertebræ bone and some small valueless fragments of a small species of Moa.
Being now convinced of the wider range of the Moa in those parts than I at first thought probable, I examined, in company with Mr. Cheeseman. the extensive sand-hills between Bream Head and Manaia.
Those sand-hills are several miles long, varying from a quarter to half a mile wide, and are in some places 70 to 80 feet high, with sea-beach on one side and large swamps and small lakes on the other. On the northern extremity of the ridges, Pingao (Desmoschœnus) and Spinifex grass is growing amongst the hills, retaining the loose sand in little heaps, so that no shells or other remains are visible; on the southern or Bream Head extremity, the ridges are bare, and the sand shifts freely, leaving in the saddles between the summits of sand-hills, hardened beds of yellow-coloured sandy soil strewn in places with sharp stones and worn pebbles.
The sides of these sand-hills presented some beautiful examples of false or cross stratification and ripple in the blown sand. On the oblique face which these hills presented seaward, were here and there large mounds of pipi shells and kitchen middens. Walking down to examine the first of these mounds, we observed a collection of quartz pebbles, “Moa stones.” We pondered over them with deep interest, feeling sure that, although all osseous remains may have disappeared from these older sand-hills, the Moa once existed here. Our conjectures were well founded and confirmed by the discovery of a much worn metatarus, portions of a femur, and a vertebræ. At another similar mound a tibia was found, and at a third mound some fragments of tibia and femora were to be seen; also the portions of tibia of a small species of Moa, with proximal end tolerably perfect.
Of obsidian flakes and adzes, we found none.
We observed the remains of several human skeletons, but the bones were much broken and worn. Here also we found two pieces of bone evidently carefully bored and shaped by the hand of man (Plate III., Figs. No. 5, 6), and probably applied to some practical or ornamental purpose.
I have been more careful to collect facts than to explain what they mean, since in every study the mastery of facts and the knowledge of their relation to one another is of first importance. Conclusions can always wait, always take care of themselves; but now that I have described what I have seen, I may be allowed to point briefly to some of the more obvious ideas suggested.
When I first found a Moa bone at Pataua, I thought it must have been carried there, or that marauding tribes from the Bay of Plenty or Poverty Bay had brought them in their canoes as a supply of food, a small commissariat, in fact, and the human skeletons were the slain in the battle while attempting to or after having effected a landing on an enemy's shore. It may be so, but I think it far more probable that those huge wingless birds lived, were hunted, killed, and eaten there.
The physical character of the localities, Pataua and Manaia, point unmistakably to this latter conclusion. You will readily conceive how the
wary Moa-hunter would skilfully drive the probably sluggish, stupid bird down the mud flats and bed of the Pataua on to the narrow sand dunes between the impassable swamp and the sea as into the most cleverly contrived trap. Here the real struggle would take place on which depended his only supply of animal food.
The dry, silicious sandy nature of these dunes fits them peculiarly for the preservation of osseous remains, and these bones seem to be of very great antiquity, compared with similar ones from Canterbury.
The variety of relics of this kind north of Auckland is perhaps in part due to the early extinction of the bird by the natives of the district.
It is interesting, also, to find this bird in these wooded parts of the country, for although there are a few acres of fern land to the east of Parua Bay, yet the Moa could not have lived here without entering the timbered country and feeding on roots which he would dig for with his powerful foot, or berries which would be within reach of his tall beak. However, the extensive flats and pipi banks, dry at low water, would furnish an abundant supply of food for the Moa, if he had a relish for molluscs or small fish, which is very probable, for Darwin (“Voyage of Beagle,” 2nd ed., p. 89) reports that “South American Ostriches, although they live on vegetable matter, such as roots and grass, are repeatedly seen at Bahia Blanca, lat. 39° S., on the Coast of Buenos Ayres, coming down at low water to the extensive mud banks, which are then dry, for the sake of eating—as the Gauchos say, of feeding on small fish; they readily take to the water, and have been seen at the Bay of San Blas, and at Port Valdez, in Patagonia, swimming from island to island.” So that the Moa might readily cross these rivers, or even Whangarei Harbour, to feed on the large flats which are there dry at low tide.
I think that further and accurate observation will prove the habitat the Moa to have been all over this North Western Peninsula. The sea beaches, such as I have described, are numerous all round the coast; those at Te Arai are very likely places, and the Limestone Caves at Waiapu and Whangarei are probably capable of telling some deeply interesting facts relative hereto. We only want more general interest awakened to bring these facts to our knowledge for the benefit of science.
These huge, wingless birds of the past have disappeared, and given place to other and perhaps more beautiful forms of life; it is no use guessing how long ago these creatures flourished on the earth; we certainly know that they lived in New Zealand down to very recent times, and we rightly judge that their disappearance in New Zealand was hastened and completed by the hand of hunters, who, to my mind, were, without doubt, the ancestors of the Maori.
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
|Table of Measurements of Dinornis Bones from Pataua Near Whangarei.|
|Dimensions of Metatarsi, in inches.|
|*||*||*||Pr.||Pr.||*||*||Measurements of no practical value; specimens too much worn.|
|Circumference at Middle||5.25||4.5||4.875||4.0||4.5||4.375||3.125||2.25||3.0||3.0||2.625||2.625||2.5||2.5||2.5||2.75||2.5||2.5||2.25||2.25||2.5||2.25||3.0|
|Breadth, Proximal||3.75||3.0||3.125||2.75||3.0||2.125||1.625||1.9375 a pair.||1.9375||1.75||1.625||1.875||1.875||1.5||1.875||1.75||1.75||1.5||1.5||1.375||1.375|
|Dimensions of Tablæ, in Inches.||Dimensions of Femora, in Inches. ‡|
|Circumference at Middle||3.625||4.625||4.875||4.625||3.25||3.25||3.125||3.25||2.75||2.375||2.75||3.0||3.125||5.375||5.625||5.625||5.375||5.5||3.5||4.0||3.5||3.0||3.25||3.375||2.75||2.75||2.875|
|very Pr.||a pari.||a pari.||very Pr.||Pr.||a pari.||a pari.|
Metatarsi are generally more perfect and more numerous than other osseous portions; perhaps the hard dry skin protected the bone for some considerable period, or this bone may have contained less juice. F., fissured; Pr., perfect.
[Footnote] * Denotes that the bone has been denuded, and the measurement is short.
[Footnote] † The breadth proximal end is measured from the head of the Trochanter straight across, which does not always give the greatest breadth.
[Footnote] ‡ Thirteen Femora too imperfect to give any practical value to the measurements.