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Volume 11, 1878
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Notes on the Weather During 1878.

January.—The weather throughout for this month has been unusually cold, wet, and boisterous for the time of year; frequent S.W. gales of violence have occurred, accompanied with thunder and hail, and the temperature has been considerably lower than the average, generally 4° and 5° below; altogether it was a very unseasonable month. Earthquake at Queenstown on 15th, at 8.45 p.m., slight.

February.—Fine weather generally throughout, with small rainfall at most places; strong winds were experienced at some of the stations, but no very violent gales; high barometer readings prevailed, but temperature below the average. Earthquake reported by Observer at Queenstown on 12th, at 3 a.m., slight.

March.—Except at the Southern stations, the rainfall was much below the average, and fine weather experienced; in the South, however, it was at times severe, and excessively wet and stormy. An earthquake was reported at Hokitika on 11th, at 9.35 p.m., slight.

April.—The weather was exceedingly fine during this period, except at Bealey, where the rain was in excess, with strong westerly winds; also at Hokitika very wet, but winds moderate; and in the extreme South the rain was over the average, with cold stormy westerly weather. Earthquakes occurred at Wanganui on the 4th, at 12.50 a.m.; at Wellington on 28th, at 6.25 p.m., lasting six seconds, N. and S., very slight; at Cape Campbell on 11th, at 9 a.m., smart, and Blenheim 11th, at 8.55 a.m., sharp, N. to E.; at Queenstown on the 25th, at 3.30 a.m., smart. A meteor was observed at Christchurch on 27th, in S.E.

May.—On the whole, rain rather below the average; the temperature was lower than usual for time of year; very cold stormy weather experienced at most of the stations, with snow, and a good deal of thunder. A meteor seen in South on 7th, very brilliant.

June.—A very cold, wet, and seyere month throughout. The rainfall at nearly all places in excess, and frequent thunder storms, with hail and snow, and prevailing S.W. winds; very low atmospheric pressure throughout. Earthquakes at Napier on 5th, at 11.15 p.m., sharp, and on 23rd, at 3.15 p.m., not so marked; at Wellington on 23rd, at 7.38 am., slight, direction S.E.; at Wanganui on 23rd, at 4.50 a.m., strong shake; at Nelson on 24th, at 8.30 a.m.; at Cape Campbell on 3rd, at 12.15 a.m., smart.

July.—Tolerably fine weather for time of year, though heavy rain at some of the stations, with strong gales, chiefly from westward; very heavy snow-storms, with hail and severe frosts, occurred in the South. Earthquakes occurred on 5th at Wellington, at 10.18 p.m., slight; at Foxton, 10.20 p.m., sharp, with loud noise; at Greytown, 10.17 p.m., smart, with noise; on 20th, at Wellington, 11.39 p.m., very slight; and at Wanganui, at midnight, smart, and on 21st a lighter shock at 3 a.m.; at Hokitika, 29th, at 12 a.m., slight.

August.—The weather was generally wet and stormy, principally from S.W.; frequent gales occurred, also snow and hail storms; low atmospheric pressure prevailed, and temperature below the average for same month in previous years. Earthquakes—Taranaki, 8th, at 8 a.m.; at Wellington, on 8th, at 7.53 a.m., slight double shock; Wanga.

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nui, on 8th, at 8. 10 am., heavy; at Lawrence and Arrow, on 24th, rather severe; at Queenstown, on 23rd, at 7. 35 p.m., slight, and a heavy shock on 24th, at 2. 38 p.m.; at Southland, a sharp shock on 25th, at 2. 40 p.m.

September.–Very high barometer readings throughout, and high temperature; in the North rain rather below the average, but in the South in excess, which, combined with the flooding of the snow rivers, owing to the hot N.W. winds and warm rain, caused considerable damage to several districts in the South. Earthquakes–On the 14th, at Wellington, 5 a.m., slight; Kaikoura, 4.45 a.m., smart; Nelson, same time, smart; Westport, 4.40 a.m., smart; Lyttelton, at 4.50 a.m., also smart; Cape Campbell, at 4.30 a.m., smart; Christchurch, at 4.30 a.m., S. to N.; also on the 30th, felt at Rangiora, from E. to W.

October.–Wet, stormy S.W. and N.W. weather generally prevailed throughout this month. Earthquakes–Wellington, on 21st, at 10.55 p.m., sharp, followed by lighter shocks; at Wanganui, on 21st, at 11 p.m., slight rumble; at Nelson, on 21st, sharp shock, at 10.55 p.m., also at 11.45 p.m. another movement; Cape Campbell, on 21st, at 11.15 p.m., sharp, and on 27th, at 3.30 a.m., slight; Christchurch, on 21st, at 11 p.m.; Hokitika, on 21st, at 11 p.m., slight; Queenstown, at midnight, slight. Meteors observed at Mongonui on 31st, and at Christchurch on 30th.

November.–Rather a wet stormy month, wind generally from S.W. and westerly; temperature on the whole about the average; frequent thunder storma occurred. Earthquakes reported at Queenstown on 8th, at 3.20 a.m.; on 14th, at 12.8 p.m., smart; and on 27th, at 6.40 a.m.

December.–Generally fine, dry, warm weather at Northern stations, but in the South excessive rain and frequently stormy cold weather experienced for time of year Earthquakes felt at Wellington on 6th, at 9 p.m., slight; on 7th, at 5 a.m., slight; on 12th, at 11.39 a.m., slight, followed by a smarter shock. Meteors observed in North on 15th, and in South on 20th and 25th.

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Note.–It is intended that a complete record of the titles of scientific papers published during each year, which have reference to New Zealand, shall be issued with future volumes of Transactions. The following list for the past year, which has been kindly compiled by Professor Hutton, will be of some use to students in the section of Natural History.