An Enumeration of recent Additions to the New Zealand Flora, with Critical and Geographical Notes.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 2nd February, 1878.]
Part I.— Ranunculaceæ to Marsileaceæ.
Since the publication of the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora” in 1867, numerous plants new to science have been discovered in the colony, and described from time to time in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” and other scientific works. It was also found that the specific limitations of a few species were too comprehensive, so that it became necessary to separate distinct plants which had been included under one name. Further additions have resulted from the discovery of well-known species not previously observed in the colony. The descriptions of these additions being scattered through numerous volumes, has caused great inconvenience to those botanists to whom the different works are not available for reference, so that, pending the publication of a new edition of the Handbook, I have prepared the following list, with the view of obviating this inconvenience to a limited extent. It embraces all published additions of the slightest importance, so far as known to me, and I have given the fullest account of their geographical distribution; but, except in one or two special instances, I have not recorded mere alteration of names.
It is worthy of note that the additional genera not recorded in the Handbook as represented in New Zealand are but four in number: Anguillaria, Sporadanthus, Isoëtes, and Pilularia. Sporadanthus is the only genus new to science. Anguillaria belongs to Melanthaceæ, an order (or rather sub-order of Liliaceæ), not previously represented in our Flora. A similar remark applies to Isoëtes.
The mosses and lower cryptogams will be enumerated in a future list.
Clematis afoliata, Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 211.
A singular plant, at a distance presenting a close resemblance to Carmiœlia, or the leafless form of Rubus australis. The young state is unknown.
North Island— Originally discovered by Mr. Colenso, but I am ignorant of the precise locality. South Island— Marlborough; near the site of the Wai-au-ua Bridge, Canterbury; Canterbury Plains; Waitaki, Otago.
Ranunculus lappaceus, Sm., var nanus.
R. nanus, Hook.
Stem short, stout; leaves depressed, spreading, hairy or nearly glabrous, 3–5 lobed or partite lobes, cut, and waved; petioles short, broad; flowers sessile, or on a very short scape.
Sub-alpine localities in Otago, J. Buchanan! D. Petrie!
Ranunculus plebeius, Br., var. hirtus.
R. hirtus, Banks and Sol.
This plant differs widely from the typical form, and is readily distinguished by its few leaves, which are often only lobulate, its stem sparingly branched, branches spreading and almost leafless, and its distant narrow petals, which give the flower a rayed appearance, very different to the cupshaped flower of the type. The whole plant it usually of a rufous hue. There are two well-marked varieties:
a. stricta. Stems erect.
β. stolonifera. Stems procumbent, and rooting at the nodes.
a. Common throughout the colony.
b. South Island. Valley of the Dart, Otago.
Ranuculus ternatifolius, Kirk.
R. Trilobatus, Kirk. Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 547, not of Kit.
South Island— Near Dunedin, and Catlin River, Otago.
Ranunculus limosella, F. Müeller, MS.; Kirk in Trans. N.Z.I., III., p. 177.
R. limoselloides, F. Müeller; Ic. Pl., t. 1081.
A singular species, distinguished by the quaternary arrangement of the parts of the flower, and the elongated sepals. Often growing in water six to ten feet deep, but only flowering in situations left dry in summer. One of the most minute flowering plants in the colony.
North Island— Whangape, Waikare, and Waihi Lakes, Lower Waikato.
South Island— Lake Pearson, 2,500ft.
Hymenanthera latifolia, Br., var. chathamica.
North Island— Upper Rangitikei, Dr. Hector! Chatham Islands. var. tasmanica.
A bush or straggling shrub 2–12 feet high; leaves obovate, 2–3 inches long, narrowed into stout petioles, distantly crenate or serrate; flowers in axillary fascicles.
North Island— Great Barrier Island and adjacent islets; Little Barrier Island; Waiheki Island.
Pittosporum huttonianum, Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., II., p. 92, IV., p. 263.
North Island— Whangarei; Great Barrier Island; Thames Goldfield.
Pittosporum kirkii, Hook. f., MS.; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 264.
North Island— Whangarei to Thames Goldfield, but very local; Great Barrier Island.
Pittosporum umbellatum, Banks and Sol., var. cordatum. Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 264.
North Island— Great Barrier Island.
Pittosporum virgatum, Kirk; Trans., N.Z. Inst., III., p. 161.
North Island— Whangaroa (North); Great Barrier Island.
Pittosporum ralphii, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 161.
North Island— Patea; Great Barrier Island.
Pittosporum “intermedium,” Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 266.
North Island— Kawau.
Pittosporum ellipticum, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 266.
North Island— “ellipticum,” Manaia Hills; “ovatum,” Whangaroa (North); Titirangi.
Hibiscus diversifolius, Jacq.; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 163.
North Island— Spirits Bay; near Wanganui, etc.
Aristotelia erecta, Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 209.
I have not seen specimens.
North Island— Patea.
South Island— Wyndam; Lake District, Otago.
Melicope ternata, Forst., var. mantellii.
M. mantellii, Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst. III., p. 212.
This plant appears to be a hybrid between M. ternata and M. simplex; it is usually found in situations where both species occur, and presents the characters of both in varying degrees: on the whole the foliage approaches more closely to M. ternata; the inflorescence to M. simplex.
North Island— Auckland; Thames Goldfield; common about Wellington.
Rubus Australis, Forst., var. parva.
Whole plant of a peculiar bronzed hue, stems from a few inches to several feet in length; leaves often reduced to a single leaflet; panicle fewflowered. In its most diminutive form this plant departs widely from the type, but not to a greater extent than other varieties.
South Island— Lower part of the Otira Valley; Brunner Paddoc; Inangahua Valley.
Geum uniflorum, J. Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., II., p. 89.
A very distinct species.
South Island— Discovery Peaks.
Acœna novæ-zelandiæ, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 117.
In both Islands, not uncommon.
Acœna depressa, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 548.
Allied to A. buchanani, Hook, f.
South Island— Cardrona Valley; Lake Hawea, Otago.
Acœna glabra, J. Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 226.
South Island— Marlborough to Otago; not unfrequent in the mountains, 2,000–4,000 feet.
Haloragis aggregata, J. Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 224.
I fear this is too closely allied to H. depressa, Hook. f.
South Island, Lake Guyon, Nelson.
Haloragis uniflora, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 548.
South Island— The Bluff Hill, Southland.
Fuchsia, kirkii, Hook, f., Ic. Pl.; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 178.
Procumbent; flowers erect, corolla o.
North Island— Whangururu; Great Barrier Island.
Pozoa pallida, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., p. 419.
Allied to P. hgdrocotyloides and P. roughii.
South Island— Roto Iti; Lake Guyon, Nelson; Pukunui Creek, Canterbury.
Apium leptophyllum, F. Müeller; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 164.
North Island— Bay of Islands; Kawau.
Aciphylla montana, Armstrong; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 290.
Apparently a form of A. monroi, Hook, f. I have not seen specimens.
Ligusticum enysii, Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 548.
South Island— Broken River, Canterbury.
Panax longissimum, Hook. f.
In the “Hand Book of the New Zealand Flora,” at p. 110, Sir Joseph Hooker described the young state of P. crassifolium (Den. and Planch.) as a distinct species under the name of P. longissimum, the flowers and fruit of which were supposed to be unknown. The Handbook was published in two parts, with an interval of three years between; at page 730 of the second
the author writes: “P. longissimum, referred to Pseudopanax crassifolium by Seeman (Journ. Bot., 1864). * * * Mr. Logan has sent me specimens clearly showing that it is the young state of Panax crassifolium.” With the opinion thus expressed by Seeman, and confirmed by the author of the “species,” I entirely agree.
Mr. Buchanan, however, does not accept this opinion, but in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. IX., p. 529, has applied the name “longissimum” to the typical P. crassifolium, and under the name “crassifolium” has, in part at least, described a totally distinct plant. While I fully agree with him in considering that more than one species has been confused under P. “crassifolium” (Den. and Planch.), it is with regret that I find myself unable to adopt either of his conclusions— 1st because Hooker's P. longissimum is, as stated by him, clearly identical with P. crassifolium (Den. and Planch.); 2nd, Buchanan's P. crassifolium consists of two species— the trifoliolate state of the true plant mixed with a totally different plant, one, moreover, quite unknown to Banks and Solander.
1st. That Hooker's P. longissimum is identical with the true P. crassifolium might be taken for granted on his own statement already quoted, but as confirming it, I may point out that, although in Fl. Nov.-Zel. (I., p. 96), the leaves of the young plant of Aralia crassifolia are correctly described as simple and remotely toothed, in the Hankbook all description of leaves of this form is omitted under P. Crassifolium, and the simple linear form of leaf is transferred bodily to P. longissimum, so that the description of the leaves of P. crassifolium commences with the second or trifoliolate stage. Further, both plants are expressly said to be common throughout the colony.
2nd. It is still more easy to show that Mr. Buchanan's P. crassifolium is not the plant of Banks and Solander (except with regard to the trifoliolate leaves which have no connection with the young, simple leaves, and the mature fruited state with which he has associated them).
The young leaves of his plant are as shown by his drawing (Plate XX.) irregularly lobulate-dentate, with stout hooked teeth capable of inflicting a nasty wound if incautiously handled; a peculiar character, differing widely from the true plant, and which would not have escaped the notice of Banks and Solander. Moreover, they are never succeeded by trifoliolate leaves; those described by him, and preserved in the Colonial Herbarium, belong to the true plant (his P. longissimum), and to that alone, as is evident from their texture. Again, the umbels of P. crassifolium are described by Hooker as “composed of several very spreading rays.” In Mr Buchanan's plate (XX.), which represents the staminate plant, the umbel consists of nearly simple racemes, and in the pistillate plant is remarkably compact, consisting of simple 1–3-flowered rays.
Moreover, the original specimens of Banks and Solander were collected in the North Island, while Mr. Buchanan's plant is confined to the South Island, where it is extremely local and is not known to occur in any of the localities visited by Captain Cook.
Mr. Buchanan bases his identification chiefly upon Hooker's description of the fruit of P. crassifolium as 5—celled, but this is easily explained by the fact that there are two or more forms of true P. crassifolium, one of which is characterized by 5-celled fruit, the other by 4-celled. Further, there is reason to believe that the young ovaries are nearly always 5-celled; one or more cells becoming suppressed at an early stage of growth.
The following is a summary of our present knowledge of the forms included by authors under P. “crassifolium”:—
1. P. crassifolium, Den. and Planch.; Hook, f., “Handbook of New Zealand Flora,” p. 101. P. longissimum, Hook, f., ib. p. 102; Buchanan, Trans. N. Z. Inst., IX., p. 530, pl. XXI. Aralia crassifolia, Banks and Sol.; Fl. N.Z., p. 96.
A small diœcious tree 20–35 feet high; leaves di- or tri-morphic; on young plants up to 15 feet high, simple, linear, rigid, coriaceous, 12–30 inches long, spreading or drooping so that the under surface forms an acute angle with the stem, remotely or sinuately toothed, narrowed into a short, stout petiole, purplish below, brownish-green above, with more or less irregular pale blotches; abruptly passing into 3-foliolate leaves, of which the petioles are about 3 inches; leaflets 3–6 inches, at first resembling the early leaves but less coriaceous, ¼-½-inch wide, with bold, distant, somewhat falcate teeth; gradually passing into wider, more coriaceous forms, with ordinary serratures more or less distant; ultimately succeeded by the mature unfoliolate state, lanceolate, oblanceolate, or obovate, 3–7 inches long, 1–1.½ inches wide, narrowed into stout petioles ½–1-inch long, with few serratures, or quite entire. Umbels terminal, compound, primary rays about 8, 2–3 inches long, ultimate rays 4–6, sub-racemose or umbellate, flowers on short pedicels. Male petals 5, stamens 5, abortive ovaries with 5 styles. Female, ovary 5- or 4-celled, styles 5 or 4, connate at the base, tips barely free; fruit globose 5- or 4-celled.
Of this we have at least two principal forms.
a. crassifolia vera. Leaves trimorphic, leaflets of trifoliolate and mature leaves jointed to the petiole; flowers produced both in the 3-foliolate and ultimate stages; ripe fruit nearly ¼ of an inch in diameter.
β. Leaves dimorphic, never trifoliolate, not obviously jointed to the petiole, fruit more densely crowded than in α and smaller.
There are two sub-varieties.
Ultimate rays of female umbels sub-racemose, ovaries 5-celled.
Ultimate rays of female umbels umbellate, ovaries usually 4-celled.
This character, however, is not absolute, as both 4- and 5-celled ovaries may occasionally be found on the same ray. It is, however, certain that in many cases 5-celled ovaries become 4-celled by suppression at a very early stage.
I have seen no ripe fruit so small as the specimen figured by Mr. Buchanan on Plate XXI.
At Mungaroa I collected specimens of the early leaves of variety β, which measured 43 inches in length.
Var. α appears to be local; I have observed it only in the Auckland district. Mr. Buchanan finds it near Dunedin.
Var. β is probably common throughout the colony, except in the Auckland district, where, I believe, it has not been observed. Both sub-varieties may be found side-by-side about Wellington, flowering in February and March.
A plant common in the Inangahua Valley and other parts of the interior of the South Island is probably different from either of the above; the early leaves, while retaining their elongated form, gradually lose their teeth and their bronzed hue, assuming the green, glossy texture of the mature leaves, which, in their turn, are more decidedly lanceolate, less serrate, and rather more membranous than in any North Island form. Inflorescence in large compound umbels, only seen in bud. Fruit unknown.
2. P. ferox, MS.
P. longissimum, Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 530, pl. XX. (Leaf of young plant and male umbel); not of Hook. f.
A small diœcious tree about 20 feet high; leaves dimorphic, simple in all stages; on young plants linear, 12–18 inches long, drooping, resembling the early state of P. crassifolium, but much more rigid and coriaceous, irregularly lobulate-dentate, teeth stout, hooked, acute; mature leaves excessively thick and coriaceous, 3–5 inches long, ¼–⅗ of an inch broad, linear obovate, apiculate, gradually narrowed to the base, forming a short petiole; umbels terminal; male of 6–10 simple rays, flowers pedicelled, sub-racemose, stamens 4; female, compact, of 6–9, 1–3-flowered rays about 1-inch long; fruit ovoid 5-celled, calycine ring strongly marked, styles 5, connate into a column, tips scarcely recurved.
Hab. South Island— Near Nelson, Dr. Hector and T. Kirk; Valley of the Buller, near the junction of the Matukituki, T.K.; common near Dunedin, Mr. Buchanan! (male flowers only).
My first knowledge of this plant was obtained in 1873, when it was collected by Dr. Hector and myself near Nelson, but the specimens were not in sufficiently good condition to allow of a diagnosis being drawn. I have not seen either male or female flowers in a perfect condition, so that the description must be considered as provisional.
Mr. Buchanan states that this plant is common near Dunedin and Nelson: he must have been misinformed as to its frequency about Nelson, since it is remarkably local in that district, and occurs but sparingly.
Panax lessonii, DC., var. heterophylla; Trans. N.Z. Inst., I., p. 142, (edition 1.)
Leaves dimorphic; on old plants unifoliolate, ovate-acuminate, petioles 1–2 inches long, lamina 1.½–2 inches, and trifoliolate, on petioles 3 inches long, leaflets sessile, ovate-lanceolate, or ovate-acuminate; fruit as in the typical form.
North Island— Whangaroa (North).
Panax discolor, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 178.
A diœcious species allied to P. lessonii, DC., styles 5.
In the catalogue of northern plants published in the 2nd Volume of “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” (p. 243), Mr. Buchanan has referred this plant to P. simplex, which does not occur north of the Hauraki Gulf.
North Island — Whangaroa (North); Great Omaha; Great Barrier Island; Little Barrier Island; Cape Colville; Thames Goldfield.
Loranthus decussatus, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 162.
North Island— Cape Colville Peninsula; Titirangi. South Island— From Nelson to Otago.
Coprosma arborea, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., p. 420.
North Island— From North Cape to Hauraki Gulf; Waiheki Island.
Coprosma serrulata, Hook. f., MS.; Buchanan, Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 212.
A very distinct robust species 1–2 feet high; bark white and papery on old branches; interpetiolar stipules very large, ciliated when young; male flowers axillary, solitary, or in 2–3-flowered fascicles, sessile or nearly so; calyx cleft nearly to the base, lobes broad; corolla not seen; female flowers (specimen very imperfect) apparently solitary, sessile. The margin of the leaf is shortly lacerate rather than serrulate. The young leaves of C. robusta are truly serrulate.
South Island— Mountain districts, Marlborough to Otago, 2,000–4,000 feet.
Olearia nitida, Hook. f., var. capillaris.
O. capillaris, Buch.; Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 212.
South Island— Nelson Mountains, 4,000 feet.
Mr. Buchanan agrees with me in considering this a variety of O. nitida.
Olearia excorticata, Buch.; Trans. N.Z. Inst., VI., p. 241.
“Allied to O. lacunosa, Hook. f., in flowers and fruit,” Buchanan. I have not seen specimens.
North Island— Tararua Mountains.
Olearia allomii, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 179.
A very distinct species, allied to O. haastii, Hook. f.
North Island— Great Barrier Island, 800–2,300 feet.
Celmisia lateralis, Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 226, pl. XV.
A distinct species allied to C. laricifolia, Hook. f., but with lateral flowers.
South Island— Mountains near Lake Guyon, Amuri.
Celmisia walkeri, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 549, pl. XXX.
A strongly-marked species; distinguished by its woody stems, patent leaves, and lateral flowers.
South Island— Mountains above Lake Harris, Otago, 4,000 feet.
Ozothamnus lanceolatus, Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., II., p. 88.
Allied to O. glomeratus, Banks and Sol.
North Island— Maungataniwha.
Raoulia petriensis, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 549.
Allied to R. hectori, Hook. f.
South Island— Mount St. Bathans, Otago.
Gnaphalium fasciculatum, Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 529, pl. XIX.
Allied to G. youngii, Hook. f.
North Island— Tararua Mountains.
Erechtitcs glabrescens, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 550.
Allied to E. scaberula, Hook. f., but never scabrid.
South Island— In subalpine woods, etc., Nelson to Otago; Stewart Island.
Senecio “pottsii,” Armstrong; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 290.
Mr. Armstrong states that his specimens were “very imperfect, but that the plant differs from any other New Zealand species in the suffruticose
habit and solitary heads.” I have not seen specimens, but suspect it to be an alpine state of some well-known species.
South Island— Mount Jollie, Rangitata, 4,500 feet.
Senecio hectori, Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., V., p. 348, VI., pl. XXIII.
A noble plant allied to S. glastifolius, Hook. f., but of widely different habit and foliage.
South Island— Valley of the Buller, between Rotorua and the Inangahua, frequent; Valley of the Grey.
Senecio myrianthos, T. F. Cheeseman; Trans. N.Z. Inst., VII., p. 348. S. cheesemannii, Hook. f., Ic. Pl., t. 1,201.
A handsome species allied to S. perdicioides, Hook. f., and S. sciadophilus, Hook. f.
North Island— Thames Goldfield.
Senecio laxiflorus, Buchanan, MS.
S. laxifolius; Trans. N.Z. Inst., II., p. 89.
Mr. Buchanan informs me that “laxifolius” was substituted for “laxiflorus” through a printer's blunder. I have adopted his original name, as that printed is singularly inappropriate.
Closely allied to S. greyii, Col., but differing in the lax open panicle.
South Island— Fowler's Pass, 3,000–3,500 feet.
Senecio robusta, Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., VI., p. 240, pl. XXIII., f. 1.
A very distinct species allied to S. bidwillii, Hook. f., but the leaves are scarcely coriaceous, and the corymbs are usually many-flowered. When fresh the whole plant is extremely viscid.
South Island — Mount Eglinton, J. Morton! Mountains above the Greenstone, J. Buchanan; Mountains above Lake Harris, 4,000 feet, T. Kirk.
Selliera fasciculata, J. Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 211; is merely a rupestral form of S. radicans, Car.
Olea apetala, Vahl.; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 165.
North Island— Rocky places near the sea; Tauranga Islands; Great
Barrier Island; Nelson Island; Little Barrier Island.
Gentiana novœ-zelandiœ, Armstrong; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 291.
Appears to be only a trivial variety of G. montana, Forst.
Dichondra repens, Forst., var. brevifolia.
D. brevifolia, J. Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 208.
Differs from the typical form only in its small size and elongated peduncles.
North Island— In turfy bogs, Papatoitoi. South Island— Poputunoa and other places, Otago.
Mimulus repens, Br., var. colensoi.
M. colensoi, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 179.
I am unable to maintain this as a distinct species, notwithstanding its apparent divergence from the typical form.
North Island— Onehunga.
Gratiola peruviana, R. Br. (G. sexdentata, A. Cunn.) β. latifolia.
G. latifolia, R. Br.; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 165.
γ. pumila; F. Muell., Linnæa, XXV., p. 431.
Leaves small, narrow, glabrous, or viscid pubescent.
North Island— β. Mangawhare; γ. Auckland.
Veronica arborea, Vahl., var. arborea.
V. arborea, J. Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., VI., p. 242.
North Island— Great Barrier Island; Cape Terawiti, etc.
Mr. Buchanan states the trunk is 3 feet in diameter; but the largest specimen I have seen would scarcely be more than 3 feet in circumference.
Veronica chathamica, J. Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., VII., p. 338, pl. XIII., f. 1.
A distinct species with wiry procumbent stems; racemes puberulous, capsules longer than the calyx, narrowed at both ends.
Not agreeing in habit with any other of the fruticose species, but approaching V. ligustrifolia and V. parviflora in the racemes, calyx, and capsule. The racemes become elongated and lose the early obtuse character so well shown in Mr. Buchanan's drawing.
Veronica vernicosa, Hook., f., var. anomala.
V. anomala, Armstrong; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 291.
A plant of this abnormal form kindly given me by Mr. Armstrong, flowered at midsummer after three years' cultivation, and presented characters somewhat at variance with those in the original description.
Flowers, sessile, in 1–3 terminal, 5–10-flowered spikes; sepals 3, obtuse; tube of corolla elongated, segments usually 3 (rarely 4), spreading narrow; stamens 2; capsule slightly turgid, and rarely exceeding the calyx.
This singular variety has more the appearance of a casual “sport” than a permanent form. It differs from the type in its more slender branchlets, and the brownish-green hue of its more distant leaves.
South Island— Head-waters of the Rakaia.
Mr. Armstrong agrees with me in considering this a form of V. vernicosa, Hook. f.
Veronica obovata, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 502.
Allied to V. lœvis, but very different in habit and leaves.
South Island— Broken River, Canterbury.
Veronica canescens, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 503.
The only New Zealand species with solitary, axillary flowers.
South Island— Lake Lyndon, Canterbury, 2,800 feet; Oamaru, Otago.
Rumex neglectus, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 498, Ic. Pl., t. 1,245.
North Island— Shingly beaches, Cook Strait. South Island— Dusky Bay; Bluff Harbour.
Chenopodium detestans, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 550.
South Island— Between Lake Lyndon and the Cass River, Canterbury; outlet of Lake Hawea, Otago.
Dacrydium intermedium, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., p. 386, pl. XX.
North Island— Great Barrier Island; Cape Colville; Thames Goldfield; Tongariro. South Island— Dun Mountain, between Greymouth and Okarita.
Dacrydium westlandicum, Kirk; Hook. f., Ic. Pl., t. 1,218; Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., p. 387, pl. XVIII.
North Island— Great Barrier Island and Whangaroa; (identified from young plants only.) South Island— West Coast, from Greymouth to Okarita, etc., etc.
Dacrydium bidwillii, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., p. 388.
South Island— α. erecta: Nelson; Canterbury; West Coast to Dusky Bay. β. reclinata: Nelson, by the Thomas River; Upper Waimakariri; Arthur's Pass, Canterbury; West Coast of Otago.
Dacrydium kirkii, F. Müeller in De Candolle's Prod., vol. XVI., pars. 2, p. 495; Hook. f., Ic. Pl., t. 1,219; Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., p. 390, pl. XIX.
North Island — Whangaroa (North) to Manukau, but local; Great Barrier Island.
Phyllocladus glauca, Carriere, Coniferes, p. 502; Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., p. 380.
North Island— Hokianga to Wairoa (East), and Thames Goldfield, but local; Great Barrier Island.
Corysanthes cheesemannii, Hook. f., Ic. Pl., t. 1,120; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 180.
The only New Zealand species belonging to the typical section of the genus.
North Island— Titirangi; Te Whau; Remuera.
Potamogeton polygonifolius, Pourret; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 165.
North Island— Great Omaha; Papakura, etc. South Island— Marlborough; Southland.
Zannichellia preissii, F. Müeller.
Lepilœna preissii, Müeller; Frag. Phyt. Aust., VIII., p. 217.
Baron v. Müeller refers the Zannichellia palustris of my Botany of the Waikato (Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 143) to this species, characterized by the ternary arrangement of the female flowers, each with a separate bract, and of the fruit “which altogether agrees with that of Althenia,” as well as in the cupular trilobate male perianth, and monadelphous anthers.
It is probable that we have more than one form in the colony.
Zostera nana, Roth., var. müelleri; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., p. 392.
Z. müelleri, Irmisch.
North Island— Port Nicholson.
Cordyline “hookeri,” Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., V., p. 244.
North Island— Hauraki Gulf; Ruahine Mountains; Mount Egmont; Rimutaka.
Astelia cunninghamii, Hook. f., var. hookeriana; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 244.
North Island— Little Barrier Island; near Auckland.
Astelia grandis, Hook. f., MS.; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 245.
North and South Islands— In marshy places.
Astelia trinervia, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 246.
North Island— In forests, North Cape to Taupo.
Anguillaria novæ-zelandiæ, Hook. f., MS.
A small bulbous herb; bulb tunicate; scape 1–2 inches high, clothed with the persistent sheathing bases of old leaves; leaves 2, narrow linear, sheathing, much longer than the scape; flower solitary, perianth leaves 6, with three raised linear bands; stamens 6; ovary trigonous, obtuse, styles recurved.
South Island— In swamps near Christchurch; Rangitata, Mr. Armstrong.
For my specimens of this interesting addition to our flora, I am indebted to its discoverer, Mr. Armstrong, and to Dr. von Haast. It is mentioned by Mr. Armstrong in his list of Christchurch plants, Trans. N.Z. Inst., II., p. 126, but so far as I am aware no description has yet been published.
Juncus glaucus, L.; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., p. 393.
South Island— Between Hokitika and Ross.
Juncus lamprocarpus, Ehrhart; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., VII., p. 378.
North Island— Port Nicholson. South Island— Marlborough; West Coast; Invercargill; the Bluff, etc.
Juncus involucratus, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 550.
South Island— Amuri, 3,000 feet.
Juncus pauciflorus, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 551.
South Island— Castle Hill Basin, Canterbury.
Sporadanthus traversii, F. Müeller, MS.
Lepyrodia traversii, F. Müell.; Fragmenta Phytographiæ Australiæ, VIII., p. 79.
Stems glabrous, 2–4 feet high, stout, terete, smooth; branches fastigiate; sheaths distant, acuminate. Male flower, panicle terminal, elongated, fastigiate, 3–9 inches long; spikelets peduncled; outer glumes ovate-acuminate, with scarious margins; perianth segments 6, linear lanceolate, two of the outer series rather longer than the others; stamens equalling the perianth; female flower not seen; fruit a nucule (Müeller.)
Chatham Islands— H. H. Travers!
Baron von Müeller points out that this is doubtless the supposed Calorophus collected by Dieffenbach, as mentioned by Hooker; Handbook New Zealand Flora, p. 295.
Rostkovia novœ-zelandiœ, J. Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 227.
Mr. Buchanan and myself are agreed in referring this to R. gracilis, Hook. f., previously only known to occur in the Auckland islands.
Cyperus buchanani, Kirk; C. gracilis, J. Buchanan in Trans. N.Z. Inst., p. 210; not of R. Brown.
Culms 1–2 feet high, trigonous; leaves flaccid, shorter than the culms, keeled, margins smooth; involucre of 3–6 spreading grassy leaves, 3–6 inches long; umbels of 4–8 unequal rays, 1–4 inches long, usually compact. spikelets ½–¾-inch long, sessile, arranged in involucellate 6–12-rayed umbels
or fascicles, and densely crowded near the tips of the primary rays; glumes 10–15 on each side, broadly lanceolate, acute; stigmas 3; nut triquetrous.
At once distinguished from C. ustulatus by its flaccid slender leaves and rounded heads. The spikelets are sessile, but assume a pedicellate appearance from the falling away of the lower glumes.
North Island— Hutt Valley; especially plentiful by the Waiwetu River.
Schœnus vacillans, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., p. 421.
North Island— Cape Colville.
Isolepis “globosa,” J. Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 211.
The spikelet varies greatly in size and form, from ⅓–¾ of an inch in length, and from ovoid to linear; small states cannot be distinguished from ordinary I. prolifer, Br.; for, although Mr. Buchanan gives the smooth nut as a differential character, I have never seen New Zealand specimens of I. prolifer with dotted nuts. I am uncertain as to the propriety of considering one or two of the series of forms included under I. prolifer as distinct plants, or as varieties of one protean species— the present amongst them.
North Island— About Wellington.
Isolepis fluitans, Br.; Scirpus fluitans, L., Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., III., p. 166.
North Island— Mangatawhiri Creek; lakes and streams in Waikato.
South Island— The Bluff Hill (a doubtful identification.)
Cladium huttoni, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 551.
Allied to C. glomerata, Br., but distinguished by its drooping habit, open panicle, and small florets.
North Island— Lakes in the Lower Waikato; Tikitapu Lake, Taupo.
Gahnia rigida, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 551.
Allied to G. setifolia, Hook. f.
South Island— West Coast, in several localities between Greymouth and Okarita.
Gahnia hectori, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 551.
A very distinct species, allied to G. procera, Forst.
North and South Islands— As far south as Okarita.
Carex chlorantha, Brown; Prodromus, 242.
A small rather stout species, culms 3–6 inches high, rigid; leaves shorter than the culms; spike compact, oblong, of 5–8 oval androgynous spikelets, bract short; male flowers below, crowded; stamens 3; glumes ovate-acuminate, utricle pyriform, margins serrulate; stigmas 2.
North Island— Waitemata.
Danthonia raoulii, Stendel, var. australis; J. Buchanan, Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 224.
South Island— Kailkoura Mountains; Lake Guyon, Nelson.
Danthonia semi-annularis, Br., alpina; J. Buchanan, Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 225.
South Island— Wairau Valley; Amuri 3,000-5,000 feet; Dusky Bay.
A remarkable plant, seldom flowering; most probably a distinct species.
Arundo conspicua, Forst., var. fulvida.
A. fulvida, J. Buchanan; Trans. N.Z. Inst., p. 242.
North Island— Poverty Bay; Port Nicholson. South Island— Mataura River, Otago.
Dicksonia antarctica, Br., var. fibrosa.
D. fibrosa, Col. in Tasmanian Journal; Baker in Synopsis Filicum (2nd edit.), p. 461.
This differs from ordinary forms of the Australian and Tasmanian plant, in its smaller size, hairy rachis, more compact habit, and less coriaceous texture, but these are not characters on which specific distinctions can be based, so that I am unable to accept Mr. Baker's opinion as to its specific validity. See Sir Joseph Hooker's emphatic remarks on this species, Fl. N.Z., II., p. 10.
Hymenophyllum cheesemannii, Baker, Synopsis Filicum (2nd edition), p. 464; Cheeseman, Trans. N.Z. Inst., VIII., p. 329.
North Island— Amongst moss on trees, Whangarei; Great Barrier Island; Titirangi; Hunua; Thames Goldfield.
Hymenophyllum armstrongii, Kirk.
Trichomanes armstrongii, Baker, Syn. Fil. (2nd edit.), p. 464; Armstrong, Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 291; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., pl. XXI. A. also p. 532.
This minute plant is a true Hymenophyllum, the involucres being distinctly 2-valved and divided to the base when mature. They are much compressed, especially in the young state, and the lips have a broad margin, but there is no constriction; occasionally the lips of the valves are slightly recurved after the discharge of the spores. It can only be distinguished from H. cheesemannii by the stout marginal nerve and firmer texture; the involucres are not constantly ciliated.
It forms matted patches on rocks, or occurs more sparingly amongst moss on trees, so that, like the preceding, it is easily overlooked.
Plate XXI. A., 1 and 2, Hymenophyllum armstrongii, natural size; 3, fertile pinns, enlarged; 4 and 5, sori, greatly enlarged.
South Island— On rocks, Upper Waimakariri; Bealey; Arthur's Pass; on trees, Hokitika; Okarita; sea-level to 4,000 feet. I am indebted to Mr. A. Hamilton for my knowledge of its occurrence at Okarita.
Hymenophyllum villosum, Colenso; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., p. 395.
North Island— Ruatahina; Tarawera. South Island— From Marlborough to Otago, 2,000-4,000 feet.
Hymenophyllum montanum, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., p. 394, pl. XXI. B. South Island— Lake Wakatipu.
Davallia forsteri, Carruthers; Baker in Syn. Fil. (2nd edit.), p. 470.
“Allied to D. scoparia, but with the sori smaller and bordered.” (Baker.) Only known from Forster's original specimen in the British Museum.
South Island— Dusky Bay.
Lindsaya viridis, Colenso, Tasmanian Journal; Baker, Journal of Botany, vol. IV. (1875), p. 108; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., p. 396.
North Island— Port Fitzroy; Manukau; Te Whau; Mangarewa; Wanganui. South Island— Massacre Bay; Hokitika; West Coast of Otago.
Dr. von Haast informs me that he has never collected this species in Canterbury, so that there can be no doubt that the specimens labelled “Canterbury, Sinclair and Haast,” in the Kew Herbarium, were obtained by Sinclair in the North Island.
Cheilanthes tenuifolia, Swartz; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., VI., p. 247.
Apparently confused with C. sieberi, Kunze, by New Zealand collectors, but distinguished by the triangular or rhomboid frond.
North Island— Mr. Colenso informs me that he has collected it in the Hawke Bay district. South Island— Lyttelton Harbour; mountains about Queenstown; Lake Hawea, abundant.
Lomaria duplicata, Potts; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 391.
This is merely a branched form of L. procera, var. minor, but remarkable for its constancy. Mr. Potts points out that simple and branched fronds are produced on the same plant.
Lomaria acuminata, Baker; Syn. Fil. (edit. 2), p. 481.
Intermediate between L. attenuata, Willd., and L. lanceolata, Spreng. Kermadec Islands.
Doodia media, R. Br., var. milnei.
Baker in Syn. Fil. (2nd edit.), p. 482.
D. milnei, Carr.; Fl. Viti, p. 352.
Nephrodium glabellum, A. Cunn; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., X., p. 398. N.
This species has been confused with N. decompositum, Br., and N. velutinum, Hook.
Isoetes kirkii, A. Braun, Auszug aus dem Monatsbericht Königlichen Academie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Juli, 1869; Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., II., p. 107, pl. VII.
Resembling weak specimens of the European I. lacustris, but more closely-allied to the Australian I. müelleri (A. Braun.)
North Island— Whangape, Waikare, and Waihi Lakes, Lower Waikato; Rotokakahi, Taupo.
Isoetes alpinus, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., VII., p. 377, pl. XXV.
At once distinguished from I. kirkii by its large size, robust habit, deeper colour, and larger macrospores.
South Island— Roto Iti, Rotorua, and Lake Guyon, Nelson; Lake Lyndon, Lake Pearson, Lake Grassmere, and Lake Windermere, Canterbury, 2,000-3,000 feet.
Pilularia novæ-zelandiæ, Kirk; Trans. N.Z. Inst., IX., p. 547, pl. XXIX.
Allied to P. novœ-hollandiœ, A. Braun.
South Island— Lake Pearson and Lake Lyndon, Canterbury, 2,000-2,800 feet.