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Volume 10, 1877
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Art. XXXV.—On the Butterflies of New Zealand.

Plate XII.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 12th January, 1878.]

Of the fourteen species of Rhopalocerous Lepidoptera hitherto recorded as unquestionably occurring in New Zealand, exactly one half appear to be endemic forms; of the remaining seven, six are probably of Australian origin, or at any rate are common to Australia and New Zealand, whilst the remaining species is of American origin.

In the present paper it is proposed, where necessary, to give the synonymy of each of the species, with a short description and with one or more figures; so that by reference to this little memoir the collector may be enabled to recognize without difficulty any New Zealand species which he may obtain.

Lepidoptera.

Section Rhopalocera.

The term Rhopalocera, as applied exclusively to the butterflies, is a mere convenience, and does not (as has been falsely stated by some lepidopterists) express any constant distinction between butterflies and moths; indeed, these groups are only to be distinguished by family characters, such as the structure and habits of the larvæ, the form and economy of the pupæ, and the habits, form of venation, or other structural peculiarities of the imago; the same characters do not hold good as distinctive marks throughout the moths, and thus it happens that some genera are in a wretcted state of “limbo,” neither accepted as butterflies by the student of that group, nor permitted to rest peacefully among the moths.

Butterflies therefore are not all “club-horned,” some have clubs, some have filiform antennæ, some have moniliform and subserrated antennæ. In the Hesperiidœ alone you have any amount of variation of structure—clubs, hooks, whips, spoons; all indicating a mere generic distinction and not differing from the same organs in such families as the Sphingidœ, Carteriidœ, and Agaristidœ. The term Rhopalocera therefore is used to indicate the five highest families of the Lepidoptera—the Nymphalidœ, the Erycinidœ, the Lycœnidœ, the Papilionidœ, and the Hesperiidœ.

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As the entomologists of Australia and New Zealand do not seem thoroughly to comprehend why the Nymphalidœ (and not the Papilionidœ) are now placed at the head of the butterflies, we shall here quote from Mr. Bates's admirable paper in the Journal of Entomology for 1864, and they will then see that this renowned lepidopterist has arranged the five families in a perfectly gradational and natural series. He has not followed Linnæus in choosing the Papilionidœ to commence with because they are big, and the Hesperiidœ to conclude with because they are little, but he has studied the structure of each family from the larval to the perfect condition.*

Family 1. Nymphalidæ. Front legs imperfect in both sexes; in the female wanting the tarsal claws; in the male the fore tarsi quite rudimentary, consisting of one or two spineless joints. Pupa suspended freely by the tail.

a. Lower disco-cellular nervule of the hind wing perfect.

Subfamily 1. Danainœ. Larvæ smooth, with fleshy processes. Fore-wing submedian nervure of the imago double at its origin. (This subfamily includes the greater part of the Heliconidœ of authors).

Subfamily 2. Satyrinœ. Larvæ with bifid tails, spineless. Palpi of the imago generally compressed and fringed with long hair-scales.

Subfamily 3. Brassolinœ. Larvæ generally with bifid tails, spineless. Hind wing of the imago furnished with a prediscoidal cell.

Subfamily 4. Acrœinœ. Larvæ studded with branched spines. Palpi of the imago thick and scantily clothed with hair.

Subfamily 5. Heliconinœ. Larvæ studded with branched spines. Palpi of the imago clothed with fine scales, and hairy in front.

b. Lower discocellular nervule, at least of the hind wing, more or less atrophied.

Subfamily 6. Nymphalinœ.

Family 2. Erycinidæ. Six perfect legs in female; four in male; the anterior tarsi consisting only of one or two joints and spineless.

Subfamily 1. Libythœin. Pupa suspended freely by the tail.

Subfamily 2. Stalachtinœ. Pupa secured rigidly by the tail in an in-clined position without girdle.

Subfamily 3. Erycininœ. Pupa recumbent on a leaf or other object, and secured by the tail and a girdle across the middle.

Family 3. Lycænidæ. Six perfect legs in female; four in male; the anterior tarsi wanting one or both of the tarsal claws, but densely spined beneath. Pupa secured by the tail and a girdle across the middle.

Family 4. Papilionidæ. Six perfect legs in both sexes. Pupa secured

[Footnote] * Compare Scudder “On the Classification of Butterflies,” Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 1877, pp. 69–80.

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by the tail and a girdle across the middle. (The true Papiliones have a leaf-like appendage to the fore tibiæ—a character which approximates the family to the Hesperidœ and moths.

Subfamily 1. Pierinœ. Abdominal margin of the hind wing not curved inwards.

Subfamily 2. Papilioninœ. Abdominal margin of the hind wing curving inwards.

Family 5. Hesperidæ. Six perfect legs in both sexes; hind tibiæ, with few exceptions, having two pairs of spurs. Pupa secured by many threads, or enclosed in a slight cocoon.”*

Excepting that a few sub-families have been added, this arrangement remains in its entirety, and is the basis of the classification adopted by all the rising generation of European lepidopterists.

The butterflies of New Zealand are at present restricted to three of the five families—Nymphalidœ, Lycœnidœ, and Papilionidœ.

Family Nymphalidæ, Westwood.

This group is represented in New Zealand by three subfamilies—Danainœ, Satyrinœ, and Nymphalinœ.

Subfamily Danainæ, Bates.

Danais, Latreille.

1. Danais archippus.

Papilio archippus, Fabricius, Spec. Ins., p. 55, n. 243 (1781).

“Alis repandis fulvis venis margineque albo punctato nigris: anticis maculis apicis fulvis: habitat in Americâ Meridionali,”Fabr.

I have not thought it necessary to quote the full synonymy of this introduced species: if required, it will all be found in Kirby's “Synonymic Catalogue.”

Mr. Charles V. Riley, in his “Third Annual Report of the noxious, beneficial, and other Insects of the State of Missouri,” gives the following interesting account of the habits and earlier stages of this beautiful butterfly (pp. 144–8). “The species feeds upon most of the different kinds of milk-weed or silk-weed (Asclepias), and also upon dogbane (Apocynum), according to some authors. It shows a wonderful dislike, however, to the poke milk-weed (Asclepias phytolaccoides), and I was surprised to find that larvæ furnished with this plant would wander about their breeding-cages day after day, and would eventually die rather than touch it, though they would eagerly commence devouring the leaves of either A. tuberosa, curassavica, cornuti, or purpurascens, as soon as offered to them.

[Footnote] * Journal of Entomology, No. X., pp. 176–7 (1864).

[Footnote] † Whenever Fabricius was doubtful as to whether a species was obtained in North or South America, he seems to have put it down as South.

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“The butterflies hibernate, though whether any but the impregnated females survive until the milk-weeds commence to grow, is not definitely ascertained. They commence depositing eggs in the latitude of St. Louis during the fore part of May. Some of the earliest developed butterflies from these eggs begin to appear about the middle of June, and others continue to appear for several weeks. These lay eggs again, and the butterflies abound a second time in October. Thus there are two broods each year, and though the first brood of larvæ are hatched more uniformly and within a more limited time than the second, the two broods yet connect by late individuals of the first and early individuals of the second, and the caterpillars may be found at almost any time from May to October, but are especially abundant during late summer and early fall.

“The egg is invariably deposited on the under side of a leaf, and is conical and delicately reticulate with longitudinal ribs, and fine transverse striæ. It is yellowish when first deposited, but becomes grey as the embryo within developes.

“In about five days after deposition the egg hatches, and the young larva as soon as hatched usually turns round and devours its egg-shell; a custom very prevalent with young caterpillars. At this stage it differs considerably from the mature larva; it is perfectly cylindrical, about 0.12 inch long and much of a thickness throughout. The head is jet-black and polished; the colour of the body is pale greenish-white, with the anterior and posterior horns showing as mere black conical points, and with two transverse-oval black warts, nearer together, on the first joint. It is covered with minute black bristles, arising from still more minute warts, six on the back, and placed four in a row on the anterior portion, and one each side on the posterior portion of each joint; and three on each side, one in the middle of the joint, and two which are substigmatal, posteriorly. There is a sub-triangular black spot on the anal flap, the legs are alternately black and white, and the stigmata are made plainly visible by a pale shade surrounding them.

“When the young worm is three or four days old, a dusky band appears across the middle of each joint, and by the fifth or sixth day it spins a carpet of silk upon the leaf, and prepares for its first moult. After the first moult the anterior horns are as long as the thoracic legs, the posterior ones being somewhat shorter; the characteristic black stripes show quite distinctly, but the white and yellow stripes more faintly. After this it undergoes but slight change in appearance, except that the colours become brighter and that at each successive moult the horns become relatively longer. There are but three moults, and the intervals between them are short, as the worms frequently acquire their full growth within three weeks from hatching.

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“As soon as the larva is full grown it spins a little tuft of silk to the under side of whatever object it may be resting upon, and after entangling the hooks of its hind legs in this silk it lets go the hold of its other legs and hangs down, with the head and anterior joints of the body curved. In this position it hangs for about twenty-four hours, during which the fluids of the body naturally gravitate towards the upturned joints, until the latter become so swollen that at last, by a little effort on the part of the larva, the skin bursts along the back behind the head. Through the rent thus made the anterior portion of the pupa is protruded, and by constant stretching and contracting the larval skin is slipped and crowded backwards until there is but a small shrivelled mass gathered around the tail. Now comes the critical period—the culminating point.

“The soft and supple chrysalis, yet showing the elongate larval form with distinct traces of its prolegs, hangs heavily from the shrunken skin. From this skin it is to be extricated and firmly attached to the silk outside. It has neither legs nor arms, and we should suppose that it would inevitably fall while endeavouring to accomplish this object. But the task is performed with the utmost surety, though appearing so perilous to us. The supple and contractile joints of the abdomen are made to subserve the purpose of legs, and by suddenly grasping the shrunken larval skin between the folds of two of these joints as with a pair of pincers, the chrysalis disengages the tip of its body and hangs for a moment suspended. Then with a few earnest, vigorous, jerking movements it succeeds in sticking the horny point of its tail into the silk, and firmly fastening it by means of a rasp of minute claws with which that point is furnished. Sometimes severe effort is needed before the point is properly fastened, and the chrysalis frequently has to climb by stretching the two joints above those by which it is suspended, and clinging hold of the shrivelled skin further up. The moment the point is fastened the chrysalis commences, by a series of violent jerkings and whirlings, to dislodge the larval skin, after which it rests from its efforts and gradually contracts and hardens. The really active work lasts but a few minutes, and the insect rarely fails to go through with it successfully. The chrysalis is a beautiful object, and as it hangs pendent from some old fence-board or from the under side of an Asclepias leaf, it reminds one of some large ear-drop; but, though the jeweller could successfully imitate the form, he might well despair of ever producing the clear pale-green and the ivory-black and golden marks which so characterize it.

“This chrysalis state lasts but a short time, as is the case with all those which are known to suspend themselves nakedly by the tail. At the end of about the tenth day the dark colours of the future butterfly begin to show through the delicate and transparent skin, and suddenly this skin

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bursts open near the head, and the new-born butterfly gradually extricates itself, and, stretching forth its legs and clambering on to some surrounding object, allows its moist, thickened, and contracted wings to hang listlessly from the body.”

There has been much discussion as to how and when this Danais was introduced into the Australian region: the evidence seems to us to be in favour of its accidental introduction by man:* it has spread rapidly into most of the South Pacific Islands and is now gradually establishing itself in Papua; if its food-plants are to be obtained throughout the Moluccas and Malaysia, there seems to be no reason why it should not extend its range into India or even over the whole of the old world; oddly enough several examples have recently turned up in the British Isles.

Subfamily Satyrinæ, Bates.

Percnodaimon, Butler.

2. Percnodaimon pluto.

Erebia pluto, Fereday.

Erebia merula, Hewitson, Ent. Mo. Mag., XII., p. 10 (1874).

Oreina (?) othello, Fereday, Trans. N.Z. Inst., VIII., pp. 302–4, pl. IX. (1876).

Percnodaimon pluto, Butler, Ent. Mo. Mag., XIII., p. 153 (1876).

Male.—Dark bronzy brown, slightly deeper in tint towards the outer margin; primaries with a paler subapical area, upon which are four white-pupilled large black ocelli; the first three coalescent, their pupils forming a triangle, the fourth immediately below them; wings below altogether paler and of a greyer tint, a fifth small ocellus on first median interspace of primaries; secondaries with the discal area irrorated with grey, so as to indicate a transverse irregular median line, and a rather wide outer border; body black; expanse of wings, 1 inch 11 lines.

Female.—Larger and altogether darker than the male, a minute additional subcostal ocellus in primaries; expanse of wings 2 inches 1 line.

Argyrophenga, Doubleday.

3. Argyrophenga antipodum.

Argyrophenga antipodum, Doubleday, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., XVI., p. 307 (1845); Gen. Diurn. Lepid., pl. 63, fig. 6 (1851); Butler, Erebus and Terror, Lep., pl. 8, figs. 4–7 (1874).

Male.—Dark greyish-brown, paler at base; the disc of each wing covered by a large patch of fawn-colour, that of primaries enclosing a large rounded black subcostal bipupillated spot, that of secondaries crossed by three smaller unipupillated black spots; fringe of primaries tawny, of secondaries grey; body blackish; head, collar, and tegulæ clothed with testaceous

[Footnote] * See, however, Mr. W. L. Distant's paper, (Trans. Ent. Soc., London, 1877, p. 93, et seq.)

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and grey hair; primaries below with the costal and basal areas greyish; discal area tawny, with sub-apical spot as above, bounded externally by a reddish-brown streak which becomes black at the external angle; costa and apical area sandy-yellowish; two subcostal internervular streaks and the outer margin shining silver; fringe ferruginous; secondaries sandy-yellow, the veins pale yellow; the whole of the internervular folds represented by well-defined shining silver streaks; a discoidal streak, and the outer margin also silver; costal margin white; fringe grey; body below grey, legs whitish; expanse of wings, 1 inch 11 lines.

Female.—Altogether paler, and smaller than the male, the borders above whitish; wings below whitish; the discal area orange, becoming very pale towards costa; markings as in the male, but less defined; expanse of wings, 1 inch 8–10 lines.

Subfamily, Nymphalinæ, Bates.

Pyrameis, Hübner.

4. Pyrameis kershawi. Pl. XII., Fig. 1.

Cynthia kershawii, M'Coy, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., IV., vol. 1, p. 76 (1868).

Pyrameis cardui, var. P. kershawii, Butler, Erebus and Terror, Lep., p. 29 (1874).

Primaries above brown at the base; the central area fleshy-pink clouded with fulvous, crossed by an irregular oblique black belt, a spot of the latter divided off by a slender oblique line of the ground colour within the discoidal cell; apical area and outer border broadly black; a post-discoidal oblique trifid white patch, followed by an arched series of four white spots, the uppermost bifid, the lowermost largest and rounded; an indistinct sub-marginal series of linear white markings from above the second median branch to the costa; fringe white, interrupted by black at the terminations of the nervures; secondaries brown; the end of the cell and the disc flesh-colour, clouded with fulvous; the costa and apex black; four blue-centred discal black spots; a sub-marginal series of five fusiform black spots, end to end; a marginal series of larger sub-conical black spots; fringe as in primaries; body brown. Primaries below with the base to the middle of the cell rosy; the end of the cell white, bounded externally by a trifid black bar; the apical area varied with olive-brown and silvery-grey; the whole wing clearer and brighter than above; secondaries white, clouded with pale dull yellow and marbled with brown, indicating a central broad irregular band; the apical third of discoidal cell white; five discal ocelli; the second and fifth largest with bifid lilac centres, the first small with the iris broad and white internally, the third and fourth medium-sized with blue centres; outer border testaceous, edged with black, bounded internally by a sub-marginal white stripe, in front of which are two interrupted sinuated blackish lines filled in at anal angle with pale lilac; body below greyish-white; expanse of wings, 2 inches 6 lines.

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5. Pyrameis itea.

Papilio (n.g.) itea, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 498, n. 238 (1775); Donovan, Ins. New Holland, pl. 26, f. 1, (1805.)

Vanessa itea, Godart, Enc. Meth., IX., p. 321, n. 57 (1819); White in Taylor's New Zealand, pl. 2, figs. 2, 2 (1855).

Bassaris itea, Hübner, Samml. Esot., Schmett. (1816-24).

Pyrameis itea, Doubleday, Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 202 (1849).

Primaries above with the basal third golden-brown becoming tawny on its external margin, bounded by a broad oblique central yellow band crossed by the costal and median nervures and the first median branch, its inner edge limited internally within the cell by a transverse tapering black line; external area from the band to the outer margin black; a trifid yellow oblique spot beyond the cell; a bifid subcostal spot, and a spot above the third median branch, white; indications of two greyish lunulated submarginal lines; fringe between the veins white; secondaries bright chestnutred, becoming golden-brown at the base and along the inner margin, the costal area, apex, and outer margin, black; four small rounded discal black spots, the two outermost pupilled with lilac; a lilac subanal streak, and behind it a longer streak of the ground-colour, both parallel to the outer margin; fringe as in primaries; abdominal area greyish-brown; body chiefly golden-brown; head and prothorax greyish; dorsum olivaceous.

Primaries below black, greyish at apex; sub-basal area bright chestnutred, bounded by three black spots, two transverse and divergent within the cell, the third diffusely ovate below it; basal area dark grey, irrorated with sulphur-yellow within the cell; costal area on basal area black, crossed by numerous pale sulphur-yellow lines; central band sulphur-yellow, externally more angular than above; an annular blue marking at the end of the cell, followed by a sub-angulated tapering transverse pale yellow streak; two sub-apical white spots as above, and between them indications of two ocelli outlined in black, with reddish centres spotted with black; outer marginal border greyish, almost white on lower discoidal and second median interspaces, and intersected throughout by a blackish line; fringe as above; secondaries olive-brown, banded and spotted with black and dark brown, the markings in the cell and near the base outlined with whitish; the abdominal area and outer border irrorated with greyish and lilacine; five more or less complete discal ocelli, like those between the sub-apical spots of the primaries; body sordid whitish, the pectus clothed with dense coarse grey hair; expanse of wings, 2 inches 4 lines.

6. Pyrameis gonerilla.

Papilio (n.g.) gonerilla, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 498, n. 237 (1775); Donovan, Ins. New Holland, pl. 25, fig. 2 (1805).

Vanessa gonerilla, White in Taylor's New Zealand, pl. 2, fig. 1 (1855).

Papilio generilla, (sic), Fabricius, Mant. Ins., p. 44, n. 437 (1787).

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Basal third of the wings above brown, external two-thirds blue-black; primaries crossed by a nearly central angulated oblique scarlet belt which does not reach the inner margin; a trifid transverse white spot beyond the end of the cell, followed by a series of six spots, the fifth large, the first, second, and fifth white internally, otherwise all blue; fringes greyish; secondaries with the whole centre of the disc scarlet, crossed by four oval blue-pupilled black spots in pairs, the inner pair nearest to the outer margin; body brown; abdomen pale at the sides.

Primaries below brown at base, apex, and outer border, the red belt of the upper side becoming white towards costa and yellow upon the costa, sharply cut, excavated in front, angulated from the second median branch, its lower extremity continued internally but abruptly interrupted by a rounded black spot below the first median branch; a large black patch over the end of the cell enclosing a violet annular marking followed by a whitish arched belt; the succeeding white spots as above but no blue spots; two indications of ocelli as in P. itea; a sub-marginal bluish-grey belt, bounded externally by a black streak from the lower radial to the external angle; secondaries olive-brown varied with darker brown, slaty-grey and whity-brown, and crossed by blackish lines indicating bands; abdominal and external areas irrorated with white; a discal lunulated lilacine line, bisinuated between each two nervures; five discal brown ocelli outlined with black, with reddish centres irrorated with lilacine, the two lowermost ones best defined; body below yellowish, the pectus clothed with dense woolly grey hair; expanse of wings 2 inches 8 lines.

Diadema, Boisduval.

7. Diadema nerina.

Female.—Papilio nerina, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 509, n. 277 (1775); Donovan, Ins. New Holland, pl. 27, fig. 1 (1805).

Papilio iphigenia, Cramer, Pap. Exot., 1, pl. LXVII., figs. D, E, (1779).

Var. Papilio proserpina, Cramer, Pap. Exot., 3, pl. CCXVIII., figs. C, D, (1782).

Male?—Papilio auge, Cramer, Pap. Exot., 2, pl. CXC., figs. A, B, (1779).

Male.—Above black-brown, fringes white-varied; primaries with a large oval white-centred shining blue patch across the discoidal and third median veins; an oblique trifid sub-apical white spot; secondaries with a large central white-centred shining blue patch; body above blackish-brown, head and prothorax white-spotted; wings below red-brown, basal area of primaries ferruginous; basal half of costa black spotted with white; four black-edged sub-costal white spots; an oblique sub-apical white band; external angle broadly dark brown; a discal series of white spots and a double submarginal series of whitish spots; fringe white-varied; secondaries with the base of costa and anal area ferruginous; a diffused central transverse white

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band; a discal series of white spots and a double series of lunated submarginal whitish spots; body below red-brown spotted with white, palpi and inner edge of femora white; expanse of wings, 3 inches 9 lines.

Female.—Above black-brown, fringes white-varied; primaries with a more or less extended tawny patch upon and above the internal border; an oblique whitish band beyond the cell, more or less divided into five elongated spots, the uppermost (upon the costal area) tinted with lilacine; a sub-apical whitish spot, from which a series of small rounded spots extends across the disc; a double sub-marginal series of interrupted lunulated whitish spots; secondaries crossed by a broad whitish patch bordered with tawny or pale blue; a sub-marginal series of spots as in the primaries; wings and body below much as in the male but redder, with the white markings better defined; expanse of wings, 3 inches 9 lines.

The range of this species is peculiar: it occurs in Java, Australia, New Guinea, and the Loyalty Islands. In Samoa a small representative occurs,* of which Mr. Whitmee has recently brought home a good series exhibiting scarcely any variation.

Dr. Semper, in his paper “Auf der Insel Yap gesammelte Schmetterlinge und deren Verwandlungsgeschichte,” says that the larva is similarly marked in Yap, Ebon, and the Samoa Islands, lives long after it is adult, and then becomes a pupa very abruptly. The pupæ hang suspended everywhere on trees, old stones, etc., and change after twelve days. Breed in November. It is probable that the habits of the larva of typical D. nerina would be similar to that of Samoa.

Dr. Schmeltz, in his paper “Ueber Polynesische Lepidoptera,” expresses the belief that the whole of the “species” (Arten) of this section of Diadema are varieties; his views respecting many of the forms recently characterized as species, show a similar tendency to lumping constant local forms which it is melancholy to contemplate; many of his conclusions respecting South Pacific species appear to be based upon an examination of series of allied forms from the Philippines.

Family Lycænidæ, Butler.

This family is now separated into two subfamilies—the Lycaninœ and the Theclinœ, to the former of which the whole of the New Zealand forms are referable.

Subfamily lycænidæ, Stephens.

Lycæna, Fabricius.

8. Lycœna phœbe. Pl. XII., figs. 2 and 3.

Lycœna phœbe, Murray, Ent. Mo. Mag., 1873, p. 107.

[Footnote] * D. otaheitœ, Felder.

Picture icon

To illustrate paper by A.G. Butler.

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Male.—Wings above dull lilacine blue with a dull brown border, widest towards the apices of the wings; fringe and costal area of primaries, from the base to beyond the end of the cell, silvery-greyish; body brown, the thorax bluish-black; wings below pale greyish stone-colour; a discal series of whitish-bordered pale-brown spots, angulated upon the secondaries; a sub-marginal series of pale brown spots, lunulate on primaries and sagittate on secondaries, bounded internally by a white border, and enclosing an almost marginal series of triangular pale brown spots; a brown marginal ine; fringes whitish; body below whitish; expanse of wings, 1 inch 2 ines.

This species seems to occur more or less commonly throughout Australia and the islands of the South Pacific; it is probably the male of L. alsulus of Herrich-Schäffer (described in the Stettin Zeitung for 1869), but this point requires confirmation.

9. Lycœna oxleyi.

Lycœna oxleyi, Felder, Reise der Novara, Lep., II., p. 280, pl. 35, fig. 6 (1865).

Male.—Wings above lilacine blue, rather brighter in tint than in the preceding species; primaries with the apex and outer border rather broadly shining dark brown; secondaries with the costal area broadly and the outer margin narrowly brown; fringes of all the wings white, spotted with brown at the terminations of the veins; body black, the head, tegulæ, and sides of thorax clothed with grey hairs; wings below greyish-brown; primaries glossy, irrorated towards the base of costal area with whitish scales; a black litura indicating the discocellulars, a discal oblique series of semi-circular black spots, angulated towards the costa; a double submarginal series of blackish spots, encircled by white scales; fringe as above; secondaries crossed by two irregular series of black spots, the inner series near the base composed of three or four small spots, the outer series angulated, very irregular, and composed of about eight larger spots; the whole basal area to the second series of spots irrorated with white scales; outer border irrorated with white with traces of sub-marginal spots; fringe as above; palpi, abdomen, and legs below white, pectus grey; expanse of wings 1 inch 1 line.

The measurements of this and the preceding species are taken from Mr. Enys' specimens.

Chrysophanus, Hübner.

10. Chrysophanus boldenarum.

Lycœna boldenarum, White, Proc. Ent. Soc., Ser. 3, 1, p. 26 (1862).

Chrysophanus boldenarum, Butler, Zool. Erebus and Terror, Ins. Lep., p. 29, n. 8; pl. 8, figs. 8, 9 (1874).

Male.—Wings above brown, shot with glistening purple; a curved discal eries of six orange spots bordered internally with black on each wing; a

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second ill-defined sub-marginal series not reaching the apices; outer margin broadly dark brown; primaries with a black spot towards the end of the discoidal cell and a second at the end of the cell; between and beyond these three or four ill-defined orange spots; secondaries with a black spot at the end of the cell, bordered internally with orange more or less distinctly; beyond it a series of more or less defined black spots, bordered externally with orange; body above blackish, crest grey; palpi white; wings below altogether paler; primaries pale tawny, the borders grey; two spots in the cell (the inner one sometimes obsolete), one at the end of the cell, and a curved discal series, black, indistinctly white-edged; a sub-marginal ill-defined series of greyish ocelloid spots; secondaries pale testaceous, a broad band across the centre of the wings, two sub-basal discoidal spots and a sub-marginal series silver-grey, white-edged; body below white; expanse of wings 10 lines.

Female.—Wings above without the purple shot, excepting a more or less strongly-defined sub-marginal line of spots; orange spots larger, sometimes paler, and covering the whole basal area of the wings; body as in the male; expanse of wings 1 inch 1 line.

This species seems to vary a good deal, more especially in the female sex.

11. Chrysophanus salustius, Fab.

Male.—Wings above bright shining fulvous; veins and margins black; base irrorated with olivaceous; discocellulars, a discal series of spots, and a sub-marginal series, black; primaries with a small spot in the cell, and usually a second below it, black; inner or abdominal area of secondaries and body olivaceous; thorax blackish; primaries below pale tawny, with the costal and external borders generally sulphur-yellow, sometimes greyish; inner border whitish or greyish; interno-median area greyish towards the base; sub-marginal black spots obsolescent; remaining black spots considerably larger than above; secondaries sulphur-yellow or sordid stramineous; the spots arranged as above, but greyish instead of black; body below sulphur-yellow; expanse of wings 1 inch 4–5 lines.

Female.—Generally paler than the male, the basal area dusky; the black spots above united into bands, below with the ground-colour paler than in the male, the spots usually smaller; expanse of wings 1 inch 3 lines.

12. Chrysophanus enysii. Pl. XII, figs. 4, 5, 6.

Chrysophanus enysii, Butler, Ent. Mo. Mag., XIII, p. 153 (1876).

Male.—Above very like C. salustius. Female.—Wings bright fulvous; veins black; a rather broad dark brown external border; an equally broad transverse sigmoidal discal band; base densely irrorated with black; primaries with a small round spot in the cell, a similar interno-

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median spot, and an oblong discocellular spot, black; secondaries with a dark brown discocellular spot; several fulvous spots on the external border near the anal angle; wings below much paler; primaries deep ochreous; costal area dull sulphur-yellow; outer border brownish, paler towards apex, bordered within, towards the external angle, by black spots; discal band replaced by a row of blackish spots; basal spots smaller and narrower than above; secondaries stramineous, changing towards the base to sulphur-yellow; outer border pale clay-brown; an irregular narrow discal band, a sub-costal spot, the discocellulars, and a spot on the interno-median area, all pale clay-brown; body above olivaceous, the prothorax slightly fulvous; head blackish, with the margins of the eyes and sides of the palpi white; body below whitish; expanse of wings 1 inch 3 lines.

Female.—Considerably darker, the intervals between the bands reduced to golden-orange spots, the bands and veins being deep chocolate-brown; basal scaling more golden; wings below brighter, the secondaries crossed by a broad, sharply-elbowed reddish-brown band, which tapers to the abdominal margin; an ill-defined series of conical sub-marginal spots, of the same colour, with pale lilacine centres; body above much brighter than in the male; below tinted with rosy; expanse of wings 1 inch 3.½ lines.

Male and Female, North Island.

13. Chrysophanus feredayi, Pl. XII, figs. 7, 8, 9.

Chrysophanus feredayi, Bates, Ent. Mo. Mag., IV., p. 53 (1867.)

Extremely like C. salustius above, but with the black spots of the male and the bands of the female usually rather broader; below with the outer border of the primaries and the whole ground-colour of the secondaries brown, the black spots rather smaller; expanse of wings, 1 inch 4 lines.

Family Papilionidæ, Leach.
Subfamily Pierinæ, Swainson.

Catopsilia, Hübner.

14. Catopsilia catilla.

Female.—Papilio catilla, Cramer, Pap. Exot., 3, pl. 229, figs. D, E, (1781).

Male and Female.—Callidryas catilla, Butler, Lep. Exot., p. 24, pl. IX, figs. 710, (1869); Monogr. Callid., p. 3, n. 3, pl. 1, figs. 710 (1873).

Male.—Papilio hilaria, Cramer, Pap. Exot., 4, pl. 339, figs. A, B, (1782).

Male.—Papilio titania, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. Suppl., p. 28 (1798).

Var. Callidryas phlegeus, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 4, 3rd Ser., part 3, p. 401 (1867).

Sub-sp., Female.—Papilio pomona, Fabricius, Ent. Syst., 3, p. 213, n. 665 (1792).

Male.—Above with basal area sulphur-yellow; the external area white and slightly thickened; the apex, and sometimes two or three spots terminating the nervures towards the apex, black-brown; below whitish-sericeous,

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with rosy outer margin; the primaries with silver-centred rosy discocellular spot, and three or four obliquely-placed strioles between the median and discoidal branches; secondaries with two connected silver-centred rosy spots at the end of the cell, and six to seven discal lunules forming an arc round them; expanse of wings, 3 inches 1 line.

Female.—Above typically bright sulphur-yellow, sometimes (and generally in the Australian region) pale sulphur-yellow, almost white; the primaries with a broad dentated, sometimes interrupted, marginal border; a more or less defined waved striolate discal band and discocellular spot, all blackish; secondaries usually with orange-tinted external border, the veins terminating in blackish dots; below golden-yellow, the outer border slightly deeper coloured, a rusty irregular patch (sometimes obsolete) terminating the cells of both wings and enclosing two connected silver-centred ocelloid spots; primaries with a rust-reddish discal interrupted angulated band; secondaries with three black-centred orange lunules on the median and interno-median interspaces; expanse of wings, 3 inches 2 lines.

Although this species ranges from Silhet to Queensland, but little is known of its habits. Captain Lang states that it frequents Cathartocarpus fistula.

Doubtful Species.
Subfamily Danainæ.
Hamadryas, Boisduval.

15. Hamadryas zoilus.

Papilio zoilus, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 480, n. 163 (1775).

“Alis integerrimis, atris; anticis maculis tribus, porticis disco, albis; habitat in Novâ Hollandiâ.”—Fabricius.

The wings are black, becoming brown towards the base; the primaries have three sordid whitish spots, and the secondaries have the whole central area of the wings white.

We have never seen an example of this species from New Zealand, but in Dieffenbach it is noted as belonging to the Lepidopterous fauna: as the species seems to frequent gloomy brushwood, it may have been overlooked by recent explorers.