Gyami, khye; Lohorong, chae; Dungmali, choye; Denwar, khaik; Kuswar, khaik; Tharu, khai; Shan, kyen; Siamese, kenn.
The root of all is a. In Malagasi, with a prefix of mihin and suffix of na; in Malay, of mak and n. In the Polynesian dialects the root is inflected.
In the Continental tribes, the analogues are found in Tibet, khye; in Nepal, chae, choye, khaik, khai; and in Indo-China, kyen, kenn, which latter assimilates to Malay.
In Javanese, the term is mangan, which assimilates to Malay.
As this will conclude the series of papers that I have written on the subject, commencing with an enquiry as to “The Whence of the Maori,” but which has led me over extensive ground, * I shall now recapitulate some of the main points touched on.
This, or kindred studies, have arrested the attention of many previous writers on the mythology, traditions, chaunts, and legends of the Maori. I have read with interest the works and papers of Sir George Grey, Lieutenant Shortland, Mr. Colenso, and Dr. Arthur S. Thomson; but those authors who had dealt with the question to which my efforts have been more closely allied were especially Mr. James Richardson Logan and Mr. John Crawfurd, both of Singapore. The works of Humboldt, Bopp, and Hale, I have not been able to obtain. These enquirers had their attention engaged with kindred ethnological and philological fields, and in regard to that to which I have confined myself their notices have been incidental rather than comprehensive.
With such able ethnologists preceding me, it must be confessed that many facts were anticipated; yet my labours, I submit, need not be considered to be entirely thrown away, for—with the light that has been shed on the subject by the untiring labours of Hodgson, Hunter, Campbell, Koelle, Bleeck, Clark, etc., etc., whose dictionaries and vocabularies have only been recently published—I have had data brought to hand which the writers of thirty years ago could not obtain. These I have freely searched, using, as my clue, the Malayan tongue, with whose language and literature, as I have already stated, I can claim acquaintance.
In my first paper, which was ethnological, I was carried, in my search for the “Whence of the Maori,” beyond Malaya (the popularly-accepted
[Footnote] * “Whence of the Maori” (Ethnological), Trans., N.Z. Inst., Vol. IV., p. 1.
[Footnote] Do. do. (Barata Numerals) do. Vol. V., p. 131.
[Footnote] Do. do. (Philological) do. Vol. VI., App.
[Footnote] “Barat or Barata Fossil Words” do. Vol. XI., p. 157.
fountain of the Polynesian race), the evidence leading to the following conclusions:—1st. That Hindostan, as well as the Indian Archipelago, at one time contained a negro population. 2nd. That waves of migration issued from the South Peninsula, or Barata, east and west. 3rd. That no western emigration ever proceeded out of Tamasak, or the south part of the peninsula of Malacca or Sumatra, so as to affect Madagascar. 4th. That the progress of the Barata is traceable eastward by language to the Moluccas, of which Ternati is the principal settlement. 5th. That the race was modified in colour and physiognomy by the incursions of the Mangians and Annamese, but not in language. 6th. With the Moluccas as a basis, a stream of the mixed race flowed eastward from island to island over Polynesia, one branch finding its way to New Zealand viâ Tongataboo. 7th. That Barata, or South India, was therefore the whence of the Maori.
My second paper was on Barata numerals, in which, of many tribes, I compared the numerals up to ten, scattered between Madagascar and Easter Island. The interesting fact which this enquiry divulged was to this effect: that within the regions occupied by the Barata race—of which the Maori is a portion—the more remote or primitive the tribes the greater was the analogy of dialect. Thus a remote tribe, the Lampong, occupying a portion of the interior of Sumatra, have their ten numerals identical with Maori; Madagascar has nine identical; so also have Tagala, Papango, and Mindanao, in the Philippines, and so forth; while the more accessible Malay has only five identical, Acheen only six, etc.
Of this subject I then remarked, that I hoped I had satisfactorily shown that the first ten numerals (in as far as their evidence was valuable) tend to prove the intimate connection that subsisted between an archaic race that spread over nearly two-thirds of the circumference of the globe, and in which expansion the Malay had no connection,* but the ethnological phenomenon was due solely to the illustrious Barata.
My next paper was philological, in which I scrutinized the structure of the languages of several of the leading races, glossarially, idiomatically, and phonetically—comparing first, Maori with Tongan; second, Maori with the many dialects of the Indian Archipelago; third, Malagasi with Malay; fourth, Maori with Malay; and lastly, the Murihiku dialect, New Zealand, with races in the Indian Archipelago.
The general conclusion arrived at from the evidence brought out was, that had Madagascar not existed, or had it not been populated by its present race, our search for the whence of the Maori as we proceeded westward, might have stopped at the Silong tribe of Mergui, on the eastern shores of the Bay of Bengal; but the above circumstances we have set forth, force us
[Footnote] * Excepting as a tribe or offshoot.
to proceed across the bay and point out, as I did in my former paper, that peninsula—fecund of people—viz., South Hindostan, alone commanding all possible eastern or western migrations, as the only possible whence of the Maori.
Here then ended my enquiries for the time, the conclusion was one decided by physical geography, supplemented only by ethnological and philological data; but I often asked myself: What of Hindostan itself? What of the Land of Barat, as the Malays term it? Are there no remnants of that archaic language in it, so as to corroborate this fine theory of the “whence of the Maori” being there? It occurred to me, that if I could bring the evidence of languages contained in fossil words, this would be satisfactory, in fact it would make my theory incontrovertible.
I had no opportunity to effect this desirable end till I went home lately on leave of absence, during which time, while in London, I gathered the material from various sources as stated in my last paper. From this material, which is found in the several vocabularies of the various primitive tribes that yet inhabit Hindostan, there were abundant proofs of intimate connection with the languages of Malaya, Polynesia, Madagascar, and even eastern Africa, in other words, with the wide-spread Barata race. It was then remarked by me that Hindostan is now overrun by two distinct sections of the human race, viz., Indo-Germanic, or Aryan and Turanian, or, in other words, the one Caucasian, the other Turanian; the one occupying the western and northern regions, the other the southern and eastern. And, in overrunning Hindostan, have they extirpated the primitive races? Not entirely; many of these remain, much modified, it is true, in colour and physiognomy, but little in language. The roots of a language die only with a tribe's extirpation. Hence it is not in the languages of the intruding sections that we have found the Barata fossil words, but for the most part in the various small tribes yet preserved in the obscure portions of their territory, difficult of access, such as under the Himalaya, Jynteah, and Nilgherry mountains. In these, the undeleted glossarial remains of what had been the language of a numerous people once inhabiting the fertile plains, we have witnesses to facts and conditions of nations long since past, and preceding historic record.
As to this, my last paper, I may state that so far as it goes it substantiates the conclusions of those preceding; there being 261 analogies in Hindostan of the 22 words selected from five Malagas-Malayo-Polynesian dialects. Further, in comparing these, as I have done, with the Aryan, Mongolian, or Semitic, or other Asiatic races—ancient or modern—no analogy can be detected.
In this paper, giving 22, and my last, 43, making 65 primary words (a large portion in an aboriginal language), of which there were 261 and 235
analogies, respectively, in the tribal tongues of Hindostan,—total, 496—all the proofs that glossarial connection can give, are adduced. The expressions denoting this glossarial connection I have termed “word-fossils,” for they indicate a race with as unerring an indication as the Graptolite, the Holyptichius, or the Stigmaria, point out those separate geological systems displayed in the Silurian, the Old Red Sandstone, and the Carboniferous, respectively, wherever spread on the face of the globe.
In these papers I have given more attention to the glossarial branch than to the ideological or phonetic, simply because I have found it to be the most unchanging, and, therefore, the best indicator of race affinity.
The Malay and Polynesian languages are compounding in their construction; the Malagasi is inflecting; yet, this peculiarity connects it with the Dravidic,—i.e., dialects of South Hindostan.
All have re-duplication in the construction of many words; and that most attenuated of the dialects, viz., Hawaiian, has triplication, and even quadruplication—such as, lelele, to leap; lelelele, to run off. The Polynesian dialects have dualism in their pronouns; a fact which I have not discovered in Malagasi or Malay.
The roots of the most simple primary words are vowels, the consonants being merely additions or acceptations, according to the genius of each dialect. That the consonants are transposible, as between tribe and tribe, we have seen many indications; and that they are even ever-changing in single tribes, we have the evidence of the Rev. S. J. Whitmee. He says,* the consonant k is found only in one word in Samoa (to wit,—in puke), adding, that to a person now for the first time visiting Samoa this would appear to be incorrect. He would hear k used by most of the natives in their ordinary conversation in place of t; but this is a recent change. In 1863, k was used only in the island Tutuila and in the eastern portion of Upolu; now, it is used all over the group. It is difficult to say how this change was commenced, but its spread has been noted, and every attempt has been made to arrest it, but without effect. Many of the natives are exceedingly careless and incorrect in the pronunciation of consonants, and even exchange or transpose them without confusion and almost unnoticed by their hearers,—as, manu for namu, a scent; lagogu for lagonu, to understand, etc.
Besides scrutinizing beyond Hindostan the dictionaries of the various races of Asia, Europe, and Africa, I have also carefully gone over numerous vocabularies of the aboriginal tribes in North and South America, and here also I have failed to detect the semblance of glossarial analogy. All philological evidence then turns to Hindostan, the Land of Barat, as the original
[Footnote] * Samoan Grammar.
seat of the Maori race. And here I may express a thought which has occurred to me, in conclusion,—that the native chiefs of New Zealand, while, by the treaty of Waitangi, they ceded and yielded up the sovereignty of their territories to the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland only forty-four years ago, now also, in her capacity as Empress of India, is she the Sovereign of their race by archaic connection from time immemorial, far preceding the age of history or of letters.