Art. LI.—On the Naturalized Plants of Port Nicholson and the adjacent District.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 12th January, 1878.]
One of the most interesting branches of scientific investigation is the displacement or replacement of plants and animals which we know is now in progress over nearly all parts of the earth's surface. In islands and continents where man has not taken up his permanent abode, the process is slow but none the less certain; seeds of plants from other latitudes, wafted by the waves, germinate on the shore, and finding a suitable habitat, are gradually diffused through the interior; other seeds, or possibly fragments of plants themselves, are borne by birds, even by insects, or in some rare cases carried by winds; seeds of plants from more distant regions may be accidentally thrown overboard from passing ships, or the sailor landing to inter his dead shipmate, leaves behind him the northern chickweed, or the broad-leaved plantain, which so habitually follows the track of the pioneers of civilization that the North American Indians have poetically termed it the “footstep of the whites.” It is easy to realize how by these and similar noiseless agencies, material changes may be produced in the aspect of the flora of an uninhabited country in the course of centuries. But with the advent of man other forces acting in the same direction are brought into operation partly by design and partly by accident, so that for a time these changes are accelerated in a constantly increasing ratio, and the work of centuries is compressed into a decade. The forest is destroyed, the vegetation of the plain is changed, or at least so intermixed with exotic plants that its aspect is entirely new. Foreign weedy plants spread through the land, destroying by their superior vigour much of the original vegetation. In more distant situations sheep and cattle feeding closely upon the herbs, or on the tender shoots of shrubs,
speedily destroy the undergrowth, admitting the light and air. These in their turn act unfavourably on the larger vegetation which has attained its growth in a dark damp atmosphere, and the injurious agency gradually extends over a constantly widening area. But in this colony it rarely happens that the process of displacement passes into complete replacement; it rarely or never results in the extirpation of indigenous species, although it greatly reduces the number of individuals. The admission of air and light, while unfavourable to certain plants, tends to increase the vigour of others, which exhibit a luxuriant growth they had never before displayed, and at length a turning-point is reached, the invaders lose a portion of their vigour and become less encroaching, while the indigenous plants find the struggle less severe and gradually recover a portion of their lost ground, the result being the gradual amalgamation of those kinds best adapted to hold their own in the struggle for existence with the introduced forms, and the restriction of those less favourably adapted to habitats which afford them special advantages. This, in brief, is a statement of the phenomena now in progress throughout the colony; but at present we are not in a position fully to appreciate several of its bearings.
It can scarcely be expected that those who were familiar with the general features of the vegetation of New Zealand before they were modified or changed by the progress of settlement will at once accept the statement I have given as correct. They have witnessed the steady onset of axe and fire, the unceasing advance of cattle and sheep, and they have been so impressed with the almost total extinction of many striking plants over areas where they were formerly abundant, as to have lost sight of the tenacity with which plants in general maintain their existence even under unfavourable conditions, of the surprising power of adaptation which they often exhibit under changed circumstances, and are led to the conclusion that sooner or later the majority of our native plants must inevitably become extinct. I can only share in this fear to a limited extent, and could almost count upon my fingers the particular plants for which such a danger is most to be feared. In no part of the world has agriculture been carried to a higher pitch of perfection than in the British Islands; in no part have the open lands been more completely brought under cultivation; yet we know that under these adverse circumstances not more than two or three species, at most, have become extinct, although many have become extremely rare, and only maintain themselves in situations offering peculiar advantages. The Killarney fern, Trichomanes radicans, Sw., has often been reported as extinct, yet scarcely a year passes without some new station being discovered, or some of the old stations proving reproductive. Asplenium
germanicum, Weiss, affords another instance of the tenacity with which plants maintain their existence under the most unfavourable conditions. Adiantum capillus-veneris, L., Woodsia ilvensis, Br., W. hyperborea, Br., Nephrodium cristatum, Rich., are similar examples. Not only have the plants here named to endure the changed conditions brought about by agricultural and pastoral occupations, but they have suffered largely from the ravages of vulgar curiosity-hunters, who value a thing only for its rarity, and sometimes strive to render the habitat of a rare plant unproductive, in order to enhance the value of the specimens in their possession; and from the mania for fern-collecting, which for years past has been a fashionable pursuit in Britain, as well as from the more legitimate but far less destructive indents of botanists, they may therefore be taken as extreme cases.
Numerous flowering plants exemplifying the same tenacity of existence under unfavourable conditions, and the power of adapting themselves to changed circumstances, might be named, but I will only state that during a detailed examination of the flora of the Auckland Isthmus and North Shore, extending over ten years, I failed to obtain the slightest evidence that a single species had become extinct, yet the district sustains a population of about 25,000 souls, on an area of 43,000 acres, less than half the extent of many sheep runs in the South Island. It is one of the oldest settled districts in the colony, and agriculture is in a more advanced state than in many other places; the only remains of forest are the few small patches of bush at the mouths of gullies between Takapuna and Lucas Creek, all traversed by cattle, while the open lands not actually under cultivation have been subjected to repeated burnings. Yet under these unfavourable conditions this small area, no part of which is above 650 feet in altitude, contains 440 species of phænogamic plants and ferns, representing 78 natural orders out of 91 under which these plants are arranged thoughout the colony, and giving an average of six species to the square mile. Moreover, this area is shared by 300 naturalized species, of which nearly two-thirds are as much at home as the natives of the soil. It is needless to offer further statements in support of my conclusion.
This paper is intended simply as a contribution to our knowledge of the distribution of naturalized plants in the colony and comprises an enumeration of the species observed by the writer in the Wellington district, with a few others for which the authority is stated in each case. It must not, however, be taken as exhaustive, since, without doubt, the list would be considerably increased by a careful examination of the more distant parts of the Wairarapa, the Upper Rangitikei, the country between Marton and Wanganui, and between Wanganui and the southern boundary of Taranaki, with all of which I am personally unacquainted.
In a future paper I purpose discussing in detail the position of naturalized plants with regard to the indigenous flora and their general effect on the progress of the colony, but for the present confine myself to a few remarks on certain species which exhibit features of special interest in this district.
I may, however, point out that the gradual decrease in the number of species as we travel southwards, which to a certain extent characterizes the indigenous flora, is exhibited also by our naturalized flora. Comparing the naturalized plants of this district with those of Auckland, we find the proportion to be less than 1.25 to 2, Auckland having fully 400 naturalized species, Wellington under 250. Making a fair estimate for the number of species yet to be collected in the unvisited portions of this district, it can scarcely be expected that the total will exceed 300; and' it may be added that the decrease is more strongly marked as we go further south.
It does not appear that this increasing paucity of species is solely due to a lower temperature. The peach ripens its fruit as thoroughly about Wellington as in any part of Auckland; yet while a constant succession of young trees is produced in the northern district, they are so few about Wellington that, except in peculiarly favourable situations, the plant does not increase when left to itself. The potato exhibits the same difference in a still higher degree: it would stand a much better chance of becoming permanently naturalized in Auckland than in Wellington; while the fig, which never flourishes here except under cultivation, in Auckland, even when utterly neglected, holds its ground and increases by suckers, although rarely by seeds, which in all probability are seldom formed owing to the absence of insects capable of effecting its fertilization. Similar remarks apply to the vine, the Cape gooseberry, and other garden plants, whether producing edible fruits or otherwise; but, on the other hand, the Kentish cherry and garden gooseberry increase with great rapidity when left undisturbed—the cherry both by suckers and seeds, the gooseberry by seeds and the rooting of the lower branches—so that a single wild plant sometimes forms a bush several feet in diameter.
Ranunculus repens, L.
Abundant in wet places, ditches, etc.; more plentiful than in any other part of the colony.
R. parviflorus, L.
This species is becoming injurious in fields and cultivations, from its great abundance and densely tufted habit, which is quite unknown in Europe. It must not be confounded with the var. australis, which is indigenous.
Glaucium luteum, L.
Widely diffused on shingly beaches, and from its remarkable habit
producing a singular effect, quite unlike that of any native plants. I am indebted to Dr. Hector for information as to its introduction.
Matthiola sinuata, Br.
A welcome addition to our naturalized plants, but confined to the remarkable locality of Castle Rock, on the steep faces of which it is plentiful enough. Its establishment in this singular habitat can only be accounted for on the supposition of its having been sown.
Lepidium ruderale, L.
This Crucifer appears to be spreading through all temperate regions; sheep and cattle are evidently the chief agents in its diffusion, although its minute seeds are often carried great distances by the wind. It is especially abundant about sheep camps in the Wairarapa and other districts.
Raphanus sativus, L.
Most travellers by the Hutt road must have noticed the profusion of the garden radish on soil disturbed during the construction of the railway. In all probability it will gradually diminish in quantity, although at present it maintains its ground.
Lychnis coronaria, L.
The white leaves and bright red flowers of this plant produce a singular effect in localities where it is abundant, as in Porirua Valley, etc., etc.
Silene noctiflora, L.
This plant appears to be confined to the locality mentioned, where, however, it is tolerably plentiful, and has apparently been established for some years. I am quite at a loss to account for its introduction.
Hypericum androsœmum, L.
Unusually abundant at Ohariu, and flourishing with the greatest luxuriance on the borders of forest to which cattle have access.
Conium maculatum, L.
This deadly plant was more plentiful about Wellington three or four years ago than it is at the present time. Its extension has been greatly restricted by building operations.
Rosa rubiginosa, L.
The sweet-briar spreads with remarkable rapidity, occasionally forming dense thickets and causing much trouble in pastoral lands. Its fruit is eaten by horses and birds, and many of the seeds escape injury during the process of digestion, probably owing to their hairy covering preventing the action of the gastric juice.
Dipsacus sylvestris, L.
In great abundance in the Porirua Valley, where its striking habit affords a marked contrast to surrounding plants. It has not been observed in any other district.
Carduus marianus, Gærtn.
From its great abundance and imposing aspect, the “blessed thistle” is perhaps the most characteristic of the naturalized plants of Wellington. The loose nature of the soil of the hill-sides is highly favourable to the germination of its seeds, so that the plant spreads with great rapidity, forming in the spring large broad masses of bold green foliage with milk-white veins; these are succeeded by its great branched stems three to five feet in height, terminated by the large flower-heads with their recurved involucral spines and purple florets. Its autumn state of ragged decay is less pleasant to contemplate, and the winter winds and rains gradually accumulate fragments of dead stems in large quantities which do not finally disappear for some months.
In Auckland, where a dense sward of grass is soon formed, single specimens of this plant have been known for the past fifteen years; but, although they seeded freely, the seeds had no opportunity of germinating, so that the thistle did not spread. A remarkable exception to this rule occurred during the formation of the Onehunga railway, where a few seeds fell on disturbed soil, grew up and flowered. The railway works being suspended, the plant increased rapidly, and spread wherever it could find disturbed soil. It would be interesting to learn whether it is still able to maintain itself in the locality.
Cryptostemma calendulacea, Br.
The Cape weed, which is plentiful in Auckland, is with us confined to the vicinity of Wanganui, where it is spreading rapidly.
Xanthium spinosum, L.
This (from a wool-grower's point of view) unwelcome intruder is apparently confined to the single locality named in the list, but may be expected to occur not unfrequently in the Wanganui and Patea districts, It is the “Bathurst burr” of the Australian colonists. It is worth while to remark that although this plant has been known in Auckland for the last fourteen or fifteen years, it has done little more than maintain its existence, and can scarcely be said to be injurious. The evils anticipated when it was first observed have not been realized in the slightest degree.
Verbascum thapsus, L.
The “hag taper” is more abundant in this vicinity than elsewhere, doubtless from the same cause that conduces so largely to the spread of the “blessed thistle.” Its peculiar habit and woolly leaves afford a marked and not unwelcome contrast to the surrounding vegetation.
Verbena officinalis, L.
This ancient “plant of power” exhibits a luxuriance and profusion altogether unknown in Europe, and, from its usurping the place of nutritious grasses in several localities, is causing direct injury.
Rumex pulcher, L.
The fiddle-dock occurs in great abundance on the formation of new streets, etc., especially in the Te Aro side of the city, but soon becomes comparatively rare. It seems probable that it was one of the earliest plants naturalized here, but that it partially died out, its buried seeds retaining their vitality.
Sisyrinchium chilense, Hook.
A pleasing addition to our naturalized flora, abundant on the hills about Wellington and other places. Apparently restricted to this district.
Iris pseudacorus, L.
The yellow flag or French lily is another welcome addition, probably planted in a tributary of the Waiwetu.
Agrostis alba, L., β. stolonifera.
Fiorin grass: a useful addition to our naturalized economic plants, from its affording a supply of herbage early and late in the season on cold clay soils.
Glyceria fluitans, Br.
A valuable grass spreading rapidly in wet places, and affording a large supply of nutritious herbage, especially grateful to horses. The seeds form a large part of the food of the trout in Europe, and in seasons of scarcity have been ground and made into bread.
Briza maxima, L.
An elegant grass abundantly naturalized on the hills about Wellington, but of trivial economic value. Dr. Curl, to my great surprise, advocates its cultivation, but its brief period of duration completely deprives it of value to the agriculturist.
This and the two preceding species are more abundant about Wellington than in any other locality in the colony.
A remarkable plant naturalized on shingly beaches, and distinguished by its flattened rachis. I have not been able to identify it with any species of which I possess descriptions, but can hardly doubt its being of exotic origin.
Anthistiria australis, Br.
In 1874 I observed the kangaroo grass growing on sandy soil in the Lower Rangitikei, and subsequently ascertained that it had been sown in the vicinity some years before, and was supposed to have died out; recently it was pointed out to me on Mount Victoria by one of the students of Wellington College. It is a valuable and nutritious grass, but cannot be expected to maintain its ground unless allowed to seed freely.
Catalogue of Naturalized Plants
Observed in the Vicinity of Port Nicholson and other Localities in the Wellington Provincial District.
Nots.—Those species not observed elsewhere in New Zealand are distinguished by an asterisk.
Ranunculus sceleratus, L. An anonymous writer in the “Educational Gazette,” vol. I., p. 83, states that this species is found on the Porirua road. I have not seen Wellington specimens.
acris, L. Kaiwarawara, etc.
repens, L. Common in most places.
bulbosus, L. Kaiwarawara.
*hirsutus, Curtis. Old Porirua road—“Educational Gazette,” I., p. 83, anonymous; R. bulbosus, L., is probably mistaken for this species, which I have not seen in the colony.
parviflorus, L. The typical form is common about Wellington, Otaki, Hutt Valley, Wairarapa, etc.; it is easily distinguished from R. australis, Br., by its comparatively robust habit.
muricatus, L. Specimens supposed to have been collected near Wellington are in the herbarium of the Colonial Museum.
*philonotis, Retz. Evans Bay, Hutt Valley, Otaki.
* Aquilegia vulgaris, L. Ohariu; a garden outcast.
* Glaucium luteum, L. Shingly shores of Port Nicholson; Lyall Bay; Island Bay; Makara; East Coast to Cape Palliser; supposed to have been introduced in the packing material of the patent slip machinery.
Eschscholtzia californica, Cham. By the sea, near Castle Point.
Fumaria muralis, Sonder. Common in cultivated land about Wellington; Wairarapa, etc.; Wanganui.
officinalis, L. Wellington; less frequent than the preceding species.
* Matthiola sinuata, Br. Castle Rock.
Cheiranthus cheiri, L. Wellington, etc.; a garden outcast.
Nasturtium officinale. Br.
var. siifolium. Abundant.
Barbarea prœcox, Br. Wellington, etc.
Sisymbrium officinale, L. Abundant.
Brassica oleracea, L.
Sinapis nigra, L.
Alyssum maritimum, L. Miramar; Pitone.
Cochlearia armoracia, L. A garden outcast.
Capsella bursa-pastoris, DC. Common.
Senebiera coronopus, Poiret.
S. didyma, Persoon. Spreading rapidly, and apparently more permanent in its hold than S. coronopus.
Lepidium ruderale, L. Abundant, widely diffused by sheep.
Raphanus sativus, L. Abundant in many places, especially on the railway line between Kaiwarawara and Pitone.
* Reseda luteola, L. On sand-hills below the block-house, Wanganui.
Viola odorata, L. Ohariu; possibly planted.
tricolor, L. An occasional outcast from gardens.
β. arvensis. Cultivated land, etc.
Vitis vinifera, L. Occasionally found near the sites of abandoned homesteads.
Silene quinquevulnera, L. Wellington; Hutt; East Coast; Wairarapa; Lower Rangitikei; Wanganui, etc.
* noctiflora, L. Karori Road; Wellington.
* Lychnis coronaria, L. Karori Road; Porirua Valley; etc.
Cerastium glomeratum, Thuill.
Stellaria media, With.
Arenaria serpyllifolia, L. Near Wellington; East Coast.
Sagina apetala, L. Mount Victoria; Miramar; Hutt, etc.
procumbens, L. Common about Wellington; Rimutaka Mountains; Wairarapa.
Spergula arvensis, L. Wellington; Wairarapa; etc.
Spergularia rubra, St. Hilaire. Thorndon; Miramar.
Polycarpon tetraphyllum, L. Common throughout the district. A remarkable variety forming hemispherical masses of deep green foliage, leaves always opposite, and solitary axillary cymes, with less conspicuous bracts than in the ordinary form, is abundant on the sands near Cape Palliser.
Hypericum androsœmum, L. Happy Valley; Karori; Ohariu; etc.
perforatum, L. Karori; Porirua; Wairarapa; etc.
humifuscum, L. Near Castle Point.
Malva rotundifolia, L. Wellington; Wairarapa, etc.; Foxton; Wanganui.
Lavatera arborea, L. An occasional garden escape.
Linum usitatissimum, L. Near an old ford of the Ruamahunga, Haurarangahau, plentiful; Wairarapa.
* Geranium robertianum, L. Tinakori Hill; Kaiwarawara.
Pelargonium quercifolium, Aiton. A garden escape.
Erodium cicutarium, L.
var. pilosum. Wellington; East Coast; Wairarapa; Wanganui.
Melianthus major, L. A garden escape, but able to maintain its position when not disturbed by man.
Ulex europœus, L.
Cytisus scoparius, Link. Common about Wellington and other places.
hirsutus, L. (?) Karori, Wairarapa, Wanganui, and other places. Occasionally planted for garden fences, etc.
Medicago sativa, L. An agricultural escape, but, except on calcareous soils, appears to die out in a few years.
denticulata, Willd. The black and toothed medicks are alike frequent throughout the district; the first is a valuable fodder plant; the toothed medick is useful in spring, but its twisted, burr-like legumes are anathematized by the wool-grower.
maculata, Sibth. Near Wellington.
Melilotus officinalis, L.
*Trifolium incarnatum, L. Porirua—H. B. Kirk!
* striatum, L. Kilbirnie—H. B. Kirk!
glomeratum, L. Mount Victoria.
procumbens, L. Near Wellington; Wairarapa; East Coast; Wanganui.
resupinatum, L. Mount Victoria—H. B. Kirk!
Lotus corniculatus, L. Near Castle Point.
Robinia pseudacacia, Willd. A mere garden or plantation escape, increasing rapidly by suckers where undisturbed.
Vicia tetrasperma, Mœnch.
var. gracilis. Kaiwarawara—H. B. Kirk!
*Lathyrus grandiflorus, L. A garden escape, near the Hutt.
odoratus, L. Karori-road, etc.
Amygdalus persica, L.
Primus cerasus, L. The peach and cherry are often found on the sites of abandoned homesteads, but do little more than maintain the position in which they were placed by man.
Rubus discolor, Weihe and Nees.
rudis, Weihe. Happy Valley; Ohariu; etc., etc.
Fragaria vesca, L.
Potentilla reptans, L. Tinakori Road; a garden weed.
Alchemilla arvensis (L.) Lyall Bay—H. B. Kirk.
Poterium sanguisorba (L.) Hills near Castle Point.
Acœna ovina, L. Mount Victoria, etc.—H. B. Kirk! Porirua—J. Buchanan! Rosa rubiginosa, L.
var. sarmentacea. Near Wellington; very rare.
multiflora Thunb. Taita; Upper Hutt; etc., etc.
Ribes grossularia, L. Not unfrequent in forests—Makara; Ohariu; Wairarapa—probably originating from seeds carried by birds.
Œnothera stricta, L. Wairarapa; Wanganui.
Lythrum hyssopifolia, L. Wellington; East Coast; Wairarapa; Marton; Wanganui, etc.
Conium maculatum, L. Te Aro.
Apium graveolens, L. An occasional garden escape; soon dying out.
Petroselinum sativum, Hoffm.
Fœniculum vulgare, Gærtn.
Pastinaca sativa, L.
Daucus carota, L. The parsley, fennel, parsnip, and carrot are common garden escapes; the fennel, and in some cases parsley, are increasing.
Sambucus nigra, L.
* Leycesteria formosa, Wallroth. Karori; Pakuratahi. A garden escape which, if left undisturbed, would increase rapidly. A large patch formerly existed on the site of the new reservoir.
Galium aparine, L.
Sherardia arvensis, L.
Centranthus ruber, DC. Wellington; Karori; Wairarapa.
*Dipsacus sylvestris, L. On the hills between the Tinakori-road and Kaiwarawara; Makara Valley; Porirua Valley.
Scabiosa atropurpurea, L. Karori; Wairarapa. A garden escape.
Centaurea solstitialis, L. Evans Bay; East Coast; Foxton.
Carduus lanceolatus, L.
marianus, Gærtner. One of the commonest plants about Wellington; Wairarapa, etc.; comparatively rare.
arvensis, Curtis. Miramar—J. Buchanan. Probably extirpated.
Erigeron canadense, L. The Hutt; Belmont, etc.; East Coast. Not nearly so abundant as in Auckland.
Bellis perennis, L.
Anthemis arvensis, L. East Coast, etc.
cotula, L. Karori, etc.
Achillea millefolium, L.
Matricaria inodora, L.
Chrysanthemum segetum, L.
Artemisia absinthium, L. Porirua.
Senecio vulgaris, L.
sylvaticus, L. Wanganui.
scandens, L. A garden escape. Karori and other places.
Cryptostemma calendulacea, Br. Wanganui.
Lapsana communis, L.
Arnoseris pusilla, Gærtn. East Coast, etc.
Cichorium intybus, L. Near Greytown.
Hypochœris glabra, L. Common about Wellington, etc.
Helminthia echioides, Gærtn.
Thrincia hirta, Roth.
Apargia autumnalis, Willd.
Taraxacum officinale, Wiggers.
Crepis virens, L.
Sonchus asper, Hoffm.
Xanthium spinosum, L. At the foot of the Paikakariki Hill.
* Campanula trachelium, L. A garden escape; Ohariu.
Vinca major, L. Taita; Upper Hutt; Wairarapa, etc.
Erythrœa centaurium, Pers. Makara; Porirua; Wairarapa.
Borrago officinalis, L. A garden escape. Johnsonville.
Myosotis strigulosa, Rehf. Wellington; East Coast; Wairarapa.
Solanum tuberosum, L.
Physalis peruviana, L.
Nicotiana tabacum, L.
Lycium barbarum, L. Upper Hutt; East Coast.
Verbascum thapsus, L.
Mimulus luteus, L. Abundant in swampy or moist places about Wellington; Karori: Ohariu; Wairarapa.
moschatus, L. Kahumingi; East Coast.
Digitalis purpurea, L. Ohariu.
Veronica agrestis, L. Not unfrequent in cultivated land. Makara; Te Ore, etc.
buxbaumii, Ten. Karori-road; East Coast.
Mentha dentata, L. Horokiwi Valley.
viridis, L. Karori; Kaiwarawara; Ohariu; Wairarapa.
Stachys arvensis, L. Common in cultivated ground.
palustris, L. Wanganui.
* Nepeta glechoma, Benth. Wanganui.
Marrubium vulgare, L. Foxton; Wairarapa, etc.
Prunella vulgaris, L.
* Lamium purpureum, L. Cultivated ground. Wanganui.
Verbena officinalis, L. Porirua; Pakuratahi; Wairarapa.
Anagallis arvensis, L.
Plantago major, L.
media, L. A single specimen observed near the outlet of Adelaideroad drain, Te Aro beach.—J. Buchanan.
*varia, R. Br. This plant has for several years maintained a struggling existence in Boulcott-street, Wellington, but appears doomed to speedy extinction from the progress of street improvements.
coronopus, L. Te Aro beach; Kilbirnie.
Polygonum persicaria, L. Near Wellington.—J. Buchanan!
convolvolus, L. Cultivated land. Te Ore.
Rumex obtusifolius, L.
pulcher, L. Not unfrequent about Wellington; the Hutt, etc.
*maritimus, L. The “golden dock” is stated, on anonymous authority in the “Educational Gazette,” I., p. 46 (1874).
to occur at Pipitea Point, I cannot but think erroneously, as so conspicuous a plant would, of necessity, have attracted the attention of local botanists.
*palustris, Sm. Pipitea Point—J. Buchanan! (1872); now extinct.
sanguineus, L. Te Aro, etc.
conglomeratus, Murr. Pipitea Point.—Anonymous in “Educational Gazette,” I., p. 146. It is probable that starved specimens of R. viridis have been mistaken for this.
Amaranthus blitum, L. A fugitive weed in gardens; rare. Wellington.
Beta cycla, Auct. Hutt-road.
Chenopodium album, L.
Atriplex angustifolia, Sm.
* deltoidea, Bab. Te Aro; Evans Bay.
Euphorbia helioscopia, L. Cultivated land; Pitone, etc.
lathyris, L. A garden escape. The Hutt.
Urtica urens, L. Fort of Paikakariki Hill.
dioica, L. Near Wellington.
Ficus carica, L. Occasionally found on the sites of abandoned gardens.
* Humulus lupulus, L. Happy Valley; near Porirua, etc.
Sisyrinchium chilense, Hook. Hills about Wellington.
Iris germanica, L.
susiana, L. Not unfrequent on the sites of abandoned homesteads, etc.
* pseudacorus, L. The Hutt.
Agave americana, L. Near deserted homesteads, etc.
Richardia africana, Kunth. The Hutt; probably planted.
Asparagus officinalis, L. Solitary plants are sometimes found originating from seed carried by birds; near Khandallah; Te Ore. It can scarcely be expected to maintain its position, except perchance in maritime localities.
Digitaria sanguinalis, Scop. Near Castle Point.
Phleum pratense, L.
Phalaris canariensis, L.
arundinacea, L., β. picta. By a tributary of the Waiwetu; probably planted.
Anthoxanthum odoratum, L.
Agrostis canina, L.
Gastridium lendigerum, Gaud. Miramar—J. Buchanan.
Polypogon monspeliensis, Desf. Evans Bay; Miramar, etc.
Lagurus ovatus, L. Miramar—J. Buchanan. I have not seen specimens.
Psamma arenaria, R. and S. Extensively planted at Miramar, but does not increase by seed.
Cynodon dactylon, Pers. Formerly at Te Aro Beach, near the site now occupied by the kerosene store; Castle Point.
Aira caryophyllea, L.
Avena sativa, L.
Arrhenatherum avenaceum, Beauv. Kaiwarawara, etc.
Holcus lanatus, L.
Dactylis glomerata, L.
Poa annua, L.
trivialis, L. Frequent about Wellington and other places.
Glyceria fluitans, Br. Wellington, abundant; Karori; Makara, etc.; Hutt Valley; less frequent in the Wairarapa.
Briza minor, L.
maxima, L. Plentiful about Wellington, Evans Bay, etc.
Festuca sciuroides, Roth.
Bromus sterilis, L.
racemosus, L. Pollhill Gully, etc.
arvensis, L. Miramar—J. Buchanan. I have not seen specimens.
Cynosurus cristatus, L. More generally naturalized in the Wellington district than any other.
Triticum sativum, L.
Lolium perenne, L.
italicum, A. Braun.
β. arvense. East Coast and Wairarapa.
* Lepturus, sp. Common on shingly beaches from Cape Palliser to Lowry Bay, and from Cape Terawiti to Miramar.
Hordeum vulgare, L.
murinum, L. Common near the sea; rare inland.
Anthistiria australis Br. Lower Rangitikei; Mount Victoria.
Note.—Streptachne ramosissima, Trin., discovered by Mr. Travers in the South Island, occurs in a naturalized condition at Miramar.
Panicum imbecille, Trin., occurs in an indigenous condition in the northern part of this island, and has become naturalized in the botanic gardens.