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Volume 12, 1879
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Art. XIX.—Pronouns and other Barat Fossil Words compared with Primeval and Non-Aryan Languages of Hindostan and Borders.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 23rd August, 1879.]

The following comparisons may be taken as supplementary to my last paper.* In that paper I confined myself principally to nouns expressive of roots of the several dialects or languages. In this one I have scrutinized the analogies of the pronouns, and some of the adverbs, also of a few nouns and verbs, which had previously escaped my attention. I must here again acknowledge my great obligations to the Hodgson lists, published by Dr. W. W. Hunter.

My plan in this enquiry has been to bring the principal east and west Barata tribes in juxtaposition, and then to compare their fossil words with those of the old tribes of Hindostan and borders, as follows:—

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
I izaho aho aku ku o a'u au ahau an wan owan

Primeval and Non-Aryan Languages of Hindostan and Borders.

Sunwar, go; Thulungya, go; Bahingya, go; Dumi, ang-gnu; Vayu, go; Lepcha, go; Mithan Naga, ku; Abor Miri, ngo; Sibsagar Miri, ngo; Laos, ku.

[Footnote] * Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, and printed in Vol. XI., Trans. N.Z. Inst., p. 157.

[Footnote] † The works from which I have sought assistance in this paper are:—Comparative Dictionary of the Languages of India and High Asia, by W. W. Hunter, B.A., etc.; Marsden's Malayan Dictionary; Language and Literature of Madagascar, by Rev. Julius Kessler; Dictionary of New Zealand Language, by W. Williams, D.C.L.; Samoan Dictionary, by Rev. George Pratt; Hawaiian Dictionary, by Lorrin Andrews.

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Note.—It will be observed that in the five Barat races, the words standing for the first personal pronoun are radically the same. In Malagasi the first syllable is merely a prefix used before verbs, when emphatic. In the three Polynesian dialects the aspirate is lost, while in Malay the palatal k takes the place of the aspirate h. The radical in all cases is monosyllabic, ho, ku, u, au, au, the prefixes taking the farm of iza, a, o a, ah, w, ow.

In the Continental races, analogues are found in the Nepal tribes, as go, ang-gnu; in the East Bengal as ku, ngo; and in the Indo-China as ku.

In the Malay language I have given the generic term only, the other words used for the personal pronoun I, such as saya, beta, patek, hamba, literally meaning slave, or goa, being vulgarly used in towns where the Chinese predominate.

It may be observed that the Javanese term conforms to the Malay one, to wit, aku.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
Thou hianao angkau, kau kamu, mu 'oe koe o oe

Hindostan.

Thochu, kwe; Tibetan, khe; Serpa, khyo; Murmi, ai; Denwar, tu-i; Lepcha, hau; Kocch, tu-i; Annam, maii; Ahom, mo; Khamti, mau; Keikadi, ninu; Khond, yinu; Yerukala, ninu; Karnataka, ninu.

Note.—The radicals in use are ao, au, u, and oe. The prefix in Malagasi being hian; in Malay, angk, kam; in Samoan, a suppressed aspirate; in Maori, the palatal k; and in Hawaiian, the vocal sound o.

In the Continental races, the analogues of the Malay and Malagasi terms are found in Nepal, khyo; in N.E. Bengal, hau; in Indo-China, mau; of the second expression in Malay, to wit, mu—in Indo-China, mo; in Central India, ninu, yinu; of the Samoan, Maori, and Hawaiian—in Tibet, kwe, khe; in Nepal, ai, tui; in Indo-China, maii. The Malays use the word lu when addressing inferiors, and tuan when addressing superiors.

The Javanese term for thou, viz., kowe, is identical with the Polynesian dialects.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
He izi deia eia 'o ia ia oia

Hindostan.

Horpa, ja, jya; Waling, aya; Denwar, i; Kusunda, isi; Dhimal, wa; Talain v Mon, nya; Annam, a'ï; Ho (Kol), a'ï, a'ï; Kol (Singhbhum),

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ini; Bhumij, ini; Mundala, inni; Tuluva, aye; Badaga, ava; Irula, ava; Malabar, avan, aval; Sinhalese, ae, eka.

The radical is i-i or i-a, the vowels in Malagasi being joined together by the sibilant z, in Malay being prefixed by the dental d, and the Samoan and Hawaiian being prefixed by the vowel o.

In the Continental races, the analogues of the Malagasi are found in Nepal, isi; in Indo-China, a'ï, ini, inni; of Malay and the Polynesian tribes—in Tibet, ja, jya; in Nepal, aya, i; in Indo-China, nya, a'ïo; in Southern India, aye, ava, avan, aval, ae, eka.

The Javanese term assimilates more to Malay than to Malagaso-Polynesian, viz., dewe, yet it has analogies to all.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
We izahai izakia kami kita o i matou maua, or taua (dual) matau, tatau taua, maua (dual) kakou kaua, maua (dual?)

Hindostan.

Rodong, kai; Nachhereng kai, ka; Yakha, kami, ka; Kulungya, koi, koni; Thulungya, goi; Bahingya, go-i; Sangpang, kayi; Darhi, hami; Denwar, hami; Kuswar, hami; Kocch, hami; Angami Naga, awe; Khyeng v Shan, kinni; Chentsu, hame; Tamil (anc.), yam; Tamil (mod.), nam; Waling, ika; Siamese, rau; Ahom, rau; Khamti, hau; Laos, hau.

In the first line, the root of the Malagasi, Malay, and Samoan, is evidently ai, oi; and of the Maori and Hawaiian, tau, kau. In the second line, the root of Malagasi and Malay is ia, or kia. In the Samoan, Maori, and Hawaiian, the root is ka, ma, ta, with ua (two) added—i.e., we two. The consonants are transposible in the respective different languages as I have shown in a previous paper.

In the Continental races, analogues of the Malagasi, Malay, and Samoan, are found in Nepal, kai, ka, kani, goi, kayi, hami; in N.E. Bengal hami; in E. Bengal, awe; in Burmah, kinni; in Central India, hame; and in South India, yam nam. Of the Malay—in E. Nepal, ika; of Maori and Hawaiian—in Indo-China, rau, hau.

The Javanese use the singular and plural equally, as aku, which is the Malay for I.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
You hianareo angkau, kau, kamu outou oulua (dual) koutou korua (dual) oukou olua (dual?)
– 226 –

Hindostan.

Kiranti, khananin; Rodong, khanai; Rungchenbung, khananin; Chhingtungya, hananina; Nachereng, anai; Waling, hanani; Kulungya, anai; Dungmali, hananin; Talain v Mon, bintau; Sgau Karon, thu; Ahom, khau; Gurung, kenmo.

The Malagasi analogy with Malaya and Polynesia is very distinct; but allowing for transference of consonants, the analogies between the latter are very close.

In the Continental races, analogues of the Malagasi are found in East Nepal, khananin, khanai, hana nina, anai, hanani, hananin; of the Malay and Polynesian dialects—in Indo-China, bintau, thu, khau; and of the Malay kamu—in Nepal, kenmo.

The Javanese term is kowe or kaue, which assimilates to the Polynesian dialects.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
They izi or izareo dei-orong 'oi latou 'oi laua (dual) ratou, ratau raua (dual) o lakou o laua (dual?)

Hindostan.

Pahri, usi, hosi; Talain v Mon, nyitau; Siamese, khau-arai; Khamti, mau-khau.

In Malagasi, Malay, and Samoan, ii, ia, ei, oi, are the roots of the words; the consonants taking their place according to the structure of each language. In Malagasi and Malay, areo and orong are suffixes, probably with the same meaning, which, in Malay, is men—dei-orong (literally, they men). Samoan here appears, as it did in the first person plural, as the junction between the West and Eastern dialects of the great Barat language, by its using both expressions; latou, in meaning, being a reiteration of 'oi,—that is, they they.

In the Continental races, the analogue of Malagasi, Malay, and Samoan 'oi is found in Nepal, usi, hosi; and of the Samoan latou, Maori and Hawaiian—in Indo-China nyitau, khauarai, maukhau.

In Javanese, the expression is dewe, assimilating to deia, the Malay third person singular.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
This iti, itoi io ini iko lenei tenei keia, eia
– 227 –

Hindostan.

Gyarung, chidi; Sopka, ani, yeni; Tibetan, di; Pakhya, yehi; Denwar, i; Vayu, i; Bhutani v Llopa, di, didi; Burman, i, thi; Khyeng v Shan, ini; Kami, hi; Laos, ni; Ho (Kol), ni; Kol (Singhbhum), nea; Santali, nia; Bhumij, ni; Mundala, nia: Naikude, id; Kolami, idda; Savara, ani; Malayalma, ita; and Pakhya, yo; Newar, tho; Munipari, yo; Khari Naga, pio; Ahom, iu; Tamil, idu; Karnataka, idu; Kurgi, ivu, idu.

The words in the first line are radically the same, the root being ii, ioi, ii, ei, eia, the consonants being transposible according to the structure of each language. The words in the second line are merely a variation of the same root io.

In the Continental races the analogues of all the tribes are found in Tibet, chidi, ani, yeni, di; in Nepal, yehi, i; in North-east Bengal, di, didi; in Indo-China, i, thi, hi, ni; in Central India, ni, nia, id, idda, ani; in Southern India, ita; of Malagasi and Malay (second line)—in Nepal, yo, tho; in Indo-China iu; and in Southern India, idu, ivu.

In Javanese the expression is iki, whose glossarial affinity is thus close.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
That ini itu lela, lena ia tena, tera, taua (dual?) kela

Hindostan.

Sokpa, theni; Denwar, i; Kusunda, issi, it; Mithan Naga, hiha; Annam, kia; Ho (Kol), en; Kol (Singhbhum), eno; Mundala, ana; Savara, ani; Yorukala, adu; Tuluva, avu; Kurgi, avu, adu; Toda, adu; Kota, adu; Badaga, adu; Kurumba, adu; Irula, adu; Malabar, ah thu, athu.

The vocalic basis is ii, iu, ea, ia, ea, in all cases articulated by dento-palatals. In the Continental races the analogues of all the tribes are found in Tibet, theni; in Nepal, i, issi, it; in East Bengal, hiha; in Indo-China, kia; in Central India, ana, ani, adu; and in Southern India, avu, adu, athu.

It will be seen that Malagasi and Malay have transposed the terms thus: itu, that, in Malay; itoi, this, in Malagasi; ini, this, in Malay; ini, that, in Malagasi.

The Javanese expression is ika, which is radically the same as in other Barat races.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
Who iza siapa o le oai wai wai, owai
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Hindostan.

Gyami, sya; Eodong, sa; Kami, apa-ime; and Kocch, kai; Mithan Naga, oveh; Tablung Naga, owai; Annam, ai; Laos, khai,phai; Ho(Kol), okoi; Mundala, okowe; Gadaba, layi.

The vocalic root of Malagasi and Malay appears to be ia, and of the Polynesian dialects, the reverse, ai.

In the Continental races, the analogues of Malagasi and Malay are found—in Tibet, sya; Nepal, sa ; N.E. Bengal, apa-ime ; and of the Polynesian dialects—in N.E. Bengal, kai; East Bengal, oveh, owai; Indo-China, ai, khai, phai; and of Central India, okoi, okowe, layi.

In Javanese, the expression is sapa, which is also sometimes used in Malay.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
What inona apa o le a, se a aha he-aha

Hindostan.

Manyak, hano; Karnataka, yenu; Tuluva, jana; Kurgi, yennu; Kurumba, yenu; and Chourasya, ama; Munipuri, pa-may-nay; Kami, Apa-i-me.

Malagasi appears in this instance to have, if any, very remote analogy with Malayan and Polynesian; the vocalic root of the latter is aa, a, aa, aa, the consonants appertaining to the respective tribes.

In the Continental tribes, the analogues of Malagasi are found in Tibet, hano; and in Southern India, yenu, jana, yennu, yenu; and of Malayan and Polynesian—in E. Nepal, ama; E. Bengal, pa-may-nay; and Indo-China, apa-ime.

In Javanese the term is apa, which is the Malay word.

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English. Malagasi, Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
Little keli sadikit iti-iti iti li-i, lii-lii

Hindostan.

Gyarung, kuh-che; Kiranti, chichi; Rodong, pichhe; Rungchenbung, chichi; Nachhereng, chichha; Waling, achichi, achi; Kulungya, chichha, gichha ; Thulungya, kichwe ; Bahingya, kachi; Khaling, tihiche; Dungmali, achichi; Smgpho, katsi; Garo, kitek si; Bodo, tisi, kitisi; Nowgong Naga, ishika; Shan, ait; Annam, it; Gadaba, khandiki.

The vocalic root in all cases is—ei, ii. The Malagasi keli approximates more nearly to the Malay kichi or kichil, which signifies small; yet, as

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dentals and palatals are constantly transposible, the expressions are radically the same. The root of the Malay word sadikit is iki, the prefix sa meaning one. In Samoan and Maori, the palatal k is transposed to the dental t; while, in Hawaiian, consistent with the extreme weakness of that dialect, the consonant is eliminated.

In the Continental tribes, the analogues are found—in Tibet, kuh-che; in Nepal, chichi, pichhe, chichi, achichi, achi, chichha, gichha, kichwe, kachi, tihiche, achichi; in N.E. Bengal, tisi, kitisi, kiteksi; in East Bengal, ishika, katsi; in Indo-China, ait, it.

The Javanese term is satitik, which assimulates to Malay and Polynesian.

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English. Malagasi, Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
To-day anio 'ari-ini ao-lenei ai-anei he-ao-eia

Hindostan.

Brahui, ainu; Limbu, ain; Kiranti, ai; Rodong, ai, ale; Rungchen-bung, ayo, ai; Waling, ailo, ayo; Lohorong, ayu; Dumi,anyol; Khaling, anyalo; Dungmali, a-i; Bodo, dine; Dhimal, nani; Mithan Naga, anyi; Khari Naga, thani; Singpho, daini; Burman, yane; Kami, weini; Kumi, waini; Tounghthu, hanne; Laos, wanni; Keikadi, iuanu.

In the Continental tribes the analogues are found in W. Hindostan, ainu, which assimilates to Malagasi; in Nepal, ain, ai, ailo, ayo, ayu, anyol, anyalo, ai; in N.E. Bengal, dine, nani; in E. Bengal, anyi, thani, daini; in Indo-China, weini, waini, hanne, wanni; in Central India, iuanu.

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English. Malagasi, Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
When rahoviana bila pe-a ahea ahea

Hindostan.

Khaling, hebelo; Bodo, mabela ; Garo, biba.

The vocalic root in all cases is ia, ea, but the Malagasi seems to be a compound word. In Malay and Samoan the consonants are both labials, which are eliminated in Maori and Hawaiian.

In the Continental tribes the analogues are found in Nepal, hebelo; N.E. Bengal, mabela, biba.

The expression in Javenese is kapan, which is sometimes used in Malay; the same is found in the Tharu tribe, Nepal, kabahu; in the Kocch tribe, N.E. Bengal, kab; and in the Tengsa Naga tribe, E. Bengal, kapa.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
Ant vitsikia semut loi pokorua he nonanona

Hindostan.

1.

Mithan Naga, tiksa; Namsang Naga, tsip-chak; Sak, phun-si-gya.

2.

Newar, imo; Shan, mot; Siamese, mot; Khambi, mot; Laos, mot.

In this word there is no similarity of expression in the several Barat tribes, which is curious.

In the Continental tribes, the analogues for Malagasi are found in E. Bengal, tiksa, tsip-chak; and in Indo-China, phun-si-gya; for Malay—in Nepal, imo; and in Indo-China, mot.

In Javanese, the term is semut, which is the same as in Malay.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
Man olona orong tagata tangata he kanaka

Hindostan.

Ho(Kol), horo; Kol (Singhbhum), ho; Bhumij, horro; Mundala, horl; Kuri, koro.

There is no analogy between the Polynesian and western tribes of Barat in this word. Hawaiian is radically the same as Samoan and Maori,—the k being transposible into t, and n to ng. The vocalic root of Malagasi and Malay is oo, r and l being both dento-palatals, and n being transposible into ng.

In the Continental tribes, the analogues of Malagasi and Malay are found in Central India, horo, ho, horl, koro.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
Mountain tendrom, bohitra bukit gunong mauga maunga he mauna

Hindostan.

Newar, gun; Burman, taung: Khyeng v Shan, taung; Pwokaren, kulaung; Taungh-thu, koung.

The bohitra of Malagasi, and bukit of the Malay, in their respective phonologies, are the same word. The Polynesian expressions stand alone.

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In the Continental tribes, the analogue of gunong in the Malay language is found in Nepal, gun; of the Polynesian dialects—in Indo-China, taung, kulaung, koung.

The Javanese term is gunong, as in Malay.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
Oil solikia minia u-u hinu aila

Hindostan.

Madi, ni, nai, niyu; Keikadi, yana; Tamil, neyam.

In this case there is no analogy between the several Barat dialects. The Samoan uu is radically the Malay susu, i.e., milk.

In the Continental tribes the analogues for Malay are found in Central India, ni, nai, niyu, yana, neyam.

In Javanese the term is lenga.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
Salt fanasina masin garam masima mataitai he paakai

Hindostan.

Sunwar, yusi; Angami Naga, matse; Tengsa Naga, machi; Savara, basi; and Rodong, rum; Nachhereng, ram; Waling, yum; Takha, yum; Kulungya, gum; Lohorong, yum; Lambichhong, yum; Balali, yum; Sangpang, rum; Dumi, ram; Khaling, ram; Dungmali, yum; Munipuri, thum; Mithan Naga, hum; Tablung Naga, hum; Namsang Naga, sum; Singpho, jum; Kuri, bulum.

All the Barat tribes have one vocalic root, viz., ai in Malagasi; Malay and Samoan, asi; and in Maori and Hawaiian, ai; these with prefix and suffix variations. The second term, garam, in Malay, is purely Continental.

In the Continental tribes, the analogues for all the dialects are found in Nepal, yusi; in E. Bengal, matse, machi; and in Central India, basi. For the Malay word, garam, we find in Nepal, rum, ram, yum, gum; in E. Bengal, thum, hum, jum; and in Central India, bulum.

The Javanese term is uyah, which has no prototype.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
Skin hoditra kulit pu-u iliola hiako kiri he alu alu hi ili
– 232 –

Hindostan.

Rodong, hulipa.

Malagasi and Malay, under their respective phonologies, agree; but disagree with Polynesia.

In the Continental tribes, the only analogue is found in Nepal, and that is doubtful.

In Javanese, the term is the same as in Malay, viz., kulit.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
Crooked bengko fa-'api-'o kopikopiko e-pio

Hindostan.

Sunwar, bango; Pakhya, banggo; Newar, beko; Rodong, banggo; Nach-hereng, banggo; Waling, banggo; Denwar, banko; Kuswar, bango; Uraon, bengko; Chentsu, banko.

There is no analogy between Malay and Polynesian.

In the Continental tribes, for the Malay, analogues are found in Nepal, bango, banggo, beko, banko; in Central India, bengko, banko.

The Javanese assimilates to Malay, viz. bengkong.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
Fat matavi gammo limma ga 'o mea lololo ngako matu momona puipui

Hindostan.

1st.—Kocch, mota; Uraon, mota; Mundala, mota; 2nd.—Serpa, gyamo; Bhutani v Llopa, gyamo; 3rd.—Toungh-thu, pay; Shan, payi; Ahom, pi; Khamti, pi; Laos, pi, iui.

There is no analogy between Malagasi and Malay; strong analogy between Malay, Samoan, and Maori; but none with Hawaiian.

In the Continental tribes, the analogues for Malagasi are found in N.E. Bengal, mota; and in Central India, mota; for Malay, Samoan, and Maori—in Nepal, gyamo; and in Bhutan, gyamo; again for Hawaiian—in Indo-China, pay, payi, pi, and tui.

In Javanese, the term is lemu, which assimilates to the Malay second term, limma.

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English. Malagasi. Malay. Samoan. Maori. Hawaiian.
Eat mihinana makan 'ai kai e ai
– 233 –

Hindostan.

Gyami, khye; Lohorong, chae; Dungmali, choye; Denwar, khaik; Kuswar, khaik; Tharu, khai; Shan, kyen; Siamese, kenn.

The root of all is a. In Malagasi, with a prefix of mihin and suffix of na; in Malay, of mak and n. In the Polynesian dialects the root is inflected.

In the Continental tribes, the analogues are found in Tibet, khye; in Nepal, chae, choye, khaik, khai; and in Indo-China, kyen, kenn, which latter assimilates to Malay.

In Javanese, the term is mangan, which assimilates to Malay.

As this will conclude the series of papers that I have written on the subject, commencing with an enquiry as to “The Whence of the Maori,” but which has led me over extensive ground, * I shall now recapitulate some of the main points touched on.

This, or kindred studies, have arrested the attention of many previous writers on the mythology, traditions, chaunts, and legends of the Maori. I have read with interest the works and papers of Sir George Grey, Lieutenant Shortland, Mr. Colenso, and Dr. Arthur S. Thomson; but those authors who had dealt with the question to which my efforts have been more closely allied were especially Mr. James Richardson Logan and Mr. John Crawfurd, both of Singapore. The works of Humboldt, Bopp, and Hale, I have not been able to obtain. These enquirers had their attention engaged with kindred ethnological and philological fields, and in regard to that to which I have confined myself their notices have been incidental rather than comprehensive.

With such able ethnologists preceding me, it must be confessed that many facts were anticipated; yet my labours, I submit, need not be considered to be entirely thrown away, for—with the light that has been shed on the subject by the untiring labours of Hodgson, Hunter, Campbell, Koelle, Bleeck, Clark, etc., etc., whose dictionaries and vocabularies have only been recently published—I have had data brought to hand which the writers of thirty years ago could not obtain. These I have freely searched, using, as my clue, the Malayan tongue, with whose language and literature, as I have already stated, I can claim acquaintance.

In my first paper, which was ethnological, I was carried, in my search for the “Whence of the Maori,” beyond Malaya (the popularly-accepted

[Footnote] * “Whence of the Maori” (Ethnological), Trans., N.Z. Inst., Vol. IV., p. 1.

[Footnote] Do. do. (Barata Numerals) do. Vol. V., p. 131.

[Footnote] Do. do. (Philological) do. Vol. VI., App.

[Footnote] “Barat or Barata Fossil Words” do. Vol. XI., p. 157.

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fountain of the Polynesian race), the evidence leading to the following conclusions:—1st. That Hindostan, as well as the Indian Archipelago, at one time contained a negro population. 2nd. That waves of migration issued from the South Peninsula, or Barata, east and west. 3rd. That no western emigration ever proceeded out of Tamasak, or the south part of the peninsula of Malacca or Sumatra, so as to affect Madagascar. 4th. That the progress of the Barata is traceable eastward by language to the Moluccas, of which Ternati is the principal settlement. 5th. That the race was modified in colour and physiognomy by the incursions of the Mangians and Annamese, but not in language. 6th. With the Moluccas as a basis, a stream of the mixed race flowed eastward from island to island over Polynesia, one branch finding its way to New Zealand viâ Tongataboo. 7th. That Barata, or South India, was therefore the whence of the Maori.

My second paper was on Barata numerals, in which, of many tribes, I compared the numerals up to ten, scattered between Madagascar and Easter Island. The interesting fact which this enquiry divulged was to this effect: that within the regions occupied by the Barata race—of which the Maori is a portion—the more remote or primitive the tribes the greater was the analogy of dialect. Thus a remote tribe, the Lampong, occupying a portion of the interior of Sumatra, have their ten numerals identical with Maori; Madagascar has nine identical; so also have Tagala, Papango, and Mindanao, in the Philippines, and so forth; while the more accessible Malay has only five identical, Acheen only six, etc.

Of this subject I then remarked, that I hoped I had satisfactorily shown that the first ten numerals (in as far as their evidence was valuable) tend to prove the intimate connection that subsisted between an archaic race that spread over nearly two-thirds of the circumference of the globe, and in which expansion the Malay had no connection,* but the ethnological phenomenon was due solely to the illustrious Barata.

My next paper was philological, in which I scrutinized the structure of the languages of several of the leading races, glossarially, idiomatically, and phonetically—comparing first, Maori with Tongan; second, Maori with the many dialects of the Indian Archipelago; third, Malagasi with Malay; fourth, Maori with Malay; and lastly, the Murihiku dialect, New Zealand, with races in the Indian Archipelago.

The general conclusion arrived at from the evidence brought out was, that had Madagascar not existed, or had it not been populated by its present race, our search for the whence of the Maori as we proceeded westward, might have stopped at the Silong tribe of Mergui, on the eastern shores of the Bay of Bengal; but the above circumstances we have set forth, force us

[Footnote] * Excepting as a tribe or offshoot.

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to proceed across the bay and point out, as I did in my former paper, that peninsula—fecund of people—viz., South Hindostan, alone commanding all possible eastern or western migrations, as the only possible whence of the Maori.

Here then ended my enquiries for the time, the conclusion was one decided by physical geography, supplemented only by ethnological and philological data; but I often asked myself: What of Hindostan itself? What of the Land of Barat, as the Malays term it? Are there no remnants of that archaic language in it, so as to corroborate this fine theory of the “whence of the Maori” being there? It occurred to me, that if I could bring the evidence of languages contained in fossil words, this would be satisfactory, in fact it would make my theory incontrovertible.

I had no opportunity to effect this desirable end till I went home lately on leave of absence, during which time, while in London, I gathered the material from various sources as stated in my last paper. From this material, which is found in the several vocabularies of the various primitive tribes that yet inhabit Hindostan, there were abundant proofs of intimate connection with the languages of Malaya, Polynesia, Madagascar, and even eastern Africa, in other words, with the wide-spread Barata race. It was then remarked by me that Hindostan is now overrun by two distinct sections of the human race, viz., Indo-Germanic, or Aryan and Turanian, or, in other words, the one Caucasian, the other Turanian; the one occupying the western and northern regions, the other the southern and eastern. And, in overrunning Hindostan, have they extirpated the primitive races? Not entirely; many of these remain, much modified, it is true, in colour and physiognomy, but little in language. The roots of a language die only with a tribe's extirpation. Hence it is not in the languages of the intruding sections that we have found the Barata fossil words, but for the most part in the various small tribes yet preserved in the obscure portions of their territory, difficult of access, such as under the Himalaya, Jynteah, and Nilgherry mountains. In these, the undeleted glossarial remains of what had been the language of a numerous people once inhabiting the fertile plains, we have witnesses to facts and conditions of nations long since past, and preceding historic record.

As to this, my last paper, I may state that so far as it goes it substantiates the conclusions of those preceding; there being 261 analogies in Hindostan of the 22 words selected from five Malagas-Malayo-Polynesian dialects. Further, in comparing these, as I have done, with the Aryan, Mongolian, or Semitic, or other Asiatic races—ancient or modern—no analogy can be detected.

In this paper, giving 22, and my last, 43, making 65 primary words (a large portion in an aboriginal language), of which there were 261 and 235

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analogies, respectively, in the tribal tongues of Hindostan,—total, 496—all the proofs that glossarial connection can give, are adduced. The expressions denoting this glossarial connection I have termed “word-fossils,” for they indicate a race with as unerring an indication as the Graptolite, the Holyptichius, or the Stigmaria, point out those separate geological systems displayed in the Silurian, the Old Red Sandstone, and the Carboniferous, respectively, wherever spread on the face of the globe.

In these papers I have given more attention to the glossarial branch than to the ideological or phonetic, simply because I have found it to be the most unchanging, and, therefore, the best indicator of race affinity.

The Malay and Polynesian languages are compounding in their construction; the Malagasi is inflecting; yet, this peculiarity connects it with the Dravidic,—i.e., dialects of South Hindostan.

All have re-duplication in the construction of many words; and that most attenuated of the dialects, viz., Hawaiian, has triplication, and even quadruplication—such as, lelele, to leap; lelelele, to run off. The Polynesian dialects have dualism in their pronouns; a fact which I have not discovered in Malagasi or Malay.

The roots of the most simple primary words are vowels, the consonants being merely additions or acceptations, according to the genius of each dialect. That the consonants are transposible, as between tribe and tribe, we have seen many indications; and that they are even ever-changing in single tribes, we have the evidence of the Rev. S. J. Whitmee. He says,* the consonant k is found only in one word in Samoa (to wit,—in puke), adding, that to a person now for the first time visiting Samoa this would appear to be incorrect. He would hear k used by most of the natives in their ordinary conversation in place of t; but this is a recent change. In 1863, k was used only in the island Tutuila and in the eastern portion of Upolu; now, it is used all over the group. It is difficult to say how this change was commenced, but its spread has been noted, and every attempt has been made to arrest it, but without effect. Many of the natives are exceedingly careless and incorrect in the pronunciation of consonants, and even exchange or transpose them without confusion and almost unnoticed by their hearers,—as, manu for namu, a scent; lagogu for lagonu, to understand, etc.

Besides scrutinizing beyond Hindostan the dictionaries of the various races of Asia, Europe, and Africa, I have also carefully gone over numerous vocabularies of the aboriginal tribes in North and South America, and here also I have failed to detect the semblance of glossarial analogy. All philological evidence then turns to Hindostan, the Land of Barat, as the original

[Footnote] * Samoan Grammar.

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seat of the Maori race. And here I may express a thought which has occurred to me, in conclusion,—that the native chiefs of New Zealand, while, by the treaty of Waitangi, they ceded and yielded up the sovereignty of their territories to the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland only forty-four years ago, now also, in her capacity as Empress of India, is she the Sovereign of their race by archaic connection from time immemorial, far preceding the age of history or of letters.