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Volume 11, 1878
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Art. XV.–Barat or Barata Fossil Words.

Plate IV.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, February, 1879.]

This continues the subject of three preceding papers*, and the heading requires some explanation. Barat is the Malay traditional and poetical name for Hindustan, and to this day they speak of the angin Barat–that is, westerly, or wind of Barat; as they do of the angin Jawa–that is, the southerly, or wind of Java. Barata, or Bharata, is the ancient term for their country by the natives of Hindustan. In the language of Madagascar, allowing for difference of phonology, precisely the same word is used for the North, viz., avaratra, whose winds wafted commerce from the parent country, viz., South India. We use the term parent on the force of the facts elicited in our preceding investigations.

[Footnote] * Whence of the Maori, Trans. N. Z. Inst., Vol. IV.; Barata Numerals, Vol. V.; Philological Considerations on the Whence of the Maori, Vol. VI.

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The term “fossil words” signifies words embedded in a language, or which have not been eradicated by foreign influences–such as the Saxon words in the modern English language. The roots of the language will be found to consist of these; hence they remain as witnesses of derivative, national or tribal connection with the parent region, however remote in time or distant in space. Fossil words, then, furnish as certain a clue to connection of races as either idiomatic or phonetic similarity,* though this opinion is disputed. Root or fossil words, it has been shown in previous papers, are only to be eradicated with the extinction of the race, and to this branch we at present address ourselves.

The previous papers on this subject, whose first object was to investigate the whence of the Maori, i.e., the tribe that inhabits New Zealand, confined their scope to the Malayan, Malagasi, and Polynesian dialects. In the present paper I have prosecuted my enquiries far beyond into the regions of Asia, Africa, and Australia, in which labour I was assisted by the works noted below.

The basis of my investigations have been the Malayan Language, with which my long sojourn in the Far East made me familiar, but the present work has led me into a scrutiny of over four hundred languages and dialects.

The conclusion that I was brought to previously, viz., that, counter to popular opinion, the Maori and hence Polynesian race, was not originally from the Malay (though it might be through or with them), but from a race or races which in pre-historic times inhabited Hindustan, seemed to claim further demonstration than my materials could at that time afford. In my recent visit to England, therefore, I collected all the works bearing on the subject that I could obtain.

[Footnote] * For instance, Malay has a compounding construction, Malagasi an inflecting, though both are admitted to be originally one.

[Footnote] † Non-Aryan Languages of India and High Asia, by W. W. Hunter; Languages of India, by G. Campbell; Polyglotta Africana, by S. W. Koelle; Australian Languages, by William Ridley; Mosambique Languages, by W. H. J. Bleek; Malagasi, by Julius Kessler; Kafir Language, by John Ayliff; Swahili Handbook, Shambala Language, Yao Language, all by Edward Steere; Malagasi Grammar, by David Griffiths; Enguduk Iloigob Vocabulary, by J. Erhardt; Dictionary of Tshi, Akra, 7amp;c., by Christaller, Locher and Zimmermann; Vocabulary, Haussa Language, by J. F. Schon; Languages of Sierra Leone (anonymous); Bullom Grammar, by G. R. Nylander; Western and Central African Vocabulary (anonymous); Dialects in Africa, by John Clark; Bornu and Kanuri Languages, by Edwin Norris; Dialects of Nicobar and Andaman Islands, by F. A. de Röepstorff; Fijian Dictionary, by D. Hazlewood; Samoan Grammar and Dictionary, by George Pratt; New Zealand Language, by William Williams; Hawaiian Dictionary, by Lorrin Andrews; Japanese Dictionary, by J. C. Hepburn; Comparative Vocabulary, Malay Archipelago, by Wallace, &c., &c.

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The present paper is thus principally devoted to the following question, viz., by analogy in fossil words or radicals, how far are we justified in denoting Hindustan as the original seat of the Malagas-malayo-polynesian race, which, for the sake of brevity and distinction, I have taken the liberty to term Barata. In attempting to solve this question, we must have regard to other theories that have been propounded by various authors. The most generally accepted theory, viz., that the Malagaso-polynesians were of Malay origin, I have already dealt with in my previous essays. Another theory I have since observed to be that the Malayo-malagasi had sprung from the Polynesian, the supporters averring that as the Polynesian was the more primitive and ancient section, he must have been the progenitor. To this the following considerations suggest themselves: 1st. Admitted that the Polynesian is the most primitive and ancient section, this only denotes that he was the first to migrate from his original seat, when that seat–whether in Africa, Asia, America, or Australia–was in possession of a primitive and ancient ancestry; and as there have been waves of migration from time to time, the most primitive have stretched out furthest.* 2nd. The over-running of skilled populous and armed nations by the simple weak sand defenceless, is contrary to all experience, ancient or modern. 3rd. Another theory has been suggested, that Africa was the original seat of the race, another that it was in Egypt; but as these have had little acceptation, I merely notice the same.

Before entering into the comparison of words in different dialects or languages, in order to judge of the connection of race we must hold in view this fact, that the radicals bear but a small proportion to the whole, thus in an English dictionary of 90,000 words, not more than 4000 or ½2 part are Saxon. Hence, amongst the races whose languages we are about to consider, and whose dictionaries do not count over 5000 to 6000 words, we must be prepared to find not over 300 words more or less which can come under the denomination of radical terms or fossil words. This fact at the same time facilitates the investigation, making it less laborious.

The number of works that can be compared are further curtailed by the subject or object being only known in portions of the regions inhabited. Thus while I have gone over many full vocabularies, I have been forced to strike out many of the words from the above cause. For instance, the cocoa-nut well known to the Malay is not known to the Maori. In a similar manner the deer, elephant, plantain, rice,&c., are well known in some regions but not in others–hence, though they come under the designation of radical terms, they are inapplicable in our enquiry.

[Footnote] * See Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. IV., 1871, p. 47.

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We must again guard against the error of accepting all radical terms as proving affinity of race; the terms most certain are those which are connected with immediate surroundings or events, such as for parts of the body, head, mouth, feet, &c., the principal physical objects—sun, moon, stars, earth, &c.; articles of food—water, rice, fruit, &c.; calls to companions as come, go, give, &c. If the terms be not connected with immediate surroundings then they become less valuable in support of proof of racial affinity, as for example :—

In Malay Archipelago
Dog asu, gaso, kaso, aso tasu Angami Naga, azz Nowgong Naga, East of Bengal.
Horse kuda ghoda, Kiranti, Nepal; ghora, Nepal; kodo, kudata, Central India; kudre, Southern India.
Crow gaga gagah'-po, Kiranti, Nepal; gugga, Central India; kakka, Southern India.
Buffalo Kurbau krebo, Teressa, Nicobar Islands; kla-ou booh, Talain Pegu.
Cocoa-nut nior nio, Malagasi; nazi, Swahili; nyu, nui, niwi, nua, niula, luen, nuim, etc., Malay Archipelago; niu, Samoa and Hawaii.

Here the words dog, horse, crow and buffalo being similar, or nearly so, in Malay and several races of Asia, do not indicate affinity, but only that such animals had been derived from thence. On the contrary the radical Malay word nior, having wide similarity from Africa to Polynesia, may be taken to indicate affinity of race, for as the cocoa-nut grows on the sea-shore, letting its fruit fall to float and be carried to all tropical regions, it may be supposed to have preceded the emigrant tribes; thus, as they approached each island or shore, they carried the fossil word and applied it to the same species of tree, in whichever parts of their vast regions it had drifted and germinated, or they may have carried, exceptionally, the fruit with them. Again, in the following examples :—

In Malagasi.
Dog amboa imbua, Inhambane; imbua, Sofala; umboa, Cap Delgado.
Cattle ombi ngombe, Tette, Sena, Quellimane, Mosambique, Cap Delgado, etc.

The dog and the crow are not indigenous words of Malagasi, but derivative from Africa, the designations having been imported with the animals themselves.

Hence, in choosing words found in the various dictionaries for comparison, I have had the above considerations in view, and have adopted only such as can be held as radical, indigenous, or truly fossil. By this means the racial affinities of the separate and far distant tribes can be indicated in the Barata of the tropics as in the Gypsies of Europe or the Portuguese in

Picture icon

Sketch Map of India Shewing the Distribution of Languages

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Africa and Asia, though many tribes of both have in these historic times lost their idioms and phonology, but not the roots of their languages.

We may now come to the comparison of words collected from the various sources already stated,* and in commenting on the same it is hardly necessary for me to remark that I do so under the conviction that the insular races were derived from the continental, but I am open to enquiry from what continent or portion of continent :—

1.

Arrow; zana Malagasi, panah Malay, pere Maori.

The glossarial indication would denote in the case of the Malagasi and Malay immediate derivation from Telugu in South India, with affinity to Shan in Indo-China. In the case of the Maori from Garo, N.E. Bengal, with affinity to Great Nicobar, Bay of Bengal.

The African affinities in each case are doubtful.

2.

Bird: vorona Malagasi, burong Malay, manu Maori.

Malagasi and Malay derived from tribes in Nepal and East of Bengal, Maori from tribes in Indo-China.

No African affinities.

3.

Blood: ra Malagasi, dara Malay, toto Maori.

Malagasi and Malay derived from Tibeto-China, Nepal, and Bay of Bengal.

African affinity distant.

4.

Bone: taolana Malagasi, tolan Malay, iwi Maori.

Malagasi and Malay derived from Bay of Bengal, but doubtful; Maori from Nepal, Indo-China and China.

No African affinities.

5.

Dog: amboa Malagasi, anjing Malay, kuri Maori.

Malagasi from Bay of Bengal, doubtful; Malay from Nepal, Maori from Nepal and Indo-China.

Malagasi from Africa, Maori also from Africa.

6.

Ear: talinhe Malagasi, talinga Malay, taringa Maori. All from East Bengal.

Indications of African affinities.

7.

Earth: tany Malagasi, tana Malay, one-one Maori.

Malagasi and Malay direct from Khond, Central India, less distinctly from Indo-China and Bay of Bengal, Maori from Central India, doubtful.

No African affinities.

8.

Egg: atody Malagasi, telor Malay, hua Maori.

Malagasi, from Singpho, E. of Bengal, doubtful; Maori from Burma and Indo-China, doubtful.

Malay from ossa, W. Africa, doubtful.

[Footnote] * See Appendix I.

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9.

Eyes: maso Malagasi, mata Malay, kanohi Maori.

Malagasi and Malay from N. Central and E. Hindustan, Maori from Tibeto-China, Central and Southern India.

Malagasi and Malay have E.W. and S. African affinities.

10.

Fire: afo Malagaasi, api Malay, ahi Maori.

All from India and Indo-China, indications also from China and Japan, also all allied to Fulah, Africa, but doubtful.

11.

Fish: loaka Malagasi, ikan Malay, ika Maori.

All from Nepal, E. of Bengal, Indo-China and Bay of Bengal.

All have indications of African connection.

12.

Flower: vony Malagasi, bunga Malay, pua Maori.

All from Nepal, Central and Southern India.

In Africa indications doubtful.

13.

Foot: tongon Malagasi, kaki Malay, wae-wae Maori.

Malay from Indo-China and E. Bengal.

Maori has African connection.

14.

Hair: volo Malagasi, bulu, rambut Malay, huru Maori.

All Tibeto-China and E. Bengal.

African indications doubtful.

15.

Hand: tanana Malagasi, tangan Malay, kutanga, ringaringa Maori.

All from Hindustan.

All have African indications.

16.

Head: loha Malagasi, ulu, kapala Malay, upuko Maori.

All from Indo-China, Nepal, Central and East India.

African indications.

17.

Hog: kisoa, lambo Malagasi, babi Malay, poaka Maori.

All from North, South, and Central India.

All have African affinities.

18.

Leaf: ravina Malagasi, daun Malay, rau Maori.

Malay and Maori from Nepal and Indo-China.

Maori has African indications.

19.

Light: maivana Malagasi, trang Malay, ao Maori.

Malay and Maori from Bengal and Indo-China.

Malay from Swahili, Africa, doubtful.

20.

Moon: volana, Malagasi, bulan Malay, marama Maori.

Malagasi and Malay from Nepal and Indo-China.

Indications in Ibu, Central Africa.

21.

Mouth: vava Malagasi, mulut Malay, mangai, waha Maori.

All from Nepal, Central and Southern India.

All have African affinities.

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22.

Night: alina Malagasi, malam Malay, po, kengo Maori.

Malagasi and Malay from China and Central India.

No African affinities.

23.

Rain: ranonorana Malagasi, ujan Malay, ua Maori.

Malay and Maori have African connection.

24.

Road: lalambe Malagasi, jalan Malay, ara Maori.

All from different parts of Hindustan and Indo-China.

Maori term has indications in Yao, East Central Africa.

25.

Sky: lanitra Malagasi, langit Malay, rangi Maori.

All from Nepal and Central India.

No African affinities.

26.

Star: kintana Malagasi, bintang Malay, whetu Maori.

Malagasi and Malay, N.E. Bengal, Central and South India.

No African affinities.

27.

Sun: maso-andro Malagasi, mata, hari Malay, ra, komaru Maori.

Malay and Maori from Indo-Tibeto China and Nepal.

Maori has affinity with Haussa, Central Africa.

28.

Tongue: lila Malagasi, lida Malay, arero Maori.

Malagasi and Malay from East Bengal and Bay of Bengal.

Malagasi and Malay have African affinities in East Central and South.

29.

Tooth: nifi, nifo Malagasi, gigi Malay, niho, rei Maori.

Malay from Nepal, East and Central India.

Malagasi and Maori have African connections.

30.

Tree: hazo Malagasi, pun, poko, kaiu Malay, rakau Maori.

All from Hindustan and borders.

No African connection.

31.

Water: rano Malagasi, ayer Malay, wai Maori.

All from Hindustan and borders.

Malay and Maori have African connection.

32.

Yam: ovi Malagasi, ubi Malay, uwhi-kaho Maori.

No Asiatic or African connection.

33.

Hot: mafana Malagasi, panas hangat Malay, wera Maori.

Maori from Tamil, South India.

No African connection.

34.

Raw: manta Malagasi, manta Malay, mata Maori.

All from East of Bengal and Bay of Bengal.

No African connection.

35.

Red: mena Malagasi, mera Malay, whero Maori.

All from South and Central India.

No African connection

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36.

Ripe: masaka Malagasi, masa Malay, maoa Maori.

All from Nepal.

No African connection.

37.

Small: keli Malagasi, kichi Malay, riki, iti, nohi-nohi Maori.

All from Hindustan and borders.

No African connection.

38.

Come: avi Malagasi, mari Malay, mai Maori.

All from Hindustan and borders; also, Chinese connection.

No African connection.

39.

Five: dimi, limi Malagasi, lima Malay, rima Maori.

No Asiatic or African connection.

40.

Six: enina, oné Malagasi, anam Malay, ono Maori.

No Asiatic or African connection.

41.

Seven: fito Malagasi, tuju Malay, whitu Maori.

Malagasi and Maori from Central and South India, Malay from East Nepal.

No African connection.

42.

Eight: valo, varlo Malagasi, delapan Malay, waru Maori.

Malagasi and Maori from Central India.

No African affinities.

43.

Nine: sivi, siva Malagasi, sambilang Malay, iwa, iva Maori.

Malagasi and Maori from Indo-China.

No African affinities.

On analysing the comparative vocabulary given in the appendix, I find that the analogies are much greater as between the Barata terms and Asia than as between these and Africa; and of the list of 43 given, 235 analogies, or close analogies, are found in the primitive languages of the former, particularly in Hindustan, while 97 analogies are found in Africa–principally in the Mosambique districts–but in most cases the analogies are by no means so perfect.

It may be further remarked, that of the 43 Barata terms given in our list, all except two are found embedded in the languages of South Asia, while 17 of them are not found in any African language.

Proceeding on our basis then–viz., that the Malagas-malayo-polynesian tribes derived their origin from the continent–not the continental tribes theirs from the islands–which theory some ethnologists support; it can scarcely now be doubted (that is, if the testimony of language have any value), that the origin of the Barata race extending over the tropics from Madagascar to Easter Island was in Hindustan, where the roots of their language are yet found so profusely preserved.

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Further, that many of these words should also be preserved in Africa is not to be wondered at, seeing that the negro race had in archaic times such large expansion* over all the regions under review, and between whose tribes and nations there has been immemorial intercourse.

The question still remains–from what part of Hindustan did these great Island Tribes emanate? The reply will be best made by reference to the accompanying map (pl. IV). It will be seen from this that Hindustan is now overrun by two distinct sections of the human race–viz., Indo-Germanic or Aryan and Turanian; or, in other words, the one Caucasian, the other Mongolian; the one occupying the western and northern regions, the other the southern and eastern; and in overrunning Hindustan have they extirpated the primitive races? not entirely; many of these remain, much modified, it is true, in colour and physiognomy, but little in language. The roots of a language die only with the tribe's extirpation. Hence, it is not in the languages of the intruding sections that we have found the Barata fossil words; but, for the most part, in the various small tribes, yet preserved in the obscure portions of their territory, difficult of access, such as under the Himalaya, Jynteah and Nilgherry mountains. In these, the undeleted glossarial remains of what had once been the language of a numerous people, we have witnesses to facts and conditions of nations long since past and preceding historic record.

Small tribes may have found their way towards the Tropics by divers routes, and particularly by those through the Malay Peninsula, Tenasserium coast and islands, but the section or nation that spread its influence, girdling two-thirds of this globe, could not have been one or more of these.

It is to South India, therefore, that we must look. For the inhabitants of this region have from times immemorial carried on trading expeditions, westerly to Africa and easterly to the Moluccas, a circumstance that can neither be stated of the natives of the rest of Hindustan nor of any of the Malayan states. The original seat of the great Barata race can then be only fairly sought for or denoted in South India, which commands the routes east to Malayo-Polynesia, west to Madagascar, and whose population, eminently maritime, were competent to the task of navigation. Thus we are led to the same conclusion as stated in my previous essays.

In my researches I have had to scrutinise the Sanscrit terms, several of the Asiatic and African-Arabic dialects, Bask, Finnic, Magyar, Turkish, Circassian, Georgian, Mongolian, Muntshu and Japanese languages, without finding analogies. I have also examined twenty languages of Australia, and, amongst these, instances of but very exceptional and remote affinities

[Footnote] * See Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1871, p. 32.

[Footnote] † See Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1871, p. 36,

[Footnote] ‡ Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1871, p. 48.

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are detected, and none such as would indicate connection. The Barata language must therefore be held to be a purely tropical one, its offshoots seldom extending above thirty degrees from the equator. With Chinese, exceptional analogies have been found, but these are either doubtful or accidental.

A fit sequel to this present paper (I suggest) will be found in Appendix II., where I have compared the languages of the Malayan Archipelago with that of Samoa or the Navigators Islands in Polynesia. I am enabled to do this by the recent publication of a Samoan Grammar and Dictionary, by the Rev. George Pratt, edited by the Rev. S. J. Whitnee, F.R.G.S. This portion of the subject is the more interesting as Samoa is the reputed Hawaiki* of the Maori.

It will be observed by the comparative vocabulary given in Appendix II, that all objects known in the Samoan Islands and the Malay Archipelago are, almost without exception, represented radically by the same words in either region. Objects unknown to the Polynesian as a matter of course are not represented—such as deer, gold, honey, iron, monkey, etc. And the locality where these Malayo-Polynesian affinities exist is not difficult to point out, viz., the Moluccas; thus of the 94 analogies represented, 24 are found in Ceram, 11 in Matabello, 7 in Borou, 7 in Amboyna, 7 in Sula Islands, 7 in Sangair, 6 in Celebes. Again of the 114 words contained in the whole list only 26 are Malay. Thus on our premises we would infer that the population of Samoa was not directly derived from Malaya (Sumatra or Malay Peninsula) but from the Moluccas. In other words, in the diffusion of the blood of the Barata race, while Malaya may have acted as a vein or path—the Moluccas acted as a gland or stepping-stone.

For this purpose no region could be more appropriate than the Moluccas, for here were the spices and rare birds so attractive to commerce, to be found. From time immemorial here would be the great rendezvous of Barat, that is, western adventurers and conquerers, and from whence their more enterprising spirits would venture further east. Thus, if it be said that the Moluccas were the stepping-stone to Barata emigration, so also is it said that Samoa was the focus of Polynesian dispersion.

That we have not found a language in the Malayan Archipelago completely analogous to Samoan is consistent with our theory—for in the preceding part of our paper neither has there been found a language in Hindustan completely consistent with the Malagas-malayo-polynesian dialects. In both cases, however, the unquestionable evidence of root or fossil

[Footnote] * Query; Hawa-iki, literally small harbour, or coral reef opening.

[Footnote] † See Appendix III.

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words is there, which gives unerring witness of community of blood and race. The fossil words preserved in the Moluccas, not in the tongues of the great races of Java, Waju, or Malaya, but in those obscure remnants whose remoteness or inaccessibility have protected them from the deleting waves of successive migrations.

Appendix I.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Arrow.
Region. Country. District. Malagasi. Malay. Maori.
zanatsipikia panah pere
Asia Indo-China Shan pen pen
South India Telugu banamu banamu
N.E. Bengal Garo phe-e
Bay of Bengal Great Nicobar enphæ hnje
Africa East Coast Mozambique ntere
East Central Yao mpamba mpamba
do. Kimasai embai embai
W. & Central Mandingo benyo benyo
do. Bambarra bien bien
do. Fanti & Ashanti eben eben
Malay Archipelago Javanese pannah pannah
Polynesia Tongan fanna fanna
Hawaiian he pua pana he pua-pana
Australia
Bird.
vorona burong manu
Asia Nepal Limbu bu bu
East of Bengal Mithan Naga o o
do. Namsang Naga vo vo
do. Singpho wu wu
Indo-China Siamese nok
do. Ahom nuktu
do. Khamti nok
do. Laos nok
Africa
Malay Archipelago Javanese manok
manoko, manu,
manui, manu-
Other islands manu, manuti,
manik, mano,
manuo, manuwan, etc.
South Celebes Salayer burung burung
Amboyna Batu merah burung burung
Polynesia Fijian manu-manu
Samoan manu
Tongan manu
Hawaiian he manu
Australia
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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Blood.
ra dara toto
Asia Tibeto-China Takpa [ten khra khra
do. Tibetan, writ- khrag khrag
Nepal Pakhya ragat ragat
East Nepal Rodong haa haa
do. Waling ha ha
Nepal Darhi ragat ragat
do. Denwar raktai raktai
do. Kuswar rakti rakti
Bay of Bengal Nancowry wa wa
do. Car Nicobar maham maham
Africa W. & Central Walof derrete
orah, rara,
daha, dugu
poha, lala,
Malay Archipelago Various Islands raha, yan
lalai lalah, the same
laia, lawa,
lahim, lasin,
larah, lemoh,
lahah, etc.
Polynesia Fijian dra dra
Samoan toto
Tongan tawto
Hawaiian he koko
Australia
Bone.
taolana tolan iwi
Asia Nepal Newar kwe
Indo-China Sgau-Karen khi
do. Pwo-Karen khwi
Chinese Shanghai kweh-den
Bay of Bengal Teressa kolran kolran
Africa
Malay Archipelago Javanese balong balong
N. Celebes Bolang hitam tula tula
Sula Islands hoi
Polynesia Fijian sui-na
Samoan ivi
Tongan hui
Hawaiian iwi
Australia
Dog.
amboa anjing kuri
Asia Nepal Murmi nangi
Tibeto-China Gyami kou
Nepal Dungmali kuti-ma
do. Chepang kui
East Bengal Tablung Naga kui
Indo-China Burma khwe
do. Khyeng ui
do. Sak ku
Bay of Bengal Nancowry ahm
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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Africa East Coast Swahili mbwa
do. Inhambane & Sofala imbua
do. Cap Delgado umboa
do. Shambala kuli
East Central Yao mbwa
West Coast Haussa kari
South Kafir inja
Malay Archipelago
Polynesia Fijian koli
Samoan uli
Tongan guli
Australia
Ear.
sofina telinga taringa
talinhe
Asia East Bengal Tengsa Naga telannu telannu telanna
Khasi & Jynteah Hills Amwee tarang tarang tarang
do. Lakadong tarang tarang tarang
Bay of Bengal Shobœng gna gna
Africa East Central Kimasai ingia ingia
Western Mandingo tule
do. Sussu tule
W. & Central Mandingo tulo, tula
do. Bambarra tlo
East Masai ingia ingia
talinga, toli, telinga, telingan,
linganani, telilan, tinget telina,
Malay Archipelago Various isles ngan, terina, terina, telinawa,
terena, terina-mo, likan.
tenaan, etc. terinan teninare
Polynesia Fijian daliga-na daliga-na daliga-na
Samoan taliga taliga taliga
Tongan telinga telinga telinga
Australia
Earth.
tany tana one-one
Asia Indo-China Thoungh-thu ham-tan ham-tan
do. Siamese tein tein
Central India Khond tana tana
N. E. Bengal Dhimal bhonoi
Central India Kol ote
Bay of Bengal Teressa matah œt matah œt
do. Shobœng hong
Africa
Malay Archipelago
Polynesia
Australia
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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Egg.
atody telor hua
Asia East of Bengal Singpho udi
Indo-China Burma
Africa Western Kossa tegoli
ontolo, tanar, natu, tuloi,
Malay Archipelago Various Islands metelo, telon, telo, toli,
munteloa, tero, letuli,
teruni, tin, tolin, tolnin,
tolor, atulu, telli untello
Polynesia Samoan fua
Tongan foi
Hawaiian he hua
Australia
Eye
maso mat kanohi
Asia East Nepal Dumi mas mas
East of Bengal Munipuri mit mit
Indo-China Shan matta matta
do. Annam mat mat
Central India Ho (Kol) met met
do. Kuri met met
Brahui khan
Tibeto-China Thochu kan
Central India Uraon khan
do. Khond kannuka
Southern do. Telugu kannu
do. Badaga kannu
Khasi & Jynteah Hills Khasi khymat
do. Synteng khymat
do. Battoa ka-khymat
do. Amwee ka-mat
do. Lakadong ka-mat
Bay of Bengal Nancowry and Car Nicobar olmat olmat
do. Teressa emat emat
do. Shobœng hinmat hinmat
Africa East Coast Swahili macho, mato mato
Inhambane
Tette, Sena
do. Cap Delgado mazo
Maravi
do. Sofala messo
do. Quillimane and Mosambique meto
do. Shambala mesho mesho
East Central Yao meso meso
Western Kongo mesu mesu
do. Benin me-is me-is
South Kafir amaso
moto, mata, hama, raman,
ramani, matara, mata-mo,
Malay Archipelago Various isles mata-colo, matan, matara,
mata-nina, matada, matin,
tun, mut, moorba
– 171 –

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Polynesia Fijian mata mata
Samoan mata mata
Tongan mata mata
Hawaiian maka maka
Australia
Fire.
afo api ahi
Asia China Nankin ho
do. Canton fo
Nepal Kuswar aghi aghi
do. Tharu agi agi
East of Bengal Tablung Naga ah a'h
Indo-China Shan hpihn hpihn
do. Siamese fai fai fai
do. Laos fai fai fai
Japan Japan hi
Africa Western Fulah ofe ofe ofe
Malay Archipelago Various wha, api, ahu, afo, aow, hao, aousa, hao,
Islands yafo, yaf, wahan, a'if, efi, yaf, lap, yap, etc.
Polynesia Samoan afi afi afi
Tongan afi afi afi
Hawaiian he ahi he ahi he ahi
Australia N. S. Wales Kamilaroi wi wi wi
Fish.
loaka ikan ika
Asia Nepal Chepang nga nga nga
East of Bengal Namsang Naga nga nga nga
Indo-China Burma nga nga nga
do. Talain v Mon ka ka ka
do. Annam ka ka ka
Bay of Bengal Nancowry and Car Nicobar ka ka ka
do. Teressa kha kha kha
do. Shobœng gna gna gna
Africa East Coast Swahili samaki samaki
Western Bullom & Appa iu iu iu
do. Karaba i-iak i-iak i-iak
West and Central Ako, Eyo, Yabo or Yarriba eja, eya eja, eya eja, eya
do. Nufi nika, yika nika, yika nika, yika
South Kafir inklanzi inklanzi
Malay Archipelago Various Islands iwa, ikani, kina, kena, iani, ikan, ikiani, nyan ian, iyan, yano, iem, ein, deiah
Polynesia Fijian ika ika ika
Samoan ia ia ia
Tongan ika ika ika
Hawaiian he ia he ia he ia
Australia
– 172 –

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Flower.
vony bunga pua
Asia Nepal Sunwar phu phu phu
East Nepal Rodong bungna bungna bungna
do. Thulungya bungna bungna bungna
do. Khaling pungma pungma pungma
Central India Santali buha buha buha
do. Gayeti pungar pungar pungar
South'rn India Tamil, Tuluva pu pu pu
Africa East Coast Swahili ua
East Central Yao ndua
Central Haussa fureh
Malay Archipelago Various
Islands bunga, obunga, burani, mnuru
Polynesia Samoan fuga fuga fuga
Tongan fua fua fua
Hawaiian he pua he pua he pua
Australia
Foot.
tongon* kaki wae-wae
Asia China Amoy k'a
Indo-China Khyong & Shou kako
Khasi & Jynteah Hills Battoa kahi-jat
do. Khasi ki-jat
do. Synteng ki-jat
Africa
Malay Archipelago Various islands oei, yiei, ai, yai, oweda, matwey
Polynesia Fijian yava-na
Samoan vae
Tongan vae
Hawaiian he wae wae
Australia
Hair.
volo bulu, rambut huru
Asia Tibeto-China Takpa pu pu pu
Khasi &Jynteach Hills Lakadong usu usu usu
Africa East Coast Inhambane mududu mududu mududu
East Central Yao umbo
Malay Archipelago Various islands balwa, uhu, uta, wooko, utan, buloni, folo, olofolo, hutu, hua, rewohoh, ulvu, ulufuim, hue, ua, wultafun
Polynesia Fijian vulua vulua vulua
Samoan fulu-fulu fulu-fulu fulu-fulu
Tongan lau-ulu lau-ulu lau-ulu
Hawaiian ka lauoho ka lau oho ka lau oho
Australia N. S. Wales Wailwun wulla wulla wulla

[Footnote] * tangan, hand in Malay.

– 173 –

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Hand.
(ringa-ringa)
tanana tangan kutanga
Asia Tibeto-China Tibetan lango lango lango
Nepal Serpa lango lango lango
Khasi & Jynteah Hills Amwee ka ta ka ta kata
Africa East Coast Swahili kitanga* kitanga kitanga
Central Haussa hanu hanu hanu
Malay Archipelago Java, Baju tangan tangan tangan
Australia Victoria Witaoro munangan munangan munangan
Head.
loha ulu, kapala upuko
Asia Indo-China Khyeng v Shou lu lu
do. Mru v Toung lu lu
do. Ahom ru ru
Tibeto-China Thochu kapat
Nepal Bhramu ka-pa
Central India Kolami kupal
do. Kol (Sing bhum) bu bu bu
do. Santali buho
do. Bhumij buho
Khasi & Jynteah Hills Amwee kakhlan
do. Lakadong kakhlan
Bay of Bengal Shobœng po
Africa East Coast Quellimane muru
Western Moko lo lo
Malay Archipelago S. Celebes Bouton ubaku
Ceram Ahtiago oyuko
Various Islands ulu, urie, olum, ulun fatu, olun olimbukoi, uruka, ulura, uru, ulumo, yulim, ulukatim, lunini, ulure, aluda ulin
Polynesia Fijian ulu-na ulu-na
Samoan ulu ulu
Tongan ulu ulu
Hawaiian ke pu
Australia
Hog.
kisoa, lambo babi poaka
kisoa, lambo babi poaka
Asia Nepal Darhi su-er
do. Tharu suwar
Central India Uraon, etc. kis
Southern India Tamil (anc) keshal
Nepal Rungchenbung, etc. ba
do. Sangpang bha
Tibeto-China Tibet (spoken) phak-pa

[Footnote] * Palm of hand.

– 174 –

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Asia Nepal Limbu phag
do. Chingtangya phak
do. Vayu pog, pok
N.E. India Bhutani v Lhopa phagpo
Africa East Central Yao mbango
West Coast Fulah baba
W. & Central Bambarra fali
do. Fanti & Ashanti prako
Malay Archipelago Various-Islands bahi, balu, bawi fafi babue, fafu bawu, boh, fafuim, boia, faf, boh
Polynesia Fijian sara vuaka
Samoan pua'a
Tongan boaka
Hawaiian he puaa
Australia
Leaf.
ravina daun rau
Asia Nepal Gurung lau lau
do Newar hau hau
Indo-China Ahom bou bou
do Khamti mau mau
Africa W. & Central Fanti and Ashanti atau atau
Malay Archipelago Various Islands tawana, taha, daun, ailaw, laun, laini, lan, idun
Polynesia Fijian drau-na drau-na
Samoan lau lau
Hawaiian he lau he lau
Australia
Light
maivana trang ao
Asia E. of Bengal Mithan Naga rangai
do Namsang Naga rangvo
Indo-China Burman lang
N.E. Bengal Lepcha (Sikkim) aom
Africa East Coast Swahili anga
Polynesia Samoan mala malama
Hawaiian mala malama he ao
Australia
Moon.
volana bulan marama
Asia Nepal Serpa oula oula
Indo-China Mru v Toung pula pula
– 175 –

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Africa W. & Central Ibu oua oua
Malay Archipelago Various Islands wulan, bula, bulan, balrang, wura, buran, burang, bulani, fhulan, bular, ora, hulanita, hoolan, hulani, phulan, wulani, wuan
Polynesia Fijian vula vula
Australia
Mouth.
vava mulut mangai, waha
Asia Nepal Lohorong ya ya
Central India Yerukala vayi vayi
Southern India Tamil vay vay
do. Malayalma vaya vaya
do. Karnatika bayi bayi
do. Toduva payi payi
do. Kota vai vai
do. Kurumba bai bai
Nepal Newar mhutu
do. Yakha mulaphu
do. Kuswar muhu
Bay of Bengal Teressa monoi
Africa East Africa Swahili kinwa kinwa
do. Sofala Tete & sena muromo
do. Quellimane mulomo
do. Shambala mulomo*
do. do. kanwa kamwa
East Central Yao kamwa kamwa
do. Kimasai eng-uduk
South Kafir umlomo
Malay Archipelago South Celebes Salayer bawa bawa
Baju boah boah
Polynesia Hawaiian he waha he waha
Australia N. W. Coast mulu
Night.
alina malam po, kengo
Asia China Shanghai yali
Central India Naikude ale
do. Tamil (ane) al al
Africa
Malay Archipelago Amboyna Batu-merah hulanita potu
Saparua bogi
Samoan po
Tongan bo-uli
Hawaiian po
Australia

[Footnote] * Lip.

– 176 –

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Rain.
ranonorana ujan ua
Asia
Africa East Africa Swahili mvua mvua
do. Lourenzo Marques infula infula
do. Inhambane vula vula
do. Sofala umvura umvura
do. Tete vura vura
do. Sena ku-boumba ku-boumba
do. Mosambique ip-pula ip-pula
do. Cap Delgado (m) vula vula
do. Maravi vura vura
do. Shambala fula fula
East Central Yao ula ula
Central Haussa rua rua
South Kafir imvula imvvula
Malay Archipelago Various islands hudan, oha, urong, huya, ulani, ulah, ulan, hura, hulan, hulani, huran, ulane, ulani, ulan, uan, udama, hurani, golim, huran
Polynesia Fijian uca uca
Samoan ua ua
Tongan uha uha
Hawaiian he ua he ua
Australia
Road.
lalambe jalan ara
Asia Tibeto-China Tibet (written) lam
Nepal Serpa and two others lam
East Nepal Kirante and 14 others lam
North Bengal Bhutani and 4 others lam
East Bengal Mithan Naga and 2 others lam
do. Abor Miri lambeü
Indo-China Burman and 5 others lam
Tibeto-China Tibet (spoken) lani
Nepal Newar lon
Indo-China Burman (spoken) lan
Tibeto-China Manyak rah
Nepal Sunwar la
Central India Santali har
do. Mundala horah
Africa East Central Yao petala
Malay Archipalago Various Islands dara, lalan, dalren, lora, dalin, aya, lalani, lolan, lahan, lalano, latina, lalim, laan, laran, lagain, lelin, lalan
Polynesia Fijian sala sala sala
Samoan ala ala ala
Tongan hala hala hala
Hawaiin he ala nui he ala nui he ala nui
Australia
– 177 –

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Sky.
lanitra langit rangi
Asia Nepal Sunwar sarangi sarangi sa-rangi
do. Kuswar sa-rang sa-rang sa-rang
Central India Ragmahali sa-range sa-range sa-range
Africa
Malay Archipelago
Polynesia Fijian lagi lagi lagi
Samoan lagi lagi lagi
Hawaiian ka-lani ka lani ka-lani
Australia
Star.
kintana bintang whetu
Asia N. E. Bengal Garo laitan laitan
Central India Uraon binka binka
South'rn India Toda min min
Africa
Malay Archipelago Various islands lintang, bintang, bituy, bituin, fatui, teon, toin, toen
Polynesia Samoan fetu
Tongan fetu
Australia
Sun.
maso-andro mata-hari ra, komaru
Asia Indo-China Annam mata-troi
Tibeto-China Sokpa na
Nepal Sunwar na
Africa Central Haussa rana
Malay Archipelago Various Islands mata-alo, mata-rou mata-lon
Polynesia Fijian mata ni-siga mata ni-siga
Samoan la
Tongan laa
Hawaiian la
Australia
Tongue.
lila lida arero
Asia Khasi & Jynteah Hills Battoa u-thylliad u-thylliad
do Amwee u-khlid u-khlid
do Lakadong u-khliad u-khliad
Bay of Bengal Nancowry geletak geletak
Africa East Coast Quellimane lilimi lilimi
do Shambala lulimi lulimi
East Central Yao lulimi lulimi
South Kafir ulwimi ulwimi
– 178 –

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Malay Archipelago Various Islands ilat, lilah, dila, melin, ninum, delah
Mysol aran
Polynesia Samoan alelo
Tongan elelo
Hawaiian ka elelo
Australia
Tooth.
nifi, nifo gigi niho, rei
Asia Nepal Thaksya gyo
East Nepal Chourasya ginnso
Central India Gadaba ginna
Africa East Coast Swahili jino jino
do. Shambala zino zino
East Central Yao lino lino
West Coast Mandingo gi
W. & Central Filatah, Filani or Fulah niye niye
do. Bambarra nye nye
South Kafir izinyo izinyo
Malay Archipelago Various Islands nihi, nisim, nisi, nisinen, niki, nio, nisi-mo, nifan nifoa, nifin nihi, nisim, nisi, nisinen, niki, nio, nisimo, nifan, nifoa, nifin
do. gigi, ngisi, isi
Polynesia Samoan nifo nifo
Tongan nifo nifo
Hawaiian niho niho
Australia
Tree.
[poko
hazo pun, kaiu, rakau
Asia Tibeto-China Thochu gwozosi
N.E. Bengal Garo pan
E. of Bengal Mithan Naga pan
Singpho phun
Indo-Persia Brahui darakht
Bay of Bengal Teressa
Africa
Polynesia Samoan la' au
Hawaiian he laau
Australia
Water.
rano ayer wai
Asia Tibeto-China Horpa hrah
do. Manyak dyah
Nepal Bhramu awa awa
Central India Gondi yer
– 179 –

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Asia Central India Gayeti yer
do. Rutluk er
do. Naikude ir
do. Kolami ir
do. Madi er
do. Madea per
Southern India Tamil (mod.) and 4 others nir
East Nepal Sang Pang wa
Africa East Coast Swahili mazi mazi
do. Shambola mazi mazi
East Central Yao mesi mesi
Western Sussu i-e i-e
do. Pessa iah iah
South Kafir amanzi
Malay Archipelago Various Islands aer, akei, aki, wai, waili, waiyr, weyer, weyl, waeli, welo, wai-im, arr. wehi, wayr
Javanese banyu
S. Celebes Bouton manu
Polynesia Fijian wai wai
Samoan vai vai
Tongan vai vai
Hawaiian wai wai
Australia
Yam.
ovi ubi uwhi-kaho
Asia
Africa
Polynesia Fijian uvi uvi uvi
Samoan ufi ufi ufi
Hawaiian uhi uhi uhi
Australia
Hot.
mafana panas, hangat wera
Asia South'rn India Tamil (anc.) veya
Africa
Malay Archipelago Various Islands panas, mopani, bahaha, bafanat, mofanas, benis panas
Mysol pela
Polynesia Samoan vevela
Tongan vela
Hawaiian wela
Australia
Raw.
manta manta mata
Asia East of Bengal Nowgong Naga matok matok matok
Bay of Bengal Teressa mahaa mahaa mahaa
Africa
– 180 –

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Polynesia Samoan mata mata mata
Hawaiian maka maka maka
Australia
Red.
mena mera whero
Asia South'rn India Telugu era era yerupu
Central India Naikude yerodi
do. Kolami yerrodi
Africa
Malay Archipelago Various Islands merai, maramutah, mia, miha, mehani, meranati, merah
Australi
Ripe.
masaka masa maoa
Asia Nepal Sunwar miso miso miso
Africa
Malay Archipelago
Polynesia
Australia
Small.
keli kichi riki, iti, nohi
nohi
Asia Tibeto-China Gyarung kachai
East Nepal Thulungya kichem
do. Bahingya kachim
do. Lambichong michiyuk
North Bengal Lepcha (Sikkim) achim
E. of Bengal Singpho katsi
Indo-China Ahom noi
Bay of Bengal Andaman kitimarda kitimarda kiti-marda
Africa
Malay Archipelago
Polynesia Samoan laiti-iti
Hawaiian palanai-iki
Australia
Come.
avi mari mai
Asia China Nankin, Pekin, Amoy lai lai lai
do. Canton loi loi loi
Tibeto-China Thochu hai hai hai
Indo-China Sgau-karen hai hai hai
– 181 –

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Asia Indo-China Annam lai lai lai
do. Siam, Ahom, Khamti, Laos ma ma
Central India Yerukala va
South'rn India Tamil v
do. Toda, Kota it va
do. Malabar va
Africa
Malay Archipelago Various Islands marein, maive, maika, aripa, dumahi, maranih, mai, omai, ikomai, gumaho, uimai, oimai, omai, alowei, gomari, jogmah
Polynesia Fijian lako-mai lako-mai lako-mai
Tongan hau-mai hau-mai hau-mai
Hawaiian e hele mai e hele mai e hele mai
Australia
Five.
dimi, limi lima rima
Asia
Africa
Malay Archipelago Various Islands limanu, rima, delima, leplim, rima, enlima, lim, nima, lim
Polynesia Fijian lima lima lima
Samoan e-lima e-lima elima
Tongan nima nima nima
Hawaiian elima elima elima
Australia
Six.
enina, oné anam ono
Asia
Africa
Malay Archipelago nanam, nanamo, unam, num, onomo, kanum, annuh, gane, ne, noh, nena nöo, noöh, nome, noi, num, ennoi, wonen, lomi, onam, nem, onum, nam
Polynesia Fijian e-ono e-ono e-ono
Samoan ono ono ono
Tongan whaine whaine whaine
Hawaiian eono eono eono
Australia
Seven.
fito tuju whitu
Asia Central India Gondi yetu yetu
do. Madi yedu yedu
do. Kuri yeiku yeiku
do. Gadaba yedu yedu
do. Yerukala yegu yegu
South'rn India Telugu yedu yedu
do. Karnataka yelu yelu
do. Kurgi elu elu
East Nepal Balali nuji
Africa
– 182 –

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Malay Archipelago pitu, pituano kapitu, gapitu hito, pito, itu itua, hitu, witu, fitu, fit fiti, itu, tit pitu, pituano, kapitu, gapitu, hito, pito, ito itua, hitu, witu fitu, fit, fiti, itu, tit
S. Celebes Salayu tujoh
Baju tujoh
Polynesia Fijian e-vitu e-vitu
Samoan fitu fitu
Tongan fidda fidda
Hawaiian ahiku ahiku
Australia
Eight.
valo, varlo, delapan waru
Asia Central India Yerukala vattu vattu
Africa
Malay Archipelago Various Islands wola, veluano walru waro walu waru walua wagu wol, enwal alu, allu wola, veluano, walru, waro walu waru walua wagu wol, enwol alu, allu
Baju dolapan
Polynesia Fijian walu walu
Samoan valu valu
Tongan varu varu
Hawaiian awalu awalu
Australia
Nine.
sivi, siva sambilang iwa, iva
Asia Indo-China Sgau-Karem kwi, hkwi kwi, hkwi
do Pwo-Karen kwi kwi
Africa
Malay Archipelago Various Islands sioanu, sio kasiow, siwa chia, sia, ensiwa siwer, si, sin sioanu, sio kasiow, siwa chia, sia, ensiwa siwer, si, sin
Baju sambilan
Polynesia Fijian ciwa ciwa
Samoan iva iva
Tongan hioa hioa
Hawaiian eiwa eiwa
Australia
– 183 –

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Appendix II.
English. Samoan.
1 Black uliuli wulin, Langowan, North Celebes
2 Fire afi afu, Amblaw; aif, Gah, Ceram; efi, Matabella; yaf, Teor; yap, Mysol
3 Large latele leleh, Matabello
4 Nose isu iru, Lariki; inu, Vaiqueno, East Timor
5 Small laitiiti kiiti, Wahai, Ceram
6 Tongue alelo ela, Sasak, Lombok; kelo, Matabello
7 Tooth nifo nifan, Ahtiago, Ceram; nifoa, Matabello; nifin, Teor
8 Water vai ve, Teto, East Timor; wai, Solor and others
9 White pa-epa-e pituper, Dorey
10 Ant loi foin, Ahtiago, Ceram
11 Ashes lefu-lefu lavu, Amblaw; laftain, Ahtiago, Ceram
12 Bad leaga leak, Mysol
13 Banana fa-i fiah, Sula Islands
mo-i muk, Teor; mah, Mysol
14 Belly manava tiava, Batumerah
15 Bird manu manu, Camarian, Ceram
16 Blood toto kokotu, Tidore
17 Blue uli
18 Boat tulula
19 Body tino
20 Bone ivi hoi, Sula Islands; luliva, Butumerah, Amboyna
21 Bow aufana pana, Salayer, South Celebes; fean, Mysol
22 Box atola-au
23 Butterfly pepe pepeul, Morella, Amboyna
24 Cat gose
geli
pusi
25 Child tama
26 Chopper
27 Cocoanut niu niula, Gah, Ceram; nea, Mysol
28 Cold ma-alili mariri, Wahai, Ceram
29 Come fotu mai mai, Sula Islands, Lariki, Amboyna, Gah, Ceram, etc.
30 Day ao heo, Bouton, South Celebes; aoaaoa, Lariki, Amboyna; lau, Baju
31 Deer
32 Dog uli kafuni, Gah, Ceram
33 Door pupuni, puipui
34 Ear taliga telinga, Malay, Baju, etc.
35 Egg fua fuan, (fruit) Wayapo, Bouru
36 Eye mata mata, Lariki, Amboyna, etc.
37 Face mata matalalin, Wahai, Ceram
38 Father tama ama, Wahai, Ceram
39 Feather fulu fulun, Wayapo, Bouru
40 Finger i-lima limin-tagin, Teor
41 Fish i-a i-an, Matabello, etc.
42 Flesh a-ano
43 Flower fuga bunga, Gani, Gilolo, etc.
44 Fly lago lango, Sanguir
45 Foot vae ai, Wahai, Ceram, etc.
46 Fowl moa
47 Fruit fua fuan, Wayapo, Bouru, etc.
48 Go alu aou, Wahai, Ceram
49 Gold
50 Good lelei
51 Hair fulu-fulu olofolo, Masarati, Bouru
52 Hand lima lima, Sanguir, etc.
53 Hard ma-a-a makana, Saparua, etc.
54 Head ulu ulu, Camarian, Ceram
55 Honey
– 184 –

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56 Hot vevela pela, Mysol
57 House fale bare, Sanguir
58 Husband tane burani, Salayer, South Celebes
59 Iron u-amea
60 Island nu-utoloto
motu
61 Knife polo
pena
naifi
62 Large latele lele, Matabello
63 Leaf lau laun, Saparua
64 Little itiiti kiiti, Wahai, Ceram
65 Louse utu utu, Matabello and others
66 Man tagata tomata, Salibabo
tane
67 Mat papa
fala
68 Monkey
69 Moon masina fasina, Sula Islands
mauli
70 Mosquito namu nymo, Javanese
71 Mother tina ina, Lariki, Amboyna
72 Mouth gutu nanguru, Galela, Gilolo
73 Nail atigi-lima, fao
74 Night po potu, Saparua
75 Oil u-u majulu, Mysol
suau-u
76 Pig pua-a hawhua, Camarian, Ceram
77 Post pou faolnim, Ahtiago, Ceram
78 Prawn
79 Rain ua uan, Gah, Ceram
80 Rut imoa
ioli
isumu
81 Red mumu hamu, Sanguir
ulaula ululi, Teor
toto-toto
82 Rice
83 River vaitafe
84 Road ala aya, Sula Islands
85 Root a-a ai aha, Matabello
pogai
86 Saliva anu udu, Sanguir
feanuga
87 Salt
88 Sea tai tahi, Matabello
sami
vasa
moana
89 Silver
90 Skin pa-u
iliola lilicolo, Teluti, Ceram
91 Smoke asu iaso, Gani, Gilolo
92 Snake gata katoan, Sanguir
93 Soft malulu mulumu, Wahai, Ceram
94 Sour o-ona ko-unim, Ahtiago, Ceram
95 Spear tao
96 Star fetu fatui, Sula Islands
97 Sun la lea, Sula Islands
98 Sweet suamalie
99 Wax pulu
100 Wife ava sawa, Sanguir
– 185 –

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101 Wing apu-au opani, Bouton, South Celebes
102 Woman fafine finé, Masarati, Bouru
103 Wood la-au a-au, Cajili, Bouru
vao-matua
104 Yellow sama-sama
105 One tasi isai, Camarian, Ceram
106 Two lua lua, Wahai, Ceram
107 Three tolu tolu, Matabello
fia
108 Four efa faä, Amblaw
esoani
109 Five elima lima, Ahtiago, Ceram, and others
110 Six ono ono-mo, Bolanghitam, North Celebes
111 Seven fitu fitu, Matabello
112 Eight valu watu, Amblaw
113 Nine iva siwa, Cajili, Bouru, and others
114 Ten sefulu sapulo, Bouton, North Celebes, and others

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Appendix III.
Gani, Gilolo 2 3
Galela 1
Langowan Celebes 1
Salayer 1 6
Bouton 3
Bolanghitam 1
Ahtiago Ceram 6
Gah 5
Wahai 9 24
Camarian 3
Teluti 1
Lariki Amboyna 5
Batumerah 1 7
Morella 1
Vaiqueno Timor 1 2
Teto 1
Wayapo Bouru 3 7
Masarati 2
Cajeli 2
Amblaw 4
Matabello 11
Teor 5
Sasak Lombok 1
Solor 1
Dorey 1
Mysol 5
Sula Islands 7
Tidore 1
Baju 1
Malay 1
Sanguir 7
Saparua 3
Salibabo 1
Javanese 1