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Volume 9, 1876
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Art. LIV.—Notes on the Skeleton of Epiodon novæ zealandiæ.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 4th May, 1876.]

Plates.

At the end of July, 1872, the report reached me that a Whale had been stranded on a reef in Lyttelton Harbour, Banks' Peninsula, and that the carcass had been towed into one of the small bays by several fishermen for securing the oil.

Being myself prevented by indisposition, Mr. Fuller, the taxidermist of the Museum, proceeded to that locality with instructions to secure the skeleton, and to make the necessary observations as to dimensions, form, sex, and age of the animal.

When he arrived where the fishermen were at work, he found that the blubber had nearly all been taken off, so that he could only partially obtain the required measurements.

The animal, which on dissection proved to be an aged female, had a total length of 26 feet; and Mr. Fuller described the body as being rather thick in the middle, tapering to a slender tail, without showing the least trace of any dorsal fin. Colour, bluish-black on the upper portion of the body; white beneath, the upper portion being marked with numerous oval spots, two to three inches across, like the skin of a leopard. The head was much swollen. The whole skeleton, with the exception of a few bones, was secured to the Canterbury Museum, where it now stands articulated in one of its rooms. Plate XXV. shows its general characteristics more fully than a mere description can convey.

Before, however, entering into a description of the principal portions of the skeleton, I wish to draw attention to the fact, that our specimen did not possess a dorsal fin, nor did a careful examination by Mr. Fuller of the central line of the back reveal the least fragment of one, or even the indication that it ever had existed.

However, this absence cannot be claimed as a generic character, as Raffinesque stated, when first establishing that genus, because the Epiodon australe of Burmeister * by that distinguished veteran naturalist) possesses a well-developed dorsal fin.

Moreover, the forehead of the New Zealand species is much swollen, whilst the head of the South American species previously alluded to, is tapering. Thus in the enumeration of the principal characteristics of the

[Footnote] *See the excellent Memoir on that South American species in “Anales del Museo Publico de Buenos Aires,” Part V.

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genus Epiodon (see, amongst others, Gray's “Catalogue of Seals and Whales,” page 340) this feature also must lose generic value.

Skull.

Dr. Hector * has given a short description of the skull of a specimen, under the name of Epiodon chathamiensis, which, if not belonging to the same species, is closely allied to the animal of the New Zealand coasts. That skull was obtained on the Chatham Islands.

However, as amongst minor differences the form of the teeth is different, I have thought it more expedient to describe the New Zealand specimen under the specific name of Epiodon novœ zealandiœ, leaving it to the future, when more material has been collected, to determine if there are two distinct species or not.

The skull has the following dimensions:—

Ft. In.
Extreme length with lower jaw 3 3.12
Extreme length of cranium, point of rostrum, which is broken off, restored 3 1.50
Length of rostrum, from the apex of the præ-maxillæ to the middle of the line drawn between the ante-orbital notches 1 7.89
Greatest height from top of nasals to lower border of pterygoids 1 5.52
Greatest breadth across post-orbital processes of frontals 1 10.75
Breadth of occipital condyles 0 6.30
" foramen magnum 0 2.40
Height " " 0 2.22
Breadth of base of rostrum between bottom of ante-orbital notches 1 0.91
Breadth of rostrum in the middle 0 4.83
Anterior nares, greatest width of the two 0 3.20
Height of crest above occipital foramen 1 2.93
Width of occiput 1 4.60
Mandible.
Length of ramus 2 8.50
" symphysis 0 7.46
Vertical height of ramus at coronoid process 0 6.40
Apex of mandible projecting beyond apex of rostrum (restored) 0 1.62

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. V., p. 165, Pl. IV. and V.

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Ft. In.
Mandibular tooth, right, length 0 2.12
" " " greatest breadth 0 0.72
" " " weight, 184 grains.

It will be seen in comparing its dimensions with those of the skull from the Chatham Islands, figured and described by Dr. Hector, * that it is larger and more developed, with the exception of the two mandibular teeth, which are much smaller in the Chatham Island specimen, and evidently are designed for other purposes. The rostrum, of which the point is broken off, is of small dimensions when compared with the posterior portions of the cranium, its point being slightly turned to the right. This point was shattered into such a number of small pieces, so that after maceration it was impossible to secure them all. The same was the case with the lower jaw, so as to suggest that the animal had struck the reef, and thus injured so considerably that portion of its frame.

The premaxillaries are two thin bones, which run parallel in their anterior portion. They here curve inwards, so as to form a semi-cylindrical excavation, running along the whole rostrum as far as the septum narium.

Before reaching this, however, they alter somewhat their general form, the rounded edge disappearing, the bones now showing a plane, rather concave surface, and gradually rising near the posterior end of the nares, unite here with the nasal bones, by which a high crest is formed.

For about one-third from the point both sides of the premaxillaries are alike, after which the right one becomes much broader than the left one, and passing over the median line of the skull to the left, the skull now becomes very unsymmetrical in its central portion, so that the opening of the nares is displaced to the left. Moreover the uppermost portion of the right premaxillary, besides being broader, is much higher than the left one—a peculiarity to which also the nasal bones conform, the right one being considerably higher than the left one.

The prefrontals (of Owen) begin 6–50 inches from the anterior point of the rostrum, gradually widening to one inch, being slightly concave in the centre for a length of eight inches. They then gradually flatten for a distance of one inch, after which they become convex, until they rise and form the thin ridge of the septum narium. The latter is wedged in its anterior portion against the left premaxillary, and then continuing its direction to the left joins then obliquely the nasal bones. In the centre of the nares the septum narium is excavated for a depth of nearly two inches and a width of 1–20 inches, the bone having here a very sharp edge. Shortly

[Footnote] * Loc. cit.

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before the septum narium is formed the premaxillaries coalesce for a short space. * The maxillaries, which begin with a narrow point, having a downward sloping surface, gradually widen, and after having in about the centre of the rostrum a plane surface the outer side rises to the orbital notch, after which they expand greatly with a deeply concave surface, rising posteriorly to the highest part of the 'crest, uniting with the frontals through their whole extent.

The high maxillary crest of Hyperoodon is represented only by a small elevation at the beginning of the broad concave surface, similar to Epiodon australe, as pointed out by Professor H. Burmeister in his exhaustive description of that South American species.

A deep and narrow furrow begins on the lower side of both premaxillaries near the point, continuing after their junction with the maxillaries along the latter bones, where it runs below their lateral edge to about the middle of the rostrum, gradually getting shallower and narrower.

In these grooves small vascular cavities are observable, as if they had once served for rudimentary teeth, of which, however, not the least remuant could be observed, all without doubt having been absorbed.

The vomer begins 5–50 inches from the point of the rostrum, between the premaxillaries, forming for 8–75 inches a narrow convex ridge, which in its broadest or central portion is only 0–25 inch broad. The palatal surface of the rostrum is slightly bent upwards near the point.

The united periotic and tympanic bones are of considerably less size than those of Berardius arnuxii.

The tympanic bone, of which a figure is given (Pl. XXIV., Fig. 1, A. upper surface, A'. lower surface), is shorter, the anterior end not being so much prolonged, and thus resembling more in form the same bone in Hyperoodon. The same can be said of the periotic bone, which is also not only shorter but has the notches between the lobes much shallower than Berardius.

The lower mandible, which projects about two inches beyond the point of the rostrum, consists of two thin callous rami, which gradually become narrower till their termination at the point, the bony substance of which they are composed getting more spongy towards the beginning of the sym-physis. From this beginning the united bones curve upwards. At the point two small teeth are embedded in sockets, the tips rising only a few lines above them. They are covered with rugose cement to the very point, which in their lower part forms wart-like prominences.

[Footnote] * I have given these details because in another skull of the same species which the Canterbury Museum possesses, and of which I shall give the measurements with some notes in an appendix, besides some minor points, a very marked difference occurs in the form of the prefrontals.

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As there is scarcely any difference between the two teeth, I give only the figure of one of them (Pl. XXIV., Fig. 3, C. front, C'. back, C”. section), the left one, which is 2–12 inches long, with the greatest breadth about the centre of 0–72 inch. It weighs 184 grains, and runs out at both ends to a constricted rounded point, that of the apex being the narrowest. It will thus be seen that the weight of this tooth, although it belongs to a skull of larger dimensions than the one obtained from the Chatham Islands, described by Dr. Hector, is scarcely the fourth of the weight which the teeth of the latter have. It is, moreover, evident that the teeth of the Chatham Island specimen must have been used, as, according to the description, “they are worn down into two lateral facets, divided by an acute ridge, * whilst in the New Zealand specimens the tips are as rough as the sides and roots, and do not show the least sign of wear. We know that the two skulls of the New Zealand specimens belong to female skeletons, whilst the skull of the Chatham Island specimen may possibly have been that of a male, but as we have not the least evidence in that respect, this point can only be settled by future researches into the anatomical characteristics of this interesting genus.

Returning to the skeleton under consideration, I wish to state that the teeth were only visible after maceration, and appear to be altogether func-tionless, because the lower jaw projects so much beyond the rostrum, unless we assume that the Whale had an upper lip of a somewhat prehensile character. On the upper margin, all along the anterior half of each ramus, a well-defined groove extends to the dental canal at the anterior extremity where it is broadest. A considerable number of small vascular canals open into this groove, without, however, showing the least rudiment of teeth. The coronoid process is marked very feebly, but the condyle is well developed, and forms the most posterior portion of the bone.

I may here observe that the skull of Epiodon novœ zealandiœ resembles in some respects that of Epiodon australe of South America, notwithstanding the difference in the form of the head, the former having a swollen and the latter a tapering forehead. In many instances, Professor Burmeister's excellent description of some of its osteological characters could be applied quite well to the New Zealand species.

Hyoid Bones

The basihyal and the thyrohyals are still unanchylosed, notwithstanding the great age of the animal. The former has a somewhat trapezoidal form, thus resembling in that respect the same bone in Epiodon australe, but it is more pointed in its anterior portion, and has a deep notch in the centre,

[Footnote] * See “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. V., p. 165.

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whilst in the South American species the anterior border is only slightly concave.

Breadth, 4–60 inches, antero-posterior length on both sides of the notch, 4–10 inches.

The thyrohyals have a length of 6–80 inches, with their greatest breadth of 2–55 inches, one-third from their posterior end.

The stylohyals are 10–80 inches long, and in their middle portion 2–10 inches broad; they are straighter than the same bone in Epiodon australe, which they resemble, however otherwise in form. The whole apparatus is more slender than in the Buenos Aires species.

Vertebral Column.

The following are the numbers of vertebrœ:—

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Cervical 7
Thoracic 9
Lumbar 11
Caudal 19
Total 46

In comparing this number with that observed in Epiodon australe, it will be seen that the New Zealand species has three less, viz., 9 thoracic instead of 10, and 19 caudal instead of 21; thus showing also some difference in the osteological structure of the two species. I may here observe, that all the plates of the vertebrœ are so thoroughly coalesced with the rest of the body, that the line of juncture is not visible—a proof that the animal must have been not only adult, but aged.

Cervical Vertebrœ.

Of these, the four first are entirely anchylosed, whilst the fifth, sixth, and seventh are free; thus having one free vertebra less than Epiodon australe, in which only the first three vertebræ are united. However, as this skeleton was derived from a young animal, this .difference cannot be claimed as of a permanent character until we know the skeleton of the same animal in a full-grown state. The atlas, which is 11–40 inches broad by 8–15 inches high, forms, with the next two vertebræ, one solid bone with a high crest. It is the largest of all the cervical vertebræ. The para-pophyses (lower process) in each of the coalesced bones, of which that of the atlas is the largest, are, with the exception of that belonging to the the fourth, well developed. They decrease, however, gradually in size to the third, that of the fourth being of such small dimensions, that it is an inch shorter than the same process in the preceding one, with which it is anchylosed at the upper and lower extremities, but not with the body.

The fifth cervical vertebra is very narrow, 0–55 inch; it has, moreover,

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no spinous process above the arch, the summit of which stands two inches below the point of the spinous process of the four anchylosed vertebræ. The parapophyses, although much larger than those of the fourth cervical vertebra, stand on the same line with them.

The sixth cervical vertebra is a little broader than the preceding one. There is only an indication of a spinous process above the arch; the parapophyses are well developed, and advance half an inch beyond those of the former vertebra.

The seventh vertebra is slightly broader than the preceding one. It has a distinct spinous crest standing two inches above the arch. The lower process, or parapophyses, on each side, has dwindled to a narrow tubercle, sloping upwards; the body of the bone has a well-marked articular surface for the head of the first rib on both sides, which is situated between the well-marked upper transverse process (diapophysis) and the small tubercle representing the lower transverse process (parapophysis). These seven vertebræ have a length of 7–15 inches, measured along the lower side of their main body.

Thoracic Vertebræ.

Their number, as before stated, is nine, consequently one less than Epiodon australe possesses. In this respect the New Zealand species resembles Hyperoodon, which, as far as I am aware, is the only other known Ziphioid Whale having such a small number of thoracic vertebræ. Each vertebræ has a spine standing backwards at an angle of 60° to the body of the vertebra. That of the first one is pointed, 6–40 inches high and 2–58 inches broad at the base. Gradually these spinous processes rise higher, and become broader at the same time, that of the ninth or last thoracic vertebra being the highest, 11–62 inches and 3–46 inches broad at the base. They are all laterally compressed, thinning out at the top to a mere blade.

The first two vertebræ possess on both sides of the arch a rounded apophysis on which the articular extremity for the tubercle is placed. This apophysis gradually enlarges, being laterally compressed and showing one well marked process pointing upwards and forward, as well as the articulation for the tubercle for the rib, which is situated more backwards.

On the seventh vertebra this separation of the apophysis is still more conspicuous, whilst in the eighth vertebra a separation of that apophysis in two distinct portions has taken place, the forward or superior process now appearing as the metapophysis, whilst its lower or posterior portion forms now a lower transverse process, on which the articular surface for the eighth rib is situated directed obliquely backwards. This lower transverse process is already situated in front on the body of the vertebra, but on its upper portion.

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This division is still more conspicuous in the ninth or last thoracic vertebra, where the metapophysis has nearly the same form as that on the first lumbar vertebra, with the exception that its upper surface has a rounded instead of a horizontal edge. The lower transverse process has a more depressed, flattened form, moreover it is situated not only in the centre of the body of the vertebra, but also lower down and nearly on the same level as the same process in the first lumbar vertebra.

The bodies of the vertebræ gradually increase in size, the first having an antero-posterior length of 1–65 inches, and the ninth or last of 4–10 inches.

The inferior surface of the first thoracic vertebra is rough and rounded. The second, third, and a small portion of the anterior part of the fourth, have a shallow concave groove, after which on the fourth a median keel appears, which continues to run along the rest, gradually becoming more pronounced.

Lumbar Vertebra

The nine thoracic vertebræ are succeeded by eleven lumbar vertebræ, which possess nearly all the same form, getting of larger dimensions as they follow each other, so that the body of the last is the largest, viz., 5–48 inches for the first, and 7–58 inches for the last lumbar vertebra. The spines are of considerable size, the first being 13–25 inches high along its posterior margin. They then gradually rise to the eighth, which is 15–52 inches high, after which they diminish again slightly. They are compressed as usually and broader at the apex, which has a truncate form as if they were cut off.

The metapophysis on the anterior end of the arch is similar in form to that of the last thoracic vertebra, but a little larger in the first four vertebræ, its apex having moreover a still more truncated edge. Beginning with the fifth vertebra, this process gets gradually smaller, assuming at the same time a more rounded form.

They all possess on their inferior surface a median keel, which is most pronounced on the fifth, sixth, and seventh vertebræ, after which getting shallower by degrees it nearly runs out on the last. The lower transverse process is throughout of the same form and size, having a horizontal and little forward direction.

The caudal vertebræ are nineteen in number, of which the first ten have chevron bones attached to them on the posterior border of the lower surface, thus forming as usual two distinct classes. The bodies of the caudal vertebræ shorten from 7–51 inches to the tenth, which is only 3–78 inches long, although their height is the same. From the first to the thirteenth a broad shallow groove runs along their lower surface, after which they have a deep lateral excavation. The spines are also gradually reduced in height

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to the tenth, in which the same is only 1–50 inch high. They continue, however, to possess the same truncated apex with a downward slope from front to back, getting at their starting point from the arch gradually larger, that on the fourth caudal vertebra being here the largest of the whole series of vertebræ. The metapophyses also gradually diminish and assume, instead of the former flattened form, now a stouter appearance with a more outward direction of the point. The same diminution in size is observable in the lower transverse proccess, which on the eighth caudal vertebra forms only a very small ridge, but has entirely disappeared on the ninth.

The tenth vertebra is very much laterally compressed. The eleventh assumes a rounded form, which becomes more squared in the 12th, after which the rest have a nearly quadrangular form to the last. The last caudal vertebræ, beginning with the tenth, have a well excavated channel running along both sides of the vertebræ. I may here observe that the last chevron bone, as well as the seventeenth and nineteenth vertebræ, are missing in this skeleton.

Ribs

There are nine ribs on each side, of which seven possess two articulating processes. The first, which is the shortest of the whole series, is also the broadest. It is thick and flattened throughout. It articulates by a distinct capitular process with the body of the seventh cervical vertebræ, and above by an excavated articular surface, with the transverse process of the first thoracic vertebra.

From the second to the sixth the ribs gradually lengthen, the sixth being the longest, after which they decrease again. The second has still the flattened appearance of the first, but in a lesser degree, after which they assume all nearly the same shape, the upper portions below the articulations or articulator having a prismoid form, which is most pronounced in the middle of the ribs, where they are also the most constricted, the edge being on the inner side. They then widen and flatten to their lower extremity.

The second to the seventh ribs inclusive have, like the first, two articulations—a distinct capitular process for articulation with the vertebra in front, and an excavated articular surface slightly raised round the edges, into which the transverse process fits.

The eighth and ninth ribs have only one excavated surface, articulating with the end of the transverse process.

The greatest length of each rib, measured in a straight line, is:—

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Ft In.
First 1 9 ½
Second 2 6 ½
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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Ft. In.
Third 2 10 ¼
Fourth 3 0 ½
Fifth 3 2
Sixth 3 3 ¼
Seventh 3 2 ¾
Eighth 2 11 ¼
Ninth 2 5 ½

Sternum.

In the form of the sternum, and of which I add a drawing (Pl. XXIV., Fig.) Epiodon novæ zealandiœ shows a well-marked difference from Epiodon australe of Buenos Aires.

It consists of five distinct segments, of which the first is the largest, having a greatest length of 14 ¼ inches, with a greatest breadth of 12 ½ inches. The second, third, and fourth generally diminish in both dimensions until the fifth, which is the narrowest, but longer than the three preceding ones. The dimensions of the fifth are 7 ¾ inches in length, with a breadth of 6 inches. The first, which possesses a shallow keel in its upper portion, has a deep notch above it, and another in the centre of its basal portion. Similar fossæ exist in each of the succeeding segments, by which four median fenestræ are formed, gradually dimnishing in size, having their largest diameter in a vertical direction.

There are six articular surfaces on each side for the sternal ribs; the first near the upper portion of the first segment, the second at the junction of the first and second, the third at the junction of the second and third, the fourth at the junction of the third and fourth, the fifth at the junction of the fourth and fifth segments, and the last at the posterior ends of the two narrow processes, by which the fifth segment terminates. The entire length of the sternum, in a straight line, is 3 feet 1 inch.

A comparison with the sternum of Epiodon australe shows a great difference in the form of the segments and of the fenestræ, and, as it appears to me when mature, this species would only have four segments instead of five, thus agreeing with Berardius arnuxii.

Professor Flower figures, in his excellent memoir on Berardius arnuxii, the sternum as consisting of five pieces; but it is evident that the fourth and fifth segments are portions of the same bone, although they, from some cause, have not yet anchylosed.

In a skeleton belonging to the same species, which stands articulated in the Canterbury Museum, and which has been taken from a full-grown but not aged male, the discs on both sides of the vertebræ being not yet anchylosed, the sternum consists of only four segments. The fourth and fifth

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pieces of the skeleton in the Hunterian Museum appears as one bone without any suture visible between them; the two last articular facets standing close to each other on the side of the fourth segment.

Pectoral Limb.

The scapula has the usual form, peculiar to the Ziphioid Whales; the acromion is, however, narrower and thinner than in Epiodon australe, in which that bone corresponds more with Berardius arnuxii. The coracoid is also shorter and stouter. The humerus to which the head is thoroughly anchylosed, has a well-defined tuberosity for articulation, with the strongly excavated glenoid fossa of the scapula, and on its lower posterior side a groove for the articulation of the ulna. Both ulna and radius have their articular surfaces well anchylosed, and do not call for any further remark.

The carpus differs considerably from that of Berardius arnuxii, of which Professor Flower gives a figure in his paper on that Whale in the “Transactions of the Zoological Society,” and with which the carpus of another specimen articulated in the Canterbury Museum fully agrees. Instead of being united in pairs, the scaphoid and lunar and the cuneiform and unoiform are all distinct, and only the magnum and trapezoid are united into one bone.

They agree in this respect with the same elements in the carpus of Mesoplodon sowerbiensis of the Northern Hemisphere, whilst in the skeleton of Epiodon australe the magnum and trapezoid are also still separate bones. However, as this skeleton is derived from a very young animal, it may be possible that they unite in more aged individuals.

Appendix.

Notes on Skull B.

A female Whale of somewhat larger dimensions, belonging to the same species, was stranded about the middle of July, 1873, in Akaroa Harbour. According to Mr. Gorham Lambert, my informant, the animal was suckling a calf at the time. The latter was, however, thought not worth preserving by the finder. The skull of the mother Whale was secured for the Canterbury Museum. Pl. XXVI., fig 1.

From the following table of measurements it will appear that the skull is a little larger in all its dimensions than the one described previously belonging to the skeleton in the Canterbury Museum.

Although the point of the rostrum is quite entire, the point of the lower jaw was considerably broken, which proves that the animal made considerable struggles to regain deep water, during which, without doubt, it injured itself in the same manner as the Lyttelton Harbour specimen did. The skull under review is also derived from an aged individual, and with the exception that its rostrum is rather narrower than that of the Lyttelton Harbour specimen, it has otherwise somewhat larger proportions.

The most marked difference, however, is in the form of the prefrontals. In this skull the premaxillaries are much more excavated, and stand 1.53 inches apart in the centre of the rostrum.

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The prefrontals, like in the former skull, begin 6.50 inches from the point of the rostrum, forming at the beginning a ridge, which continues for about eleven inches, constituting the central portion of these bones, and only gradually disappearing. For the last five inches they have a concave form. The premaxillaries here approach each other as in the Port Lyttelton specimen, but stand always half an inch apart. Here the beginning of the septum narium rises to within the eighth of an inch of the surface of the premaxillaries, gradually getting thinner and turning obliquely to the left, resting against the left of these latter bones.

The excavation in the septum narium is, however, much deeper and wider than in the first described skull, being three inches wide and two and a half inches deep. There is also considerable difference in the teeth of the two skulls, as a comparison of these figures will testify. I add two drawings of the right tooth. Pl. XXIV., fig. 2.

The tooth of this skull is 2.85 inches long and 0.61 inches broad. It is covered everywhere with a rough cement, which forms, principally near the lower extremity, wart-like protuberances, taking near the root-end ridgy forms.

It is consequently longer than the tooth of the Lyttelton Harbour specimen, and although the tenth of an inch thinner, is a little heavier, 198 grains.

A portion of the pterygoid has been cut away when taking out the skull. Otherwise it is in a fine state of preservation.

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Table of Measurements.
Ft. In.
Extreme length of the skull with lower jaw 3 4.90
" " " cranium 3 3.15
Length of rostrum from the apex of the premaxillaries to the middle of the line drawn between the ante-orbital notches 1 10.50
Greatest height from top of nasals to lower border of pterygoids 1 5.85
Greatest breadth across post-orbital processes of frontals 1 9.12
Breadth of occipital condyles 0 7.20
""foramen magnum 0 2.62
Height " " 0 2.31
Breadth of base of rostrum (between bottom of ante-orbital notches) 1 0.50
Breadth of rostrum in the middle 0 5
Anterior nares, greatest width of the two 0 3.05
Height of crest above occipital foramen 1 3.20
Width of occiput 1 5.05
Mandible.
Length of ramus 2 9.75
" " symphysis 0 7.25
Vertical height of ramus at coronoid process 0 6.83
Apex of mandible projecting beyond apex of rostrum 0 1.75
Mandibular tooth, length 0 2.85
" breadth, greatest 0 0.61
" weight, 198 grains.

Description and Illustrations and Photographs Exhibited.

No. 1.

Skeleton of Epiodon novœ zealandiœ (Haast), female, 1–16th of the natural size, obtained in Lyttleton Harbour. (Pl. XXV.)

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No. 2.
  • Skull of same. Side view.

No. 3.
  • Skull of same. Upper view.

No. 4.
  • Skull of same. Lower view.

No. 5.
  • Left mandibular tooth of same. (Pl. XXIV., fig. 3.)

  • A. Front view.

  • B. Back view.

  • C. Section.

No. 6.
  • Left tympanic bone of same. (Pl. XXIV., fig 1.)

  • A. Lower surface.

  • B. Upper "

No. 7.
  • Sternum of same. (Pl. XXVI.)

No. 8.
  • Skull of Epiodon novœ zealandiœ, female, obtained in Akaroa Harbour. Side view. (Pl. XXVI.)

No. 9.
  • Skull of same. Upper view.

No. 10.
  • Skull of same. Lower view.

No. 11.
  • Mandibular right tooth of the same. (Pl. XXIV., fig. 2.)

  • A. Left side.

  • B. Right side.

  • C. Section.