Art. XXXIII.—On the Fertilization, etc., of New Zealand Flowering Plants.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 11th May, 1880.]
The collection and examination of the flowering plants of this colony have occupied a good deal of my spare time during the last four or five years, and have enabled me to accumulate some materials for working out the various modes of fertilization which are to be found among them. These materials, even when made the most of, are however only sufficient to show how little is really known of this most interesting subject. In giving, then, the results of my imperfect observations, I do so in the form of a preliminary notice, which I trust will pave the way for fuller and more detailed work in the future. This subject of the fertilization of our flowering plants is necessarily so mixed up with the question of our insect fauna that I am led to unite the two to a certain extent, and show the relationship which exists between them.
At the risk of repeating to many here information which they already possess, I will—for the benefit of the uninitiated—shortly explain the phenomena of fertilization of flowering plants, as far as external manifestations are concerned. The sexual organs of such plants are contained in those parts of the flower termed, respectively, stamens and pistil. A stamen consists essentially of a 1-, 2-, or 4-celled cavity, called the anther (which may or may not be mounted on a stalk, or filament), and which contains, usually, a vast number of small, variously-shaped, cellular bodies, the pollen-grains, which either are themselves, or contain, the male fertilizing element. The pistil consists of a 1- or more-celled cavity, the ovary, containing ovules, in which the female element occurs. External to the ovary is a glandular portion (of extremely various shapes in various plants), termed the stigma, which at a certain stage of the development of the flower becomes viscid, and so fitted to catch and retain the pollen-grains. In some cases the stigma is on a stalk, the style, in others it is sessile. The pollen-grains, when in contact with and apparently excited by the viscid secretion of the stigma, produce very slender tubes which grow down and penetrate the ovary, and finding their way to the micropyles (or apertures)
of the ovules, bring about fertilization. Into this part of the subject I do not propose to enter, but will confine myself to the modes in which the pollen is transferred to the stigma. In a very large number of species, both stamens and pistil occur in the same flower, which is then said to be her maphrodite. In other species, the stamens and pistil are in separate flowers, which are then unisexual. Unisexual plants are monœcious when the staminate and pistillate flowers are on the same plant, as in Carex, etc., and diœcious when they are on different plants, as in Coprosma. Lastly, some plants, as manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), produce both hermaphrodite and unisexual flowers, and are then said to be polygamous.
At first sight it would seeem as if all hermaphrodite flowers were self fertilized, i. e. that the pollen from the anthers became transferred to the stigma of the same flower, and so brought about fertilization. On examination, however, it is found that this is not always the case; in fact it would seem not to be the case in a majority of instances. By a multiplicity of means and contrivances it happens that many hermaphrodite flowers cannot be self-fertilized, but are dependent upon the pollen of other flowers, which may be brought to them in various ways. Unisexual flowers of course are always dependent on other flowers for their fertilization. The two great agents which carry out this cross-fertilizing process are insects and the wind, and plants are termed entomophilous or anemophilous, according as they are dependent on one or the other agency. Some birds (chiefly tuis and honey-birds in New Zealand) aid in the process, but only seven or eight species of Otago flowers are fertilized by them. (The following are the species with which I am acquainted, which are thus visited and aided:—Clianthus puniceus, Sophora tetraptera, Metrosideros lucida, Fuchsia excorticata, etc. Loranthus colensoi (?), Dracophyllum longifolium occasionally, and Phormium tenax. Probably there are others.)
It is hardly worth while to discuss here and now the pros and cons of the theory first enunciated by Sprengel, but only fully explained by Darwin and his followers—that the characteristic features of each species of plant and animal have been acquired during a long “struggle for existence,” and are the result of the adaptation of the species to its environments. It is sufficient to affirm that it is now held by most biologists that the colour, odour, and honey of flowers are designed to attract insects, and have been produced in accordance with the law of the survival and accumulation of favourable variations. Other flowers not furnished with these means of attraction have been developed into their present forms by the gradual production of certain other characters favouring their fertilization by wind, until they have become strictly anemophilous. In New Zealand we seem to see the transition stage to this state of things taking place among some species.
In whatever manner flowers may be fertilized, it is now known that pollen from a flower on a different plant seems to produce more and larger seeds, from which spring finer and stronger plants, than result from fertilization by pollen of the same flower applied to its own pistil. Hence probably, to a certain extent at least, the advantages of, and tendency to, separation of the sexual organs, which is so common a phenomenon among New Zealand flowers.
A point worthy of notice among entomophilous flowers is this,—that not only have flowers become modified for fertilization by insects, but even by certain insects only. Thus some are suited for fertilization by Lepidoptera alone, others by Diptera, Hymenoptera, or Coleoptera only, while some are actually dependent on certain species of insects. This seems to be the case with several species of the long-nectaried orchids of the subtropical genus Angrœcum, and with Trifolium pratense (the common red clover), which is apparently only fertilized by long-trunked bees of the genus Bombus. But even the converse probably holds good, viz., that many insects have become modified in certain respects by their becoming to some extent dependent on certain species of flowers. Thus it can only be moths or butterflies with an extremely long proboscis which can obtain honey from the whip-like nectary of Angrœcum sesquipedale, which attains a length of eleven inches (though no species has yet been found which accomplishes this); and we can understand how completely dependent the flowers of this plant are upon such moths, and how the insects themselves must be advantaged in that no others can compete with them for this supply of food.
Among hermaphrodite flowers in which no special arrangement or contrivance exists for preventing self-fertilization, it does not follow that the pistils are always pollinated by the stamens which are included in the same perianth with them. Darwin* has pointed out that in very many plants the flowers of which are quite fertile with their own pollen, the pollen from other flowers is found to have a greater fertilizing power, and to produce fertilization of the ovules even after their own pollen has been scattered on the stigmas; so that the visits of pollen-carrying insects to such flowers are sure to be advantageous, even although not absolutely necessary for the production of seed. Hermaphrodite flowers show every gradation between perfect self-fertility, such as prevails in various species of Cruciferous and Caryophyllaceous plants, and absolute self-sterility, as in Oxalis magellanica, in which no seed is produced even after the stigma has been abundantly smeared with pollen from the adjacent anthers. This latter state of self-sterility is, however, attained in a variety of ways. Thus in some flowers, the anthers dehisce and scatter all their pollen before the stigmas are ready
[Footnote] * “Cross and Self-Fertilization of Plants,” p. 391.
to receive any—this occurs in Wahlenbergia, Gentiana, etc., and such flowers are functionally unisexual, and are said to be proterandrous. But all have not this character so fully developed, and every gradation may be noticed from complete proterandry to the opposite extreme. Thus in buttercups, the outer anthers commence to dehisce first, and the process extends from without inwards; but considerably before the inner anthers have dehisced the stigmas have become viscid. In Epilobium again, at least among New Zealand species, I have never been able to notice any difference of time between the maturing of the anthers and stigmas. Here cross-fertilization, when it takes place, will be chiefly accomplished through the prepotency of the pollen brought from other flowers by insect visitants. But this functional separation of the sexes is equally well accomplished by the opposite arrangement, viz., the maturing of the stigmas first, and the protrusion and dehiscence of the anthers only after the former have been pollinated and are withered up. This is very well exemplified in the various species of Coriaria (tutu). Such flowers are called proterogynous, while the term dichogamy is applied generally to the maturing of the sexual whorls at different times.
Another means of accomplishing the same end, viz., cross-fertilization, is attained by the occurrence of two or more forms of flowers in the same species (heterostylism.) Thus some species of Primula are dimorphic, having two forms, one with long style and short stamens, the other with short style and long stamens. Some few flowers are even trimorphic. For a more complete description of these forms I must refer to Darwin's work already quoted. I have not detected distinct heterostylism in any New Zealand plant as yet, though in some Pimeleas, Asperula, etc., I have found something very like it. Special structures of the perianth, or of the sexual whorls, serve to prevent self-fertilization among certain flowers, and to ensure their proper pollination, but these are so numerous and varied as to obtain only a passing notice here. I have detailed in the body of this paper the most conspicuous of these modes, as they are exemplified among New Zealand plants.
It is worthy of notice that entomophilous plants are usually furnished with flowers possessing, more or less markedly, the following characters:—(1.) Conspicuous appearance, attained in a variety of ways, viz., by individual size as in Clematis indivisa; aggregation into more or less dense clusters as in Rubus australis, and many of the Compositæ, etc.; or, brilliancy of colour as in our iron-wood, (Metrosideros lucida). (2) Fragrance. (3) Honey. Sometimes all three characteristics are present, as in certain of the wild roses of Europe, but as a general rule a principle of economy prevails, so that if any one attraction is present to a great extent, the others are usually wanting. Thus Clematis indivisa has very conspicuous flowers, but they
lack both scent and honey. Clematis fœtida is overpoweringly fragrant, but is not strikingly conspicuous and has no honey. Fuchsia excorticata and Phormium tenax are only partially conspicuous (as far as colour is concerned), have no scent, but produce great quantities of honey. Tupeia antarctica is very fragrant, and produces a comparative abundance of honey, but is extremely inconspicuous. Besides these three characteristics of attraction, we may note that entomophilous plants usually have comparatively small stigmas, and produce relatively a small quantity of pollen, and that both stigmas and anthers are so placed that it becomes difficult for insects to enter the flower without coming into contact with one or other. In some flowers there are also irritable organs, as in the lamellate stigmas of Mimulus, the stamens of Berberis, etc. Very few such contrivances have, however, been noticed among our local flowers.
Before leaving this part of the subject, it is interesting to note that several species produce both entomophilous and also strictly self-fertilized flowers. These latter are usually very inconspicuous (hence called cleistogamic), and are produced after the ordinary conspicuous flowers. I have already recorded their occurrence in the genus Viola,* and believe they also occur in Hypericum japonicum. I have not investigated the subject, but I think that all the winter-produced flowers of Trifolium minus, a very common introduced plant, are cleistogamic. Flowers of this kind have been recorded as occurring in the following genera, which are represented in New Zealand, though I have never found them in our species, viz.:—Oxalis, Drosera, Campanula (Wahlenbergia), Cuscuta, Thelymitra, Juncus, and Danthonia. Probably others have been recorded, which I have not noticed.
Among anemophilous plants, the following characteristics usually prevail:—(1) flowers usually inconspicuous and destitute of honey and fragrance, these being of no use to them; (2) the pollen usually light and powdery, and produced in great quantity in anthers which are generally so constructed as to be easily shaken; and (3) the stigmas of comparatively large size, greatly protruded and very papillose,—all characters favourable to the dispersion of the pollen by wind, and its transportation to and retention by the pistils.
Having noted shortly the means of fertilization among flowering plants, it may be asked,—How is the prevalent imperfection of our New Zealand flowers to be accounted for? That they are imperfect to a great degree (if separation of the sexes constitutes imperfection) is a fact well-known to botanists; perhaps in no others part of the world is this found to such an extent. Species, genera, and orders which are characterized by hermaphrodite flowers in other parts are frequently unisexual here. I am afraid
[Footnote] *“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XI., p. 415.
the question cannot be satisfactorily answered yet; our knowledge of the subject is of too fragmentary and incomplete a nature. Mr. A. R. Wallace, who may be considered one of the most leading authorities on such a question, concludes that the poverty of insect life here is one of the chief causes. He says*—and I must be pardoned for quoting his opinion at some length—“In New Zealand, where insects are so strikingly deficient in variety, the flora is almost as strikingly deficient in gaily-coloured blossoms. Of course there are some exceptions, but, as a whole, green, inconspicuous, and imperfect flowers prevail to an extent not to be equalled in any other part of the globe, and affording a marvellous contrast to the general brilliancy of Australian flowers, combined with the abundance and variety of its insect-life. We must remember, too, that the few gay or conspicuous flowering-plants possessed by New Zealand are almost all of Australian, South American, or European genera; the peculiar New Zealand or Antarctic genera being almost wholly without conspicuous flowers.‡ * * * The poverty of insect-life in New Zealand must, therefore, be a very ancient feature of the country; and it furnishes an additional argument against the theory of land-connection with, or even any near approach to, either Australia, South Africa, or South America. For in that case numbers of winged insects would certainly have entered, and the flowers would then, as in every other part of the world, have been rendered attractive by the development of coloured petals; and this character once acquired would long maintain itself, even if the insects had from some unknown cause subsequently disappeared.” “After the preceding paragraphs were written, it occurred to me that, if this reasoning were correct, New Zealand plants ought to be also deficient in scented flowers, because it is a part of the same theory that the odours of flowers have, like their colours, been developed to attract the insects required to aid in their fertilization. I therefore at once applied to my friend, Dr. Hooker, as the highest authority on New Zealand botany; simply asking whether there was any such observed deficiency. His reply was,—‘New Zealand plants are remarkably scentless, both in regard to the rarity of scented flowers, of leaves with immersed glands containing essential oils, and of glandular hairs.’ There are a few exceptional cases, but these seem even more rare than might be expected, so that the
[Footnote] * “The Geographical Distribution of Animals,” Vol. I., pp. 457–464.
[Footnote] ‡ The following exclusively New Zealand or Antarctic genera are surely exceptions: Notothlaspi (white), Hectorella (white), Hoheria (white), Entelea (white), Pennantia (white), Notospartium (pink), Ixerba (white), Stilbocarpa (yellowish), Corokia (yellow), Pleurophyllum (purple), Raoulia (white), Helophyllum (white), Colensoa (blue), Myosotidium blue), Rhabdothamnus (reddish), Earina (white and yellow), and Phormium (reddish). All these are more or less entomophilous.
confirmation of the theory is very complete. The circumstance that aromatic leaves are also very scarce, suggests the idea that these, too, serve as an attraction to insects. Aromatic plants abound most in arid countries and on alpine heights; both localities where winged insects are comparatively scarce, and where it may be necessary to attract them in every possible way.* Dr. Hooker also informs me, that since his ‘Introduction to the New Zealand Flora’ was written, many plants with handsome flowers have been discovered, especially among the Ranunculi, shrubby Veronicas, and herbaceous Compositæ. The two former, however, are genera of wide range, which may have originated in New Zealand by the introduction of plants with handsome flowers, which the few indigenous insects would be attracted by, and thus prevent the loss of their gay corollas; so that these discoveries will not much affect the general character of the flora, and its very curious bearing on the past history of the islands through the relations of flowers and insects.”
It is impossible to differ from this reasoning in toto, because the statements and facts on which it is founded are to a great extent correct, though in the light of more recent knowledge they require considerable modification. I do not see, however, that the imperfection alluded to, viz., the great tendency among our plants to sexual separation, is yet explained. It may help to solve the question if the proportions of the various kinds, forms, colours, etc., of our flowers be examined. The following numbers may be taken as approximately correct; they are drawn up from those species only which I have personally examined and noted:—
Total of Species Examined, 433.
Flowers conspicuous by themselves 131; over 30 per cent.
" " " association† ‡ 91; " 21 "
" " " inconspicuous‡ ‡ 211; nearly 49 "
If we take, now, the colours of the whole we find—White (142 sp.), nearly 33 per cent.; yellow (48 sp.), over 11 per cent.; red, of all shades (21 sp.), abou 5 per cent.; blue or purple (11 sp.), or about 2½ per cent.; the remainder being greenish, or inconspicuous.‡ ‡
In regard to the possession of fragrance, the numbers are—
Sweet scented 95 species; or nearly 22 per cent.
No scent perceptible 338 " " " 78 "
Those noted as being melliferous, or not
Possessing honey 189 species; over 43 "
Not having honey 244 " " 56 "
[Footnote] * Anyone who has botanized on our mountains must have been struck with the number and brilliancy of the flowers, mostly white (Celmisias, Raoulias, Ranunculi, Veronicas, etc.), which grow in such localities. Many fine insects are also confined to the mountains, however.
[Footnote] ‡ Includes all the (conspicuous) Compositæ.
[Footnote] ‡ Includes most of the lower Monocotyledons (Junceæ, Cyperaceæ, Gramineæ, etc.)
Always hermaphrodite, were noted 235 species; or 54 per cent.
" more or less unisexual* * 198 " nearly 46 "
Apparently self-fertile 208 " " 48 "
(This is a very doubtful approximation.)
Certainly entomophilous 102 species; or over 23 "
" anemophilous† ‡ 123 " nearly 29 "
Of the 235 hermaphrodite species, 87 sp., or 37 per cent., are proterandrous;* * 18 sp., or nearly 8 per cent., are proterogynous; while 130 sp., or 55 per cent., are not decidedly one or other.
If we take out the most prominent of these figures we shall see that a very large proportion of our plants are dependent on insect aid, more or less. While 23 and 29 per cent. respectively are solely dependent on insects and wind, the remaining 48 per cent. are put down as more or less self-fertile. But even of these it is probable that a large proportion have their fertilization aided if not exclusively effected by insects. Again, no less than 51 per cent. have conspicuous flowers, while had I excluded from these results the large, inconspicuously-flowered orders of Gramineæ, Cyperaceæ, etc., the average of this class would have stood very much higher. Of course it is a good deal a matter of private judgment and opinion as to how large a flower or flower-cluster must be before it merits the term conspicuous. I have included under this head such flowers as Cardamine, Oxalis, Geranium, etc., because, though small, they are very readily seen; but I have excluded the large solitary Pterostylis, and the dull clusters of Fagus, Griselinia, etc., which are of too green a hue to be readily distinguished. But again it must be remembered that a flower may be conspicuous enough to an insect, even if not so to us. The fragrant-flowered plants only amount to 22 per cent., and the honey-producing to 43 per cent. of the whole, but here it is to be said that flowers do not produce honey and are not fragrant at all stages of their development. It is probable that the secretions which serve to attract insects are only produced under certain conditions of weather, temperature, etc., which we are at present ignorant of; and when the various sexual whorls are at a proper condition to receive or benefit by the visits of insects. My numbers, therefore, in these two last items are probably considerably under the mark. Here, again, it may be noted that a flower may be possessed of a kind or an amount of fragrance which is not appreciable to our olfactory nerves, though it may be to those of an insect. This remark applies particularly to the Diptera, which, as an order, have probably attained the greatest perfection in this respect. Everyone must be aware of the marvellous power of scent possessed by the ordinary blue-flies, for example, and the faculty is, no doubt, fairly well developed in the flower-visiting species also.
[Footnote] * Includes all the (conspicuous) Compositæ.
[Footnote] ‡ Includes most of the lower Monocotyledons (Junceæ, Cyperaceæ, Gramineæ, etc.)
It may also be pointed out that with regard to the two hundred and thirty-five species of hermaphrodite flowers examined, there are several (Oxalis magellanica being a good example) which appear quite capable of self-fertilization, but are in reality self-sterile.
Having now considered the flowering plants, I would shortly draw attention to what is known as to the relations of our insects to them. As far as I can make out, this amounts to very little. One thing is clear, however, viz., that the prevalent impression as to the poverty of insect life here (as it is expressed in Wallace's work), is not quite correct. Certain prominent classes of insects are very poorly represented, both in species and individuals, but others almost make up for them. Mr. Wallace's figures are in this respect misleading, not from error on his part, but owing to the immense number of new forms which have been described since his work was published. I give shortly the approximate number of species of the various orders of insects, as far as they are known at present. I am indebted for this part of my subject—and I would thankfully acknowledge it here—to Capt. Broun, Prof. Hutton, and Messrs. W. Colenso and R. Fereday, who have given me valuable information regarding those orders which they have respectively examined. Mr. Wallace's figures are subjoined for comparison.
Of butterflies, Lepidoptera, only 18 species (A. R. W., 11 sp.) are known, but of moths (not mentioned by Wallace) several hundreds are described in numerous publications, while probably half as many more are undescribed. These latter insects are also extremely numerous in individuals, and many of our flowers (as Leucopogon, etc.) appear to be exclusively fertilized by them. Of Coleoptera about 1300 species are now described (A.R.W., 300). Of these a great number are not flower-visitants, but others again are greatly concerned in this work of flower-fertilization. I quote with pleasure here some extracts from a memorandum on the subject which Captain Broun kindly furnished me with:—“Of the family Palpicornes, two genera—Hydrobius and Philhydrus—consist of water-loving species as is usual in other countries; but one peculiar New Zealand genus, Rygmodus, of six species, is of quite abnormal habits. One, R. modestus, which is commonly found on the inflorescence of Brachyglottis repanda, Cordyline banksii, etc., has finely spinous legs, and, though somewhat metallic above, is hairy underneath. It undoubtedly plays an important part in the fertilization of flowers, a remarkable trait in the case of an insect belonging to that family—I think the only instance known to science. Most of the others are rare, and though described by me were found by other collectors, so that I cannot speak authoritatively as to their habits; I suspect, however, that all frequent plants. * * * Of the Melolonthidæ,
the pretty Pyronota festiva, metallic above, hairy below, is found in profusion on the inflorescence of Leptospermums. * * * The Buprestidæ (A.R.W., 1 sp.) and Elateridæ (A.R.W., about 12 species) about 80 species, are wood-feeders in the larval state, but when perfect insects occasionally visit flowers. Nearly all the Dascillidæ do so too, and must, being hairy, render important services. * * * All the Melandryadæ and Mordelliæ frequent flowering shrubs; one insect—Selenopalpus cyaneus—is never found away from them, chiefly ti-tree (Cordyline australis); but I once noticed numbers of this species on grass when in blossom. The Curculionidæ, an extensive family, in most cases having scaly or hairy clothing, to a great extent aid the seeding of flowers. The species of Eugnomus are very partial to the lawyer (Rubus australis) when in bloom. Altogether about 40 species of the Erirhinidæ may be found on most of the indigenous flowering shrubs. Apion metrosideros confines itself almost exclusively to the pohutukawa (Metrosideros tomentosa). Oropterus coniger lives entirely on the native fuchsia (F. excorticata) The Longicornia are wood-feeders, but often visit flowers. Zorion minutum confines itself almost exclusively to flowers. Some, but not all the Phytophaga, are found on flowering plants. Arnomus brouni, though very rare, is generally found on Leptospermum; 11 species of the genus Colaspis (A.R.W., 2 sp.), usually found in abundance, frequent the inflorescence of many shrubs.” It will be noticed from these quotations that Captain Broun's observations are made on North Island plants. Had we similar observations continuously made on the flora of other parts, and particularly of mountain districts, we should soon be able to solve many problems which are very obscure at present. Hymenoptera (A.R.W., only a score of species) are very poorly represented, the only flower-visitants being 10 species of bees. The Orthoptera probably do not visit flowers; but many of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera do, only as no attempt has been systematically made to catalogue them yet, I am in utter ignorance as to the number of species. Prof. Hutton informs me that the following flower-visiting species are very abundant in individuals, viz., Anubis vittatus, Rhopalimorpha obscura, Nysius huttoni, and N. zealandicus. The most important flower-visiting order in New Zealand is probably, however, the Diptera (not noticed by Wallace). Only about 100 species have been described, but this, Prof. Hutton informs me, is probably only about one-tenth of the whole number. As far as I can make out, the Diptera depend chiefly on scent in their search for food, and certainly this would explain the fact of their being the sole fertilizers of many inconspicuous or green flowers, as Tupeia antarctica and various species of Pterostylis, etc. I was formerly of opinion that the part apparently taken by the New Zealand Diptera in this work of fertilization was quite an exceptional case, and that
here they performed the work done by bees and butterflies in other countries; but a short and suggestive letter by H. Müller in “Nature” (Vol. XXI., p. 275) shows that among alpine (European) flowers generally Diptera come next in importance to Lepidoptera as flower-visitants, while among lowland flowers they are only exceeded by the Hymenoptera. In the absence of any more definite information on the subject, I would only advance it as a suggestion that here Diptera will be found to be by far the most numerous class of flower-fertilizers. In concluding this introductory portion of my paper, I would point out that my observations do not extend to many of our purely mountain forms, among which are to be found some of the finest flowers in New Zealand.
I now give in detail the results of my investigations on a number of our flowering plants. These deal chiefly with their mode of fertilization, but include some other points which have been noted as well.
Nat. Ord. Ranunculaceæ.
Of this order only two genera are represented in this part of Otago, and these by a few species.
All the New Zealand species of Clematis are hermaphrodite or unisexual in structure, but all are diœcious in function. The male flowers are furnished with stamens only, without any trace of carpels, while the female flowers have a row of stamens surrounding the mass of carpels, but these have abortive anthers which never appear to produce pollen.
Clematis indivisa and hexasepala depend solely on the size and brilliancy of their large white flowers, which are always displayed in most conspicuous situations. They appear to be destitute of scent and honey, and though apparently suited only for insect-fertilization, I have never seen them regularly visited. As is usually the case in entomophilous diœcious plants, the male flowers are larger and brighter than the female, which have more or less of a greenish hue. While the former are usually two to three inches in diameter, the latter seldom exceed one inch and a half.
Clematis fœtida, grossly misnamed by Raoul. This is a much lower-growing, altogether humbler, plant than the first-named, and its flowers are only a little over half an inch in diameter. They are greenish-yellow in colour, and tolerably conspicuous from their number; but their chief attraction lies in their overpoweringly strong perfume. I have never found honey in them.
Of the genus Ranunculus I have observed six species, viz., R. sinclairii, R. plebeius, R. lappaceus, R. macropus, R. rivularis, and R. acaulis. These species are all hermaphrodite, nor have I detected a trace of abortion in their parts. All appear also to be more or less proterandrous, and to be furnished with a scale-like nectary on the petals. This is better
developed in the larger and brighter flowered species such as R. lappaceus, than in such as R. acaulis, while in some forms of R. plebeius, in which the petals are much reduced both in size and number, it shares the same fate, and is nearly rudimentary. I believe all these species are self-fertile, but as they are frequently visited by insects they will often be crossed by pollen of other flowers. Specimens of R. plebeius grown by me under bell-jars, and carefully excluded from the visits of insects and from currents of air, have produced abundance of large and fine capsules.
Nat. Ord. Magnoliaceæ.
Drimys axillaris, the common form of pepper-tree in this part, is certainly not D. colorata, Raoul, as described in the appendix to the “Handbook of the Flora of New Zealand,” p. 724, but agrees completely with the description of D. axillaris as given at p. 10 of that work.
I have never been able to make out satisfactorily its mode of fertilization. The flowers are hermaphrodite and quite inconspicuous, being small and greenish-coloured, and almost solitary on the branches, where they occur nearly hidden on the under-side. They do not seem fitted in any way for insect-fertilization, and yet, from the sparingness with which they produce fruit, I can hardly think them self-fertilized. They are destitute of scent and honey, but produce a considerable amount of pollen.
Nat. Ord. Cruciferæ.
I have examined the following—Nasturtium palustre, Sisymbrium novœ-zealandiœ, and Cardamine hirsuta—and find nothing which would lead me to think them only cross-fertilized. The last named is perfectly self-fertile, isolated plants under bell-jars producing abundance of good seed, and the same probably applies to the other New Zealand species, these being all occasionally crossed by insects.
Nat. Ord. Violarieæ.
Two species of Viola are common, viz., V. filicaulis and V. cunninghamii but the structure of their flowers is similar. As has been already pointed out,* * these produce two kinds of flowers, the ordinary showy form, and —later on in the season—an inconspicuous (cleistogamic) form. The ordinary flowers are white, more or less streaked with blue or purple, and these streaks act as guiding lines to the few insects which visit the flowers, being all on the large lower petal, and converging towards its base. The anthers are connate, and the contained pollen, being of a rather dry or mealy consistence, falls out of the nodding flowers very easily. The short spur contains a little honey, which could not be well reached by an insect without disturbing the anthers; and the stigma is so placed as to be in the way of any insect entering the flower. In his
[Footnote] * “Trans, N. Z. Inst.” Vol. XI., p. 415.
work on “British Wild Flowers in relation to Insects,” Sir John Lubbock gives a memorandum of Mr. Darwin's on the fertilization of V. tricolor, the common heartsease or wild pansy, which is applicable, to a great extent, to the whole genus. He remarks how rare it is to see any insect visiting the flowers, and how he watched many times daily in a fortnight before he saw a single bee visiting a certain clump of heartsease. I have myself repeatedly watched patches of our violets, and have never seen them visited by any insect.
Species of thrips are to be found in these flowers—as, indeed, in most flowers—and Mr. Bennett considers that the fertilization of V. tricolor is due to this insect. It seems to me, however, that this view must be erroneous. Thrips is an insect which lives in the flower it frequents, feeding probably on the pollen, and only flying to other flowers to lay its eggs in them. In the course of its running about inside a flower, it probably frequently carries pollen from the anthers to the stigma, but this would only bring about self-fertilization, whereas the flowers are specially constructed to avoid this. Even where several flowers are crowded together in the same inflorescence, if the pollen of each was distributed to others, the fertilization—if it took place—would not be that of a true cross.
I have not verified, experimentally, whether the ordinary flowers of both our violets are self-fertile, but from the fact of frequently finding withered flowers in which the ovaries showed no signs of enlargement, I think it improbable that they are. I have never been able to detect any scent in the flowers of either V. filicaulis or V. cunninghamii.
The genus Melicytus contains four New Zealand species, all of which occur in Otago, but I have only examined two of them. The name of the genus—literally, honey-cavity—suggests the occurrence of abundant nectar. This is secreted by the so-called scale at the back of each anther. This is a thick succulent club-shaped organ, on the apex of which a bead of honey is produced. The flowers are polygamous, ranging from perfect unisexuality to complete hermaphroditism. The male flowers occasionally have imperfect pistils, though the total want of the pistil is commoner. The female flowers, on the contrary, seem always to be furnished with stamens, though the anthers are frequently abortive, and the reason of this may be the adaptation of part of the anther for the secretion of honey.
M. ramiflorus produces enormous numbers of flowers of a greenish-yellow hue, conspicuous by their mass, fragrant and abundantly supplied with nectar. These cannot be wind-fertilized growing as they do in dense bush where the wind can hardly affect them, and having somewhat waxy pollen.
M. lanceolatus has relatively larger flowers, and they are individually more conspicuous, being yellowish in their lower part, and having the
recurved portion of their petals purplish. Like those of the preceding species, they are crowded chiefly along the under-sides of the branches, but are even more hidden by the foliage. They are sweet-scented, and contain abundant nectar.
Nat. Ord. Pittosporeæ.
About twelve species of Pittosporum occur in New Zealand, and two of these are common in the east of Otago.
P. tenuifolium, belonging to the section of the genus having solitary flowers, is a very handsome little tree. Its flowers are a good deal hidden by the foliage, but are tolerably conspicuous, the petals being bright purple when first expanded, and gradually deepening in colour as they begin to wither. As soon as the flower opens the stigma is seen to be viscid, and it remains so long after the pollen is shed. The base of the ovary is hairy, and between it and the filaments small beads of honey are secreted. The object of the hairs is probably to prevent any insects reaching the honey except those which are furnished with a proboscis. The pollen is very coherent, and not easily shaken from the anthers. The flowers have no perceptible fragrance.
P. eugenioides, according to Hooker, is more or less diœcious, though the numerous specimens I have examined were invariably hermaphrodite. The flowers are produced in large corymbs, which are very conspicuous, and they are extremely fragrant, and secrete a quantity of honey between the bases of the ovary and filaments. In many cases, when opening, the anthers are found dehiscing almost on the viscid stigma, to which some of the pollen-grains adhere. In this way probably the flowers are often fertilized, while their attractions to insects are so numerous as almost to ensure cross-fertilization.
Nat. Ord. Caryophylleæ.
The order is represented by four genera—Gypsophila, Stellaria, Colobanthus, and Spergularia. Our species are probably all self-fertilized, the only doubtful one being Stellaria roughii, a mountain form with large green flowers. The others have small, and, in some cases (Colobanthus), perfectly inconspicuous flowers, destitute of colour, scent, or honey.
Nat. Ord. Portulaceæ.
Claytonia australasica has small, white flowers, which are, however, relatively very large when compared with the size of the whole plant. They are tolerably conspicuous, have a little honey at their base, and are distinctly proterandrous, the divisions of the style being stigmatic on their inner faces only, and these remaining closed until the pollen is scattered.
Nat. Ord. Hypericineæ.
Two species of Hypericum are found in New Zealand, and both occur in Otago.
H. gramineum has very bright, golden-yellow flowers, which are, however, destitute of smell, and also, I believe, of honey. The numerous stamens do not dehisce all at once, but one after another, and they produce a great quantity of pollen. H. japonicum has its fully-formed flowers very similar to the other species, but much smaller. It is remarkable, however, for producing besides a set of flowers in which the capacity for self-fertilization is so complete that they have almost become cleistogamic. There is no true abortion, but only great diminution of the corolla and stamens, and the flowers produce seed without having ever opened. It appears to me that we have here a case of variation going on. Probably the examination of a large series of specimens would show that some had acquired complete cleistogamy. I think both species of Hypericum are self-fertilized by the withering and curling-in of the petals, which thus smear the stigmas with pollen, if they have not previously been crossed by insects.
Nat. Ord. Malvaceæ.
This order is represented by three genera—Plagianthus, Hoheria, and Hibiscus, but only the first two occur in Otago.
Plagianthus divaricatus is a low shrub, occurring abundantly on the muddy shores at the head of Otago harbour. It is strictly diœcious, the male flowers having no trace of a pistil, and the female being furnished with rudimentary stamens, which produce no pollen. The former are much more numerously produced, and are, therefore, more conspicuous than the latter. They produce little or no honey, but to make up for their small size they are extremely fragrant.
P. betulinus is also strictly diœcious. The male flowers are produced in dense panicles, which are whitish-yellow in colour, and are thus very conspicuous; they have no trace of a pistil. The pistillate flowers are in lax panicles, are much more sparingly produced, and, from their greenish colour, are rather inconspicuous. The style is surrounded at its base by a ring of abortive stamens, and the stigma is a wide flattened expansion, proportionally large to the rest of the flower. Both kinds of flowers are very fragrant, and produce honey, the female in this latter respect being better provided than the male.
I have not had an opportunity for years of examining P. lyallii, the flowers of which are very large and white.
Hoheria populnea produces great masses of pure white flowers. These are quite hermaphrodite, and appear to depend for their crossing almost entirely on their conspicuousness. They have neither scent nor honey, nor do they appear to be at all dichogamous.
Nat. Ord. Tiliaceæ.
There are three genera of this order in New Zealand: viz., Entelea (not found in Otago), Aristotelia and Elœocarpus.
Aristotelia racemosa is very abundant, and is interesting from the perfect gradation which it exhibits between true male flowers having no trace of a pistil and true female flowers quite destitute of even the rudiments of stamens, and between these and true hermaphrodite flowers having the full complement of both stamens and carpels. The flowers are produced in great numbers, the male particularly, so that the bushes are bright red with them. They have no perceptible fragrance, and no honey, and the pollen is of so light and friable a nature that I think they must be almost entirely anemophilous, though perhaps assisted in their fertilization by insects. They grow, also, on the edges, or in more open parts of the bush, where they are not shut off from access of wind.
Aristotelia fruticosa is one of those extremely variable species which I think are at the present time undergoing rapid modification into distinct forms. Sir J. D. Hooker states, in the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” that he has made four varieties, “but they seem to be states determined by age and exposure, rather than hereditary races.” I have, however, gathered three very distinct forms growing all together, which makes me consider them as incipient species. As in A. racemosa, the flowers of this species are polygamous, but being much smaller and more sparingly produced it is difficult to say how they are fertilized. I could detect neither scent nor honey. At the same time the flowers have not the loosely-hung anthers, nor the very prominent stigmas, which characterize the majority of wind-fertilized plants.
Elœocarpus hookerianus seems to be fitted for insect-fertilization. The flowers are greenish-white and drooping, but very conspicuous by their abundance. They appear to be strictly hermaphrodite, but are proterandrous. Though destitute of fragrance they produce a great deal of honey, which is probably secreted by the circle of glands surrounding the base of the stamens.
Nat. Ord. Linaceæ.
Linum monogynum is the commonest representative, and is a very variable plant as to the size of its leaves and flowers. I have not been able, however, to detect distinct dimorphism, which is so characteristic of some European forms, nor have I seen the minute honey-glands, such as occur in L. usitatissimum. The flowers are pure white, scentless, but, as far as I can make out, sterile with their own pollen. Examination of more specimens, and cultivation, would throw more light on this plant. I have not been able to examine L. marginale, which occurs sparingly in the neighbourhood of Dunedin.
Nat. Ord. Geraniaceæ.
Of the genus Geranium, four species are common, but I have only examined two, viz., G. microphyllum, and G. molle. The latter has been
described in Lubbock's work already quoted, and the former agrees well with it in its fertilization. The outer anthers commence to open first while the stigmas are still immature and closely pressed together. But before the pollen is all discharged the stigmatic surfaces expand, though they only reach maturity after the anthers are emptied.
Pelargonium I have not examined.
Oxalis is represented by two common species, which differ very much in their habitat, O. magellanica being found in damp woods, and mountain bogs and streams, while O. corniculata affects dry, sunny localities. O. magellanica has white scentless flowers. Of its ten stamens, five are long, equalling the style in height, and five are considerably shorter. The anthers of the latter dehisce first, usually a couple of days before those of the long stamens. The flowers when first open stand nearly erect, but the peduncle gradually bends down, until by the time the petals are withering they are completely pendulous. By this time the petals gradually cohere together and close into a kind of cylinder, which in falling off smears the stigmas with pollen. I was at first of opinion that the flowers were thus self-fertilized, in the event of their not being crossed, but having cultivated a large number of plants under glass, I found that all the flowers produced were sterile, not a single capsule having set.
The closely allied European wood-sorrel (O. acetosella) produces cleistogamic flowers, but I have never found any on our New Zealand species.
O. corniculata. The brilliant little yellow flowers of this species contain a good deal of honey, and only display themselves on sunny days, which makes me conclude that they are dependent on insects for fertilization, but I have not been able to examine them minutely.
Nat. Ord. Rutaceæ.
Melicope simplex, the only representative of the order in Otago, is an abundant shrub. Its flowers are more or less unisexual, the male having no pistil, and the females having a full complement of stamens, but with abortive anthers. The flowers have little or no honey, but are sweet-scented. They are not, however, individually conspicuous, nor are they produced in large masses, and are therefore, I think, entirely dependent for fertilization upon the numerous small Diptera which so commonly frequent the edge of the bush.
Nat. Ord. Olacineæ.
Pennantia corymbosa is entirely dependent on insects for fertilization. The flowers are usually diœcious in function though hermaphrodite in structure; but in the male flowers the ovary is only represented by a rudiment, while in the female the anthers are abortive. They are pure white, produced in great quantity, and are very fragrant; I have seen no honey.
Nat. Ord. Rhamneæ.
Our only local representative is the abundant Discaria toumatou. The flowers of this plant are small, green, and hermaphrodite, and produced in considerable numbers along the under-side of the branches. Though inconspicuous, I believe they are chiefly or altogether insect-fertilized. Their fragrance is overpoweringly strong, and they produce a very large quantity of honey, besides which the stamens mature a little before the stigma.
Nat. Ord. Coriarieæ.
All three species of Coriaria are common in the neighbourhood of Dunedin (C. angustissima at elevations of about 2,000 feet), and their mode of fertilization is extremely interesting. According to the “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora,” the flowers of the genus are hermaphrodite, but in at least two of our species they are polygamous. They are all anemophilous.
C. ruscifolia appears always to be hermaphrodite. The flowers are very markedly proterogynous, the stigmas withering completely before the anthers dehisce. The flowers are produced in great abundance, but are green, small, and destitute of honey or scent. (The green colour is to a considerable extent relieved by red in the first stage of flowering, when the stigmas are expanded). The stigmas are relatively large and very papillose, and protrude to a considerable extent. When the stamens are mature, the anthers dangle out at the end of very slender filaments, while the pollen is very light and incoherent.
C. thymifolia and C. angustissima agree almost exactly in their flowers. These are sometimes hermaphrodite in structure as in C. ruscifolia, in which case they are as distinctly proterogynous. But more frequently the parts are more or less wanting, so that we find truly male and truly female flowers, with every intermediate stage to complete hermaphroditism.
Altogether it seems unlikely that they are visited by insects, but everything points to their being fertilized by the wind.
Nat. Ord. Leguminosæ.
Out of the nine species of Carmichœlia, described in the “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora,” I have only examined C. flagelliformis. The flowers are very distinctly marked, but, being small and isolated, are not conspicuous. They are, however, very fragrant, and contain quite a considerable amount of honey. The anthers dehisce as soon as the flowers open.
Clianthus puniceus. This beautiful flower is only found in cultivation in the South Island, and seems to be chiefly fertilized by birds (tuis, korimakos, etc.) The extremity of the style generally protrudes from the flower before it fully expands; only the tip of it is stigmatic, and it is furnished on its lower (outer) side with a brush of hairs. The anthers dehisce before the flowers open, and, as the latter are pendulous, the pollen falls down
towards the apex of the carina, and lodges on the hairs of the style. As soon as the vexillum opens, it curves completely backwards; an arrangement which tends to make the flower more prominent and conspicuous than it would otherwise be. The carina opens about the middle, the two petals diverging slightly at that part, opposite to the anthers of the shorter stamens; in their upper part they remain in contact with each other, their edges slightly folded together, so as to hold the style and enclosed pollen firmly. The flowers are scentless, but the cup-like calyx contains a large drop of honey. It is this delicacy which attracts the honey-birds, which search the flowers with great diligence. In inserting their heads into the flowers, they push back the carina with considerable force; this retains its hold of the style for a time, until the pressure is too great, when the latter is jerked forward by its own elasticity, and throws out the accumulated pollen on the intruder's head. The filaments of the stamens are normally so long as to exceed the carina, but many of them are bent completely back for part of their length. I am not aware what is the use or object of such an arrangement.
Sophora tetraptera. This is another species chiefly visited by honeybirds. It usually flowers very early with us—from July to September—at which time of year there are very few insects about. Like the last-named species, this has very conspicuous pendulous flowers, which are hardly papilionaceous however; they are not sweet-scented, but contain a quantity of honey in the cup of the calyx. The style projects a considerable distance beyond the stamens, and rather out of their line, while only the extreme point is stigmatic. I have no idea whether this species and Clianthus puniceus are self-fertile or not, but they are certainly well-fitted for cross-fertilization by the numerous birds which visit them.
Nat. Ord. Rosaceæ.
This order, like the last, is very poorly represented in these islands, being represented by only four genera and ten species, of which latter two are cosmopolitan. Some of its species, however, are remarkable for the contrivances which enable them to wage a very successful warfare with their neighbours,—the Rubus with its powerful recurved spines, and some species of Acœna with their singular barbed bristles developed from the calyx-lobes, being pre-eminent in this respect.
Rubus australis is invariably diœcious, a fact which Hooker, in the “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora,” appears not to have noticed, or to have overlooked. I have examined great numbers of flowers for several years past, and have never found even a trace of hermaphroditism. I do not know whether this character holds throughout New Zealand; I have occasionally found that certain species of plants which produce hermaphro-
dite flowers in one locality, produce diœcious flowers in another part, where the conditions are different.
In the species under consideration the flowers are produced in great conspicuous panicles, and are not only powerfully sweet-scented, but also contain a quantity of honey. As in almost all such cases, the male flowers are much larger and whiter than the female, which have a greenish hue, and are more sparingly produced. They have also a much wider and flatter disc, so that insects lighting on them turn round and round, smearing the under surfaces of their bodies with pollen. In lighting on the female flowers the same process is repeated, the stigmas of the carpels being brushed over by the under-surfaces of their bodies. The stamens expand from without inwards, the outer anthers being often empty before the inner ones have commenced to dehisce, so that the supply of pollen is kept up for some days.
These flowers seem to be chiefly visited by hairy Diptera of the size and form of a common house-fly, but of which I do not know the species.
Potentilla anserina has very conspicuous bright yellow flowers, which, however, only expand fully in sunshine. Sir J. Lubbock states that the species of this genus have the stigma arriving at maturity before the stamens, so that cross-fertilization generally takes place. I have never been able to detect any difference of such a nature. The honey, as he further states, is secreted in a thin layer, not in drops. The flowers are faintly sweet-scented.
Geum urbanum is stated by Sir J. Lubbock to be melliferous. I have not examined it.
Acœna sanguisorbœ has its flowers clustered into small heads. They are distinctly protorogynous, and, when the stamens expand, they do so one after another. From their inconspicuousness, want of scent, and large papillose stigmas, I am inclined to think that they are wind-fertilized.
Nat. Ord. Saxifrageæ.
Carpodetus serratus, belonging to the tribe Escallonieæ, is apparently dependent altogether on insects. The flowers are conspicuous and very fragrant; they produce a large amount of honey, and are distinctly proterandrous.
Weinmannia racemosa, belonging to the tribe Cunonieæ, has also very conspicuous sweet-scented and melliferous flowers. I have not noticed whether they are also proterandrous.
Both these species are hermaphrodite.
Nat. Ord. Crassulaceæ.
This order is only represented in New Zealand by five species of Tillœa, three of which occur in this neighbourhood. Of these T. sinclairii and T. verticillaris have extremely minute flowers. T. moschata has also very
small flowers, but they are apparently strongly sweet-scented, and secrete honey. The stamens dehisce before the stigma is matured, so that their fertilization is probably aided by insects.
Nat. Ord. Droseraceæ.
The extremely interesting genus Drosera is represented by six species in New Zealand, all of which occur in this island, and of which I have gathered four. I regret having been unable to get them in sufficiently good flower to notice their mode of fertilization. They do not seem to open their flowers very freely, which fact alone has often led me to think that they are chiefly self-fertilized.
All our species catch and digest insects, and in fact are known in some districts by the name of “Fly-catchers.”
D. stenopetala, which I have gathered at Port Pegasus, Stewart Island, where it is abundant, seems to be remarkably well fitted for this work, the hairs on its spathulate leaves being unusually long, and bearing very large glands.
D. arcturi, which grows in bogs on the summit of Maungatua, seems in its native habitat seldom to catch insects, but this is attributed by me to the fact of its being often submerged in wet weather. The leaves are from one to three inches long, and rather narrow-spathulate; the marginal glands are on pedicels about .05 inch long, those on the surface of the blade being much shorter, and interspersed with glandular papillæ. These glands all showed the aggregation of the protoplasm as mentioned in Darwin's “Carnivorous Plants,” when acted on by dilute ammoniacal solutions.
I experimented on various leaves by supplying them with small fragments of raw meat and insects. I did not weigh the portions of meat, as I was not particular as to the exact results, but selected them of various sizes, from the size of a pin's-head to pieces as large as a full-sized grain of wheat. In each case the meat was seized by the tentacles (or marginal hairs) in from two to twenty-four hours, those nearest bending first towards it, and by the latter time the colour was generally bleached out of it. The process of absorption lasted from four days to as much as eight for the larger pieces, the meat all the time having a pearly-white appearance, and being bathed in clear liquid, which sometimes accumulated to such an extent as to run down the blade and petiole. In experimenting with insects I placed four full-sized rose Aphides on each leaf, and found that on an average they were completely disposed of in about three days, usually not a trace of them remaining. Only those glands in the immediate vicinity of the insects appeared to be concerned in the process. These results were obtained on strong, healthy leaves. Very young leaves seemed easily
sickened by an overdose of meat, while older ones sometimes did not begin to act for two or three days.
Drosera spathulata, like the last, is a very low-growing plant, and in wet weather is frequently submerged. In dry weather, however, it is often seen to have insects adhering to its leaves, the bright red colour probably attracting them. The leaves are very small, and have not such powerful tentacles as D. arcturi, but the blades are broader, and when bent form a more perfect cup than the trough-like shape assumed by those of the other species. These gave similar results to the last recorded, being of course supplied with proportionally small supplies of food.
D. binata, as well as the last-mentioned species, is referred to in Darwin's work already alluded to. Its leaves are quite different in form to the spathulate-leaved species, but they are equally active in their power of absorbing nitrogenous materials. In the native state this plant almost always has insects, seeds, etc., etc., adhering to its tentacles, and this may be chiefly due to its erect habit and bright-red colour.
Nat. Ord. Halorageæ.
My observations on the genus Haloragis are very imperfect. The flowers are mostly unisexual, and from their inconspicuous appearance and want of scent are apparently anemophilous. In the smaller species, H. depressa and H. micrantha, the relatively large plumose stigmas point to the same conclusion.
Myriophyllum is also apparently anemophilous. The plants are usually monœcious, having female flowers in the axils of the lower leaves, and male flowers higher up. This is the case in all the specimens of M. variœfolium and M. pedunculatum examined by me.
Gunnera monoica and G. densiflora are certainly anemophilous. The male flowers are produced on erect peduncles which stand usually well up from the leaves; the female flowers on the contrary, which are very inconspicuous, are in almost sessile clusters and are greatly buried by the leaves.
Callitriche verna also has monœcious (or diœcious) very imperfect flowers, and is probably similarly fertilized. All the species named of this order have powdery pollen.
Nat. Ord. Myrtaceæ.
This order is fairly well represented in New Zealand, which possesses four genera, including some seventeen species; of these only a few occur in Otago.
Leptospermum scoparium is remarkable for the polygamous character of the flowers, and is the only plant, as far as I know, which departs from the normal hermaphroditism of the order. It would be of interest to ascertain whether it is truly hermaphrodite in Australia. The flowers are sweet-scented and secrete a quantity of honey. They are also very conspicuous,
those which are only staminate in structure being both larger and whiter than hermaphrodite or female flowers. The most singular fact about the plants is that the same branch will produce different kinds of flowers, and that frequently the lower part of a branch will bear the previous year's capsules while the upper part is covered with male flowers only. All stages of hermaphroditism and polygamy occur in this species, which seems absolutely dependent on insect aid for its fertilization.
L. ericoides bears smaller flowers than the preceding, and all that I have observed were hermaphrodite. They are also fragrant and melliferous, and are probably aided in their fertilization by insects.
Metrosideros lucida, the rata or iron-wood of Otago, is one of the most gorgeous plants in New Zealand. Like most of the very conspicuous plants of the genus, it owes its brilliancy to the long tassels of crimson stamens in each flower. The flowers are destitute of scent, but secrete a quantity of honey. They are invariably hermaphrodite, but are probably aided in their fertilization by the numerous tuis and honey-birds which frequent them for the sake of their honey.
M. hypericifolia, a smaller species which climbs on the trunks of trees, is much less inconspicuous than the former. Its flowers are smaller, white, pink or crimson, with much shorter and less conspicuous stamens, but these disadvantages are counterbalanced by the abundance of honey produced, and its fragrance. It is sometimes visited by birds, but more probably by large Diptera.
Myrtus obcordata and M. pedunculata have nearly similar flowers, and are apparently dependent chiefly on insect-aid. Though not produced in great quantity, they are white and tolerably conspicuous, very fragrant, and distinctly proterandrous. I have not observed any honey in them.
Nat. Ord. Onagrarieæ.
The genus Fuchsia is usually considered to have three representative species in New Zealand, viz., F. excorticata, F. colensoi, and F. procumbens, but I should really consider them as two widely different forms, with a great many intermediate gradations. They all agree, however, in the peculiarity of their flowers which I am about to describe, and which I am rather astonished has not been noticed before. Each of these kinds is dimorphic, possessing two very distinct forms of flowers.
The larger form of flower is green and purple, an inch to an inch and a half long, stout, and with exserted anthers. These produce abundance of brilliant blue pollen, which is tied together in a remarkable manner by slender threads. These flowers are hermaphrodite in function as well as in structure, but the stigma matures before the anthers, so that cross-fertilization must often take place.
The other form of flower is much smaller, seldom exceeding five-eighths of an inch in length, pale green and pink in colour, and with very short stamens furnished with abortive anthers, which contain no pollen. These flowers, though hermaphrodite in structure, are pistillate in function, and may often be seen with their stigmas smeared with the blue pollen of the larger form.
In the “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora,” p. 728, the length of the stamens has been taken as a character separating F. procumbens from the other two, the latter having the stamens as long as or longer than the calyx-lobes, and F. procumbens having them shorter. I have, however, repeatedly found true F. excorticata with both forms of flowers, and F. procumbens also with both, and this is one of my chief objections to admitting the validity of the three species.
Both forms of flowers are scentless, but produce a large quantity of honey within the calyx-tube. They appear to be fertilized only by tuis and honey-birds. As in the case of the other plants frequented by these birds, viz., Clianthus, Sophora, and Metrosideros lucida, the Fuchsia flowers are pendulous, affording no resting place for insects, while the great quantity of honey secreted would drown any but a large form furnished with a long trunk.
I believe that the dimorphism manifested by our Fuchsias is a modification tending in the direction of separation of the sexes, and which would ultimately lead to the production of diœcious plants. This is remarkable, as occurring in an order characterized among other marks by the hermaphroditism of its flowers. Probably the polygamy already noticed as occurring in Leptospermum scoparium among the Myrtaceæ is a further development of the same tendency.
The genus Epilobium is credited in the “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora” with seventeen species (or, as they might more correctly be called, varieties of about ten or twelve tolerably distinct forms). It is one of those remarkable genera probably undergoing rapid modification and development at the present time, in which the variety of form is so great that it becomes impossible to define the species with any accuracy. The various forms range from minute-flowered like E. nummularifolium var. brevipes to the large handsome-flowered E. pallidiflorum. All are strictly hermaphrodite, and I have not been able to notice any very appreciable difference in time between the maturing of the stamens and pistil. They all seem to be self-fertilized, though the finer-flowered forms are probably largely aided and crossed by insects. I have grown E. nummularifolium and E pubens, and carefully isolated them under glasses when about to flower, so that all access of insects or of wind was prevented, and they have produced a vast number of
capsules and seeds. From the great variety of intermediate forms which occur so commonly, I am inclined to think that hybridization goes on freely among the various so-called species.
Nat. Ord. Ficoideæ.
The flowers of Mesembryanthemum australe are stated to be unisexual, in which case they are probably entomophilous. All the specimens I have examined have been hermaphrodite however, and apparently self-fertilized. The flowers are very conspicuous, but destitute of scent or honey.
Tetragonia expansa has comparatively inconspicuous and solitary flowers, which are always hermaphrodite. It is probable, therefore, that they are self-fertile, but they are also rendered attractive to insects by the thin layer of honey they contain, while cross-fertilization must often be insured by the fact of their being slightly proterogynous. The stigma is always expanded some time before the anthers dehisce.
Nat. Ord. Umbelliferæ.
This large order, which is nearly always represented in other parts by hermaphrodite flowers, has unisexual forms in three of its New Zealand genera.
In the genera Hydrocotyle, Pozoa, and Crantzia, the flowers are very small and inconspicuous, and the plants themselves are small and low-growing. Oreomyrrhis has also small flowers, though more conspicuously placed, while the same remark applies to the smaller forms of Ligusticum. Daucus brachiatus has minute red flowers, which are somewhat conspicuous when abundantly produced. I am not aware whether the flowers of these different plants are visited by insects or not.
Apium, like the foregoing, has hermaphrodite flowers, which are conspicuous in A. australe, but much reduced in A. filiforme. The former secrete honey and are slightly fragrant. I have not noticed either peculiarity in the flowers of the latter.
Aciphylla squarrosa and A. colensoi have diœcious flowers, the male being furnished with an imperfect pistil. They produce abundance of honey, are very fragrant, and are produced in such mass (forming elongated panicles two to four feet long) as to be extremely conspicuous objects. They are entomophilous, and are frequently seen to be covered with various species of Coleoptera and Diptera. Professor Hutton informs me that Lyperobius huttoni and Inophlœus innus, two large weevils, are only found on plants of this genus, and that Cyttalia griseipila is much more abundant on them than anywhere else. He is of opinion, however, that Lyperobius huttoni lives on the juices of the leaves.
The larger species of Ligusticum which I have examined—namely, L. intermedium and L. lyalli, are also usually diœcious. The flowers are sweet-
scented and produce honey, while the umbels are of large size, much flattened on the top, and very conspicuous.
Angelica gingidium produces very conspicuous umbels of white, sweet-scented, polygamous flowers, which contain honey. Some are hermaphrodite, some pistillate, and others only staminate.
Angelica geniculata, though a much less conspicuous species, and having its flowers in very small umbels, is also polygamous. Most of the flowers in each umbel are hermaphrodite, but a few of the outside ones have stamens only, and these are generally much the most prominent. All have honey on their disc, and are very fragrant. The hermaphrodite flowers of both species are also proterandrous, a character which is rather prevalent throughout the order. I believe that most of our flat-flowered, hermaphrodite Umbelliferæ are fertilized by Diptera (and perhaps minute Coleoptera). Sir J. Lubbock has pointed out that flowers which have their honey produced on a flat disc are rarely visited by Lepidoptera, whose long trunks are more suited to flowers with tubes.
Nat. Ord. Araliaceæ.
Stilbocarpa polaris, or a closely-allied species, occurs in Stewart Island, usually within or at the edge of the bush, but at no distance from the sea. The flowers are produced in very large loose umbels, and are tolerably conspicuous, but have no scent, and little or no honey. They are either hermaphrodite or unisexual. In the latter case, they can only—to judge from their habitat—be fertilized by insects. The Auckland and Campbell Islands plant appears to be somewhat different, growing in the open, “covering large tracts of ground with huge orbicular masses, very conspicuous from the yellowish-waxy flowers, and black shining fruit.”
The genus Panax is represented by ten species, of which I have only examined three—P. simplex, P. edgerleyi, and P. colensoi. All have green flowers, which are only conspicuous by their umbellate arrangement. All are diœcious or hermaphrodite, but, when the latter, distinctly proterandrous. They are also fragrant, and produce a considerable amount of honey. I have frequently seen large, hairy, brown Diptera on the flowers of P. colensoi, and think that all the species are entomophilous.
In like manner Schefflera digitata produces great umbels of small green flowers, but these are fragrant, and secrete a quantity of honey, and are frequently visited by flies.
Nat. Ord. Corneæ.
This order contains two New Zealand genera, each with two species, but only one of each occurs in Otago.
Griselinia littoralis, the common broadleaf, has perfectly diœcious flowers, the male and female flowers showing no trace of the organs appertaining to
the other sex. I judge from the following considerations that they are wind-fertilized:—viz., because they are produced in enormous numbers by each tree, they are very small, green and inconspicuous, and are destitute of either scent or honey.
Corokia cotoneaster produces numbers of golden yellow, very conspicuous flowers, which are all hermaphrodite. They are also very sweet-scented, and the bright orange-coloured pistil is covered with a scale or fringe of glandular hairs, which secrete a little honey. They are thus rendered very attractive to insects, which must aid in their fertilization.
Nat. Ord. Loranthaceæ.
The genus Loranthus has five species in New Zealand, which exhibit a steady gradation in size and conspicuousness. Thus L. colensoi, which occurs abundantly in the West Taieri bush, where it is chiefly parasitic on Fagus menziesii, has bunches of handsome scarlet flowers which are nearly two inches long. These are pendulous, have no scent, and apparently no honey. It is probable that this is developed at some time of their growth however, and that it attracts tuis and honey-birds.
L. tetrapetalus (which I have not seen), and L. tenuiflorus which occurs at Queenstown and other localities in the Lake district, have flowers about one inch long.
In L. flavidus, which is a common parasite on Fagus solandri, the flowers are tolerably conspicuous, yellow-coloured, and about half an inch long. Lastly, in L. micranthus they are minute and green. Though so inconspicuous in this last species, they are fairly sweet-scented, and are probably visited by small Diptera. All the flowers of this genus are hermaphrodite, and probably more or less self-fertile; the largest forms being most dependent on external aid.
Tupeia antarctica. This species, though like the last bearing inconspicuous flowers, is diœcious and entomophilous. The separation of the sexes is complete. Both kinds of flower are very fragrant, and secrete a relatively large amount of honey. They are much frequented by numerous midge-like Diptera, which in sucking the nectar from the flat discs bring the lower part of their bodies into contact with the stamens or stigmas.
The mode of fertilization in both our species of Viscum has not been made out by me. In V. lindsayi, the flowers are whorled on minute peduncles, while in V. salicornioides they are solitary on the tips of the joints of the branches. In both plants they are unisexual, and from the fact of their being so inconspicuous I suppose they are wind-fertilized. I have found them on a variety of shrubs, but always in comparatively open parts, or on the outside edges of the bush.
Nat. Ord. Rubiaceæ.
The chief genus of this very large order in New Zealand is Coprosma, of which over twenty-five species have been described in these islands. As is remarked in the “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora,” “the species are most difficult of discrimination, owing to their extreme variability, their being diœcious, and their very small flowers.” These latter points constitute, to my mind, a much greater difficulty than the former, for I think it will be found, after examination of a large series of specimens, that most of the forms are tolerably distinct and well-defined. The genus may be divided into two sections, in one of which the female flowers are collected into clusters, and in the other they are solitary. In the former they are, of course, more conspicuous than in the latter, but there seems no doubt that in both forms they are solely dependent on the wind for fertilization. They are dingy-green in colour, small, and quite destitute of scent or of honey. The male flowers have four stamens, the anthers of which dangle at the extremity of very slender, easily shaken, long filaments. The pollen is also extremely light and powdery, and the whole of it escapes on the dehiscing of the anther. The female flowers have a much smaller calyx and corolla than the male, these parts being reduced to the minimum size consistent with their function of covering the pistil while it is still immature. The ovaries are very small, but the styles are proportionally of immense size, and stigmatic over their whole length. Some idea of this may be gained from the drawings in Plate I., where figure 1 represents the female flower of C. propinqua, and figure 2 that of C. rotundifolia (both magnified). I have examined the flowers of fourteen species growing in this neighbourhood, and find that all possess the same character. The brightly-coloured drupes of these plants must aid greatly in their dispersion, as they are eaten and passed by birds. It would be interesting to ascertain what advantage is gained by the possession of the intensely fœtid odour which is so characteristic of some species.
The genus Nertera differs from Coprosmá not only in its herbaceous habit, but—in the New Zealand species at least—in having hermaphrodite flowers. These are, however, perfectly diœcious in function. I have examined the flowers of three out of the four New Zealand species, viz., N. depressa, N. dichondrœfolia and N. setulosa. All are very decidedly proterogynous, the stigmas being expanded fully while the stamens lie in the flower, and withering completely before the anthers dehisce. They must, therefore, be always cross-fertilized, and as the flowers agree in all respects (but that already mentioned) with those of Coprosma, they are also probably anemophilous.
The flowers of Galium umbrosum and Asperula perpusilla are very small,
but they are white and secrete a minute trace of honey, and are therefore probably visited by insects. The latter plant, which is one of the smallest flowering plants we have, is remarkable for exhibiting distinct dimorphism. In one form the stigma is almost sessile on the ovary, in the other there is a well-developed style. I have not observed a corresponding difference in the stamens, which made me think at first that the difference was due solely to the varying age of the flowers examined. This, however, is not the case, as in young and old flowers alike the two forms are to be found.
Nat. Ord. Compositæ.
This very large and important order is represented in this part of New Zealand by about sixteen genera, out of the twenty-four occurring in the colony. The advantages possessed by flowers of this order by having their florets crowded together, have often been insisted on, the chief of these being the prominent appearance of the flowers when massed together, the facility with which honey is obtained rendering them attractive to insects, and the greater chance of cross-fertilization enjoyed by them, seeing that an insect lighting on a flower-head is likely to come into contact with several flowers at each visit. A further chance in favour of cross-fertilization arises from the polygamous nature of the florets in each head, those on the outside being usually pistillate only, while those within are hermaphrodite. In most of the sub-order Liguliforæ, the ray-florets are pistillate, and it is worthy of notice that this is the reverse of what usually occurs in diœcious or polygamous plants, for it is usually the staminate or male flowers which are the most conspicuous. This will be found to be the case in almost all the genera mentioned in the earlier part of this paper in which separation of the sexes occurs. In those Composites which are frequented by insects—and possibly in others—autogamy,* or fertilization of a flower by the pollen from the stamens of the same flower, is usually avoided by a simple form of proterandry. The anthers, which cohere to form a tube round the style, dehisce a little before the flower expands; the pollen, however, is retained in the tube, where it has no access to the stigmatic surfaces of the style, as these are in close contact. The style gradually lengthens up, however, through the staminal tube, which it bursts open at the top, and scatters the pollen out. After a time the stigmatic arms at its summit separate, and gradually recurve, in which position they protrude to some distance from the mouth of the floret. This peculiarity of Composites and
[Footnote] * “Flowers and their Unbidden Guests,” by Dr. Kerner, (C. Kegan Paul & Co.) This author also proposes to use the terms geitonogamy, for the fertilization of a flower by pollen from other flowers on the same plant, and xenogamy, for the fertilization of a flower by pollen from other plants. Both terms to be classed under the name allogamy. He objects to the indefiniteness of the term “self-fertilization.”
some other plants, is illustrated in Sir J. Lubbock's work already referred to, at p. 114, to which the reader is referred for details. I have observed it in the following New Zealand Composites: Olearia ilicifolia and O. nitida, Celmisia longifolia, Lagenophora forsteri, Cotula coronopifolia (though not so decidedly as in the other species named), Cassinia fulvida, Senesio lautus and S. rotundifolius, and in Microseris forsteri. It is probably the rule in all the bright-flowered species.
Of the genus Olearia, probably all are very attractive to insects—O. nitida, O. dentata, and O. ilicifolia, have their flowers arranged in large conspicuous corymbs, and are sweet-scented. I have not seen honey in them.
O virgata has small sweet-scented heads, which are much less conspicuous than the preceding, while O. hectori has its flowers most deliciously scented, like ripe peaches.
Of the genus Celmisia, the larger flowered species examined—namely, C. coriacea and C. hectori, though very conspicuous, have no fragrance and very little honey. The same remark applies to C. sessiliflora, in which the individual heads, though small, are produced in such immense numbers as to render the cushion-like masses in which the plant grows extremely conspicuous. In C. longifolia the flower-heads are solitary, but are slightly fragrant, and the tubes of the disc-florets contain a little honey.
In Vittadinia australis the flower-heads are also produced singly. They are not so conspicuous as the last-named, and, though slightly fragrant, are probably more commonly autogamous. The protrusion of the stigmas from the hermaphrodite florets of the disc is very slight, and they are frequently found smeared with the pollen of the same floret. The ray-florets, however, being pistillate only, require the visits of insects to bring pollen to them from other flowers.
Lagenophora forsteri and its small variety L. petiolata have small but conspicuous scentless flowers.
The genus Cotula I have hardly looked into. C. coronopifolia has very conspicuous yellow flower-heads, which are destitute of fragrance and produce little or no honey. The minuter flowered forms, as C. dioica, C. minor, etc., do not seem to possess any attractions for insects. The absolutely unisexual species are probably anemophilous.
The flower-heads of Cassinia fulvida are very conspicuous by association, and are sweet-scented.
Ozothamnus glomeratus has also sweet-scented florets, which are much less conspicuous than the last.
Gnaphalium bellidioides and G. trinerve are very conspicuous, owing to the large pure white involucral leaves which surround the flower-heads. These perform the function of the ray-florets in other Composites, acting as lures
or flags of invitation to honey-loving insects. These flowers are also sweet-scented.
The genus Erechtites has inconspicuous greenish flower-heads, which never expand much. They have no scent, and no honey, and are probably self-fertilized.
The genus Senecio exhibits a great diversity in its flowers. S. lautus has yellowish, but by no means conspicuous flowers. These are scentless, but contain a little honey, and, as has been already remarked, are proterandrous.
S. lagopus and S. bellidioides (probably two extreme forms of the same variable species), and the beautiful S. lyalli, have very conspicuous flowers, which are also scentless, and produce very little honey. S. rotundifolius, which grows so abundantly round the coasts and in the bush of Stewart Island and the West Coast Sounds, has comparatively inconspicuous flowers, but these are of an overpowering fragrance, and the tubes of the florets almost overflow with honey.
Lastly, Microseris forsteri has solitary flower-heads destitute of scent, and with very little honey, but they are bright yellow, very conspicuous, and proterandrous.
Nat. Ord. Stylidieæ.
The flowers of this order are characterized inter alia by being gynandrous, i.e. having their style and stamens united into a column. Instead of aiding in self-fertilization, as might at first be supposed, this arrangement more commonly prevents it. The order is represented by three genera in New Zealand.
Phyllachne (Forstera) sedifolia has extremely variable flowers as to size, those which grow on the hills near Dunedin being seldom more than a fourth of an inch in diameter, while some gathered by me on Frazer Peaks, Stewart Island, were over three-fourths of an inch, and furnished with a very beautiful dark-purple eye. All I have gathered have been hermaphrodite, but according to Hooker they are sometimes unisexual. These flowers are scentless, but so strongly proterandrous as to be practically diœcious. The two stamens shed all their pollen, and wither completely, before the stigmas commence to expand and recurve. The flowers are furnished with two epigynous glands, whose function I have not made out; it may be to secrete honey, of which the flowers contain a little. They are manifestly entomophilous.
Stylidium subulatum is a very doubtful member of this genus. Its column is short and straight, and in no way irritable, whereas one of the characteristics of the genus is a bent, irritable column which springs up with considerable force on a touch, and throws the pollen out of the
anthers. In this species the only contrivances for preventing self-fertilization appear to be the position of the transverse anthers under the stigmatic disc, their proterandry—which, however, is not very decided, and the rigidity of the short, erect column. They are probably, also, entomophilous as in the preceding species.
Donatia novœ-zealandiœ occurs tolerably abundantly on the summit of Maungatua (3000 feet), and in similar swampy country near sea-level in Stewart Island. The flowers are solitary, white, and quite sessile at the end of rigid branches, which are covered with very short, rigid leaves. They are destitute of scent and, as far as I have observed, of honey, but owing to the plants being aggregated into large tufts they are very conspicuous. The bases of the filaments and styles are connate, but the anthers diverge from the stigmas and dehisce outwards. I hardly think the flowers are self-fertilizable, but have not sufficiently definite information on the subject.
Nat. Ord. Campanulaceæ.
Two species of Wahlenbergia are abundant in this part of New Zealand, W. gracilis being found in dry spots at all elevations from the sea-level to 3000 feet (Maungatua), while W. saxicola is more commonly a hill-growing species. I have, however, found it at sea-level in some parts of Otago and in Stewart Island. The former is a branched plant, sometimes two feet high, and producing a solitary flower at the end of each branch. These are small but brightly coloured, white, lilac, or blue. W. saxicola is a much smaller plant, producing one much-larger bell, on a slender, erect peduncle, seldom more than six inches high, and conspicuous from its pure white or pale blue colour. Both species are hermaphrodite in structure, but diœcious in function, as they are very distinctly proterandrous. The anthers dehisce before the flowers open, and discharge all their pollen on to the outside of the style, which is furnished with hairs to which the grains adhere. The style, which bears two stigmatic branches at its upper part, lengthens upwards, carrying the pollen with it, in which state it is accessible to any insect visiting the flower. It cannot, however, get on the stigma, for the two faces of the style are in close contact. These ultimately open, displaying two convex surfaces thickly clothed with glandular papillæ, and finally curving back from one another stand right in the path of any insect entering the flower. The ovary is covered by the expanded and fringed bases of the filaments, and between these may be seen small beads of honey. Both species are evidently quite dependent on insect-aid for their fertilization.
Nat. Ord. Lobeliaceæ.
The only plant belonging to this order which I have been able to examine is Pratia angulata. It is almost universally admitted among
botanists that irregular flowers are specially fitted for the visits of insects, and if this view is correct all the plants which belong to this order are more or less entomophilous.
The flowers of Pratia (with which those of Lobelia and Colensoa agree pretty closely), are extremely irregular. The corolla tube is split to the base at the back, while in front it stands somewhat horizontal, and affords a convenient landing stage for small insects. It is usually white in colour, with very bright blue or purple guiding lines converging to its base, where a considerable amount of honey is secreted. The style, which is two-lobed above, is surrounded by the connate anthers when the flower newly opens, and the column is thus bent forward at its summit, so as to slightly arch over the horizontal corolla-tube. The stamens are proterandrous, as in Wahlenbergia, and just as in those flowers, the style lengthens out of the staminal tube, carrying out the pollen with it, and then the two stigmatic faces, which up to this time have been in close contact, expand widely and expose a large papillose surface. These flowers are quite incapable of self-fertilization.
Nat. Ord. Goodeniaceæ.
The fertilization of Selliera radicans has been already fully and clearly described by Mr. T. F. Cheeseman.* This species is exclusively insect-fertilized.
Nat. Ord. Ericeæ.
There are really only two genera (Gaultheria and Pernettya) of this large order in New Zealand.
Gaultheria antipoda is remarkable for the tendency towards separation of the sexes which it exhibits; standing alone in this respect—as far as I am aware—in the order.
In some of its forms truly hermaphrodite flowers are found, and in these the stamens mature considerably before the stigmas. In others, the stamens occur in a more or less aborted form, until a stage is reached where the anthers are represented by small bent portions on the summit of a diminished filament. I have never found a purely pistillate form with no trace of anthers, nor have I found a male form showing a diminished pistil. In all those of course in which abortion of the stamens has taken place, cross-fertilization must take place to secure the production of seed, and from the nature of the flower this can only be accomplished by insect-agency. In the hermaphrodite flowers, even if not absolutely essential, it must frequently take place. The corolla always contains honey at its base.
Gaultheria rupestris, which is a much more conspicuously flowered plant
[Footnote] * “Trans. N. Z. Inst.” Vol. IX. p. 542.
than the preceding, though probably connected with it by a complete gradation of intermediate forms, shows the same tendency to abortion and separation of the reproductive organs. Hermaphrodite and pistillate forms are both found, honey is also found in the flowers, and these are usually produced in such quantity as to be very readily seen.
Nat. Ord. Epacrideæ.
Six genera of this typically Australian order occur in New Zealand, and four of these grow in this neighbourhood.
Cyathodes acerosa has extremely minute, solitary flowers, difficult of detection by sight, and destitute of smell. They contain honey however, and are distinctly proterandrous, so that they must probably be visited by small insects.
Leucopogon frazeri is a most abundant plant on dry ground, and is apparently solely entomophilous. I have found its flowers invariably hermaphrodite, but yet so contrived as to require insect-aid to ensure fertilization. The corolla, which always stands quite erect, is in the form of a long cylindrical tube contracted at the throat; its lobes and most of the inner surface of the tube are thickly clothed with hairs. The style is very long and slender and bears a rounded stigmatic head, which projects a little above the throat of the corolla and is very viscid. Immediately below it are the five anthers, nearly filling up the whole of the tube. These are nearly sessile, and one-celled, and their pollen, after escaping from them, lies exposed on their inner side, and almost in contact with the top of the style. The pollen-grains are comparatively large and circular, and cohere readily together. The flowers are very sweet-scented, and the base of the corolla contains a large secretion of honey. It seems almost impossible that self-fertilization can take place, while the manifest attractions for insects lead us to the conclusion that their agency is necessary for the production of seed. The only insects which could reach the honey, however, are those furnished with a long slender proboscis, such as the Lepidoptera, for not only is the corolla-tube lined thickly with hairs, but the style itself is also furnished with these impediments. Between the walls of the corolla, however, and the style, are five minute apertures through which a moth's proboscis might be inserted to reach the honey, but, as these apertures lie right over the anthers, it would be almost impossible for the insect to reach the coveted sweets at the bottom of the flower without touching and removing some of the pollen. The position of the capitate stigma also, guarding the entrance of the flower, with its drop of viscid secretion is such that contact with anything adhering to the proboscis of an insect would almost certainly take place. I do not think insects with short trunks could reach the honey. I, on one occasion, found a minute beetle in the tube, but it was drowned in the honey at the bottom.
Pentachondra pumila is somewhat similarly furnished with a densely-bearded corolla-tube, and is probably fertilized in the same manner. In the summer of 1876 I had a plant of this in flower under glass, and, though it produced numerous blossoms, no fruit resulted. In each case, after the gradual withering of the corolla, it was found that the ovary had shrivelled also.
Dracophyllum longifolium has very conspicuous fragrant clusters of flowers. These contain a great deal of honey, and are therefore no doubt visited by insects. They are hermaphrodite, but I have not seen any special contrivance to render self-fertilization impossible. Birds occasionally visit the flowers.
Nat. Ord. Myrsineæ.
The only New Zealand genus is Myrsine, of which two species—M. urvillei and M. divaricata—are common in the neighbourhood of Dunedin. I have examined the flowers of the former, and find them mostly diœcious. The male flowers have an imperfect ovary, while the female flowers have stamens with small anthers, which, however, contain no pollen. This is morphologically so slight a remove from hermaphroditism that I think the latter must frequently occur. In all cases I have noticed they have, however, been functionally diœcious. The flowers are produced in great numbers, are small and rather inconspicuous, have no scent and no honey, while their pollen is light and very incoherent, all of which considerations lead me to consider them as always anemophilous.
Nat. Ord. Apocyneæ.
The only plant of this order found here—Parsonia albiflora—has puzzled me a good deal. It is a straggliug climber producing panicles of pendulous white flowers. These have a funnel-shaped corolla, the lobes of which bend back. The stamens are syngenesious—that is, their anthers are united together. These anthers are arrow-shaped, with very acute apices, and when joined together they form a sharply-pointed conical cap (not unlike some forms of metal drills) which fits closely on the summit of the stigma. Of each anther, one cell only produces pollen, which seems to me to be always applied directly on the stigma. In fact, this introrse dehiscence of the anther, and the application of the pollen on the stigma, is given by Le Maout and Decaisne* * as a characteristic of the order. At first sight this would make us at once conclude that the flowers were self-fertile, in which case insect-aid would not be absolutely necessary. But what appears a still greater difficulty is that the pollen is all contained inside a cap, from which I have not seen it shed, and which does not readily open from any side. Yet the flowersare usually fragrant, and contain a large quantity of honey. I am inclined to think that, had I examined the flower at different stages of
[Footnote] * “Descriptive and AnalyticalBotany,” by Le Maout and Decaisne, p. 550. Edited by Sir J. D. Hooker. (Longmans and Co.)
its maturity, I should have found a clue to this apparently contradictory arrangement. Meanwhile, I commend the case to other working botanists as one that will repay investigation.
Nat. Ord. Gentianeæ.
Of the five species of Gentiana described in the “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora,” I have only examined the commonest form, viz., G. montana. The flowers are white and scentless, and produce very little honey. They are, however, very distinctly proterandrous, and can only be fertilized by pollen from another flower. The style is two-lobed above, and only the inner faces of these are stigmatic, as in Wahlenbergia. The anthers dehisce as soon as the flowers open, but the stigmas do not expand for two or three days after, when they separate pretty widely. Any adhering pollen is then on the outside of the style, but not on the stigmatic arms.
Nat. Ord. Convolvulaceæ.
Convolvulus tuguriorum and C. soldanella are both plants with very prominent and beautiful flowers; the former with large white blossoms, which often cover the shrubs over which the plant climbs; the latter growing only on the sand at the sea-shore, which it ornaments with its rose-coloured, purple-striped flowers.
C. tuguriorum remains open all night if the sky is bright, and often in wet weather too, and yet though thus flaunting its attraction before diurnal and nocturnal insects alike it does not seem to be much visited by them. Both the species named are self-fertilized; they are scentless also, and produce apparently no honey.
Dichondra repens is a very low-growing, humble plant, producing small, greenish-white or yellowish flowers, which are, however, extremely variable both in size and conspicuousness. The larger and brighter forms are perhaps visited by insects, but the smallest forms show a tendency towards cleistogamy. In some localities I have found them with large calyces (which hardly opened at all), greatly reduced corollas, and stunted anthers, and yet producing full round capsules.
Nat. Ord. Scrophularineæ.
This large order is represented in New Zealand by ten genera, the most characteristic and important of which is Veronica. All the flowers of the order are irregular, and we find numberless contrivances for the attraction of insects, and the consequent cross-fertilization which ensues. I have not, however, had opportunities of studying many flowers of this interesting class.
The fertilization of Glossostigma elatinoides has been remarkably well described by Mr. T. F. Cheeseman.* In this flower the flattened spoon-shaped stigma is sensitive to a touch, and lies over the top of the anthers,
[Footnote] * “Trans, N.Z. Inst.,” vol. X., p. 353.
ready to spring up when touched. I do not know whether similarly-sensitive stigmas are found in the two species of Mimulus which occur in this colony. In both our naturalized forms, M. luteus and M. moschatus (the common musk-plant), self-fertilization is prevented by such a contrivance. I have not seen any description of the fertilization of these flowers (though I believe they have been described), and therefore will record here my own observations on the former species, as they may be suggestive to anyone observing our indigenous species. I may mention that very beautiful hybrid forms of this species have gone wild in Ross Creek, in the neighbourhood of Dunedin. In their new habitat they have attained immense growth, forming thick succulent stems an inch and more in diameter and frequently three feet long. It was on the flowers of these plants that my observations were made. The style is a good deal longer than the longer pair of stamens, and ends in a two-lobed stigma, formed of two flat plates, which are viscid on their inner faces (fig. 3, pl. X.). The upper of these lobes stands against the corolla-tube, the lower hangs over, and is in the way of any large insect entering the flower. This lower lobe is sensitive to a touch, not springing up rapidly however, but taking from five to fifteen seconds to close against the upper plate. In the course of half an hour or less, if no pollen is placed on it, it opens again. If, however, pollen from another flower be placed on it, it closes firmly against the upper plate, with which it remains in contact for many hours. On opening again it is no longer sensitive, and the corolla soon after withers. It is quite evident that if a bee or other large insect enter the flower without pollen on its head, it is almost certain to come into contact with the lower stigmatic lobe, which will then close up, but only to open again in a short time. In order to get at the honey in the bottom of the flower however, the insect pushes past the anthers, which would probably dust its head with pollen. On visiting a second flower, it again comes in contact with the stigma, but this time leaves some pollen on it, and thus secures fertilization.
M. moschatus, the common musk plant, shows the same irritable stigma.
Veronica. The species of this genus, though hermaphrodite, and not nearly so irregular as other flowers of the order, are probably all unfitted for self-fertilization. From this statement I must except some of the small herbaceous European species. In our species the anthers are more or less proterandrous, and their filaments diverge widely as they dehisce, while the style projects forward quite out of the flower.
V. traversii—which I have only seen in cultivation—produces immense numbers of white, very conspicuous flowers, which have a little honey but no scent. On bright days they are visited by great numbers of insects, chiefly Hymenoptera and Diptera.
V. buxifolia is similarly very white, melliferous and scentless. It is an extremely common plant at elevations of 2,000 feet and upwards. V. lyalli and V. cataractœ (an abundant West Coast plant) are similarly characterized.
V. salicifolia. produces conspicuous racemes of white, lilac, or purple flowers which are very fragrant and produce a little honey. They attract great numbers of insects, chiefly species of Diptera and moths, besides one or two butterflies.
V. elliptica, which is especially a sea-side plant, has large and conspicuous flowers, which are very fragrant, and secrete a very considerable amount of honey.
Nat. Ord. Lentibularieæ.
This order contains only two genera, Utricularia and Pinguicula, of which the former is represented by four species in New Zealand. These are rather rare, or what is more probable are very readily overlooked, except, however, at flowering time, when they are conspicuous enough, though small.
Utricularia monanthos occurs abundantly in the bogs at the head of Paterson's Inlet, Stewart Island. The plant is very minute, bearing one or two bright purple flowers at the summit of a slender scape, a half to four inches high. (Pl. X. fig. 4a). The few leaves are very small and narrow, and almost always submerged, while the creeping rhizome or root bears two or more of the small compressed bladders from which the genus takes its name. The flowers are evidently adapted for cross-fertilization. The corolla is bilabiate, the lower lip being flattened and expanded at its distal end into a broad landing stage. This is purple in colour, and furnished with a bright yellow glandular line—the honey guide—down the centre. The upper lip (fig. 4b) stands nearly erect, while the base of the corolla is produced downwards into a spur or nectary (though I found no honey in it). The two stamens lie under the upper lip; the filaments diverge somewhat widely below, but are curved inwards in their upper part, bringing the anthers close together under the stigma. This latter is a flap or plate opening downwards, so as to project somewhat over the entrance to the nectary, and partly covering the anthers. If an insect alighted on the lower lip of the flower, and advanced to suck honey from out the nectary (for, though I did not find any, there can be little doubt that at suitable times the spur does contain honey), its head would probably come first into contact with this flap. This would bend down, exposing the middle or stigmatic portion, to which any pollen on the insect's head would adhere. The lower side of the flap, which is not stigmatic, would meanwhile completely cover the anthers. On withdrawing its head the insect would rub it against the anthers first, and then push up the
lower side of the flap, which would not, however, receive any pollen during the withdrawal. I think it quite impossible that this species can be self-fertilized. From its habitat, standing, as the flowers do, right out of the water, it is probably visited by small species of Diptera.
As already mentioned, the name of this genus is derived from the bladders (Lat. utriculus) attached to the leaves or rhizomes. The primary function of these bladders would appear to be that of floating the plant during the flowering season to the top of the water in which it grows. The following quotation from De Candolle's “Vegetable Physiology” is extracted from Le Maout and Decaisne's “System of Botany,” p. 591:— “These bladders are rounded and furnished with a kind of moveable operculum. In the young plant they are filled with a mucus heavier than water, and the plant, submerged by this ballast, remains at the bottom. Towards the flowering season the leaves secrete a gas which enters the utricles, raises the operculum, and drives out the mucus, when the plant, now furnished with aerial bladders, rises slowly and floats on the surface, and there flowers. This accomplished, the leaves again secrete mucus, which replaces the air in the utricles, and the plant re-descends to the bottom, and ripens its seeds in the place where they are to be sown.”
This view of the function of the bladders may apply in the case of such species as U. neglecta (of Europe), which bears them on the leaves, and is quite destitute of roots; but in the case of the species under consideration, and all others which bear them on the subterranean rhizomes or creeping stems, some other explanation must be sought. It is probable that the view advanced by Darwin in his “Insectivorous Plants,” p. 395, is the correct one—that the bladders have now become adapted (whatever may have been their original function) for the capture of small aquatic animals, and their subsequent absorption. In the work named Darwin details very minutely the structure of the bladders of U. neglecta. These are remarkably well adapted for the capture of prey, their aperture being furnished with bristles directed into the interior of the cavity, like a rat-trap. Entrance into the bladder is easily accomplished, but, once in, escape is almost impossible. The interior of the bladder is lined with what are termed “quadrifid processes,” which are four elongated cells borne almost crosswise from the summit of a minute projection or foot-stalk. Besides these there are “bifid processes,” similarly placed on stalks, and various forms of glands. All these bodies are found to have the power of absorbing decaying animal matter, as well as weak solutions of salts of ammonia and urea. As the older bladders are found to contain animal remains always more or less disintegrated, there seems little doubt that their presence must be beneficial to the plant. As to what entices the animals entrapped to enter the bladders
no satisfactory explanation has been given as yet. The transparency of the bladder membrane, and the presence of long bristles or antennæ, may induce small aquatic animals to attempt the passage. Darwin suggests that “perhaps small aquatic animals habitually try to enter every small crevice, like that between the valve and collar, in search of food or protection.* I can myself vouch for the inquisitiveness of many of the small Entomostraca, those species particularly which, like Cypris, are secure in a two-valved shell, being the boldest in this respect. The bladders do not seem to digest their prey, there being no glands for secretion; and fragments of meat, etc., placed in bladders, were found unacted on at the end of three days. It is probable that the animals which force an entrance into the bladders become asphyxiated, owing to the contained oxygen being all used up, and that, as their bodies decay, the products thus resulting are absorbed by the various processes on the walls.
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The bladders on our Stewart Island species—Utricularia monanthos—are somewhat different from any of the species described in Darwin's book. They are almost circular in outline, and laterally compressed, and vary in diameter from 1/20 to ⅛ of an inch. Running almost completely round them is a well-defined vascular bundle (fig. 5a & b) the inner end of which forms the thickened collar or neck, against which the valve closes, while the outer and upper end is sometimes continued into a horn-like antenna, or is abruptly truncated. On each side of the entrance are the so-called “antennæ,” which in this species are narrow at the base, and expand outwards in a palmate manner, ending in numerous unicellular hair-like processes. That portion of the bladder between the entrance and stalk by which it is attached, is bordered by a flange or expansion of the cellular tissue of the walls on each side. This, together with the overlapping antennæ, forms a sort of covered way to the entrance. There are no spines directed into the interior of the cavity, as in U. neglecta, nor could I detect any glands, other than the numerous quadrifid processes (fig. 6) with which the whole inner surface is lined. The arms of these processes are nearly equal in length. The outside of the bladders is covered with rounded pit-like cells, at the junctions of many of the hexagonal cells of the parenchyma.
The smaller bladders were usually semi-transparent and empty, but the larger ones were mostly filled with dark brown or blackish material. This seemed to consist of disintegrated animal and vegetable remains, most of it destitute of recognizable structure, but containing Diatoms, Algæ, etc., and in many cases Entomostraca. All the larger bladders had from one to as many as ten specimens of the common Entomostracan, Cyclops novœ-zealandiœ, sometimes quite entire, and at other times in fragments. A good-
[Footnote] * Loc. cit., p. 409.
sized Daphnia was also obtained in one; the body was reduced to a brownish mass, but the bivalve shell and portions of the limbs were intact. The Diatoms and other minute organisms are probably present not as prey, but as commensalists or messmates, taking advantage of the rich food obtainable in the bladders to take up their residence in them.
Of the four species of Utricularia described in the Handbook Fl. N. Z., three have their bladders borne on the rhizome, while U. protrusa has floating stems and capillary leaves like the English species. A fifth species has been mentioned by Mr. Kirk,* but apparently not described, as occurring in Rotomahana, and having the same arrangement of the bladders on the leaves.
Nat. Ord. Verbenaceæ.
Teucridium parvifolium occurs plentifully enough near Dunedin, but I have not examined its flowers.
Myoporum lœtum, the only other representative of the order in this part of the island, is also extremely common. This plant produces its flowers chiefly from November to January, but it continues to put out blossoms sparingly for a considerable part of the year. These unseasonable flowers are commonly defective, their anther-cells being destitute of pollen and their pistil also being more or less aborted. I cannot conceive of what use they are to the plant. The ordinary flowers are white and conspicuous, and produce a little honey. They have little or no scent, and I cannot say whether they are self-fertile or not. The lining of hairs on the lobes of the corolla probably serves to impede small and unsuitable insects from obtaining the honey.
Nat. Ord. Labiatæ.
This large order—the flowers of which present such a variety of contrivance to ensure cross-fertilization—is represented by two very small plants in New Zealand, belonging to the genera Mentha and Scutellaria. The latter I have not seen.
Mentha cunninghamii belongs to a genus in which the corolla does not show the extreme irregularity of typical Labiates. There is a tendency also to dimorphism, which this species among others exhibits, one of the characters given in the “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora,” p. 226, being “Stamens included in the corolla-tube of some flowers, exserted in others.” I have not, however, noticed this difference. Nor have I noticed any tendency towards production of female as well as hermaphrodite flowers, which prevails in some species. The flowers of our species are only slightly irregular; they are, however, proterandrous, strongly sweet-scented, and produce a great amount of honey, and are consequently much visited by insects.
[Footnote] *“Trans. N. Z. Inst.” Vol. V., p. 343.
Nat. Ord. Plantagineæ.
Plantago raoulii is the only common plant of this order. Though its flowers are hermaphrodite, they seem to be exclusively cross-fertilized, and to depend on the wind for the performance of this necessary occurrence. They are very inconspicuous, scentless and destitute of honey. As soon as the flowers open, the long papillose stigmas protrude, while the stamens remain undeveloped. The flowers lowest down the spike open first and those at the top last, and the withering of the stigmas takes place in the same order. As the stigmas wither, the filaments commence to lengthen, bearing at their extremity the versatile anthers full of light friable pollen. Even then of course some of the upper flowers are only in the pistillate stage, and may get pollen from flowers lower down the same spike, but in most cases it must be blown from flowers either on different plants or different spikes.
Nat. Ord. Chenopodiaceæ.
The plants of this order bear very inconspicuous flowers, which are sometimes hermaphrodite, but more commonly polygamous. Chenopodium triandrum is the only one I have examined with care. When hermaphrodite, its flowers are very distinctly proterogynous, the stigmas withering completely before the anthers dehisce, so that in this, as in diœcious forms, self-fertilization is impossible. It is an anemophilous plant, and this will probably be found to be a character of all the New Zealand species of the order.
Nat. Ord. Polygoneæ.
Polygonum aviculare is apparently self-fertilized, the flowers being small and destitute of honey or scent.
The species of the genus Muhlenbeckia are anemophilous. They are almost always diœcious, though sometimes imperfectly hermaphrodite. They are very inconspicuous in colour, destitute of scent and honey, and furnished with large plumose or papillose stigmas. I have not noticed any insects visiting them.
Rumex flexuosus and R. neglectus are hermaphrodite. The flowers are distinctly proterandrous however, and dependent for fertilization on the wind.
Nat. Ord. Thymeleæ.
The only plant of the genus Pimelea which I have looked into is the common but very variable P. prostrata. Though hermaphrodite in structure, this species is diœcious in function, and will probably tend rapidly to become so in structure as well. In those forms of it which are truly hermaphrodite there is a simple contrivance to prevent self-fertilization. Just before the flowers expand, the style (which is placed to one side of the
perianth) is shorter than the stamens, but, as they open, it lengthens rapidly, and carries the stigma up one side and past the expanding anther-cells.
Of those which are diœcious in function there are two forms, which, though growing usually side-by-side, are distinct enough to be taken for two varieties. The male or staminate form is considerably larger and more conspicuous than the other. When fully open the two stamens are quite exserted from the perianth-tube. At this stage the slender style, with its minute, almost glabrous, stigma, is only about half the length of the perianth-tube, but, after the anthers have dihisced, it lengthens very much and protrudes between the lobes of the perianth, as if to ensure fertilization. Having reached this stage further development ceases, the small ovary with its contained ovules, which never become fertilized, commences to shrivel, and ultimately the whole flower withers and falls off.
The smaller pistillate flowers have a long style, bearing at its summit a capitate stigma, which is so crowded with glandular or papillose hairs as to be almost globose, and which projects at the mouth of the perianth. Nearly half way down the tube are the two minute stamens, with shrivelled anthers containing no pollen. Probably between these two forms, and truly hermaphrodite ones which are proterandrous, there are intermediates. I have not yet found any forms absolutely diœcious in structure, though the species seems tending towards this. I think that in the gradation from the proterandrous hermaphrodite form to the staminate form, in which the first part of the proterandry is carried out but the second fails to be carried out, we see the step by which the diœcism (to coin a word) of this plant is attained.
In all its forms the flowers of this plant are small, but conspicuous by their association into terminal corymbs; they are sweet-scented and their tubes invariably contain honey, so that they must be very attractive to insects.
Drapetes dieffenbachii has extremely small and rather inconspicuous flowers, which are not crowded into masses as in the preceding species. I could not detect any smell or honey, yet I am inclined to think that this plant is tending in the same direction as Pimelea prostrata. There seem to be two forms, in one of which the pistil is very much smaller than the other. I did not make out, however, whether there was a difference of function in the two kinds. They are probably visited by minute-Lepidoptera, which swarm in immense numbers among low-growing plants during the summer months.
In the lower orders of Dicotyledonous plants wind-fertilization is the rule, and, as if effectually to prevent self-fertilization, most of the plants belong-
ing to them have the sexes separate. Thus Fagus menziesii (Nat. Ord. Cupuliferæ) has inconspicuous monœcious flowers; Epicarpurus microphyllus, Urtica insica, and U. ferox have diœcious flowers; while Australina pusilla and Parietaria debilis are monœcious or polygamous. All these five belong to Nat. Ord. Urticeæ. The only exception to this general rule is in Euphorbia glauca, which appears occasionally to be visited by insects, and the involucres of which, though not very conspicuous, are yet of a bright purple colour, and enclose more or less honey. The introduced E. peplus, which is a common weed in this part of New Zealand, though producing very small flowers, is evidently dependent on insect-aid for fertilization. The anthers ripen after the pistil, and the four horned glands glisten with a plentiful secretion of honey. The stamens are not visible within the involucral bracts until the female flower is hanging quite out of reach.
All the Coniferæ, I believe, are anemophilous, our New Zealand species being no exception to the rule. Their flowers are either monœcious or diœcious, and the male flowers are produced in such mass as to scatter their pollen in clouds.
In this class, as has been pointed out by Sir J. Lubbock in his work already quoted, the contrivances and means of adaptation to secure the visits of insects are not so numerous nor so complicated as in Dicotyledons, if we except the remarkable order of Orchideæ. Still we have some interesting modes of fertilization, even outside of this order, as perfect as any yet detailed.
Nat. Ord. Orchideæ.
The modes of fertilization of many of the species of this order have been described already by Mr. T. F. Cheeseman and myself.*
Earina mucronata, though differing considerably in appearance from E. autumnalis, is similar in structure, and only fitted for cross-fertilization. The flowers are very fragrant and produce a large amount of honey.
Dendrobium cunninghamii. The mode of fertilization I have already described.† This last summer, 1879–80, I found it in great quantity and flowering in magnificent profusion in Stewart Island. In nearly every plant examined the flowers contained a large amount of honey. In one lot of eighty examined ten had their pollinia removed.
Sarcochilus adversus. I obtained a few flowers of this rare little species from dry rocks close to the edge of the harbour near Port Chalmers. Though one of the smallest and most inconspicuous Orchids in New Zealand it is absolutely incapable of self-fertilization, but is dependent on insects,
[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. V., p. 352; Vol. VII., p. 349; and Vol. XI., p. 418.
[Footnote] † “Trans. N. Z. Inst.,” Vol. XI., p. 419.
and the mechanism by which cross-fertilization is effected is the most perfect of its kind. The flowers are produced in few-flowered racemes seldom exceeding an inch in length, and more or less hidden by the leaves. They are much more regular than the majority of Orchid flowers, are greenish in colour, with a few purple lines on the labellum, and do not exceed one-tenth of an inch in diameter.
At first sight I thought that owing to their inconspicuous appearance they must certainly be self-fertilized, but besides being slightly fragrant, I noticed that they secreted a considerable amount of honey between the base of the column and the fleshy, ridged labellum, and this caused me to look more narrowly into their structure. The four pollinia are united into two almost globular masses, which are attached by a caudicle to a broad flat disc fixed to the rostellum. If this be removed from the anther, which is at the top of the column, it at once commences to contract, and thus causes the pollinia to be depressed to a nearly horizontal position. This depression is almost identical with that which occurs in the British Orchis mascula, as described by Darwin,* but there is a somewhat different action in our species, in that the two masses of pollinia separate slightly at the same time. The time taken by this contraction and depression of the caudicles, was about ten seconds. If these were attached to the proboscis of a small insect, they would on their first withdrawal from the anther be in such a position as to strike the rostellum of the next flower they visited, but this is obviated by the depression of the caudicle, so that, in the short interval of time mentioned, they are so placed as to project into the deep and somewhat two-lobed stigmatic cavity under the rostellum.
In my former paper† I stated that Chiloglottis cornuta seemed exclusively adapted for self-fertilization. This I am now enabled-to verify, for a number cultivated indoors, and covered by a hand-glass during the flowering season, produced a fine full capsule from each flower.
Of the Thelymitras, T. longifolia is very frequently self-fertile, but prominent forms are no doubt crossed by insects. T. uniflora, on the contrary, which produces very brilliant blue flowers, is chiefly dependent on insect aid, and is a great honey-producing species.
Nat. Ord. Irideæ.
This order is only represented in New Zealand by the genus Libertia, two species of which are found in Otago.
L. ixioides is an extremely common plant, particularly in dry, sandy situations. The white, hermaphrodite flowers have no scent, but in bright sunny weather secrete a considerable amount of honey, and are very conspicuous. I have not detected any difference in the time of ripening of the
[Footnote] * “Fertilization of Orchids,” p. 6.
[Footnote] † “Trans. N. Z. Inst.,” Vol. XI., p. 424.
anthers and stigma, but the styles diverge in a different direction from the stamens, and only their tip is stigmatic.
L. micrantha, which is a very abundant plant in the dense bush bordering the West Coast sounds, is also furnished with pure white, delicate, hermaphrodite flowers. These have no scent, nor have I been able to detect any honey, and they are probably self-fertile, though occasionally visited by insects.
Nat. Ord. Naiadeæ.
The only species of the order which I have looked into is the ubiquitous Potamogeton natans. According to Delpino, quoted by Sir J. Lubbock,* this plant is proterogynous. I could not distinguish this peculiarity as being very well marked. The flowers are hermaphrodite, and probably can fertilize themselves; but they are also anemophilous, and produce a quantity of light powdery pollen, which is easily shaken out of the anthers.
Triglochin, which also has one species in New Zealand, T. triandrum, is stated by Axell† to be proterogynous. I have not observed this plant carefully.
Nat. Ord. Liliaceæ.
Callixene parviflora, a beautiful little snowdrop-like plant, is common in the woods of the West Coast, the Bluff, and Stewart Island. I have not been able to notice any contrivance to secure cross-fertilization, and, with the exception of the prominent colour, the flowers have no great attractiveness to insects, being destitute of scent and honey.
Cordyline australis—the common cabbage-tree—produces great massive panicles containing thousands of whitish flowers. These are hermaphrodite, but are evidently greatly dependent on insects. They are powerfully fragrant, and secrete a good deal of honey. I have seen them surrounded by great numbers of insects, chiefly Diptera, which, on bright sunny days, swarmed on them in hundreds.
Astelia—which is usually separated into a distinct order, Asteliœ—is characterized among other things by its polygamo-diœcious flowers.
A. nervosa is the only common species in this part of Otago, and is unique in its fertilization, for its flowers are very inconspicuous owing to their colour and are produced quite among the large foliage leaves, while lastly the plants themselves grow in the bush. Its habitat debars it from being wind-fertilized, the plants usually occurring in sheltered parts of the bush, where even a strong wind is little felt. The flowers are completely diœcious in function, but hermaphrodite in structure, though always more or less imperfect. The panicles of male flowers are much more lax and prominent than those of the female flowers, and are lighter and more con-
[Footnote] * “British Wild Flowers,” p. 159.
[Footnote] † Loc. cit., p. 161.
spicuous in colour. The perianth-lobes are somewhat chaffy and completely re-curved, so as to expose the wide disc, covered with its secretion of honey. The centre of this disc, within the stamens, has a conical stylopodium destitute however of a stigma. The ovary is fairly well-developed and contains numerous ovules, but these never seem to be fertilized, and always become aborted.
The female flowers are in a stout, rigid, and short panicle; which is very glossy and dark green in colour. The flowers have short, erect, perianth-lobes and no trace of stamens. The ovary is well-developed, and bears on its summit three clearly defined sessile stigmas.
Both kinds of flower are extremely fragrant, and attract considerable numbers of Diptera to them.
Anthericum hookeri is always hermaphrodite, while the much handsomer A. rossii found in the Auckland and Campbell Islands is always diœcious. Our species has bright yellow flowers, and is probably visited and greatly aided in its fertilization by insects, but it has neither honey nor scent. The stamens are somewhat proterandrous, the three opposite the outer perianth lobes always so.
On Frazer Peaks, Stewart Island, I found a very stunted form of this species, tending strongly towards cleistogamy. The flowers were crowded on short rigid scapes, and had their perianth-lobes so greatly reduced in size as to give the racemes a pale yellowish-green hue. The stamens also were greatly reduced, but the ovaries were well developed.
Phormium tenax is another of those large open-flowered species which are chiefly fertilized by birds. I have little doubt that large insects occasionally visit the flowers, but they depend chiefly on the tuis and honey-birds which visit them. Kakas and parakeets also aid sometimes, but the former are too heavy to be welcome visitants, and most probably do more damage than good.
The flowers secrete a large amount of honey, and are distinctly proterandrous. As only the extreme tip of the style is stigmatiferous, and does not become so until most of the pollen has been scattered, it is probable that the flowers are not capable of self-fertilization.
Into the modes of fertilization of the more inconspicuously-flowered orders of plants I have not gone, but there is little doubt that many interesting adaptations will be found to exist among them, and that their close examination will yield valuable results. It is a somewhat common remark that little remains to be done by an original worker among our flowering plants. Nothing could be more incorrect, however, than such a statement, for our knowledge is extremely limited and fragmentary. It is manifestly so in those respects which I have already pointed out in the earlier part of
this paper, but it is also the case in nearly every other department of the subject. Botanists may rest contented when they can answer satisfactorily why there are so many diversities of form and structure among plants, and can give a conclusive reason for the occurrence of each peculiarity. Meanwhile, we require patient and continuous observation for many years, even to open up the main subject touched upon in this paper.
One question I would commend for enquiry among others is this:— How can we account for so many coriaceous and woolly-leaved plants in these islands, belonging, too, either to endemic genera, or to genera which are not so specially characterized in other parts of the world? Seeing that there are no herbivorous Mammalia to be defended against, the only solution I can offer as probable lies in the abundance and size of our Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc.), which are particularly abundant on the mountains, where these coriaceous and woolly-leaved plants are also chiefly found.
The following are the only works or papers I am acquainted with, which refer to the subjects mainly alluded to in this communication, as far as New Zealand plants are concerned.
(1873). T. F. Cheeseman: “On the Fertilization of New Zealand Species of Pterostylis. “Trans. N. Z. Inst.” Vol. V., p. 352.
(1875). " “On the Fertilization of Acianthus and Cyrtostylis.”
“Trans. N. Z. Inst.” Vol., VII., p. 349.
(1877.) C. Darwin: “Fertilization of Orchids” (2nd Edit.), pp. 88–90, 127, etc.
" “Different Forms of Flowers,” pp. 181, 285, 332, etc.
T. F. Cheeseman: “On the Fertilization of Selliera.” “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. IX., p. 542.
(1878.) " “On the Fertilization of Glossostigma.” “Trans. N.Z. Inst., “Vol. X., p. 353.
(1879.) Geo. M. Thomson: “On Cleistogamic Flowers of the Genus Viola.” “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XI., p. 458.
" “On Means of Fertilization among some New Zealand Orchids.” “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XI., p. 418.
Description Of Plate X.
Fig. 1. Coprosma propinqua—female flower—magnified.
2. " rotundifolia " " "
3. Mimulus luteus.
4. Utricularia monanthos—a. flower—side view.
" " b. " front view of upper lip.
5. " " bladders magnified 26 diameters. a. external appearance. b. same cut through the middle, showing the neck of the collar forming the neck of the cavity.
6. " " quadrifid processes magnified 115 diameters.
Art. XXXIV.—Note on Donatia novæ-zealandiæ, Hook, f.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 29th June, 1880.]
This interesting little plant, in the absence of the fruit, was placed originally by Sir J. D. Hooker in the order Saxifrageæ, and in his Handbook he speaks of it* as the only representative in New Zealand of the herbaceous tribe of Saxifrages proper. Up to within a very recent period, however, its exact systematic position was matter of considerable uncertainty. A few years ago, Baron Ferd. von Mueller expressed his decided opinion† that its resemblances were so near those of Phyllachne, that it should be placed along with that genus among the Stylidieæ, and this opinion he again published in Trimen's “Journal of Botany” for 1878, p. 174. In the absence of fruit, however, this affinity could not be considered as finally established. Mr. Petrie, Inspector of Schools for Otago, having recently obtained, at considerable trouble, numerous specimens of Donatia in fruit, forwarded them to Baron von Mueller, who has thus been enabled to prove his former assertions. It is to be regretted that Baron von Mueller in publishing the results of his last examination of the plant in question, should have elected to do so in an Italian journal, instead of in one accessible to the majority of those interested in the subject. The following description of the fruit and seed, together with the other information I record on the subject, is translated from “Dal Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano,” Vol. XI., N. 8, (July, 1879):
“Fruit indehiscent, turbinate, completely bilocular, rarely trilocular, flat on the top and almost tumid on its margin, about 2 lines long. Placentæ short, situated almost at the apex or above the middle of the dissepiment. Seeds few in each loculus, rarely many ripening, pendulous or patent, attached without a funiculus, obliquely ovate or ellipsoid, ⅓—½ line long; testa membraneous, dark, shining, reticularly striated; hilum basal with the chalaza at the extremity more strongly coloured, almost brown; raphe not prominent; albumen amygdaline; embryo very small, remote or quite free from the hilum, often shorter than the albumen; cotyledons ovate-rotundate, almost equalling in length the central thin radicle, or the radicle united with the cotyledons into an almost ovate body.”
Baron von Mueller regards the corolla of Donatia as gamopetalous, but having its tube shortened or suppressed, as occurs in the Rubiaceous genus Galium. The other points adduced are (1) the union of the stamens with
[Footnote] * “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora,” p. 58.
[Footnote] † “Fragmenta,” VIII., 39–41.
the style (as in the Stylidieæ), which, though not complete in Donatia, nevertheless places the filaments really in the centre of the flower, and entirely away from the calyx; (2) the minute embryo similar to that of Stylidium though its position may not be near the hilum; (3) the placentation, which is that of Stylidium, and not that of the normal Saxifrages; (4) the internal structure of the seeds, which agrees better with that of Stylidieæ than of Saxifrageæ; and (5) the normal number of two stamens in Donatia, which is not represented in any other Saxifrage. From these various considerations he places the genus among the Stylidieæ, of which the following enumeration of the known genera is given, which will prove useful to New Zealand botanists.
Candollea, Labill. in Ann. du Mus. Paris, VI., 453, t. 63–64.
Stylidium, Sw. in Willd. Spec. Plant. II. 146, an. 1805.
Leeuvenhockia, R. Brown, Pr. 572.
Phyllachne, R. and G. Forst. Char. Gen. 115, t. 58.
Fostera, L. fil., in Nov. Act. Soc. Reg. Upsal, III., 184, t. 9.
Donatia, R. and G. Forst. Char. Gen. 9, t. 5.
Art. XXXV.—New New-Zealand Plants.*
[Read before the Otago Institute, 29th June, 1880.]
Phyllachne haastii, Berggr.
Leaves imbricating at the oblong plano-convex base, semi-terete, scarcely thickened at the apex, with a simple nerve, upper half of the column exserted, stigmatic lobes oblong, recurved, capsule turbinate, seeds 6–12 on the central undivided placenta.
Kelly's Hill, Canterbury Alps.
This is the plant which I referred to P. colensoi, Hook f., in Lund's “Physiograph. Sältskaps Minnesskrift,” 1878, tab. III., figures 1–27. From that plant this is distinguished by the dull olive-green leaves, the upper half of which is terete, and not swollen at the tips. The single nerve is unbranched, whereas in P. colensoi there is a lateral branch on each side. The seeds are few in number, and the upper part of the placenta is not divided into two branches as in that species.
[Footnote] * From the Journ. of Botany, Vol. IX., p. 104, April, 1880.
Dracophyllum kirkii, Berggr.
Shrubby; leaves patent, fascicled, with a sheathing base, dilated from above, not auricled, narrowed, broadly concave, truncate or mucronate at the apex, glaucous above, striate below; flowers solitary, shortly pedicelled, 2–3-bracteate, bracts and sepals ovate, acuminate, ciliated on the margins, filaments longer than the anthers, fastened all the way below the middle.
I wrongly referred (l.c. tab. IV., fig. 1—11) this plant to D. uniflorum, Hook f. It is distinguished from all the other species of this genus with solitary flowers by the shape of the leaves, which are almost canaliculate, and like the leaves of those species which have compound inflorescence, especially D. strictum. The relative length of the anthers and filaments, as well as the point of insertion of the stamens, presents some difference in this species from both divisions of the genus.
Mount Torlesse, in Canterbury Alps.
Carex buchanani, Berggr.
Reddish-brown; culms cæspitose, graceful, strong, leaves subequal to the culm or longer, tenacious, semiterete, scabrid on the margin; bracts exceeding the culm, the lower sheathing, the upper not sheathing; spikes 5–6, oblong, the lowest distant from the others which are approximate, the terminal one cylindrical male, the rest female or male at the very base, scales obovate, at length hispido-cuspidate, pale, membraneous, torn at the margin, perigynia elliptical, plano-convex, beaked, beak bifid, and with its upper margin ciliated, serrate, purple-spotted, nerveless, glabrous, covered by the scale, stigmas 2. (C. tenax, Berggr., l.c. tab. VII., fig. 1–7—a name already used for another species).
Distinguished from C. raoulii, Boott, by the very tenacious semiterete leaves, the terminal spikelet without female flowers, and the nerveless glabrous utricle.
Art. XXXVI.—On the Fertilization of Thelymitra.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 21st June, 1880.]
That cross-fertilization is the almost universal rule in the great family of Orchids is a generalization first propounded and sustained by reliable evidence by Mr. Darwin, in his “Fertilization of Orchids.” Many memoirs and short papers on the subject have appeared since the publication of the first edition of this work in 1862, but, taking them collectively, they only give additional confirmation to Mr. Darwin's views. It is true that, to the
two or three cases of self-fertilization given by Mr. Darwin himself, several other instances have since been added, but even then the total number is small, and bears no sensible proportion to the overwhelming majority depending on cross-fertilization for the production of seed.
Some of the most interesting exceptions to the rule yet recorded occur in the Australian and New Zealand genus Thelymitra. The Australian species have been ably investigated by Mr. Fitzgerald, who finds in the genus almost all the links between forms that are utterly sterile and barren without insect aid, and others that are regularly self-fertilized from one generation to another, and in which the flowers have almost become cleistogene. As nothing has been published about the New Zealand species, I propose to give a sketch of the fertilization of one of them—T. longifolia, pointing out some apparent differences between the method employed here and that which according to Mr. Fitzgerald is in use in Australia.
‘Thelymitra longifolia is probably the most abundant Orchid in the North Island. Its favourite station is on clay hills, but it can also be found in dry rocky places, on sand-hills, and even in wet swamps; in short, in all soils and situations, with the exception that it is rarely (if ever) seen in the dense forest, although often luxuriating in the shade of the “tea-tree scrub.” As might be predicted of a plant having such a wide range of habitats, it is extremely variable. Small specimens are often seen barely two inches in height, with a narrow leaf and single small flower. Every intermediate can be traced between this and the large stout form eighteen inches, or even two feet, high, with a broad leaf, and a spike of from ten to twenty large flowers. The colour of the flowers is usually white, but pink and blue flowered varieties are common.
The perianth differs from that of most Orchids in being composed of six nearly equal leaflets, which spread on all sides when expanded; so that the flower has little of the irregular and often fantastic appearance of many of its allies, but rather resembles an Ixia or Sisyrinchium.
The column may be roughly described as hood-shaped, the upper part being produced over and above the anther into a broad three-lobed projection, the middle lobe (which is much the largest) being blunt and smooth, but the lateral ones densely fringed with cilia at their extremities. The anther is placed about half way up the face of the column. It is two-celled, each cell containing two granular plate-like pollen-masses. From each side of the base of the column a low wing-like expansion curves round towards the front of the flower, meeting opposite to the labellum. A small recess is thus enclosed, within which the stigma and rostellum are placed; both organs being detached from the column proper. The stigma is a broad shield-like body situated in front of and slightly below the anther.
At its base it is thick and fleshy, but it becomes thin and membranous towards the sides and two-lobed summit. The rostellum is lodged between the terminal forks of the stigma, in front of which it projects as a rounded boss. When mature, it consists entirely of viscid matter, covered with an extremely delicate membrane. At this stage its connection with the stigma is easily ruptured, so that it can be readily removed by a slight touch.
The anther attains its full size and development while the flower is yet in the bud, and long before expansion each cell splits down its outer face, exposing the pollinia. As these rest immediately behind the rostellum, and in contact, or nearly so, with its viscid posterior surface, they invariably become firmly attached to it. After this takes place, the column lengthens considerably, thus causing the anther to occupy a higher position relatively to the stigma and rostellum than before. As the pollinia have become affixed to the rostellum, they cannot accompany the anther in this movement, and the anther-case being dragged from them they remain hanging to the back of the rostellum in the narrow passage existing between the stigma and column; the upper part of the pollinia slightly overtopping the stigma. This is the state of things just before the expansion of the flower.
In fine sunshiny weather the flowers usually open about nine o'clock in the morning, neatly reclosing about four or five in the afternoon. There is, however, considerable irregularity as to this, some varieties only opening for a short time in the middle of the day, others remaining expanded for a much longer period. In cloudy or showery weather the flowers never expand so fully as on a clear day. In stormy or very wet weather they generally do not open at all. I have observed that when rain has obtained access into the flower the pollinia are frequently washed into a pulpy mass at the bottom of the recess behind the stigma; so that there can be no doubt that the closing of the flower acts primarily as a protection for the pollen against rain or dew; although in some of the varieties it certainly seems to be carried further than is required for this purpose. The flowers are quite scentless, and I have never observed that any nectar is secreted.
If a newly-expanded flower is taken and a blunt needle inserted in such a manner that the front of the rostellum is touched, the viscid matter composing this organ at once adheres to the needle, and if it is withdrawn, taking care to move the point in an upward and forward direction, the rostellum, with its attached pollinia, cannot fail to be brought away with it. This experiment should only be tried with flowers that have recently expanded, for, from reasons that will become apparent further on, the pollinia can only be removed with certainty immediately after the flower first opens.
So far, the whole structure of the flower seems designed to favour cross-
fertilization through the agency of insects; and there can be no doubt that if the flowers were regularly visited by suitable species this would inevitably take place. But, from some reason—probably from the want of sufficient attraction—insects seldom visit the flowers. For the last seven years, I have made it a practice to watch beds of this Orchid, and save on two occasions I have never seen winged insects enter the flowers; and in both these cases the pollinia were not removed. It should, however, be mentioned that a minute thrip-like insect is sometimes abundant on the pollen, on which it probably feeds; but it is much too small to be of any service in removing the pollen from flower to flower, although it may be useful in another way. But although insects have not been actually observed in the act of removing the pollen, I have yet been able to collect evidence proving that they occasionally, though very rarely, do this. Thus, in November, 1876, seventy-five flowers were examined, and two had lost their pollinia—evidently removed by some insect. In November, 1878, 103 flowers were examined, and two of these had their pollinia removed. Lastly, in November, 1879, out of forty flowers three had the pollen-masses missing. In three instances I have also found pollen scattered over the stigma, the pollinia being still intact in their places at the back of the rostellum. These facts are quite sufficient to show that cross-fertilization does occasionally, though very rarely, take place.
Few of our indigenous species mature seed so abundantly as Thelymitra longifolia, almost every flower producing a ripe capsule. Taking this in connection with the facts mentioned above, it is obvious that we have to do with a case of self-fertilization. The mode in which this is effected appears to be as follows:—The upper part of the stigma is thin and membranous, and has its margin slightly revolute, even when in the bud. After expansion this rolling back is carried to a greater extent, so that the edge of the stigma, and even a small portion of its anterior surface, comes into contact with the pollen-masses hanging directly behind it. Pollen-tubes are at once emitted into the substance of the stigma, usually so rapidly that before a flower has been expanded more than a single day the pollinia are glued so firmly to the margin of the stigma that they could not be removed by insects, even if they visited the flowers. Pollen-tubes are also frequently emitted into the upper part of the posterior surface of the stigma. Besides this, it often happens that the tops of the pollen-masses (which, as we have seen, slightly overtop the stigma) are broken down by some means, either by the shaking of the flowers by wind or by the minute thrip-like insect already mentioned, and the pollen scattered over the front of the stigma. By one of these methods, or by both combined, I believe that the flowers are regularly self-fertilized, and the perpetuation of the species secured.
Mr. Fitzgerald, in the introduction to his magnificent work on Australian Orchids, states that T. longifolia is fertilized in the bud in Australia. This, however, is certainly not the case in New Zealand, save when a long succession of wet weather has prevented the flowers from opening at their proper time. In ordinarily fine seasons I always find that the pollinia are intact and free from the stigma on the expansion of the flower, and come away with the rostellum on its removal. He also states that the flowers open for one hour only in the middle of the day. In New Zealand nearly all the varieties open for a much longer period than this, the chief exception being a blue-flowered form with very long and slender staminodia, apparently an intermediate between T. longifolia and T. pulchella. I cannot agree with Mr. Fitzgerald in considering the opening of the flowers “useless,” for even admitting that the stigma had been penetrated by pollen-tubes prior to the expansion of the flower, yet if pollen should be brought from a different plant and placed on the stigma, it would probably have a prepotent influence, and destroy any effect produced by the plant's own pollen. To me it appears that the opening of the flowers is highly important, even if it takes place for only an hour, for it gives a chance of cross-fertilization being effected, and the great value of this is now well established. It is curious that Mr. Fitzgerald's researches should appear to go towards proving that T. longifolia is more exclusively self-fertilized, and the flowers more nearly cleistogene, in Australia than in New Zealand; for, considering the admitted paucity of insects in New Zealand, and the much damper and cooler climate, the exact converse of this might have been anticipated.
The whole case of Thelymitra is most interesting, and at the same time perplexing in the highest degree. On the one hand we find the flowers possessing a viscid rostellum, to which the pollen-masses become spontaneously attached, and with which they can be removed,—clearly an adaptation for cross-fertilization through insect agency. On the other hand we see that the form and position of the stigma is such that it early comes into contact with the pollen-masses, an end which is also encouraged by the margins of the stigma slightly bending back towards the pollinia; we also find that in some of the varieties the flowers remain closed for a large part of the day, thus absolutely preventing the access of insects. It is impossible to doubt that these circumstances favour self-fertilization. We are thus driven to the same conclusion that Mr. Darwin has arrived at in the case of the Bee Orchis:—that in the same flower there exist elaborate contrivances for directly opposed objects. To believers in the theory of evolution, the case is not without an explanation. If we could trace back the modifications through which the plant has passed, we should probably arrive at a
remote ancestor bearing flowers regularly cross-fertilized by insects, as is the case with most Orchids at the present day. We should probably find that from some reason—it might be from the flowers becoming less attractive, or from the proper insects becoming less plentiful—the flowers were not so regularly visited as before. It would then be an advantage to the plant to be occasionally self-fertilized, in order that a sufficiency of seed should be obtained to perpetuate the species. Varieties having a tendency to self-fertilization would then be rigorously selected. The process of modification having once commenced, I see no difficulty in its being carried on to any extent, provided that the visits of insects continued to decrease, and that consequently the necessity for self-fertilization became more pressing. In this way the species would become more and more self-dependent, until we find it, as it is at present, almost uniformly self-fertilized. At the same time, any structures existing in the flower for purposes of cross-fertilization would hardly be modified if they did not prevent self-fertilization from taking place, but would be retained in their original shape, although perhaps but seldom, or even never, performing their proper functions.
Most writers on the subject maintain that it is a positive disadvantage to a species to be self-fertilized for a long length of time. But here we have the case of a plant which is probably self-fertilized for many generations in succession, but which is yet a vigorous and predominant species, accommodating itself to a wide range of habitats, protecting itself against encroachment by other species, and highly successful in the battle of life.
Art. XXXVII.—Description of a New Species of Loranthus.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 25th October, 1880.]
Some time ago my friend, Mr. James Adams, the head master of the Thames High School, kindly forwarded to me specimens of a handsome new Loranthus discovered by him in the Thames district, and which differs widely from any of the known species inhabiting New Zealand. During a recent visit to the Thames I was able to examine the plant in a living state, and to obtain a good series of specimens, from which the following description has been drawn up. I have much pleasure in associating the name of the discoverer with the species.
Loranthus adamsii, n.sp.
A small perfectly glabrous bush, two to three feet in height. Branches terete. Leaves opposite, one and a half to two and a half inches long,
broadly oblong, obovate or oblong-obovate, narrowed into a short stout petiole or almost sessile, very thick and coriaceous, veins hardly conspicuous, margins recurved. Inflorescence axillary; peduncles very short, each bearing two to four sessile flowers at the top. Bracts—three at the base of each flower (one bract and two bracteoles), small, concave. Flowers rather large, one and a half to two inches long, reddish, more or less tinged with yellowish-green. Calyx with four minute triangular teeth. Corolla narrow at the base, swollen in the middle, and then contracted just below the limb; lobes four, separating about a quarter of the way down, but the corolla often splits nearly to the base on one side, the four petals then pointing all in one direction. Stamens four; anthers narrow-linear, basifixed. Stigma capitate. Fruit not seen.
Habitat: Thames goldfields, parasitic on Coprosma, Myrsine and Melicope. Flowers in September and October.
According to the elaborate sketch of the genus given by the author of the “Genera Plantarum,” our plant must be placed with a group of Indian and Malayan species possessing a corolla with the petals united nearly to the top, and with three bracts at the base of each flower, and which forms the sub-genera Macrosolen and Elytranthe. Loranthus flavidus, so common in the Fagus forests of Nelson and Canterbury, is referred to the same group' but is a somewhat anomalous member of it.
Loranthus colensoi has much of the habit and foliage of L. adamsii, but is much larger, and can be at once distinguished by the free petals and the absence of bracts.
Search should be made in hilly and wooded districts for Loranthus tenuiflorus, of which only a single specimen, preserved in the Kew Herbarium, is known, and the exact locality of which has been lost. It can be distinguished from the other species by the oblong versatile anthers, which place it in a division of the genus almost wholly composed of South American species.
Art. XXXVIII.—Contributious towards a List of the New Zealand Desmidieæ.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 7th October, 1880.]
European species or the discovery of new ones. And yet, were it not for the extreme minuteness of the plants composing this family (the largest of which is only visible to the naked eye under certain lights), I venture to think that the elegance of form and varied grace which distinguish them would have drawn universal consideration to them. Unfortunately, they cannot be cultivated, and occurring as they do in wayside ponds and amongst masses of water-weeds their very existence is generally despised and probably almost unknown.
I have had occasion already, when treating of the New Zealand Coccidæ, * to remark upon the difficulty experienced here in studying the different classes of animals or plants, a difficulty arising chiefly from the want of books of reference. Geographical obstacles to communication between various parts of the colony stand much in our way, but these might be got over. But in examining any species it is imperative to know, as far as possible, whether it has ever been referred to elsewhere or by anyone else, and to be able, at least approximately, to determine its affinities. For this purpose easy access to works of reference is indispensable if satisfactory knowledge is aimed at; and this is just what is wanting here. The difficulty is still more enhanced in the case of such objects as the Desmidieæ, because it is quite impossible to keep them for any length of time in their original state: so that often, before comparison could be made with species described as existing elsewhere, the specimens would be ruined and lost. And drawings, let them be ever so apparently accurate, cannot, until all specific characters are thoroughly made out, supply the place of the object itself, at least for purposes of study.
The Desmidieæ are, to students in Christchurch, particularly subject to this difficulty. The standard work on them, Ralfs' “British Desmidieæ,” is more than thirty years old, and microscopic investigation has made immense strides since its publication. Descriptions, references, and sometimes figures, are scattered in papers by different authors in such periodicals as the “Journal of Microscopical Science,” the “Annals and Magazine of Natural History,” the “Zoolog-Botanische Gesellschaft” of Vienna, etc. And, independently of the difficulty of searching for and collating these disjecta membra, it is the case, unfortunately, that in Christchurch the series of such periodicals is much broken, confused, and difficult of access. Ehrenberg's great work on the Infusoria (a copy of which is, I believe, shortly to be added to our library) is still older than that of Ralfs. It follows from what I have said that, in investigating and describing any such family as that of the Desmidieæ, the student, even after all his pains, has to
[Footnote] * “Trans. N. Z. Inst.,” Vol. XII., p. 291.
rely greatly upon his own judgment and observation, and if these should not unfrequently lead him into error he may at least feel relieved from responsibility.
As this paper purports to be only a catalogue, and the Desmidieæ have already received much attention elsewhere, I need not stop to characterize the family here, beyond simply quoting the description given by the “Micro-graphical Dictionary:”—“A family of Confervoid Algæ, consisting entirely of microscopic flexible organisms inhabiting fresh water.” In this general description they differ from the Diatomaceæ in the character of “flexibility,” as opposed to “brittleness.” Long considered to be animals, (by Ehrenberg and others), they are now universally recognized as plants.
It will be seen by the following list that I believe I have observed at Christchurch sixteen genera of Desmidieæ proper, containing sixty species. I say “proper,” because there is also the genus Pediastrum, of which three species are common here; but as I think this is not really one of the family, I have paid less attention to it. I have added the three species of Pediastrum to the list, as the genus is usually referred to in works on the Desmidieæ, but probably several more species may occur here.
Of the sixty species of true Desmidieæ in the list, six are as I think new or undescribed, and there are also two species of the genus Ankistrodesmus, which I could not identify. The lower forms of life, particularly pond-life, seem to be pretty much the same all over the world, and I ought to give here some explanation of my reasons for venturing to add some six new species to those already known. If I am rightly informed, in the kindred family of the Diatomaceæ only one new species has for several years been described in New Zealand, (of the genus Nitzschia, by Mr. J. Inglis, lately), and it may be thought unlikely that in the Desmidieæ there should be greater variety. For this reason I think it well to explain why the six plants just referred to seem to me not referable to any known species (always remembering what I said just now as to the dearth of works of reference here.)
The Desmidieæ have two modes of propagation:—1. By conjugation, or the union of two separate plants producing between them what is called a “zygospore.” 2. By division, where each frond separates into two parts, and in the process of separation two new parts grow between the old ones, until, as the new segments attain the size and form of the old ones, complete separation takes place, and each old segment floats away accompanied by its new “half.” Now, undoubedly, as Mr. Archer remarks,* in order to be absolutely certain as to a species, it ought to be followed throughout all its stages, that is, from the production of a “zygospore,” through full
[Footnote] * “Quart. Jour. Micr. Science,” Vol. II., New Series, 1862, p. 236.
growth to the production again of another “zygospore.” But, as he also very truly observes, this would be practically impossible with the Desmidieæ, for the “zygospores” in very many instances are quite unknown, and in all are difficult of detection. I may observe here that in the course of three years study of these plants I have never met with a single instance of a Desmid with attached zygospore. Scattered bodies, which appeared to be zygospores, I have seen, but, as Ralfs remarks, unless they are actually attached to segments of a frond it cannot be well known to what plant they belong. Moreover, although zygospores have, by other observers, been frequently seen, their ultimate history is in all cases at present obscure; and as the “Micrographic Dictionary” says, “the reproduction of the Desmidiaceæ still offers a wide field for investigation.” Conjugation, in its earlier stages, I have seen on a few occasions.
On the other hand, the process of division seems to be much more frequent, and I have myself observed it several times in the genera Closterium, Micrasterias, Docidium, and others. In the filamentous genera, such as Hylalotheca, division is less common.
Now, although the actual following-out of the process of conjugation may be difficult, or perhaps impossible, I take it that when on several occasions the process of division is to be observed; when, in such cases, the resulting frond is identically similar to other and frequently seen fronds; when there is also at different times of the year, and perhaps in different years, complete similarity in the specimens examined; and when no trace can be found, in descriptions of species by authors, of fronds having the same characters—there is at least very strong evidence that the plants under review form a definite species different from the known species. To use Mr. Archer's words, “Constantly recurring identical forms must be assumed to be the descendants of similar progenitors.”* Moreover, division, as I imagine, can only take place in mature fronds; immature plants could scarcely propagate; consequently any plant seen in process of division must, if no previous record of its characters can be found, be taken as new.
For these reasons I have ventured to set down a few plants as new species, and not merely as varieties. Referring again to the Diatomaceæ, I believe that it has been ascertained that about ninety per cent. of those plants in New Zealand belong to European species. In the Desmidieæ, out of sixty plants I consider six new, and two doubtful; not a larger proportion.
As I have used the word “varieties,” it may be well to remark that in many of the species which I have set down here as European, more especially perhaps in the genus Cosmarium, I have noticed peculiarities which do
[Footnote] * Loc. cit., p. 238.
not seem to have been mentioned by authors. The discussion of these would lead me beyond the scope of this paper, and perhaps the characters to which I refer would not even suffice to raise the plants even to “varieties.”
It will be seen from my list that the following genera are not, as far as I know, represented hers (I speak of the neighbourhood of Christchurch):— Didymoprium, Desmidium, Xanthidium, Arthrodesmus, Tetmemorus. Also, that Euastrum and Cosmarium appear to furnish comparatively few species, and Staurastrum, out of fifty-six species described, has furnished only seven.
I have not mentioned, as a rule, the locality of each species observed, desiring rather to avoid iteration. In two or three cases where I have obtained specimens from other places, the fact is stated; but, where no mention is made, the plant was gathered in the neighbourhood of Christchurch, and chiefly in the fish-ponds of acclimatization societies.
I may remark, in conclusion, that I have preserved in slides almost all the plants named in the following catalogue. In the process of preservation the question of the best fluid for the purpose naturally engaged much attention, and I have tried several. No fluid, as my experience goes, is entirely satisfactory. Camphor-water and Thwaites' fluid appear at first to preserve the plants in all their natural beauty and colour, but after a time they fail. Ralfs' fluid has the same objection, and is, moreover, not very clean. Glycerine, to which I have had final recourse, is the best of all. When the plants are first immersed in it they usually, indeed, shrivel into shapeless masses, but after a few minutes they swell out again and regain their proper form. In glycerine, as in all the other fluids, the endochrome is much affected, but I think that the beauty of the cell-walls themselves is brought out better in this than anything else. Spirotœnia will not stand anything, even distilled water spoils it. As a matter of fact, no Desmid can really be preserved unhurt, and no preserved specimen can equal the natural plant. In the Diatomaceæ the case is quite different. But, taking them all round, I believe that of all preservative fluids glycerine is the best.
Catalogue Of Desmidieæ
1. Hyalotheca, Ehrenberg.
H. dissiliens, Smith. (R. I.)*
Common, especially in spring.
This plant seems particularly liable to a disease(?) produced apparently by a species of Pythium.
[Footnote] * The letter R with a figure after the name of a species denotes the plate in Ralfs' work where the plant is figured. Thus (R. XVI.) means, “Ralfs' ‘British Desmidieæ,’ Plate XVI.”
2. Aptogonum, Ehrenberg.
A. undulatum, sp. nov.
The frond is filamentous, somewhat fragile, and without gelatinous sheath. It is plane, or only very slightly twisted, and, as a rule, not long, but with sometimes as many as fifty joints.
Joints bi-crenate at the margins, and on the sides excavated so as to leave between them an oval foramen. Viewed from below the length of each joint is equal to the breadth. In the side view the height is rather more than the breadth. Under-view quadrangular, the angles rounded, and the foramen easily distinguishable. Upper view also quadrangular, but across the foramen two projections are seen, one from each joint, meeting at the centre. Side view quadrangular below, but curvate above, giving a wavy appearance to the margin of the frond. The projecting processes are seen in this view springing from the curve. The lower edge is bi-crenate. End view quadrate below, with a projection at each of the lower angles, convexo-triangular above, with a projection at the apex. In an empty joint the median projecting process is visible. When slightly tilted, the end view shows the quadrangular under-side with bi-crenate edge. Endochrome bright green. Rays in end view inconspicuous.
This plant seems to be intermediate between A. desmidium, Ehr., the European species, and A. baileyi, the American species. In the former the edges of the joints are bi-crenate, but there are no projecting processes between them, and the end view is concavo- instead of convexo-triangular. In the latter there are the projecting processes, but the edges are not crenate but straight, and the end view (as given by Ralfs, Plate XXXV) shows a rectilinear triangle. I find no mention also, in the descriptions of either of these species, of the curvate appearance shown in the side view of my A. undulatum, which gives the peculiar wavy edge to the filament. In Dr. Wallich's paper* on Desmidieæ from Bengal, he figures A. baileyi clearly without any undulating margin, though he shows the end view more convexo-triangular than in Ralfs' figure.
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
Length of joint (outside measurement), under or upper view, 1/1330 inch. Height of joint in side view, 1/1140 inch.
3. Sphærozosma, Corda.
S. vertebratum, Brébisson. (R. VI.)
S. excavatum, Ralfs. (R. VI.)
[Footnote] * “Annals. of Nat. Hist.,” 1860.
Very rare, I think. At least I have only seen two specimens in as many years. It is excessively fragile.
S. filiforme, Ehrenberg. (R. p. 209.)
Distinguished from the other species of the genus by having the joints united by double processes inclosing a quadrate foramen, instead of only a single process.
Rare, but perhaps more frequent than either of the two last.
This plant appears not to exist in England, being referred by Ralfs only to Germany. In specimens which I have preserved in fluid, the joints sometimes seem to diminish and increase in size owing to the twisting of the filament. The same appearance is seen in the American species, S. pulchrum, Bailey, (Ralfs, p. 209).
4. Micrasterias Agardh.
M. rotata, Greville. (R. VIII.)
Common, especially in spring.
M. denticulata, Brébisson. (R. VII.)
There is great difficulty in satisfactorily distinguishing these two species, and authorities are by no means clear. Ralfs doubts whether the two plants are not really the same; as also does Dr. Wallich in his description of Desmidieæ from Bengal; and Mr. Archer* shows, that often in papers M. denticulata has been referred to while M. rotata is meant. Mr. Archer, indeed, strongly supports the distinction between the two. I would by no means venture to intrude here in the discussion, beyond observing that almost every specimen which I have seen has the eight subdivisions and the sharp ultimate teeth of M. rotata; secondly, that on a few occasions I have found some which could doubtfully be referred to M. denticulata; thirdly, that I was able once to observe the actual process of division described and figured by Mr. Lobb,† and certainly the old segments of the frond were M. rotata, though Mr. Lobb throughout refers to M. denticulata. The process is shown in fig. 5; this, taken from a specimen actually observed dividing, shows clearly the teeth of M. rotata; but the new segments forming agree exactly with Mr. Lobb's figure. There could be no doubt about it, the whole appearance of the plant was that of M. rotata; was there a confusion in Mr. Lobb's mind between the two? On the whole, I believe that M. rotata occurs here in profusion; M. denticulata perhaps also, but sparingly.
[Footnote] * “Quart. Journ. of Micros. Science,” n. series, vol. II., 1862, p. 244.
[Footnote] † “Trans. Micr. Soc. London,” n. ser., vol. I., 1861, p. 1, and pl. I.
M. thomasiana, Archer (“Qu. Journ.,” 1862).
This plant I only mention because I have found one specimen, clearly a Micrasterias, showing distinctly apiculate elevations on the surface of the frond, disposed circularly about half-way between the centre and the edge, and also some appearance of the median projections of Mr. Archer's species. The plant, from these peculiarities, was certainly not M. rotata; but I had not then seen Mr. Archer's paper, and unfortunately also lost the specimen before I could fully examine and figure it, and have never seen one since. The mention of it here may induce search for it. Close investigation will be necessary to distinguish it when the frond is full of endochrome, the peculiar markings can only be well seen in an empty frond. But the plant when found will repay examination, being one of the most beautiful of all this extremely beautiful genus.
M. thomasiana is described and figured in the “Quart. Journ. of Micros. Science,” Vol. II., new series, 1862, p. 236, and plate XII.
M. ampullacea,* sp. nov.
Frond angular-elliptic; segments three-lobed; the end lobe with bipartite angles; lateral lobes bi- or trifid, distinct, deeply divided, sinuous, with apices ending in three minute spines; edges serrated.
The end lobe is exserted, sub-cylindrical for most of its length, then suddenly broadening to the angles which are bifid with long divisions. The cylindrical portion is slightly wider towards the centre of the frond. Of the two divisions at each ultimate angle the outer is the longest, and the inner one is not in the same plane.
The lateral lobes are deeply divided into two or three (but more commonly two) subdivisions; and when there are three the extra subdivision is caused by the forking of that portion of the original two which is nearest the end of the terminal lobe. Each subdivision is sinuous-edged; narrow at the base, then slightly widening, then suddenly contracting to a long narrow shaft; in fact somewhat after the shape of a flask.
The edges are serrated, and the empty frond punctate. A row of puncta usually follows the edge of each lobe. The apices of the lobes, and of the divisions at the terminal angles, are crowned with three minute spines.
The endochrome is bright green, extending almost to the edges. Vesicles inconspicuous.
In side view, the frond shows like two flasks set with their broad ends together; these are the median or terminal lobes, and the lateral lobes show their edges in perspective. The dilation at the base of the sub-
[Footnote] * This must not be confounded with Euastrum ampullaceum, Ralfs.
cylindrical median lobes is here well seen, and the divergence of the planes of the processes at the ultimate angles is also clear. The edges, in this view, are smooth.
Zygospore unknown, but I have seen specimens in early stages of conjugation (?).
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
Length of frond (exclusive of terminal processes), 1/150 inch; breadth, over all, 1/180 inch; breadth in side view, 1/450 inch; breadth at constriction; 1/880 inch.
This pretty little plant belongs to that section of Micrasterias of which M. crux-melitensis may be taken as the type, a section in which the orbicular or sub-elliptical frond is cut into separate lobes by much wider sinuses than in, for example, M. rotata. M. ampullacea, by its three lobes and the bifid projections at the angles of the terminal lobes, approaches the following described species:—M. americana, Ralfs; M. baileyi, Ralfs; M. morsa variety δ, Wallich (this ought to be M. americana var.); and M. mahabuleshwarensis, Hobson. But none of these show the peculiar flask-like shape of the lobes in my species. In M. americana the lateral lobes widen considerably outwards, whereas in M. ampullacea they narrow rapidly outwards. In all the others, unless the figures given are inaccurate, the lateral lobes taper at once from their bases, whereas those of M. ampullacea, with their sinuous edges, seem to have their widest part a little distant from the base. M. baileyi has quite smooth edges, without serrations. Dr. Wallich's variety δ has angular, tapering, strongly spined lobes; and Mr. Hobson's plant (with its fearful and wonderful name) is altogether different in the shape of the lobes; and moreover has, according to the description, serrations only in the sinuses of the lateral lobes. None of the authors named have given a side view of his plant.
M. ampullacea, when the lateral lobes are trifid, as in figure 6, tends somewhat towards M. foliacea, Bailey, but that plant is distinctly quadrangular and otherwise different.
Dr. Wallich, in describing his species from Bengal, proposes to amalgamate almost all the species of Micrasterias, and would probably consider the differences between his variety δ and my M. ampullacea as only climatic or accidental. But I would venture to observe that, as remarked above, constantly recurring identity of form in large numbers of specimens, obtained under various conditions, must point to something rather more important than mere accidental variety. I would look upon such a difference as bifid or trifid lateral lobes as constituting only a variety (if even it amounted to that); but if, in New Zealand, a plant has always sinuous flask-like lobes, and, in Bengal, always angular tapering lobes, there is at least great evi-
dence in favour of distinctness of species. And, in fact, taking a gradation from M. ampullacea, through M. foliacea, M. americana, and the rest, to M. rotata, why should they not all be simply varieties? When, indeed, it has come to be thoroughly understood what a “variety” is, and what a “species” is, all doubts can be cleared up. Meanwhile, I offer my M. ampullacea as a distinct, and, I venture to think, an elegant species of the genus.
5. Holocystis, Hassall.
This genus is separated from Micrasterias by having the lateral lobes almost or quite parallel, not radiant. But the distinction seems scarcely sufficient. Ralfs, who wrote after Hassall, refuses to accept his nomenclature, pointing out that the dentation at the extremity of the lobes is scarcely consistent with the proposed name. However, as Mr. Hassall's name has been accepted by later writers, I leave it here.
Micrasterias incisa, Kützing.
I believe this plant to be identical with one from Bengal, described and figured by Dr. Wallich.* It is there called a “variety” of Kützing's species, but I have not seen the original plant. Dr. Wallich makes two varieties, in one of which the edge of the terminal lobe is emarginate; in the other it is not so. The plant here, as shown in my figure, exhibits both characters; this is due to the immaturity of the non-emarginate segment. When fully grown, both segments are emarginate.
6. Euastrum, Ehrenberg.
E. elegans, Brébisson; or, E. binale, Turpin. (R. XIV.)
I have seen two specimens (one of which I have preserved). The plant may be of either of these species, though it may be probably E. binale, as the sides of the terminal notch do not extend beyond the lateral spines. Both species are extremely minute, from 1/900 to 1/1400 of an inch long, and some-what variable.
7. Cosmarium, Corda.
C. ralfsii, Brébisson. (R. XV.)
C. meneghinii, Brébisson. (R. XV.)
C. crenatum, Ralfs. (R. XV.)
[Footnote] *“Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist.,” Vol. V., third series, 1860.
C. undulatum, Corda. (R. XV.)
The difference between these two species is, generally, that the segments of C. crenatum are longer than broad, those of C. undulatum broader than long; but, in order to thoroughly distinguish them, the sporangia should be observed. Those of C. undulatum have long spines divided at the apex; those of C. crenatum short spines.
C. botrytis, Bory. (R. XVI.)
But I cannot make sure of this plant. My specimens may really belong to the next species, from which C. botrytis differs only in the slightly truncate ends, a scarcely satisfactory character.
C. margaritiferum, Turpin. (R. XVI.)
A very handsome plant, somewhat variable in size. The “swarming” motion of the granules is often very conspicuous in this and the last species.
C. broomeii, Thwaites. (R. XVI.)
Chiefly distinguishable from the last by the compressed or straight ends. The slight inflation at the middle, in the end view, is often difficult to make out in the live plant.
C. phaseolus, Brébisson. (R. XXXII.)
The characteristic feature is the very small circular inflation at the centre of the segments seen only in the end view. The frond is extremely minute, length 1/787 inch, breadth 1/833, according to Ralfs.
C. moniliforme, Turpin. (R. XVII.)
C. granatum, Brébisson. (R. XXXII.)
C. pyramidatum, Brébisson. (R. XV.)
C. ornatum, Ralfs. (R. XVI.)
Doubtful. Not uncommon in spring.
I have not been able to satisfy myself as to this species. Some specimens have undoubtedly the truncate projection beyond the margin, but I have not made out the linear arrangement of the puncta on the empty frond.
8. Staurastrum, Meyen.
S. dejectum, Brébisson. (R. XX.)
S. orbiculare, Ehrenberg. (R. XXI.)
S. muticum, Brébisson. (R. XXI.)
Differs from S. orbiculare in having a narrower isthmus between the elliptic segments.
S. polymorphum, Brébisson. (R. XXII.)
S. gracile, Ralfs. (R. XXII.)
S. tetracerum, Kützing. (R. XXIII.)
S. avicula, Brébisson. (R. XXIII.)
Figures 31, 32.
I have a specimen which seems to me to agree in all points with this species, with the exception that the edges of the segments are slightly crenated instead of smooth. The angles end in a forked spine or awn, agreeing thus with S. avicula.
9. Didymocladon, Ralfs.
D. stella, sp. nov.
Figures 9, 10.
The frond is small; the segments in front view roughly fusiform, with many long projecting processes; two of these processes spring from each of the opposite angles of each segment. Segments united by a rather wide isthmus, so that the terminal separation is somewhat wide and gaping. Of the two angular processes one in each segment is nearly parallel to the corresponding one of the other segment; the other is somewhat widely divergent. Below these, at each end of the isthmus, spring two more projections on each segment, pointing towards the other segment and slightly outwards. Other processes spring from the outer portion of each segment. All the processes have crenate edges, and each terminates in three spines. The appearance of the frond in this view is like two roughly fusiform bodies joined at the sides, and further clasped together by long spiny branches projecting in all directions.
The front view shows a star of many points. Focussed for the extreme end, nearest the eye, it shows seven rays, behind which a number of others are seen a little out of focus. As many of these rays are almost, if not quite, in the same line as some in front or behind them, it is not easy to count the exact number; but I have made out as many as twenty-eight, and probably that is the normal number. The rays (which are the processes seen in the
front view) vary in length. Those at the ends of the segments are shortest, or at least appear so from perspective effect; so that a view of the longest and most numerous rays is obtained by focussing to the middle of the frond.
The processes, or rays, are cylindrical, slightly tapering, being somewhat dilated at the base.
Endochrome bright green; vesicles scattered.
Extreme length in front view, including processes, 1/270 inch, without processes, 1/570 inch; length of processes in end view, from centre of the star to tip, 1/520 inch.
This is an extremely beautiful little plant, especially when seen in its star shape from the end view.
I have placed it under Didymocladon, although it differs in several particulars from the English species. Ralfs gives the generic characters as follows:—“Frond simple, constricted in the middle, angular, each angle having two processes, one lateral, and in front view nearly parallel to the adjacent one of the other segment, the other superior and divergent.” All these characters are found in my species, and I have no doubt that it belongs to Didymocladon. But, in the English plant, the end view is either triangular or quadrangular, never more; and in neither case can it present anything like the star form of D. stella; moreover, the processes terminate only in two spines, whereas D. stella has three. Ralfs says that the English species, D. furcigerus, is rough with pearly granules which, being arranged on the processes in transverse lines, produce a crenate appearance on their margins.” In D. stella the edges, as far as I can make out, are distinctly crenate.
At first sight, in end view, D. stella might be mistaken for a zygospore of some other species, from its stellate form. But the front view at once shows this to be incorrect, and an empty frond clearly shows that it is a distinct and full-grown plant.
10. Penium, Brébisson.
P. digitus, Ehrenberg. (R. XXV.)
Common in spring.
P. closterioides. (R. XXXIV.)
11. Docidiium, Brébisson.
D. clavatum, Kützing. (R. XXVI.)
D. ehrenbergii, Ralfs. (R. XXVI.)
Distinguished from the last by having three to five small tubercles at the extremities of the segments.
D. baculum, Brébisson. (R. XXXIII.)
I am by no means sure that I have really seen this plant here.
D. truncatum, Brébisson. (R. XXVI.)
A fine large species, not unlike D. clavatum, but broader and more tapering towards the ends; indeed, generally a larger plant.
D. dilatatum, sp. nov.
The frond is large, stout, cylindrical, distinctly constricted at the middle, and the suture forms a thickened ring projecting at each side. The segments are not very broad at the base, but widen considerably immediately after, and at about half their length begin to taper to within a short distance from the end, when they again slightly dilate. At the extreme end there is a minute globular tubercle at each side, and along the edge three to five others, giving it a crenate appearance.
End view circular.
The empty frond is distinctly punctate, and I have seen specimens almost granulate.
In the process of division, the new segments commence as minute orbicular hyaline globules between the original segments; the globules gradually enlarge, becoming after a while elliptical, then slightly tapering; the terminal dilation, visible in the old segment, is not seen until the separation takes place (and, indeed, for a short time after); the terminal edge is rounded, and the coronet of tubercles is absent. It is not uncommon to find fronds apparently almost symmetrical, except that one segment is rounder or more ovate than the other. This is the new segment formed in division.
The endochrome is bright green, the vesicles numerous, scattered, and conspicuous, and at the extremities are seen the moving granules in a circular globule characteristic of the genera Docidium and Closterium, but this globule is not always clearly visible. I have seen once or twice also a kind of circulation in the endochrome similar to that observed in Closterium lunula. In these cases the particles travelled from the middle towards the end along the edge, and a return current (as it might be called) from the end towards the middle was visible nearer the axis of the frond.
Length of frond, 1/33 inch; greatest breadth, 1/260 inch.
Rather common in spring.
This fine plant appears to be most nearly allied to D. truncatum, Brébisson, but it differs from that (and, indeed, I think all the other species of Docidium) in the total absence of all inflations at the base of the segments. The edge of D. dilatatum is continuously smooth from the median suture to the terminal angles, whereas even in D. truncatum (where the inflations seem to be smallest) there is apparent a slight undulation of outline. It differs also from D. truncatum in the presence of the terminal tubercles, absent in that species. Moreover, the bold dilation of the segments near the base, the subsequent tapering, and again subsequent dilation to the end, seem to distinguish the plant from all others of the genus. D. coronatum, Brébisson, has similar terminal tubercles, but otherwise is quite different.
12. Triploceras, Bailey.
A genus separated from Docidium on account of the projecting processes at the ends of the segments. In the American, Indian, and Chinese species these seem to be indifferently set down as being two or three. The generic name implies three; my species, has two.
T. tridentatum, sp. nov.
Frond small, slender, depressed, very slightly constricted at the middle. Total length, about twelve times the breadth in front view.
Segments furnished with a number (fifteen to eighteen) of whorls of denticulate projections pointing generally towards the extremity, but those near the middle of the frond project more perpendicularly. Edges between the teeth linear, not curved. Between the last whorl and the terminal projections is a short space without whorls, and at the base of the terminal processes are (at each side) three angular tri-cuspidate smaller processes (fig. 23).
Terminal processes two, sub-rectangular, divergent, ending each in three sharp teeth. Edge of frond between the processes curved.
Lateral denticulations not conical, but somewhat quadrate, like the teeth of a circular saw, pointing forwards.
Endochrome dark green, darkest at the axis. At the middle is a small lighter green space, in which often granules may be seen “circulating,” that is, travelling in distinct currents—-those near the axis from the extremity of the frond to the middle, those near the edge from the middle towards the extremity of the frond.
The section is rectangular, and in side view the frond is much narrower than in front view.
I think the empty frond is punctate, but the puncta are extremely minute and require a high power to distinguish them.
Length of frond, 1/45 inch; breadth, front view, 1/550 inch; side view, 1/9000 inch.
Rare: from an almost dry ditch near the Fendalton road.
This pretty little plant is evidently closely allied to forms described from America, Bengal, and Hong Kong. From the first-named country, Prof. Bailey describes T. verticllatum and T. gracile; from Bengal we have Docidium (Triploceras) pristidœ, Hobson, and also T. gracile, Archer, from Hong Kong. But in none of these can I find the two tridentate terminal processes, and the three, tri-cuspidate processes at their base, of my T. tridentatum. The American species, as shown in Ralfs' tab. XXXV., end in simple uni-dentate or bi-dentate processes; so does the Chinese plant figured by Mr. Archer (Quart. Micros. Journal, 1865, Pl. VII.); and Mr. Hobson's figure and description (Quart. Journal, 1863, p. 169) leave very much to be desired. Also the number of teeth in each whorl described in all these plants seems to be less than in T. tridentatum, but I lay no stress on this point.
I can scarcely set down as a mere “variety” a plant showing such considerable differences as these. Unless all previous figures are greatly inaccurate, the terminal and sub-terminal processes of T. tridentatum are sufficiently distinct to render it, I should say, a new species.
13. Closterium, Nitzch.
C. lunula, Müller. (R. XXVII.)
C. acerosum, Schrank. (R. XXVII.)
Common; also, from Leithfield, plentifully.
This species seems to vary a good deal in length: some specimens from Leithfield are 1/220 inch long: some from Christchurch 1/24 inch. It is distinguished from C. lunula by greater slenderness and curvature, and by having its vesicles in a single row. Ralfs states that the empty frond is colourless; many of the species here have a distinct brown tinge. I observed also a tendency in several plants to assume a somewhat sigmoidal shape, the two ends turning opposite ways.
C. lineatum, Ehrenberg. (R. XXX.)
C. selenœum, sp. nov.
Frond bright green, large, stout, visible to the naked eye, distinctly lunate, the outer margin forming a bold circular curve, the inner margin also curved but more slightly; no inflation at the middle; ends rapidly tapering, sub-acute, a little rounded, and at the extreme tip turned very
slightly outwards; no median suture; fillets several, but obscure, sometimes not visible; vesicles numerous, scattered. The empty frond is colourless, with no striæ. The globule of moving granules is very small, and situate quite close to the tip.
Common in spring.
This is a fine handsome plant, and I think not agreeing with the European species. Those which in form approach nearest to it are C. ehrenbergii, Meneghini, C. leibleinii, Kützing, and C. moniliferum, Borry; but it differs from all in the absence of median inflation of the inner margin, which is conspicuous in all three, especially the first. C. ehrenbergii also has conspicuous longitudinal fillets, and the ends are thick and round. C. moniliferum is too small, and its vesicles are in a single row; and the same may be said of C. leibleinii, otherwise this species might agree almost wholly with my C. selenœum. However, the outward bending of the extreme tip of C selenœum, mentioned above, would seem to separate it from all other species with acute ends. This bending is very slight, and best distinguishable in the empty frond, but I find no mention of any such character in the European species, with the exception of C. turgidium, Ehrenberg; but in that plant the bending is very conspicuous, the ends are thick and round, and the whole plant different. C. decussatum, Kützing, is striated.
Length of chord of arc, 1/55 inch; breadth at the middle, 1/900 to 1/160 inch; from tip to middle along the frond, 1/80 inch.
C. leibleinii, Kützing. (R. XXVIII.)
C. dianœ, Ehrenberg. (R. XXVIII.)
These two species may be easily mistaken. Ralfs considers them bably identical. I have judged by the absence or presence of a median inflation.
C. didymotocum, Corda. (R. XXVIII.)
Rare; from Fernside.
C. striolatum, Ehrenberg. (R. XXIX.)
C. didymotocum has no striæ. C. striolatum has numerous and close but distinct striæ. Both species have a varying number of median sutures. Both are somewhat dark-coloured; indeed C. didymotocum is at times almost black.
C. juncidum, Ralfs. (R. XXIX.)
C. setaceum, Ehrenberg. (R. XXX.)
C. rostratum, Ehrenberg. (R. XXX.)
Differs from C. setaceum in its greater size and in having the slender beaks shorter than the body of the frond. I show the two plants in figs. 34 and 35; is the distinction between them sufficient?
C. acutum, Lyngbye. (R. XXX.)
14. Spirotænia, Brébisson.
S. condensata, Brébisson. (R. XXXIV.)
Not uncommon in spring.
This plant is more affected than any other which I have seen by the fluids used for mounting or preserving. I have tried glycerine, camphor water, Ralfs' fluid, etc.; but they all shrivel up the endochrome considerably, and as the beauty and characters of Spirotœnia are quite lost unless the endochrome be uninjured, preserved specimens are useless. Distilled water even seems to have a bad effect. Almost all other Desmids stand mounting in glycerine well, but this is quite spoilt by it.
15. Ankistrodesmus, Corda.
A. falcatus, Corda. (R. XXXIV.)
A. acutissimus, Archer, (Qu. Journ., 1862).
I had sometimes observed this plant and was struck by its peculiarities before meeting with Mr. Archer's description,* and had considered it a Closterium, but it evidently shows the oblique transverse band, and mediolateral (to coin a word) pale space referred to by Mr. Archer. The plant is very rare, and from its minute size (1/500 inch long, 1/10000 inch broad) requires a high power to examine it.
Ankistrodesmus sp. indet.
Figs. 17, 18.
I have frequently found specimens clearly belonging to this genus, but am doubtful as to its specific affinities. The cells are aggregated in bundles, but instead of crossing each other as in A. falcatus, they are arranged in parallel lines, and they are also only very slightly lunate, often quite straight. In some specimens I observed a definite mucous envelope enclosing four such parallel bundles as in fig. 17.
Length of the cells, 1/660 inch; breadth, 1/7000 inch.
Ankistrodesmus sp. indet.
Figs. 19, 20.
[Footnote] * Quart. Journ. of Micr. Science,” Vol. II., New Ser., 1862.
The cells are quite straight, aggregated in a single bundle, and radiating from the centre. A mucous envelope may be made out.
Length of cells, 1/880 inch.
16. Scenedesmus, Meyen.
S. quadricauda, Turpin. (R. XXXI.)
S. acutus, Meyen. (R. XXXI.)
S. obliquus, Turpin. (R. XXXI.)
17. Pediastrum, Meyen.
This is not, I believe, really a genus of Desmidieæ, but as it is referred to in most works on the family I insert it here.
P. tetras, Ehrenberg. (R. XXXI.)
P. boryanum, Turpin. (R. XXXI.)
Pediastrum sp. indet.
Resembling generally P. boryanum, but wanting The long points on the marginal cells.
I have added a few figures showing species about which I am doubtful, or in which, as remarked in my introductory sentences, there seem to be peculiarities worthy of observation.
At some future time, if possible, I should wish to enter more fully into the details of these peculiarities, which may have been observed elsewhere but have not been recorded.
Sphœrozosma filiforme, Enrenberg.
Ralfs (Tab. XXXV.) gives a figure of S. pulchrum, Bailey, an American species. The figure is rough and without much detail, bat shows alternate decrease and increase, “an appearance probably caused by the twisting of the plant.” But the English species are not, says Ralfs, twisted. The New Zealand species certainly is, as I have several times observed, and as my figure shows.
Euastrum elegans or binale, Brébisson.
I give a figure of my plant which, as remarked in the catalogue, may be either of the two European species.
Cosmarium margaritiferum, Turpin.
I give here three different forms which I believe to be the same plant, on account chiefly of their similar side view, which is elliptic in all three.
The first (fig 27) is very much like Cosmarium broomeii, Thwaites, (R. XVI.), and for a long time I believed it to be that plant. But C. broomeii has, in side view, a very distinct inflation at the middle, which my plant has not.
The second (fig. 28) resembles in outline C. pyramidatum, Brébisson, but that species has a smooth instead of a pearly edge. Also, in its slightly truncate ends, it approaches somewhat C. botrytis, Bory, (R. XVI.), but I think it is much too large, and the pearly granules are rounder. Besides, the truncation is often almost inconspicuous.
The third (fig. 29) is the normal form of C. margaritiferum, occurring here commonly.
On the whole, I would set all three down as the same plant, though fig. 28 may be C. botrytis.
Cosmarium ralfsii, Brébisson.
The figure shows the slight compression of the ends and thickening of the inner surface of the cell-wall, neither of which has been noticed, I think, elsewhere, but which I have observed here somewhat frequently. When first seen I took them to be accidental, but have since seen many examples.
Figs. 31, 32.
Had I obtained several specimens of this plant I should probably have considered it as new from its crenate edges and double terminal spines; but having only seen one I do not like to make sure of it. Ralfs (tab. XXIII.) figures S. avicula with smooth edges and a single mucro. The numerous species of Staurastum are mostly very minute, and I think not very clearly differentiated.
Closterium acerosum, Schrank.
The figure shows the sigmoid form sometimes assumed here by this plant, and alluded to above in the catalogue.
Closterium rostratum, Ehrenberg.
Closterium setaceum, Ehrenberg.
The figures are given to show the resemblance between the two plants.
The difference in length of the beaks seems scarcely enough to distinguish them. Ralfs says that the vesicles of C. setaceum are “none or indistinct.” I have certainly observed them here.
|Figure 1.||Aptogonum undulatum, side view||× 400|
|2.||" under view||× 400|
|3.||" upper view||× 400|
|4.||" end view||× 400|
|5.||Micrasterias rotata, dividing||× 90|
|6.||Micrasterias ampullacea, trifid||× 200|
|7.||" bifid||× 200|
|8.||" side view||× 200|
|9.||Didymocladon stella, front view||× 400|
|10.||" end view||× 400|
|11.||Docidium dilatatum||× 200|
|12.||" end of frond||× 400|
|13.||" section||× 200|
|14.||" dividing||× 100|
|15.||Closterium selenœum||× 100|
|16.||" end of frond||× 350|
|17.||Ankistrodesmus, sp.||× 400|
|18.||" single cell||× 800|
|19.||" sp.||× 400|
|20.||" single cell||× 800|
|21.||Triploceras tridentatum||× 90|
|22.||" end of frond||× 350|
|23.||" empty||× 350|
|24.||Holocystis incisa, var.||× 350|
|25.||Sphœrozosma filiforme||× 700|
|26.||Euastrum binale (?)||× 700|
|27.||Cosmarium margaritiferum||× 350|
|30.||Cosmarium ralfsii, empty||× 200|
|31.||Staurastrum (avicula?)||× 700|
|33.||Closterium acerosum, sigmoid||× 200|
|34.||Closterium rostratum||× 200|
|35.||Closterium setaceum||× 200|
Art. XXXIX.—On the Structure of Hormosira billardieri.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 4th November, 1880.]
Plates XIII. and XIV.
The genus Hormosira, which belongs to one of the three sub-orders of the Algæ the Fucaceæ, is described by Hooker in his “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora” as follows:—” Root discoid. Frond olive-brown, without distinct organs, dichotomously branched, moniliform, internodes inflated, fertile. Fruit diœcious. Conceptacles sunk in the periphery of the internodes, containing subsessile narrow-pyriform spores and unbranched paranemata.”
This genus, confined to Australian and New Zealand seas, has as its sole representative the species billardieri;—“Frond 6–18 inches long, very variable in size and robustness; internodes obconical, wingless.” After thus describing it, Hooker mentions three varieties—banksii, labillardieri, and sieberi; but many of the features of these occur in the seaweed forming the subject of this paper. In fact, the shape of the internodes is far from being constant, and it must be admitted, as has been done by Harvey,* that the various forms described are most probably one and the same.
In “Phycologica Australica”† the different forms will be found figured, and, after describing them, the author concludes by supposing them all to be one species, varying slightly, due to the different conditions of growth, such as exposure, depth of water, etc.
The branching of this seaweed is generally dichotomous (commonly socalled), but is very often trichotomous, either irregular on the summit of the internode, or the three branches placed at equal intervals along the upper edge (Pl. XIV., fig. 1). It is not unusual to see as many as four branches springing from one internode (Pl. XIV., fig. 2), and in two or three cases I have noted six.
At times lateral branches are found (Pl. XIV., figs. 2 and 3). Internodes are also occasionally found united towards their base (Pl. XIV., figs. 4 and 5). This junction might at first sight appear to be a node, with two internodes springing from it; but the fact of its being hollow and in communication with their two cavities precludes the possibility of such an idea.
A most important point not mentioned in any of the works I have had access to (including the Australasian Floras in the Christchurch Public Library), is that the branching does not always take place from the inter-
[Footnote] * In the section Algæ, Hooker's “Flora of Tasmania,” Vol. II., p. 285.
[Footnote] † “Phycologica Australica,” Harvey, Vol., pl. 135.
nodes, but frequently from the nodes themselves. It may be dichotomous (Pl. XIV., figs. 6 and 7), polychotomous (Pl. XIV., fig. 8), or take the form of a lateral shoot (Pl. XIV., fig. 9), in the same manner as the internode mentioned above.
The plants used in this investigation received no chemical preparation whatever; they were gathered in the living state, and left to dry for some days, after which time they were in a firmer and better condition for making thin sections than when freshly gathered. If kept, however, too long in a very dry atmosphere they showed a great tendency to brittleness, in which state they were very difficult to cut.
Before proceeding to the detailed structure of the plant, I would also mention that I have adhered to Hooker's nomenclature in regard to the terms node and internode. A node is generally looked upon as that part of the plant from which branches or leaves arise; but, in this case, the secondary stems generally branch out from the inflated internodes (see previous remarks on branching), which are therefore incorrectly named.
Nodes.—The nodes, which are solid throughout, consist externally of a single layer of thin polygonal cells (Pl. XIII., fig. 1), somewhat resembling the epidermis of the Phanerogamia, but unlike the latter are in a living state, many being found in the process of division. These cells, though very irregular in outline, are mostly hexagonal, and are so easily separated from the limiting tissue beneath, that in most of the sections made fragments of the tissue which they go to form were continually seen. This layer appears to be absent in the species of Fuci examined by Mr. F.O. Bower,* as he in no place mentions its existence.
The layer of tissue next beneath is composed of minute oblong cells, gradually increasing in size as they recede from the external tissue. Towards the surface these cells are oblong, but they become more oval-shaped towards the inner tissues. (Pl. XIII., figs. 2 and 3.) It is only in very thin sections that the shape of these cells—the granular contents of which are deeply coloured with chlorophyll—can be satisfactorily determined; in thicker ones they appear to be of much greater length than is really the case. This layer corresponds with the “limiting tissue” of F. O. Bower.
The tissue adjoining on the inner side, his cortical tissue, is an aggregation of irregularly-shaped cells, containing small quantities of chlorophyll, and having no clearly-defined division between the cell-walls (Pl. XIII., figs. 2 and 3). This layer graduates from the limiting tissue on the outside into a mass of parallel cells, forming the central part of the node (Pl. XIII., figs. 2 and 3).
[Footnote] * On the Development of the Conceptacle of the Fucaceæ. (“Quart. Journ. Micro. Science,” January, 1880.)
These parallel cells contain a minute amount of chlorophyll, and are in shape cylindrical, their average length being about five times the diameter; but the boundary of the cell-wall, which could not be traced in the cortical tissue, is here occasionally clearly distinguishable in transverse section.
Internodes.—The internodes, which are in the early state semi-transparent, become olive-brown when mature; and the cavity which is invariably found in them contains a saline solution. This central cavity is to be detected in even the very young stages of their growth, when they are no more than .03 inch in diameter. The only exception to the above is the basal internode, which is solid throughout, but the one next above has a small hollow centre, and the third, and sometimes fourth, is furnished with a nearly full-sized cavity (Pl. XIV., fig. 6).
A few central threads, extending from the base to the top, may be seen by splitting open a fresh internode. Their structure somewhat resembles that of the nodes, the same thin layer of outer tissue being present, and within this also the minute oblong cells of the limiting tissue (Pl. XIII., figs. 4 and 5). The cortical tissue, however, differs slightly from that in the node, the cells being if anything more compact, though more irregular in outline.
Between the cortical and innermost tissue lies a mass of cells joined together endwise, and forming long strings branching frequently, and without any apparent uniformity (Pl. XIII., figs. 4 and 5). These cells are tubular and mostly straight, but at times curved and bent at various angles. In some cases two adjacent rows of cells will be connected by a short tube, with a septum midway, reminding one most forcibly of the conjugation of Spirogyra.
The innermost tissue of the internode is a collection of parallel rows of cylindrical cells (Pl. XIII., figs. 4 and 6), somewhat akin to the previous layer, which in structure resembles this innermost tissue.
All these tissues, though described as different layers, must not be supposed to have a strong line of demarcation between them. On the contrary, they blend almost imperceptibly into each other, with the exception of the limiting tissue, which is moderately well-defined, and the outer single layer of polygonal cells. Owing to the thickness and gelatinous nature of the cell-walls in the cortical and inner tissues, the cells unite to form a transparent medium, the cavities in which are the only guide as to the size and shape of the original components of the structure.
As regards the connection between the different tissues in the node and internode, it may be remarked that the outer single layer is continuous, also the limiting and cortical tissues (Pl. XIII., fig. 6); but the layer of parallel cells divides into two equal parts (as seen in longitudinal section) on leaving
the proximal end of the node. At the distal end the central part of the tissue comes to an abrupt termination, leaving the surrounding mass only to pass on into the internode, where the parallel cells are comparatively few, being replaced by those of irregular shape.
Conceptacles.—The conceptacles, containing the sexual organs, are scattered over the surface of the internode, or, rather, in its outer tissues. The conceptacles are flask-shaped, and about .03 inch in diameter. The tissue lining them is of two distinct kinds; that of the mouth and about one-sixth of the depth of the cavity resembles, and is apparently a continuation of, the limiting tissue (Pl. XIII., fig. 4), but the remainder consists of cortical tissue. These facts would lead to the supposition that the origin of these conceptacles is the same as that of those in Fucus serratus;* but on this point I am not prepared to give a definite opinion.
At some little distance within the mouth of the conceptacle (male and female), viz., from the termination of the limiting tissue, and extending to about an equal depth within the cavity, is to be found a collection of multicellular hairs, which protrude for some distance out of the mouth of the conceptacle. (Pl. XIII., fig. 4.) These hairs are quite distinct from, and have no resemblance to, the slender filaments hereafter mentioned. At the base the length of the cells, of which these hairs are composed, is equal to the diameter; but as we trace the cells on towards the free end, we find them gradually elongating till, at the extremity, their length is many times that of their diameter. (Pl. XIII., fig. 7.)
In the female conceptacle (Pl. XIII., fig. 4) the remaining surface is densely covered with slender filaments, most of them extending nearly to the centre of the cavity. The oogonia, irregularly scattered, among these paranemata, contain in the primitive stage yellow granular matter, which slowly changes, as they increase in size, to a dark brown colour, and finally divides to form four oospheres. (Pl. XIII., figs. 4 and 8.)
In the conceptacle containing the male organs of reproduction, the slender filaments are wanting; but their place is occupied by thick clusters of branched hairs (Pl. XIII., fig. 9), upon which are formed the antheridia. The cell-walls of the latter are divided into two layers—an inner and an outer; the outer forming part of the branching hair. When the antheridium is mature it escapes slowly from this outer cell-wall, and is then seen to consist of the previously inner cell-wall filled with antherozoids. (Pl. XIII., fig. 9.).
Referring again to the oogonia, which I have not seen in a mature condition, it may be well to state that they appear, when young, cylindrical; at
[Footnote] * See F. O. Bower, loc. cit.
a later stage, pyriform; and when nearly ripe, obovoid. (Pl. XIII., figs. 4 and 8.)
I have had no opportunity of studying the fertilization of this seaweed, 5 but am assured by Prof. Hutton that April is the best time of the year to witness it, and that it is over by June, being evidently confined to the autumn months. I have only to add that my thanks are due to the above named gentleman, for the kind interest he has manifested in the subject throughout.
(All the figures natural size unless otherwise specified.)
1. Epidermal tissue of polygonal cells (X about 180 diam.)
2. Longitudinal half-section of node, showing limiting, cortical, and parallel tissues (× about 120).
3. Transverse ditto (× about 120).
4. Longitudinal section of tissues of internode, showing limiting, cortical, irregular, and parallel tissues; also female conceptacle with multicellular hairs, paranemata, and oogonia (× about 60).
5. Transverse section of tissues of internode (× about 60).
6. Longitudinal half-section of node and ends of two internodes, showing stoppage of most of parallel cells at distal and a, and their division into two parts at proximal end b (× about 40).
7. Multicellular hairs of conceptacle, ⅓ length, showing division into cells (× about 180).
8. Paranemata and oogonia, latter nearly mature (× about 180).
a. oogonium with contents divided into fonr parts, one of these partly hidden by remaining three.
b. oogonium with contents differently divided.
9. Branch bearing antheridia (× about 180).
a. Empty antheridial cells (outer cell-wall of antheridium).
b. Escaped antheridium (inner cell-wall enclosing antharozoids).
c. antheridium, not fully mature.
la. Portion of frond, showing trichotomous branching from upper internode. Side view.
1b. The same branching internode. Top view.
2. End of branch showing quadrichotomous branching, and young internode springing from side of an older one.
3. Lateral branching from internode.
4. Union of two internodes near their base.
6. Dichotomons branching from node. Sections of basad internode and the next two above, as seen by the naked eye. (Three times nat. size.)
a. Limiting tissue.
b. Cortical tissue.
c. Inner tissues.
d. Cavity containing saline solution.
7. Dichotomous branching from node.
8a. Polychotomouus branching from node. Front view. a, b, etc., mark the same branches as in fig. 8b.
8b. Ditto. View from above.
a, b, etc., mark the same branches as in fig. 8a.
9. Lateral branching from node and internode.
Art. XL.—A Visit to Stewart Island, with Notes on its Flora.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 29th June, 1880.]
In the month of January of this year Mr. G. M. Thomson and I made a short excursion to Stewart Island for the purpose of dredging in the inlets, and examining, as far as we could, the flora of that little-known part of New Zealand. Our examination of the flora was confined to the country around Paterson's Inlet, and that in the neighbourhood of Port Pegasus.
Paterson's Inlet is for the most part comparatively shallow, and extends more than half-way across the greatest breadth of the island. It is surrounded on nearly all sides by hills of moderate elevation, with rather steep slopes that are clothed with “bush” to the water's edge. At the head or north-western extremity of the inlet however, it is bordered by a low tract some three miles in width, which is difficult of access except near high water, in consequence of extensive shoals. From this part of the inlet there extends for a good many miles to the westward a flat swampy area, some three miles or less in average width, and raised but little above sea-level. It is drained by a forked creek, which is tidal in its northern branch for at least six miles. About six miles from the inlet this flat area is connected by a rather narrow, low, boggy valley bending to the south, with a similar area of low swampy land abutting on Mason Bay and the west coast of the island. The distance from sea to sea is probably, about thirteen miles. Sand-hills occur at intervals throughout the flat areas at the head of the inlet and Mason Bay respectively, but they do not extend into the connecting valley. It is evident that at no remote date a strait here ran across Stewart Island, separating the high land in the north, of which Mount Anglem is the culmi-
nating point, from the southern portion. I believe that a depression of fifty or sixty feet would suffice to restore this strait, and part Stewart Island once more into two. At the head of the inlet the sand-hills present a very remarkable appearance, forming parallel chains that run for two or three miles in straight or nearly straight lines at considerable distances from one another. Their singular arrangement is not easy to explain, but it may be due to the fact that the direction of the prevailing winds, and of the tidal flow through the former strait, would be east and west. Though the sandhills are evidently of recent origin, they are everywhere covered by about six inches of sandy mould, and overgrown by fern, heath, gravels, rushes, and manuka.
With the exception of the already-mentioned flat areas, there is no grass-covered land in the neighbourhood of Paterson's Inlet, Even in these the grass is very sparse, except in a few patches of no great extent, and it is mixed with a very copious growth of manuka, ferns, (Pteris, Gleichenia, Lindsœa, and Schizea), Carpha, Calorophus, Cladium, and Lepidosperma. In the boggy parts, which occupy by far the largest portion of the low land, a curious assemblage of alpine plants is found, comprising Alepyrun, Oreobolus, Donatia, Helophyllum, Liparophyllum, and Actinotus (Hemiphues).
The Liparophyllum, probably L. gunnii (hitherto known only from Tasmania), is extremely abundant in the wettest parts, and forms a strong turf, held together by its matted and branched root-stocks. It bore abundant fruit, though the latter was scarcely ripe at the time of our visit.
The plant which I have named Actinotus (Hemiphues) novœ-zealandiœ belongs to a genus hitherto found only in the alpine parts of Tasmania and Australia. It grows abundantly side by side with Liparophyllum, but affects somewhat drier situations. The genus Actinotus (Hemiphues), which includes this new addition to the flora of New Zealand, belongs to a section of the great natural order of the Umbelliferæ. It differs very widely from every other genus of that order, and occupies a singularly isolated position. Instead of having two similar mericarps, like the rest of the Umbelliferæ, Dr. Hooker tells us that one of the mericarps appears as if wholly suppressed, but his dissections have satisfied him that it is not really suppressed, but “is entirely incorporated with the others, and its cavity obliterated.”
I had the good fortune some three years ago to discover on Stewart Island both Liparophyllum and Actinotus (Hemiphues), but I was not at the time able to identify them. Some months before this excursion was undertaken, Mr. Kirk, F.L.S., of Wellington, pointed out to me the close resemblance the one bore to the Liparophyllum of Tasmania. The Actinotus (Hemiphues) we are able to identify from the structure of the fruit, and of a withered flower found at Port Pegasus. It seems to me probable that
another species of Actinotus (Hemiphues) occurs in the same localities, but by no means in such abundance as A. (H.) novœ-zealandiœ. The plant in question was found only in fruit, the structure of which presented all the characteristics of the genus, and it will, I have little doubt, prove to be another species of this anomalous genus, probably new to science, and certainly new to the flora of New Zealand. It is worthy of remark that in Tasmania both Liparophyllum and Actinotus (Hemiphues) grow in alpine bogs and moist places, while in Stewart Island they flourish almost at sea level.
The occurrence of Donatia novœ-zealandiœ at the same low elevation is certainly surprising. It has not been found either in the bogs of Southland or on the Bluff Hill, which offers many situations favourable for its growth. The lowest elevation at which I have elsewhere met with it is 3000 feet, on the summit of Maungatua, near the Taieri Plain. Lyall found it on mountains near Preservation Inlet, but the height is not stated. It is extremely remarkable that a plant which does not descend below 3000 feet in the latitude of Dunedin should flourish at sea-level in that of Paterson's Inlet, and the fact bears emphatic testimony to the severity of the climate of Stewart Island.
Of the interesting plants found in this locality, I may next mention Utricularia monanthos, and Eleocharis sphacelata. The latter grew in two or three deep pools in peaty soil, and specimens were procured with considerable difficulty. It is singular that this species, which ranges from the extreme north of New Zealand to Stewart Island, should have been found in the South Island only in one or two spots in Westland and at Bluff Island, a locality at one time held to be very doubtful. Utricularia monanthos grows almost exclusively in pools, at the time of our visit for the most part dried to the consistency of sticky mud. Its rhizomes are abundantly provided with bladders similar to those of the European species, whose structure and functions have been investigated with great care and skill by Darwin. (See his “Insectivorous Plants.”) This eminent naturalist was led to the conclusion that the bladders serve as traps for minute aquatic animals such as the Entomostraca, whose protoplasm is in some obscure manner made available for the nourishment of the plant. Mr. Thomson has examined roughly the structure and contents of the bladders attached to specimens gathered by us, and he informs me that remains of Entomostracans and other minute aquatic animals were present in all, sometimes in considerable quantity. Two other insectivorous plants were common here, viz., Drosera binata and D. rotundifolia. Insects are so frequently caught in the glandular hairs of their leaves that these herbs are known among the observant Southland settlers as “fly-catchers.”
Some years ago an attempt was made to utilize the flat tracts between Mason Bay and Paterson's Inlet as a sheep run, and portions of the lower slopes of the hills were cleared, by burning, to extend the area of grass-bearing land. About six hundred sheep were placed on the ground, but they did not thrive, and few now survive the hardships of a life in this inhospitable locality. The country appears to be wholly unsuitable for depasturing sheep, unless considerable portions of the higher ground were cleared and sown with grass, an improvement that would involve a heavy outlay. A few spots of the low land grow grass luxuriantly, but much of it must be under water a great part of the year, and a very large proportion of the remainder is always inaccessible bog. Drifted grass and twigs caught in the branches of the manuka bushes indicated that floods, sufficient to inundate the greater part of the low country, are not unknown.
The grasses found here are of little value for pasturage. Danthonia raoulii (brown snow-grass) and D. semi-annularis were the most abundant, and the latter was by far the most widely spread. Poa australis (silver or white tussock) is by no means plentiful, and is dwarfed in size, and inclined to form a loose sward. The only other fodder grass of any consequence was Danthonia quadriseta. In general, the grass is extremely sparse, and is almost choked by the abundant growth of rush-like and Cyperaceous plants. There can, I think, be no doubt that this, the only open part of Stewart Island, is in its present condition wholly unsuitable for either agricultural or pastoral occupation. No doubt draining would make some improvement, but the fall is so slight, and the soil so saturated with frequent heavy rains, that general drainage would probably do but little good. However this may be, it will be a very long time before this part of Stewart Island will have any other resources than timber and the produce of its fisheries.
At the mouth of the inlet lies an island of considerable size called the Neck. It is connected by a sand-bank with the southern mainland, has a very fertile soil, and is occupied by a number of Maori and half-caste families. The sand-bank joining this island to the southern mainland has evidently filled up a former eastern outlet of Paterson's Inlet, and has encroached on it from the south. We may account for the change by the gradual drifting of the sand before the southerly winds, which are the prevailing ones here, and the transportation of material in the same direction by the tides flowing from the southward. The condition and situation of the Neck are strikingly analogous to those of Otago Peninsula. Both have been islands at a recent date; both are now connected with the southern mainland by a narrow sandy isthmus; both are fertile and largely composed of volcanic rocks; and both have been recently converted from islands into peninsulas by the gradual encroachment of sand blown from the south. I
think I am justified in saying so much about the direction from which the sand-hills at the Ocean Beach, Dunedin, encroached on the former channel connecting Otago Harbour and the ocean, from the well-known accumulation of sand from the south-east between Black Head and Green Island, and on Sawyer's Head between Tomahawk and the Ocean Beach, while there are no corresponding accumulations at the eastern or south-eastern end of these beaches.
On the Neck we found a very handsome species of Olearia (angustifolia) growing abundantly near the beach. It is a species so far as is at present known peculiar to Stewart Island, and was met with also at Port Pegasus. Side-by-side with it grew Olearia colensoi, which attains to the dimensions of a tree, and has a stem often as much as a foot in diameter. It is a species that has a very wide range, and in Stewart Island ascends from sea-level, where it attains its maximum size, to 1,500 feet at Port Pegasus. Elsewhere in New Zealand it is an alpine plant.
From Paterson's Inlet we made our way to Port Pegasus. The country here has every appearance of recent glaciation, and the rounded outlines of the hills recall vividly the roches moutonnées so well marked to the south andwest of Lake Wanaka. The district around this harbour is composed entirely of a granite-like rock composed of large crystalline masses of albite, felspar, quartz, and mica.
The harbour is very picturesque, and breaks up into several branches, one of which penetrates to within a few miles of the west coast. To the west are two very striking conical hills, known as the Frazer Peaks, the larger of which has a very elegant and regular outline. Both are composed of the granite so plentiful in the district, and they glitter in the sunshine as if covered with a thin coating of snow. We were not favoured with good weather during this part of our cruise, and were consequently prevented from examining the district so fully as we had hoped to do. For two days the weather was so stormy that we could dredge only in the most sheltered parts of the anchorage, and for the most part with very meagre results. In the bush, which surrounds the port on all sides, we found a species of Coprosma, apparently new but allied to C. colensoi, and also in great abundance Gahnia procera. The tidal flats at the head of the various branches of the harbour are covered with Zostera nana. At the lower levels Actinotus (Hemiphues) novæ-zealandiæ was abundant, and also Astelia linearis, elsewhere in New Zealand an alpine plant. At the intermediate levels Drosera stenopetala and Senecio lyalli were met with. The latter is very common in this part of the island, but we did not see it anywhere around Paterson's Inlet. The specimens were, however, small and poorly grown as compared with those to be met with on the mountains of the interior of Otago. The
flowers on Stewart Island were all yellow, while in the Otago alpine localities they are often white. The occurrence of this alpine plant at so low a level in Stewart Island, as well as its dwarfed proportions, give additional proof of the severity of the climate in this part of the colony. Near the summit of the more northerly of the Frazer Peaks, we gathered a robust form of Forstera sedifolia, which constitutes a very distinct, large-flowered variety, and may prove a distinct species. We also found here a robust form of what may prove to be Celmisia hectori, though I am inclined to rank this also as a distinct species. At all levels we found a new species of Ehrharta, which I have described under the name of E. thomsoni, in honour of my fellow-worker on the expedition. The description and drawings appear in the Transactions of the Institute for the past year. Ligusticum intermedium, which occurs along the south coast of Otago from Nugget Point to the western sounds, grew plentifully along the shore of the upper reaches of the port. In one or two sheltered spots in deep shade, we found excellent specimens of what appears to be Stilbocarpa polaris. The specimens were a little past flowering, but had not the fruit mature, so that we could not determine with accuracy whether it is identical with the plant found on Campbell Island and the Lord Auckland group. I may add here that on a former excursion Mr. G. M. Thomson collected Myrsine chathamica a little to the south of Port Pegasus.
For the purposes of settlement the country around Port Pegasus is of no value whatever. The lower hills are clad with manuka, which has been partly burned off; but there is no grass land, and very few grasses of any kind are to be met with. Ehrharta thomsoni, though widely spread, is very small and of no economic value. A time may come when the granitic rock, so abundant here, may prove valuable; but its distance from any market, and the great facilities for working the inexhaustible stores of excellent building-stone found at Port Chalmers, will render the time at which it may be utilized very remote.
On returning from Port Pegasus we proceeded to the Bluff. We had intended to visit Mount Anglem and explore the alpine flora likely to be found on it, but unfavourable weather prevented us from carrying out this part of our programme.
Appended is a list of the flowering plants gathered by us. For the identification of the Coniferæ Mr. Thomson is responsible; the others have been examined by myself as well as by him. The list, which cannot be considered as by any means exhaustive, especially as regards the alpine plants, will be of considerable interest to botanists as extending the limits of distribution of some well-known forms.
List of Plants Gathered on Stewart Island.
Ranunculus plebeius, Br.
Ranunculus lappaceus, Sm., var. multiscapus
Ranunculus acaulis, Banks and Sol.
Drimys colorata, Raoul.
Cardamine hirsuta, L.
Viola filicaulis, Hook. f.
cunninghamii, Hook. f.
Melicytus ramiflorus, Forst.
lanceolatus, Hook. f.
Pittosporum tenuifolium, Banks and Sol.
Stellaria parviflora, Banks and Sol.
Aristotelia racemosa, Hook. f.
Linum monogynum, Forst.
Geranium microphyllum, Hook. f.
Geranium molle, Cav.
Coriaria ruscifolia, L.
Rubus australis, Forst.
Geum parviflorum, Commerson (a very small var.)
Acæna sanguisorbæ, Vahl.
Donatia novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f.
Carpodetus serratus, Forst.
Weinmannia racemosa, Forst.
Tillæa moschata, DC.
Drosera stenopetala, Hook. f.
Drosera spathulata, Labill.
Drosera binata, Labill.
Haloragis uniflora, Kirk.
Haloragis micrantha, Br.
Callitriche verna, L.
Leptospermum scoparium, Forst.
Metrosideros lucida, Menzies.
Metrosideros hypericifolia, A. Cunn.
Myrtus pedunculata, Hook. f.
Fuchsia excorticata, Linn. f.
Epilobium nummularifolium, A. Cunn.
linnæoides, Hook. f.
Epilobium alsinoides, A. Cunn.
Epilobium pubens, A. Rich.
Mesembryanthemum australe, Soland.
Tetragonia expansa, Murray.
Hydrocotyle americana, Linn.
Hydrocotyle novæ-zealandiæ, Kirk.
Apium australe, Thouars.
Ligusticum intermedium, Hook. f.
Stilbocarpa polaris, Dcne. and Planch.
Panax simplex, Forst.
edgerleyi, Hook. f.
Panax crassifolium, Dcne. and Planch.
longissimum, Hook. f.
colensoi, Hook. f.
Schefflera digitata, Forst.
Griselinia littoralis, Raoul.
Coprosma lucida, Forst.
tenuicaulis, Hook. f.
rhamnoides, A. Cunn.
parviflora, Hook. f.
propinqua, A. Cunn.
Coprosma fetidissima, Forst.
species (undetermined) acerosa, A. Cunn.
Nertera depressa, Banks and Sol.
dichondræfolia, Hook. f.
Olearia angustifolia, Hook f.
colensoi, Hook. f.
nitida, Hook. f., forming large bushes
ilicifolia, Hook. f.
avicenniæfolia, Hook. f.
Celmisia longifolia, Cass.
Lagenophora forsteri, DC.
Brachycome odorata, Hook f.
Cotula perpusilla, Hook. f.
squalida, Hook. f.
Cassinia fulvida, Hook. f.
Gnaphalium bellidiodes, Hook. f.
Gnaphalium filicaule, Hook. f.
Erechtites prenanthoides, DC. arguta, DC.
Senecio bellidioides, Hook. f., var. B.
lautus, Forst. lyallii, Hook. f.
rotundifolius, Hook. f.
elæagnifolius, Hook. f.
Taraxacum dens-leonis, Desf.
Sonchus oleraceus, Linn.
Forstera sedifolia, Linn. f., var.
Phyllachne subulata, Müller.
Wahlenbergia saxicola, A.DC.
Pratia angulata, Hook. f.
Selliera radicans, Cav.
Gaultheria antipoda, Forst.
Cyathodes acerosa, Br.
empetrifolia, Hook. f.
Leucopogon frazeri, A. Rich.
Pentachondra pumila, Br.
Dracophyllum longifolium, Br.
muscoides, Hook. f.
Myrsine urvillei, A.DC.
Myrsine chathamica, Müller.
Samolus littoralis, Br.
Gentiana montana, Forst. Sub-erect var.
Gentiana saxosa, Forst.
Myosotic capitata, Hook. f.
Convolvulus soldanella, Linn.
Veronica salicifolia, Forst.
Ourisia macrophylla, Hook.
colensoi, Hook. f.
Euphrasia, species undetermined.
Utricularia monanthos, Hook. f.
Plantago raoulii, Decaisne.
Plantago brownii, Rapin. Form with sepals subacute.
Chenopodium glaucum, Linn., var. ambiguum.
Atriplex billardieri, Hook. f.
Muhlenbeckia adpressa, Lab.
Rumex neglectus, Kirk.
Drapetes dieffenbachii, Hook.
Podocarpus ferruginea, Don.
totara, A. Cunn.
Podocarpus dacrydioides, A. Rich.
Dacrydium cupressinum, Soland.
Earina mucronata, Lindl.
autumnalis, Hook. f.
Dendrobium cunninghamii, Lindl.
Gastrodia cunninghamii, Hook. f.
Corysanthes triloba, Hook. f.
rivularis, Hook. f.
Microtis porrifolia, Sprengel.
Caladenia lyalli, Hook. f.
Pterostylis gramines, Hook. f.
Chiloglottis cornuta, Hook. f.
bifolia, Hook. f.
Thelymitra longifolia, Forst.
uniflora, Hook. f.
Prasophyllum colensoi, Hook. f.
Libertia ixioides, Sprengel.
Triglochin triandrum, Michaux.
Potamogeton natans, Linn.
Rhipogonum scandens, Forst.
Callixene parviflora, Hook. f.
Astelia nervosa, Banks and Sol.
Astelia linearis, Hook. f.
Anthericum hookeri, Hook. f., var.
Phormium tenax, Forst.
Herpolirion novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f.
Juncus communis, E. Meyer.
Juncus bufonius, Linn.
Luzula campestris, De Cand.
Luzula oldfieldii, Hook. f.
Leptocarpus simplex, A. Rich.
Calorophus elongata, Lab.
Alepyrum pallidum, Hook. f.
Schœnus brownii, Hook. f.
Carpha alpina, Br.
Eleocharis sphacelata, Br.
Isolepis riparia, Br.
Cladium glomeratum, Br.
gunnii, Hook. f.
Gahnia procera, Forst.
Lepidosperma tetragona, Labill.
Oreobolus pumilio, Br.
Uncinia ferruginea, Boott.
Carex lambertiana, Boott.
Carex testaces, Solander.
Ehrharta thomsoni, Petrie.
Microlæna stipoides, Br.
avenacea, Hook. f.
Hierochloe redolens, Br.
alpina, Ræm. & Schulles.
Agrostis æmula, Br.
billardieri. avenoides, Hook. f.
Arundo conspicua, Forst.
Danthonia cunninghamii, Hook. f.
Trisetum antarcticum, Trinius.
Poa imbecilla, Forst.
australis, Br., var. lævis.
colensoi, Hook. f.
Gymnostichum gracile, Hook. f.
Art. XLI.—Description of new Species of Carex.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 1st February, 1881.]
Carex parkeri, n.s.
A Small slender species; culms 3–5 inches; leafy at and above the base, smooth, grooved; leaves flat, smooth, striate, shorter than the culm, sheathing at the base; sheaths more membranous and strongly striate; spikelets two or three, forming a compact head; bract glume-like, with a short awn; male flowers below, female above; glumes ovate, obtuse or subacute, one-nerved, dark-purplish, paler at and near the nerve; utricle subequal with or longer than the glume, ovate oblong, rather compressed, with entire beak and numerous faint nerves; stigmas two.
This species stands near C. colensoi.
Hab. A hill near Mount Aspiring, 5,000 feet.
Carex kaloides, n.s.
A tall, slender, cæspitose species; culms drooping, two feet or more, sparingly leafy at the base, rounded, smooth; leaves shorter than culm, narrow, flat or involute, deeply grooved, slightly scabrid at the edges, most tenacious; spikelets 9–12, lower compound distant, upper approximate, arranged on alternate sides of the long (3–5 inches) scabrid rachis; lowest bract setaceous, very long; male flowers at the top few, sometimes wanting, female flowers below; glumes linear-lanceolate, scarious, 1–3-nerved, the nerves produced into a slender awn; utricle linear-lanceolate, plano-convex, ending in a tapering two-winged bifid beak, the wings finely serrate; stigmas two, short.
A very distinct species. The leaves have an exceedingly strong fibre.
Hab. Carrick range, Otago, 4,000 feet; Deep Stream, Otago, 1,000 feet.
Carex viridis, n.s.
A slender tufted species; culms erect, 6–12 inches, grooved, smooth; leaves sheathing at the base, narrow, concave, smooth, shorter than the
culm; spikelets 6–9, few-flowered, crowded into a compound spike about one inch long, and arranged alternately on the flattened rachis; bracts glume-like, scarious, linear-lanceolate, 1–3-nerved, the nerves produced into a slender awn; male flowers above few and wanting in many spikelets, female below; glumes linear-lanceolate, pale, membranous, acuminate, one-nerved; utricle linear-lanceolate, nerved, plano-convex; beak long, very narrow, tapering, 2-dentate, with two finely serrated wings; stigmas two.
This species is close to C. kaloides, described above. Its stouter leaves, small habit, and short compact head of spikelets, at once distinguish it.
Hab. Rough Ridge, 3,000 feet; Nevis Stream, Otago, 2,000 feet.
Art. XLII.—On the Genus Corallospartium.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 5th August, 1880.]
The singular Papilionaceous plant known to the settlers of Canterbury as the coral broom, was included by Sir Joseph Hooker in Brown's genus Carmichælia, and described as Carmichælia crassicaulis in his “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora.” Even prior to the publication of the handbook however, I had always doubted whether the plant was really referable to that genus, and often since that time the doubt has recurred to me. I have therefore been induced to go fully into the matter whilst arranging the species of Carmichælia for my work on the New Zealand flora, and having examined an extensive series of specimens in the hope of being able to come to some definite conclusion, I have now decided to separate the plant from that genus, and to adopt for it the name Corallospartium, as the pods and flowers seem to me to present as good distinctive characters as many other accepted genera. Our new genus comes nearest Carmichælia, from which it is readily distinguished by the compressed one-seeded pod, splitting into two valves, and the fascicled woolly flowers. As far as I have been able to ascertain, the genus is in no way related to any non-New Zealand genus; it may be described as follows:—
Corallospartium crassicaule, Armstrong.
Carmichælia crassicaulis, Hk. f.
A straggling, erect, or sub-erect or decumbent shrub 18 inches to 3 feet high, rarely more. The branches and branchlets are dark green, and densely pubescent when young, glabrous and straw-coloured when old, obtuse, very stout, ⅓–1 inch broad, terete below, much compressed above, deeply channelled in parallel lines. The leaves are trifoliate or quinqui-
foliate; the leaflets linear, oblong, or oblong-obtuse, shortly stalked, pubescent, ¼–½ inch long, very often altogether absent. The flowers are ¼–⅓ inch long, arranged in dense, globose, axillary fascicles which contain 10–20 flowers. The pedicels are about ⅛ inch long, slender, densely-clothed with soft grey hairs. The calyx is campanulate or cylindrical, ⅙ inch long, densely woolly, obscurely two-lipped, with two short subacute teeth in the upper lip, and three similar teeth in the lower lip. The standard is broadly orbicular or oblong, ⅓ inch diameter, much reflexed. The wings are narrow and much shorter than the keel, oblong, auricled at the base and turned upwards.
The keel is nearly ½ an inch long, oblong, obtuse, and turned upwards at the point. The stamens are 8–10 in number, the filaments extremely slender, the upper stamen free, the others united into a tube from above the middle and sheathing the ovary. The style 1, much stouter than the stamens, woolly at the base with the point turned upwards. Both the style and the stamens are enclosed in the folds of the keel. The bracteoles are minute, woolly. The pod is about ¼–⅓ inch long, deltoid or triangular in outline, splitting into two valves, much compressed, one-seeded, coriaceous, with the surface distinctly reticulated, prolonged above into a broad rounded wing, below into a short, sharp, straight beak. The seed is oblong-reniform, dark brown, ⅛ inch long, with a slightly thickened funicle, and double flexured radicle. Ovary villous with white hairs.
Hab.—The Corallospartium is found in numerous localities in the alps of Nelson, Canterbury, and Otago, at altitudes varying from 2,000 to 5,000 feet, but is most common in the Canterbury Provincial District at about 3,000 feet. It is nowhere very abundant, and is rarely found in fruit. I think it is very probable that other species of this genus will be discovered, as there are doubtless very many new plants yet to be found in the South Island.
None of the numerous specimens examined show any important variations, and it appears that the New Zealand species of Papilionaceæ are generally much less variable than any other order of the same extent. The difficulties experienced by students of the genus Carmichælia arise more from the sameness of the species when dried than from any great tendency to vary. I have carefully examined large numbers of Australian Papilionaceous plants, but have found none of them in any way resembling this either in flowers or pods, and indeed it seems very certain that there is but a very slight relationship between the Australian and New Zealand Leguminous plants. Indeed the connections between the floras of New Zealand and Australia have been very much exaggerated by all the writers who have yet paid attention to the subject.
Art. XLIII.—Descriptions of new and rare New Zealand Plants.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 1st July, 1880.]
Clematis marata, J.B.A.
A Climbing shrub, evergreen, rarely deciduous. Branches extremely slender, forming dense interlaced masses among scrub or grass, hairy or pubescent. Branchlets extremely slender, dark brownish-green, channelled, clothed with appressed, rather scattered, white hairs. Leaves dark brown in colour, opposite, trifoliate, 1 inch long, on long pubescent or hairy channelled petioles 2–4 inches long; leaflets ½–1 inch long, ⅛–¼ inch wide, narrow-linear, obtuse, pubescent or pilose, simple or three-lobed, or obscurely crenate; veins very obscure. Flowers sweet-scented, very numerous, greenish-yellow, ½–1 inch diameter. Peduncles very silky, one-flowered, 1–3 inches long, arranged in axillary fascicles, each with four small, hairy, lobulate or entire, sessile, foliaceous bracts, ½–1 inch long, ⅛–¼ wide. Sepals four, linear-oblong, obtuse; outside covered with dense silky hairs, and ciliated; inside puberulous, distinctly veined, revolute at the tips. Petals O. Stamens 12–20, in several series, the two inner series shorter and less perfect than the others. Anthers short narrow, oblong, not tailed. Carpels 10–20. Achenes silky, the styles elongated into feathery white awns.
Hab.—Canterbury and Nelson; common.—J.B.A. A very distinct little species, readily recognized by its small size and narrow leaflets.
Ranunculus subscaposus, Hk.f., var. canterburiensis.
A small alpine one-flowered herb a few inches high. Roots fibrous. Stem very short, erect. Leaves all radical, united by the sheathing bases of their petioles. Petioles very slender, 2–4 inches long, with remarkably broad sheaths, glabrous except a few scattered white hairs. Blade about ½ an inch long, broadly cuneate, 2–5-lobed, glabrous, coriaceous, lobes not incised. Scape one-flowered, sunk among the bases of the leaves, less than 1 inch high, erect, clothed with long, shaggy, white hairs. Flower ½–1 inch diameter, bright yellow. Sepals 5, oblong, obtuse, membranous, spreading, as long as the petals. Petals 5, oblong, obtuse, with 1–2 much-depressed glands near the base. Stamens very short. Achenes not seen.
Hab.—Upper Rangitata.—Mr. J. F. Armstrong. A curious little plant, differing from R. subscaposus in the erect habit, almost glabrous, less deeply-divided leaves, and the lobes not incised, also in the much larger leaf sheaths and slender petioles. The leaves are much smaller and more coriaceous, much less hispid and different in form. I have very little doubt but this will turn out to be a distinct species when more specimens are obtainable.
Carmichælia gracilis, n.sp.
A climbing or twining shrub with very slender twiggy branches 5–6 feet long, climbing among bushes. Branches glabrous or very minutely pubescent, striated, terete, naked and simple below, much branched above and leafy; branchlets extremely slender. Leaves numerous for the genus, trifoliate, shortly stalked. Leaflets broadly obcordate, ¼–½ inch long; the terminal one always the largest, undulated on the margins, sometimes obscurely serrate or crenate, bright green above, whitish below. Veins very finely reticulated. Flowers ¼–½ inch long in 2–8-flowered, loose, lateral, erect racemes. Pedicels extremely slender, straight, ⅓ inch long, covered with minute glandular pubescence, each with a very short, narrow-linear ciliated bract at its base. Calyx densely minutely pubescent. Teeth acuminate, ciliated, the two lower the smallest. Corolla white and purple. Standard broadly orbicular, longer than the wings. Keel deeply incurved. Stamens and style as in the genus. Ovary slightly silky. Pod very coriaceous, nearly half an inch long with a broad replum, wrinkled valves, and a curved awl-shaped beak ⅕ inch long. Seeds dark brown, mottled with white.
Hab.—Site of the city of Christchurch, formerly common but now extinct. My specimens were collected sixteen years ago. It is a very pretty plant when fresh, easily distinguished from the other species of the genus by its slender twining habit, trifoliate leaves, pubescent calyx and small bracts.
Aciphylla crenulata, J.B.A.
A glabrous herb 2 feet or so high. Radical leaves few, 4–10 inches long, pinnate, with broad sheathing petioles. Leaflets in 2–3 pairs, 3–4 in. long, ¼ wide, linear, pungent at the tips, perfectly glabrous, very finely crenulate. Midrib strong, bright red when fresh, other veins obsolete. Panicle 18 inches long, oblong, loose-flowered. Floral leaves very numerous, flaccid, sheaths broad and membranous. Leaflets three, the two lower very small, narrow-linear, the upper one 3–6 inches long, linear, pungent. Umbels rising from the leaf-sheaths, simple or compound, on extremely slender stalks 1–3 inches long. Involucral leaves numerous, ⅛–¼ inch long, very narrow-linear and membranous. Flowers and fruit imperfect in my specimens.—“New Zealand Country Journal.”
Hab.—Sources of Rakaia and Waimakariri.—J.B.A. This is a beautiful plant when fresh, with red midribs which give it a somewhat striking appearance. It is more flaccid than any other species, and seems sufficiently distinct from any previously described, being however somewhat intermediate in character between A. lyallii and A. monroi.
Stilbocarpa lyallii, Armstrong.
A number of living plants of the Stewart Island form of Stilbocarpa were presented to the Christchurch Botanic Gardens by the Rev. Mr. Stack,
who collected them. Having cultivated them for two or three years, I now feel satisfied that they are specifically distinct from the Auckland Island S. polaris, Planch., which has been cultivated in the garden for many years, and which flowered freely three years ago. I therefore propose to distinguish the Stewart Island plant as S. lyallii, in honour of Dr. Lyall, who first collected it. Unfortunately I have not been able to obtain flowers or fruit, but there is no doubt as to the genus. The leaves of S. lyallii are reniform, 4–8 inches across or more, with a closed—not open—sinus, rather bluntly bi-serrate, not coarsely lobed, perfectly glabrous, polished and shining above, wanting the stout bristles of S. polaris, below dull, with a few scattered white hairs. The petiole is truly terete, striated and clothed with soft white hairs, not flattened and deeply channelled as in S. polaris. In S. polaris the upper surface of the leaves is ribbed, or much wrinkled, but quite smooth in my plant, which is also by far the handsomer of the two, although the black shiny fruit of S. polaris is very ornamental.
Olearia angustata, Armstrong.
I find that this plant has been described by Mr. Kirk as O. oleifolia.* My name however, has several years priority, having been used in gardens for the past ten years. The plant was first collected by Messrs. J. F. Armstrong and W. Gray in their exploring tour in the upper Rangitata valley in the year 1869.
I have another new species of Olearia from Stewart Island, collected by the Rev. Mr. Stack. It bears considerable resemblance to O. nitida in. the foliage, but the leaves are cordate, entire, and larger than in that species. It has not yet flowered. Another species of the same genus, brought from the Tararua mountains by Mr. H. Budding, may also be new. It was sent as O. lacunosa, but differs from that plant in the leaves being much narrower, longer, less distinctly lacunose, more deeply revolute, nearly glabrous above, and in the strong white midribs. It has not flowered with us. The true O. lacunosa was first collected by Mr. J. F. Armstrong, in 1865, in Canterbury.
Celmisia linearis, n.sp.
A small, perennial, tufted, aggregated herb. Stem erect, simple or branched, covered with the sheathing bases of old leaves, very stout for the size of the plant. Leaves densely imbricated, 2–3 inches long, ⅕ to ¼ broad, linear, sub-acute, coriaceous, not rigid, covered above with persistent pellicles of appressed silvery hairs; below with silvery white glistening tomentum, which becomes brown with age. Convex by the recurvature of the margins. Midrib sunken above, keeled below; sheaths often 1 inch long, broad and
[Footnote] * “Trans. N. Z. Inst.,” Vol. XI., p. 463.
membranous; scapes one-flowered, 6–8 inches high, clothed with loose white tomentum, rather stout. Bracts 4–6, very narrow-linear, 1 inch long, acute, convex, with a long sheath covered with matted cottony hairs. Heads 1–1½ inch diameter. Involucral scales numerous, in 2–3 rows, ½–¾ inch long, very narrow-linear, densely woolly, with glabrous subulate tips. Ray-florets numerous, 1 inch long, narrow, white. Disc yellow, glabrous. Pappus ¼ inch long. Achenes hispidulous.
Hab.—Canterbury Provincial District, 2,500–4,000 feet, forming broad patches among grass.—J.B.A., first collected in 1866. In most colonial herbariums two plants are confounded under Hooker's name of C. monroi, the above and the true C. monroi, which has much larger leaves deeply furrowed in parallel lines, and larger flowers with glabrous achenes, and fewer stouter bracts.
Brachycome simplicifolia, n.sp.
A small, tufted, branching, perennial herb, 3–4 inches high, stout and leafy. Radical leaves 2–3 inches long, linear-spathulate or linear, obscurely three-nerved, obtuse, with broad membranous sheathing petioles and revolute margins; quite entire, except the sheaths which are somewhat shaggy, glandular-pubescent, or glabrous. Scapes 1–3 inches high, pubescent, 1–2-flowered, striated or channelled. Cauline leaves or bracts few, 1 inch long, linear-spathulate, obtuse, sub-amplexicaul, glandular-pubescent, more distinctly nerved than the leaves. Heads ½ an inch in diameter. Involucral scales 12–16, in one series, or with a second outer series of 2–3 scales only, linear-lanceolate, or oblong, acute, distinctly three-nerved, coriaceous, appressed, with purplish membranous margins. Ray-florets short, oblong, obtuse, few or absent, white. Disc-florets tubular, 3–5 toothed. Pappus entirely absent. Achene compressed, 1/10 inch long, glandular-pubescent, thickened at the tip. Receptacle very narrow, convex, papillose.
Hab.—Nelson Provincial District, Mr. C. W. Jennings. Marlborough Provincial District (1869).—J.B.A.
Erechtites pumila, J.B.A.
A small slender herb 2–4 inches high, simple or sparingly branched, annual. Radical leaves few, ⅙–⅓ inch long, petiolate, ciliate, puberulous or glabrous, spathulate or oblong, obtuse, coarsely toothed or lobulate or entire. Veins obsolete. Scape extremely slender, hairy or scabrid, with a single terminal head. Bracts 4–6, linear, sessile, sub-amplexicaul, hairy, obtuse or acute, lobulate or entire, the upper two with dark brown dilated tips. Heads ⅓ inch long, ¼ inch wide. Involucral scales 8–10, linear, delicately membranous, green with white margins, nearly glabrous; some with acute, crimson points, others with blackish dilated tips, in one series,
with a few pubescent brown-tipped bracteoles at the base, representing a second series. Pappus hairs numerous, slender, very soft. Achenes few, 1/12 inch long, linear, hispid, slender, indistinctly grooved, not angled, with a short discoid top.
Hab.—McKenzie Country.—Mr. J. F. Armstrong, December, 1877.
A singular little plant, differing from all other New Zealand species of the genus in its diminutive size and annual character, also in the solitary heads.
Senecio buchanani, J.B.A.
A small dense-growing shrub about 3 feet high; the branches, petioles and leaves below, entirely covered with closely-appressed light brown tomentum. Petioles about 1 inch long, tomentose. Leaves ovate or obovate or oblong, obtuse or sub-acute, entire, thickly coriaceous, 1–2 inches long; when young covered on both surfaces with brown tomentum; when old glabrous above. Veins distinctly reticulated, often of a silvery white colour. Heads oblong or obconic, yellow, ¼–½ inch diameter, situated on the branches of a terminal or lateral, tomentose, leafy panicle, which is about 4 inches long and contains 6–10 heads. Peduncles leafy, simple or forked, bracteate, tomentose. Involucral scales, in one row, very thick, and purple at the tips, covered on the outside with white cottony hairs. Ray absent. Anthers thickened at the tips. Pappus hairs white, thickened upwards, slender, scabrid. Achene grooved, glabrous. Receptacle pitted.—“New Zealand Country Journal,” Vol. III., p. 56.
Hab.—Mount Egmont, Arthur's Pass, Kaikoura, and in Otago. I have no hesitation in pronouncing this plant to be quite distinct from any other Senecio, although it appears to have been confounded with S. elæagnifolius by Sir J. D. Hooker and other New Zealand authors.
Senecio stewartiæ, n.sp.
Among a number of living plants brought from Stewart Island by the Rev. Mr. Stack, and kindly presented by him to the Christchurch Botanic Garden, I find a fine new Senecio which has not yet flowered, but will probably prove quite distinct. I propose to attach the above name to it provisionally, until I am able to furnish a better description. It has the habit of S. huntii, F. Müeller, but is a much smaller plant. The leaves are about three inches long, linear-lanceolate, narrower than in S. huntii, more sharply acute, very obscurely serrated, without the obscure ribs of that species, more finely reticulated above, and below wholly covered with loose white tomentum, quite different from the grey, closely appressed tomentum of S. huntii. The leaves above are densely glandular dotted, in the young state pubescent and viscid, glabrous and shining when old. The leaf scars are larger and darker coloured than in S. huntii. If this should prove to be
a mere variety of the Chatham Island plant, it will add another to the already numerous links connecting the flora of those islands with the southern islets.
Myosotis capitata, Hk.f., var. albiflora.
Stouter than in the type. Leaves linear-spathulate, thick and somewhat fleshy, hispid with white hairs 4–6 inches long. Flowers in dense scorpioid racemes, several of which are united into a many-flowered head, flowers pure white, shortly pedicelled. Calyx five-lobed below the middle. Other characters as in the type.
Hab.—Stewart Island.—Rev. Mr. Stack. This is a very beautiful variety, with the flowers of a different colour from the mainland plant, and the foliage larger and more fleshy. Unfortunately it is very difficult to cultivate, showing a remarkable impatience of confinement.
Gentiana hookeri, J.B.A.
A dark green perennial herb, sending up numerous sub-decumbent branches. Roots fibrous. Stem very short. Radical leaves numerous, crowded, petiolate, spathulate or linear-spathulate in outline. Petiole 2–3 inches long, pubescent, slender, channelled with a broad clasping base. Blade 1–2 inches long, flaccid, membranous, obtuse, entire or rarely obscurely crenate, minutely pubescent on both surfaces, gradually narrowed into the petiole. Midrib evident, remaining veins obsolete or nearly so, when present parallel to the midrib. Cauline leaves numerous, opposite, of two kinds, the lower as in the radical leaves but smaller, the upper sessile, linear, acute, 1 inch long. Flowers numerous, white and yellow, ½ to 1 inch diameter. Peduncles 2–4 inches long, slender, striated or slightly winged, one-flowered. Calyx cleft almost to the base into five narrow, acuminate teeth. Corolla five-cleft to below the middle, white or yellow, with faint blue veins; lobes sub-acute. Fruit not seen.
Hab.—Canterbury and Otago Provincial Districts, common at considerable elevations.—J.B.A.; Stewart Island.—Rev. Mr. Stack.
Gentiana saxosa var. γ, Hk.f.?
A beautiful plant, at once distinguished from the other New Zealand species by its flaccid habit and deeply cut calyx. Its nearest relative is G. novæ-zealandiæ, Armstrong.
Nat. Order Scrophularineæ.
Siphonidium, nov. gen.
Leaves opposite. Flowers hermaphrodite. Calyx campanulate, deeply four-toothed, much wrinkled when dry; teeth with narrow acuminate points. Corolla funnel-shaped with an extremely slender curved tube 3 inches long, dilated upwards, swollen or slightly spurred about three-fourths of the way up at the commencement of the broadest part; throat campanulate; limb
two-lipped; upper lip of one narrow, erect or sub-erect, concave lobe; lower lip of three nearly equal, spreading, rounded lobes, throat not tumid, but having a few scattered hairs. Stamens four, didynamous, inserted on the throat, included, the two lower the longest. Anthers two-celled, introrse. Style extremely slender, a little longer than the stamens, with a two-lobed stigma. Ovary superior. Capsule two-celled, loculicidal? included within the calyx. Seeds minute. (Capsule immature.)
This genus is allied to Euphrasia, from which it differs in the long curved gibbous tube and bi-lobed stigma. It also approaches the South American genus Gerardia, and in some characters the South African Lyperia.
Siphonidium longiflorum, n.sp.
A small creeping or trailing herb. Branches clothed with scattered spreading hairs. Leaves opposite, ¼ inch long, entire, linear-lanceolate, rarely ovate, acuminate, obscurely three-nerved, pubescent or glabrous, shortly petiolate. Flowers solitary, axillary, very shortly peduncled, not bracteate. Corolla pubescent, pale blue (?) with darker veins.
Hab.—Karamea, west coast of Nelson.—Mr. Spencer.
Some allowance must be made for the above description, as many more specimens are wanted to furnish a good diagnosis. I have seen only one perfect flower.
Grammitis pumila, n.sp.
A very small species, less than 1 inch high. Rhizome seldom more than 1 inch long, creeping, epigeous, comparatively very stout, covered with membranous imbricating scales, and sending down slender hair-like fibres.
Fronds erect, ½–¾ inch long, simple, entire or irregularly toothed near the base, almost sessile, linear-cuneate or cuneate-oblong, rarely spathulate, obliquely truncate at the tip, crowded, glabrous above below clothed with minute greyish or brownish pubescence, margins never recurved. Costa distinctly keeled below, remaining veins very obscure. Veinlets free. Sori naked, irregular in outline, rounded or oblong, usually only one on a frond, sometimes two, in which case they are confluent, situated on the uppermost veinlet near the apex of the frond, almost terminal, composed of numerous long-stalked sporangia.
Hab.—Canterbury and Otago Provincial Districts, first collected by Mr. J. F. Armstrong in 1865, at 3–6,000 feet altitude.
A remarkable little fern, quite distinct from G. australis, H.B., readily distinguished by its diminutive size, sub-terminal, solitary sori, pubescent costa, and obscure veins. The fronds are also invariably uniserial, whilst those of G. australis are generally tufted. It is truly alpine, and is an exceedingly interesting little fern.
Ophioglossum minimum, J.B.A.
Rhizome creeping underground, and throwing up fascicles of fronds. Stipes 2–3 inches long, slender, hypogeous, often or perhaps always jointed to the rhizome. Barren and fertile fronds sometimes quite distinct. Barren ½–1 inch long ovate, acute, closely appressed to the ground, usually in pairs on the same stipes, with one fertile rising between them, but often solitary, in which case the fertile rises from the stipes as in other species of the genus. Costa O. Veins obsolete or faintly reticulated. Fertile frond less than one inch high, spike-like, very narrow, with 10–24 capsules in two rows.
Hab.—Canterbury plains, near Christchurch; rare. This very rare little plant differs from all other species of the genus in its widely creeping rhizome. Its nearest ally is the South African O. bergerianum. I am indebted to Mr. Brown, of Christchurch, an old Scotch botanist and an excellent cryptogamist, for pointing out to me the peculiarities of this plant, which was first found in the Christchurch Botanic Garden. It is quite distinct from O. vulgatum var. minimum.
Donatia novæ-zealandiæ, Hk.f.
Dracophyllum muscoides, Hk.f.
On the herbarium sheet of Donatia in the Canterbury Museum, there is written a note to the effect that I referred the plant to Dracophyllum muscoides, and that the latter plant is confined to Otago. The plant I referred to Hooker's Dracophyllum muscoides, is undoubtedly the true plant of that author, and is found in many localities in the Canterbury and Nelson Provincial Districts. I append an amended description of both plants.
Dracophyllum muscoides, Hk.f. Very small, stems and main branches creeping under ground, stout for the size of the plant, woody. Branchlets erect or spreading, forming dense tufted masses. Leaves 1/10–⅛ inch long, linear-oblong, densely imbricated, subulate, obtuse, or subacute, coriaceous, ciliate, with broad sheathing bases, greyish when dry. Flowers solitary or in pairs, terminal or subterminal, ⅛ inch long. Sepals linear-ovate, acute. Corolla pubescent, white, the lobes scarcely spreading. Capsule not seen.
Hab.—Rangitata and Ashburton Valleys.—J. F. Armstrong. Various places in the Alps.—J.B.A.
Donatia novæ-zealandiæ, Hk.f. A small dense-growing plant, forming broad rigid patches in alpine swamps. Branches 2–3 inches long or less, ½ an inch diameter (including the leaves), densely clothed with closely imbricated, rigidly coriaceous leaves. Lower Leaves reddish brown, hidden by the upper, which are bright green, ¼–½ an inch long, suberect, linear-subulate, obtuse, nerveless, punctate or pitted, woolly at the bases. Flowers terminal, sunk among the uppermost leaves. Calyx obconic, adnate. Lobes five, unequal, acute. Petals five, white, ovate-oblong, obtuse, ⅛ inch
long. Stamens two. Ovary two-celled, inferior. Styles two. Capsule longer than the calyx, coriaceous, dehiscing near the top by the falling away of the summit. Seeds very minute, numerous, ovoid-oblong.
Hab.—Throughout the South Island abundant in alpine swamps from 2,000–6,000 feet altitude.
This plant is very closely allied to Helophyllum, and perhaps should be united with that genus. It may not be congeneric with the Fuegian plant on which Donatia was originally founded by Forster.
Art. XLIV.—On the Occurrence of the Morel (Morchella esculenta, Pl.) in New Zealand.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 2nd September, 1880.]
The object of this short paper is to place on record the discovery in New Zealand of the well-known European edible fungus, popularly known as the morel, and called by botanists Morchella esculenta, Pers. About three years ago a number of specimens of this plant were found growing in the Christ-church Botanic Garden, under the shade of some large trees of Eucalyptus globulus, Lmk. At first we supposed the plant to be a recent introduction, but as so many other European fungi are found in New Zealand, and as the morel occurs in Australia and in nearly all other countries, I now feel satisfied that we may look upon it as indigenous to our colony. The morel belongs to the sub-order Ascomycetes and to the tribe Elvellacei, and is described by Berkeley as follows:—
Gen. Morchella, Dillenius.
Receptacle clavate or pileate, impervious in the centre, stipitate, covered with the hymenium which is deeply folded and pitted.
M. esculenta, Persoon.
Pileus ovate, conical or sub-cylindrical, adnate at the base, ribs firm, anastomosing and forming deep pits, stem even.
In woods and gardens, esculent, varying much in breadth and height, sometimes almost cylindrical.
British specimens are often 4 or 5 inches high, but all the New Zealand specimens I have yet seen were considerably smaller; their diminutive size, however, may have been owing to the poverty of the soil in which they were grown. The colour of our specimens was a dull brown, whilst European ones are described as olive-coloured. In the arrangement published in
Hooker's “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” Morchella should precede Leotia. I think that it is very likely that other species of Morchella will eventually be found in this colony.
In Germany and France the morel is much used as an esculent when fresh, and in the dried state is used for flavouring gravies, etc. It has also been used for making catsup, for which purpose it is considered superior to the common mushroom. In the forest districts of Germany the morel comes up abundantly after fires, and the collection of these plants was formerly so profitable that the country people are said to have set fire to the forests in order to hasten the production of these esculents. Whether the collection of morels will ever be profitable in New Zealand remains to be seen; but I trust that it will not be necessary to set fire to our beautiful native forests in order to obtain them.
Art. XLV.—A Synopsis of the New Zealand Species of Veronica, Linn., with Notes on new Species.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 5th August, 1880.]
Introductory.—The genus Veronica is by far the largest New Zealand family of flowering plants, and excepting Coprosma (of which I am also drawing up a conspectus) it is also by far the most difficult. Although found in many countries the genus is nowhere else so abundant as in New Zealand, and in no other country does it possess so many large shrubby forms, or enter so largely into the composition of the floral scenery. Indeed I may truly say that if we had only this genus, our flora would be very far from devoid of interest and variety, so different in appearance are many of the various forms which the genus assumes.
Anyone exploring the mountains of these islands cannot fail to be impressed by the remarkable characters assumed by these plants. They abound in all situations; on the lower grassy slopes, in the beds of the numerous mountain torrents, on the steep shingly slopes of the higher peaks, and even on the most barren-looking rocks, these hardy Veronicas will be found struggling to maintain an existence and to beautify the scene. Many of them are indeed most beautiful plants; from the tiny V. canescens, a little trailing plant forming matted patches less than one inch high, to the stately V. arborea with a trunk three feet in diameter, there is not one but is worthy of the most careful cultivation.
Although so many fine hardy shrubs have been introduced into our gardens from Japan and other countries, none of them are equal to very many of our native Veronicas, and it is to be hoped that these will in the future receive the attention they so justly merit at our hands as the finest known group of hardy shrubs, and that the foolish prejudice which now prevails among amateur horticulturists against all native plants will soon be given up. I have been induced to draw up the following synopsis of the New Zealand species because, having had such excellent opportunities of studying the species in the living state in the Christchurch Botanic Garden, where my father has succeeded in forming the largest existing living collection of species belonging to this genus, I have probably been able to give more careful attention to the subject than any other New Zealand botanist. It must not, however, be supposed that my synopsis is drawn up from cultivated plants alone. On the contrary, I have examined no fewer than 4,000 or 5,000 dried specimens, from all parts of the colony, and their characters have been noted down and compared with those of the living plants, and with Sir Joseph Hooker's excellent descriptions in the “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora;” and again in my numerous botanical exploring journeys I have had ample opportunities for examining the living plants of very many of the species in the wild state.
By following this course I have been able to detect several errors in the nomenclature usually adopted in gardens and museums.
In such a genus as this, however, where so much depends on habit, etc., dried specimens are often misleading, and consequently I have found our collection of living plants of the very greatest service, and indeed I should not have attempted to form this conspectus without it. It is a matter for regret that so little attention is given to living plants by botanists, as in many cases, more especially in New Zealand plants, descriptions drawn up from dried specimens very often fail to agree with the same plant in the fresh state. It must be admitted that whenever possible living plants should be studied in preference to dried ones by all persons attempting to write on the flora of a country. In a work which I have in preparation, entitled a “Manual of New Zealand Botany,” I am attempting to carry out this idea, with what amount of success will I trust be seen in the future.
The cause of the difficulty experienced in studying the New Zealand species of this genus is to be found in their extreme variableness. There is not a single character which does not vary greatly in some one or other of the species, and in many of them the whole of the parts are subject to constant variation. It is not, however, pretended that Veronica is the only variable New Zealand genus; on the contrary, there is not in the colony a single genus of any magnitude which does not vary greatly, but in none is
there the extreme variability to be found in these Veronicas. In drawing up the synopsis, I have found it in many cases extremely difficult to give diagnoses embracing all the forms of the species, and consequently in these cases the description must be looked upon as representing only the most common form of the species. But the species are not all so variable—many of them are very distinct. It is chiefly in sections 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of sub-genus II. that these variable forms are to be found. The most difficult forms will be found pointed out in the notes attached to the specific characters which I have made as complete as my materials admitted.*
The question as to what is the cause of the great variations of these plants is perhaps a difficult one to answer, and offers a very wide field for future investigation. It has been suggested that the numerous so-called intermediate forms are the results of natural hybridization, and that many of our so-called “species” are not true species but natural hybrids. But, without going into the vexed question of what constitutes a “species,” I feel perfectly satisfied that the hybridism theory is quite untenable. We now know that self-fertile plants are by far the most abundant, and exhibit the greatest amount of endurance and greatest range of temperature; that, in fact, plants capable of self-fertilization are those most fitted to survive in the struggle for existence, as indeed we may see amply illustrated in the naturalization of European plants in this colony, the said introduced plants being nearly all self-fertile. Now when a plant contains within its own flower all the required elements for the reproduction of its kind, it is surely extremely improbable that it will cross with any other plant, no matter how closely allied the latter may be; and such crosses have been found by all investigators to be exceedingly rare, although, of course, they cannot be said to be impossible. Now I have ascertained, by careful experiments, that the great majority of the New Zealand species of Veronica, including all the variable ones, are perfectly self-fertile, that is, that the pollen of any one flower is active when applied to the stigma of the same flower, and that when the species are left in a state of nature the pollen is so applied by the natural arrangement of the parts. In most cases, indeed, it is scarcely possible for the corolla to shrivel without bringing the anthers in contact with the stigma. Thus although hybridization is perfectly possible, it must be considered as extremely improbable, and certainly it does not account for many of the phenomena shown in the genus. Moreover the varieties do not show the usual characteristics of hybrids except in their being in so many cases exactly intermediate. Hybrids raised in gardens are usually sterile, and when fertile their seedlings show a remarkable amount of variation, as
[Footnote] * It has only been possible to print the description of the author's new species.—Ed.
may be seen in the numerous varieties of the rose, the pelargonium, the gladiolus, and other florist's flowers which have been produced by the intercrossing of allied species. In all these florist-flowers—the results of artificial hybridization—immense numbers of seedlings are raised every year, and I have been assured by experienced cultivators, and indeed I have myself observed, that very rarely indeed does it happen that any two of these seedlings are exactly alike.
But with our Veronicas the case is different. I have been enabled to observe numerous garden-seedlings of many of the forms, and they almost invariably resemble their parents. Sometimes, however, sports appear, and when this happens there seems to be a strong tendency on the part of the sport to reproduce itself, and it appears to me that it is just in this manner that the greater number of our native forms have been produced.
At some very distant date there were probably only two or three, perhaps only one, species existing within the limits of the colony; but, on account of the extreme local variations of climate and varied geological formation of surface, certain variations occurred, and the sport so produced, being self-fertile, and having within itself all the elements required for reproduction, naturally reproduced its like until another such sport occurred, and thus the forms gradually became differentiated from the type, and by a long series of such sports our large family of Veronicas has been formed.
I think that this theory, coupled in some cases (as in diæcious plants) with the theory of natural hybridization, will be found to apply to all large variable genera in all countries, but that in those countries which have been long inhabited by man or the larger animals the intermediate forms will be found to have been exterminated through their agency, leaving only in most cases the more widely differentiated forms.
In New Zealand, however, and particularly in the South island, where the natural features of the country had not been very materially altered by the agency of man up to the period of European colonization, very many of the intermediate forms have been preserved. The remarkably rapid destruction of our native forests, and the alteration of the features of the country brought about by European colonists, is but the reflex of what has happened in other lands, and it behoves the colonists of the present time to record carefully all the information obtainable as to the introduction and naturalization of exotic plants, and their variations under the influence of our climate, and also to carefully collect and examine all the existing forms of endemic plants before the ever-recurring changes render them extinct. I am of course aware that this theory will be strongly objected to, and I wish it to be understood that I am not in any way wedded to it, but in my opinion no other theory yet propounded so well accounts
for the phenomena shown in Veronica and other variable genera. I have therefore been induced to accept it until some better one is proposed.
It may be mentioned as corroborative of this theory that many cultivated plants exhibit in this colony a remarkable tendency to produce sports, and that these sports in very many cases reproduce themselves. The same tendency also occurs in many naturalized plants, the great majority of which are self-fertile. My space, however, does not admit of any further reference to this interesting subject, but I hope to return to it at some future time.
Since my ideas on this subject were first written out, my attention has been called to a paper on the same subject by Mr. W. T. L. Travers.* The conclusions arrived at by that author are almost precisely similar to my own, but are probably much better expressed.
In this synopsis sixty species are included, being eighteen more than were included in Sir J. D. Hooker's “Handbook.” These are, however, not all new discoveries, four or five of them being separations from species with which they had previously been confounded.
On the distribution of the species it is scarcely possible in the present state of our knowledge to give any precise information, as the flora of several of the districts has not yet been properly worked up. It, however, seems certain that the South Island has many more species of Veronica than the North Island, and that the Canterbury and Otago districts have more than any other part of the colony. Lists of species have been published of the Auckland, Wellington, Canterbury, and Otago districts only; of these Canterbury is the richest in species, having 46, whilst Otago has 35 or 36, Wellington 17, and Auckland 15. In the Otago district, however, there are many extensive tracts, which have not been thoroughly explored, and no doubt many of the Canterbury species will eventually be found there.
Considering what has been done during the last ten years, I think we may reasonably assume that at least some new species will be discovered, and my own opinion is that these new forms will be very numerous, especially on the western slopes of the Alps, the plants of which have been scarcely at all collected.
In drawing up this synopsis, I have found it impossible to place the species in a natural linear series, and the arrangement is therefore to some extent artificial. I recognize three distinct groups, which I have classed as sub-genera, and divided them into sections and series as seemed most convenient. In arranging species according to this synopsis, I should advise the student to discard all slight variations, and not to attempt to name any of the species of sub-genera II. until the greater majority of
[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. I., p. 89.
them have been collected, as it is extremely difficult to furnish descriptions embracing all the numerous variations, and a considerable amount of study of the sub-genus is necessary before the student can even understand the most simple variations assumed by the species. When the first difficulties are conquered, however, it will be found that there is no other New Zealand family of plants so interesting as this.
The curious dimorphism shown in sub-genus III. deserves a very careful study. It has occurred to me that the upper lobulate leaves, so often absent, are the true leaves, and that the scale-like productions commonly called leaves are in reality not true leaves, but changed petioles. I have not, however, been able to bring forward any facts to prove this, and it offers a wide and interesting field for future study. Should this idea be substantiated, it will connect the sub-genus with the section represented by V. haastii, etc.
Genus Veronica, Linnæus.
This genus is a very extensive one, found in most temperate and in some sub-tropical countries. The sixty species found in the colony are not found in any other country, except in the case of V. elliptica, which occurs at Cape Horn and the Falkland Islands.
Sub-genus I.—Eu-veronica. The Speedwells.
Capsules laterally compressed, didymous (rarely non-didymous). Herbs or under-shrubs.
Series A.—Flowers solitary, axillary.
|Leaves 1/12–⅙ inch long, hairy, ovate||1. V. canescens, Kirk.|
Series B.—Flowers racemose; leaves entire.
|Leaves ¼–1 inch, linear, glabrous||2. V. linifolia, H.f.|
Series C.—Leaves deeply toothed; flowers racemose.
|Leaves ½–1 inch, ovate-cordate||3. V. elongata, Benth.|
|Leaves ⅙–⅓ inch, ovate-spathulate||4. V. spathulata, Benth.|
|Leaves ¼–½ inch, ovate, glabrous||5. V. nivalis, H.f.|
|Creeping leaves 1/12–¼ inch, oblong, glabrous||6. V. bidwillii, H.f.|
|Decumbent leaves ¼–½ inch, oblong-ovate||7. V. lyallii, H.f.|
|Leaves ½–1½ inch, ovate, obtuse||8. V. diffusa, H.|
|Leaves 1–1½ inch, lanceolate||9. V. lanceolata, Benth.|
|Leaves 3–6 inches, ovate-lanceolate||10. V. cataractæ, Forst.|
Sub-genus II.—Koromika. The Koromikos.
Capsules dorsally compressed, ovoid, valves often splitting at the tips.
Section 1.—Leaves deeply serrate or crenate.
Series A.—Flowers paniculate.
|Leaves 1–1½ inch long, ovate or oblong||11. V. hulkeana, F.M.|
|Leaves ⅓–1 inch, obovate-spathulate||12. V. lavaudiana, Raoul.|
|Leaves ½–1 inch, oblong-spathulate||13. V. raoulii, H.f.|
Series B.—Flowers racemose.
|Leaves ½–1½ inch, obovate or sub-orbicular||14. V. benthamii, H.f.|
|Leaves ½–1 inch, obovate-lanceolate||15. V. macrantha, H.f.|
Section 2.—Leaves entire; flowers spicate or sub-spicate; leaves more or less densely imbricate.
Series A.—Leaves broad, obtuse, glaucous; flowers spicate.
|Leaves ⅓–½ inch long, broadly oblong||16. V. amplexicaulis, n.s.|
|Leaves ⅓–½ inch, sub-orbicular||17. V. carnosula, H.f.|
|Leaves ⅓–½ inch, oblong-obovate||18. V. pinguifolia H.f.|
Series B.—Leaves not glaucous; flowers sub-spicate.
|Leaves ½–¾ inch, ovate-lanceolate||19. V. decumbens, n.s.|
Series C.—Leaves not glaucous; flowers in sub-capitate spikes.
|Leaves ⅛–¼ inch, orbicular, recurved||20. V. buchanani, H.f.|
Series D.—Leaves glaucous, narrow, spikes hairy.
|Leaves ¼–⅓ inch, obovate-oblong||21. V. glauco-cærulea, n.s.|
|Leaves ⅙–¼ inch, linear-obovate||22. V. pimeleoides, H.f.|
Section 3.—Leaves densely imbricated; flowers in terminal ovoid heads formed of an aggregation of spikes.
|Leaves ¼–⅛ inch, keeled, oblong or broadly obovate||23. V. epacridea, H.f.|
|Leaves ⅓–½ inch, obovate-oblong or round||24. V. macrocalyx, n.s.|
|Leaves ¼–⅓ inch, oblong-orbicular||25. V. haastii, H.f.|
Section 4.—Leaves closely imbricated; flowers in sub-terminal racemes, often crowded.
|Leaves ⅓–½ inch, obovate-oblong||26. V. buxifolia, Benth.|
|Leaves ⅓–½ inch, obovate, shining||27. V. odora, H.f.|
|Leaves ½–¾ inch, broadly obovate-oblong||28. V. lævis, Benth.|
|Leaves ¾–1 inch, narrowly obovate||29. V. obovata, Kirk.|
|Leaves ¾–1 inch, ovate-lanceolate||30. V. monticola, n.s.|
|Leaves ⅓ inch, ovate or obovate||31. V. grayii, n.s.|
|Leaves ¼–⅓ inch, obovate, mucronate||32. V. canterburiensis, n.s.|
Section 5.—Leaves not more than one inch long, decussate, rarely loosely-imbricated; flowers in racemes, which are subterminal, often crowded, usually short.
Series A.—Racemes crowded, becoming a panicle by the defoliation of the upper leaves.
|Leaves ½–1 inch, linear-oblong||33. V. anomala, n.s.|
|Leaves ½–¾ inch, linear-obovate||34. V. vernicosa, H.f.|
Series B.—Flowers corymbose.
|Leaves ¾–1 inch, linear-oblong, acute||35. V. diosmæfolia, Cunn.|
Series C.—Flowers sub-corymbose.
|Leaves ½–1 inch, elliptic-oblong||36. V. elliptica, Forst.|
Series D.—Flowers in sub-terminal, rather crowded, often compound racemes.
|Leaves ½–1 inch, linear-oblong||37. V. colensoi, H.f.|
|Leaves ½–1 inch, linear-lanceolate||38. V. rakaiensis, n.s.|
Series E.—Flowers in sub-terminal, dense, stout, obtuse racemes.
|Prostrate; leaves ⅓–½ inch, ovate-oblong, glabrous||39. V. chathamica, Buchanan.|
Section 6.—Leaves 1–3 inches long, narrow, entire; racemes 2–5 inches long, pubescent.
|Leaves 1 inch long, oblong, sessile||40. V. traversii, H.f.|
|Leaves 1–2 inches, oblong-lanceolate||41. V. pubescens, B.&S.|
|Leaves 1–3 inches, linear-oblong||42. V. ligustrifolia, Linn.|
|Leaves 1½–3 inches, linear-lanceolate||43. V. parviflora, Vahl.|
|Leaves 1–1½ inch long, linear-lanceolate||44. V. arborea, Buchanan.|
Section 7.—Leaves 1–6 inches long, broad; racemes 2–8 inches long, simple.
Series A.—Racemes very long, slender, sub-pendulous, rather loose-flowered, very many-flowered.
|Leaves 1–1½ inch long, lanceolate, acute||45. V. kirkii, n.s.|
|Leaves 2–4 inches, linear-lanceolate, acute||46. V. myrtifolia, B.&S.|
|Leaves 2–6 inches, lanceolate, acuminate||47. V. lindleyana, var. hort.|
Series B.—Racemes sub-erect, dense-flowered, stout, very many-flowered.
|Leaves 1½–2 inches, linear-oblong, sessile||48. V. carnea, var. hort.|
|Leaves 1½–2½ inches, oblong, lanceolate, glabrous||49. V. macroura, H.f.|
|Leaves 1–1½ inch, oblong-ovate, pubescent||50. V. lewisii, n.s.|
|Leaves 2–4 inches, oblong-obovate, obtuse||51. V. speciosa, Cunn.|
|Leaves 3–4 inches, linear-oblong, acute||52. V. dieffenbachii, Benth.|
Sub-genus III.—Pseudo-veronica. The False Veronicas.
Leaves scale-like, appressed, often most densely quadrifariously imbricated, often dimorphic.
Series A.—Leaves in distant opposite pairs.
|Leaves 1/16 inch long, appressed, glabrous||53. V. cupressoides, H.f.|
Series B.—Leaves densely imbricated; opposite pairs, connate at the base.
|Branches square, 1/12–⅛ inch diam., leaves obtuse||54. V. tetragona, H.f.|
|Branches square, 1/12 inch diam., leaves subacute||55. V. tetrasticha, H.f.|
|Branches square, ⅛–1/10 inch diam., leaves acuminate||56. V. lycopodioides, H.f.|
|Branches terete, slender, 1/16 inch diam., leaves 1/20–1/10 inch||57. V. salicornioides, H.f.|
|Branches terete, 1/10–1/12 inch diam., leaves connate to middle||58. V. armstrongii, Kirk.|
|Branches terete, stout, leaves connate to middle||59. V. hectori, H.f.|
Species the position of which is uncertain until fruit is obtained.
|Leaves ¼ inch long, ovate-acuminate, imbricated||60. V. loganioides, n.s.|
Descriptions of New Species.
16. V. amplexicaulis, Armstrong, “New Zealand Country Journal,” Vol. III., page 56. 1–2 feet high, decumbent or suberect. Branches stout, ringed with old leaf-scars. Leaves loosely imbricated, amplexicaul or sub-amplexicaul, oblong, obtuse, ½ inch long, ⅓ inch broad, glaucous, coriaceous, entire, slightly concave, not keeled. Flowers in short conical spikes on hairy peduncles, 1–1¼ inch long. Spikes ¾–1 inch long, densely hairy between the flowers, crowded together near the ends of the branchlets, dense-flowered. Bracts solitary, membranous, longer than the calyx, hairy, and ciliated. Calyx-lobes ovate or lanceolate, acute, ciliated, half as long as the corolla tubes. Corolla white; tube ¼ inch long; limb ¼ inch across; lobes lanceolate. Stamens longer than the style. Anthers blue. Style curved upwards, slender. Capsule ⅛ inch long, ovoid-compressed, acute, hairy, one-third longer than the calyx.
Hab.—Provincial District of Canterbury, Rangitata, Mr. J. F. Armstrong. Provincial District of Nelson, Upper Waiau, J. B. A. A most beautiful and remarkable little shrub, readily distinguished from its nearest relative, V. carnosula, by the broadly oblong, very obtuse, amplexicaul leaves, and densely hairy spikes, also by the very long corolla tube, but this character may vary.
19. V. decumbens, Armstrong, “New Zealand Country Journal,” Vol. III. A small decumbent, very beautiful shrub. Branches black and polished. Branchlets pubescent. Leaves loosely imbricated or decussate, spreading, entire, quite glabrous, very shortly petioled, ovate or lanceolate, ¾ by ½ inch, obtuse, flat or slightly concave, not keeled, obscurely three-nerved, dull green in colour, with bright red edges. Racemes in pairs near the tips of the branches, shortly peduncled, ovoid, 1 inch long, 12–16-flowered. Pedicels 1/16 inch long, slender, hairy. Bracts one-third the length of the calyx-lobes which are ⅛ inch long, narrow-ovate, acute, hairy, ciliated, with pink edges.
Corolla white; tube ¼ inch long, much flattened on the inner side; limb ¼ inch across; lobes ovate, obtuse. Stamens longer than the style. Anthers red. Capsules ovate, much compressed, surmounted by the remains of the style.
Hab.—Provincial Districts of Canterbury and Nelson, J.B.A. A very beautiful little plant with the habit of V. pinguifolia, but the leaves are green, glabrous, larger than in that plant, not keeled, and the flowers distinctly pedicellate; a most distinct species.
21. V. glauco-cærulea, Armstrong, “New Zealand Country Journal,” Vol. III. A small, stout, decumbent, or sub-erect shrub, much-branched, intensely glaucous throughout, with slightly hairy branches. Leaves closely imbricated, ⅓ inch long, obovate-oblong, on short broad petioles, acute, rather concave, not keeled, coriaceous (but not rigid). Veins obsolete above; midrib evident below. Flowers in short few-flowered spikes crowded together near the tips of the branchlets. Peduncles covered with soft, white hairs. Bracts ovate, acuminate, keeled, hairy and ciliated, shorter than the calyx-lobes. Calyx-lobes ovate, acute, hairy and ciliated on the margins, 1/10 inch long. Corolla deep blue changing to purple; tube 1/20 inch long; limb ¼–½ inch diameter; lobes broadly oblong, obtuse. Stamens as long as the style. Anthers blue. Capsules ovoid-compressed, acute, twice as long as the calyx.
Hab.—Nelson, Canterbury, and North Otago, 2,000–5,000 feet.
The intensely glaucous, closely set leaves, and dark blue or purple flowers, distinguish this from all but V. pimeleoides, from which it is best distinguished by the stouter branches, longer petioles, and much darker flowers. It is a most beautiful and ornamental plant, a great favourite in gardens.
24.V. macrocalyx, n.s.
A short-branched, straggling, decumbent or prostrate shrub, 4–8 in. long. Branches stout, leafy above, below densely clothed with the broad sheathing bases of old leaves, which are generally hairy and ciliated. Leaves bright green when fresh, brown when dry, densely quadrifariously imbricated, often much reflexed, broadly obovate-oblong, ⅓–½ inch long, ¼–⅓ inch broad, obtuse, sessile by a membranous amplexicaul base, concave above, slightly keeled below, slightly revolute, glabrous above, except a few scattered white hairs, puberulous below, coriaceous, rigid when dry, thinned on the margin, minutely lacerated, particularly towards the base, often minutely ciliated; midrib sunken above, keeled below; other veins very indistinct. Flowers very shortly pedicelled in 8–10-flowered racemes, collected into shortly-stalked terminal or sessile sub-terminal heads. Heads ovoid or oblong, 1–1½ inch long, ¾–1 inch broad, very dense. Pedicels extremely short, stout, rarely absent. Bracts ⅓ inch long, linear or linear-lanceolate, acute, sessile or very shortly
stalked, keeled, minutely pubescent and ciliated, particularly on the keel. Calyx-lobes linear, ¼–⅓ inch long, sub-acute, keeled, ciliated or glabrous. Corolla white, ¼–⅓ inch across; tube short. Capsules ovoid, acute, ⅙–⅕ inch long, slightly pubescent, much shorter than the calyx, the valves splitting longitudinally.
Hab.—Waimakariri Valley, 5–6000 feet, J. B. Armstrong, March, 1867. Rangitata Valley, 4,500 feet, Mr. J. F. Armstrong, March, 1869. Rakaia, Mr. T. Phillips (perhaps a different plant), 1878.
This is closely allied to V. haastii, but differs much in the sepals and capsules. The leaves are narrower, greener, pubescent, and smaller than in that species, and are without the red edges. This species has longer sepals than any other New Zealand one, except V. elongata and V. macrantha.
30. V. monticola, Armstrong, “New Zealand Country Journal,” Vol. III. p. 58 (erroneously printed montana). About 2 feet high. Leaves imbricated, smooth, thick and leathery, spreading, ovate-lanceolate, about 1 inch long, acute, gradually narrowed into a short stalk, concave, not keeled, midrib sunken above. Racemes in pairs at the ends of the branches, longer than the leaves, about 20-flowered. Peduncles clothed with short glandular hairs. Bracts linear, acute, 1/12 inch long, hairy and ciliated. Calyx-lobes ovate, acute, 1/10–⅛ inch long, with a white membranous border. Corolla white; tube ⅙ inch long, compressed; limb ¼ inch across; lobes ovate, acute. Anthers brown. Capsules twice as long as the calyx, sub-ovoid, much compressed.
Hab.—Nelson, Canterbury, and Otago, common at 3–4,500 feet. In most New Zealand herbariums this fine little species has been generally confounded with V. lævis, from which it differs widely in the leaves being longer, the midrib sunken, not keeled, gradually narrowed into the petioles, in the membranous bordered calyx-lobes, and in the dull, dark colour, smaller size and pubescent peduncles.
31. V. grayi, Armstrong, “New Zealand Country Journal,” Vol. III. A small upright shrub, 2–3 feet high. Leaves closely imbricated, glabrous, entire, flat, ovate or oblong or obovate, sub-erect, ⅓ inch long, acute, rather suddenly narrowed into short foot-stalks, the lowermost leaves cordate at the base; veins obsolete. Racemes slender, hairy, 4–6 together near the tips of the branchlets, many-flowered. Bracts linear, acute, fringed, 1/12 inch long. Pedicels 1/12 inch long, stout, hairy. Calyx-lobes 1/12 inch long, ovate, acute or obtuse, hirsute, ciliate. Corolla white; tube very short, 1/16–1/10 inch long; limb ½ inch across; lobes ovate, acute. Anthers blue. Capsules compressed-ovoid, acute, more than twice as long as the calyx.
Hab.—Canterbury and Nelson Provincial Districts.
In the original description the name was inadvertently written greyi, and the mistake was repeated in my “Sketch of the Flora of Canterbury.” This pretty and curious little shrub is named in honour of Mr. W. Gray, of Ohinitahi, an ardent and efficient collector of New Zealand plants. It is a neat little shrub, flowering abundantly and early, and a very desirable garden plant.
32. V. canterburiensis, Armstrong, “New Zealand Country Journal,” Vol. III. A small prostrate or erect slender shrub, 1–2 feet high. Leaves entire, smooth, rather closely imbricated, spreading and recurved, obovate, mucronate, concave, membranous, ¼ inch long, on short slender stalks, which in those leaves on the lower side of the branches are twisted, so as to bring the upper side to the light. Racemes in pairs at the ends of the branches, 4–8-flowered, hairy. Bracts ⅙–⅛ inch long, linear, acute, hairy, with white membranous ciliated margins. Calyx-lobes ⅙–⅛ inch long, linear-oblong, obtuse, with delicate white, membranous, ciliated margins. Corolla-tube shorter than the calyx; limb ¼ inch diameter, white; lobes obovate, obtuse. Anthers blue. Capsules ovoid-compressed, glabrous, acute, twice as long as the calyx. V. lucens, Kirk, in Canterbury Museum.
Hab.—Canterbury and Westland, 3,000–5,000 feet.
A handsome little shrub, very distinct in characters from any other; readily distinguished from all others of its section by the small foliage and twisted footstalks.
33. V. anomala, n.s.
A dense-growing shrub, 3–6 feet high, 4–8 feet through. Branches long, slender, purplish or reddish towards the tips. Leaves decussate, ½–1 inch long, ⅕–¼ inch wide, linear or linear-oblong, patent, often reddish-coloured, coriaceous, quite glabrous on the upper surface, sometimes ciliated on the margin, concave, entire, shortly petiolate; midrib obscure above, distinctly keeled below. Racemes crowded together, 5–10-flowered, sub-terminal, ultimately becoming a terminal panicle by the defoliation of the upper leaves. Flowers white, very shortly pedicellate or sessile. Bracts sessile, acute, nerved, keeled, ⅛–⅙ inch long. Calyx-lobes 3, linear-oblong, acute or obtuse, distinctly nerved, scabrid, pubescent or glabrous. Corolla-tube ¼ inch long; ¼–½ inch broad; lobes nearly equal, 3, or 2 unequal, spreading, narrow. Stamens shorter than the style. Capsules ovoid-oblong, compressed, obtuse, pubescent, ⅕ inch long, always longer than the calyx.
Hab.—Canterbury Provincial District, Rakaia Valley, Mount Cook, and Mount Peel. A curious plant differing from all other species in the number of the corolla-lobes, but very closely resembling V. vernicosa in appearance, and doubtless a very recent offset from that species.
38. V. rakaiensis, n.s.
A slender, bright-green shrub, 3–6 feet high. Branches upright, extremely slender, marked by black leaf-scars. Leaves decussate or laxly imbricated, linear-lanceolate, or linear-oblong, shortly petioled, ½–1 inch long, acute, quite entire, glabrous and shining above, pubescent below, concave above, flat not keeled below; veins obscure. Flowers in many-flowered pubescent racemes in pairs near the tips of the branches. Racemes 1–2 inches long, curved. Pedicels ⅙ inch longer, very slender. Bracts very short, concave and ciliated. Calyx-lobes 1/12 inch long, oblong, obtuse, ciliated, and pubescent. Corolla pure white; tube shorter than the calyx; limb ¼ inch diameter; lobes nearly equal, obtuse, reflexed. Stamens spreading widely. Anthers brown. Style as long as the stamens, curved upwards. Capsule ⅙ inch long, ovate-oblong, acute, pubescent.
Hab.—Canterbury Alps 2,000–4,000 feet, scarce.
This is the V. colensoi var. gracilis of gardens; it must not be confounded with the Australian V. gracilis, Br., which is a very different plant.
This species appears to be self-sterile, and is, I believe, fertilized by a very small hymenopterous insect. The flowers smell strongly of honey. It is best distinguished from V. colensoi by the extremely slender branches and smaller narrower leaves.
45. V. kirkii, Armstrong, “New Zealand Country Journal,” Vol. III., p. 58. A tall handsome shrub 6–12 feet high, with dark brown polished branches, which are ringed by old leaf-scars. Leaves 1–1½ inch long by ⅓ inch wide, lanceolate, decussate or loosely imbricate, entire, smooth, acute, sessile by a broad base, slightly concave, recurved; midrib rather prominent below, sunken above. Flowers shortly pedicelled in long slender racemes in the axils of the uppermost leaves. Racemes 4–8 inches long, 50–100-flowered, very slender, curved, very densely flowered, pubescent. Bracts lanceolate, acuminate, ciliate, much shorter than the calyx. Calyx-lobes 1/10 inch long, lanceolate or ovate, ciliated, acuminate. Corolla pure white; tube ⅕ inch long; limb ¼ inch diameter; lobes nearly erect, ovate-oblong, obtuse, concave. Stamens as long as the style. Anthers blue. Capsule rounded, ovate, sub-acute, much compressed, hoary, twice as long as the calyx.
Hab.—Canterbury Provincial District. First collected by Mr. J. F. Armstrong in 1868 in the Upper Rangitata valley, which is very rich in species of the genus. This plant seems sufficiently distinct, but is closely related in many characters to V. macroura and V. stricta; from the former it is best distinguished by the sessile narrower leaves and much longer racemes, and from the latter by the shorter leaves and denser flowers.
47. V. stricta var. lindleyana, hort., Armstrong. A shrub, 6–10 feet high. Leaves 3–4 inches long, 1 inch broad, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, shortly
petioled, entire or obscurely serrate, acuminate, distinctly veined, glabrous or slightly pubescent. Racemes long peduncled, in pairs near the tips of the branchlets, curved, rather stout, 4–8 inches long, pubescent, not very dense-flowered; pedicels ⅓ inch long, very slender, curved. Bracts extremely short, oblong, ciliated. Calyx-lobes about 1/12 inch long, pubescent and ciliated, acute. Corolla pale blue or white; tube ⅛ inch long, swollen; limb ¼ inch across; lobes narrow, concave, obtuse. Stamens curved upwards, spreading. Anthers brown. Style shorter than the stamens, curved upwards. Capsules broadly ovate, obtuse, more than ⅛ inch long, glabrous or pubescent.
Hab.—Both islands, common in lowland forests. Differs from the type in the larger foliage, always petiolate, and the spreading habit and much larger capsules which are often much recurved.—V. lindleyana, hort.
This is often almost indistinguishable from V. myrtifolia, and perhaps should be united with that plant. Young plants have sharply serrate leaves.
48. V. carnea, hort., Armstrong. A large spreading shrub, with rather slender, pubescent branches. Leaves decussate, closely set, 1½–2 inches long, linear-oblong, about ⅓ inch wide, bright green, obtuse or acute, quite entire, with ciliated pink margins, pubescent below, glabrous above, except the midrib which is pubescent, sessile by a narrow base, concave above, scarcely keeled below. Racemes in sub-terminal pairs, 2–3 inches long, sub-erect, rather stout, pubescent, not very dense-flowered. Pedicels straight, stout, ⅛ inch long. Bracts linear-oblong, 1/12–1/10 inch long, acute, pubescent. Calyx-lobes 1/12–1/10 inch long, linear-lanceolate, acute, ciliate. Corolla rose and white; tube about ⅛ inch long, swollen; limb ¼–⅓ inch across; lobes spreading, unequal. Stamens stout, curved upwards, rather longer than the style, which is curved downwards. Capsules twice as long as the calyx, pubescent or glabrate, acute, much compressed.
Hab.—Otago? I have had great difficulty in obtaining any authentic information regarding the habitat of this plant, which is commonly cultivated in gardens as a native. Mr. Kirk, I believe, considers it to be from New Caledonia, but I think this extremely improbable as the plant is perfectly hardy in Christchurch, whereas all New Caledonian plants require stove heat. This is one of the handsomest species of the genus, differing from V. speciosa chiefly in the much narrower, shorter leaves, narrower, shorter racemes, and much smaller calyx. I have been assured by several persons that they have seen this plant growing wild on the coast near the Southwest Cape, but I failed to find it on my visit to that neighbourhood in 1873.
50. V. lewisii, n.s.
A very handsome close-growing shrub, 3–6 feet high or more. Branches stout, scarred, covered with minute dense greyish pubescence, which is
thinner towards the tips. Leaves pale green, spreading, decussate in rather distant pairs, ovate or oblong-ovate or oblong, 1–1½ inch long or more, ¾–1 inch wide, on very short extremely stout petioles, quite entire, acute, almost glabrous above, pubescent below and on the midrib, coriaceous, ciliated; midrib excurrent, concave above, prominent below, the other veins faintly reticulated. Racemes in sub-terminal pairs, very stout and dense, erect, 2 inches long, 1 inch through. Peduncles stout, pubescent. Bracts linear-oblong, acute, 1/12 inch long, ciliated, sometimes ¼ inch long, leafy, lanceolate. Calyx pubescent and ciliate; lobes ⅛ inch long, ovate-oblong, keeled, ciliated, acute. Corolla pale purple, white or blue; tube 1/10–⅛ inch long, very broad, angled; limb ⅓–½ inch diameter; lobes concave, spreading, nearly equal, obtuse. Stamens very stout, spreading widely, curved upwards, longer than the straight stout style. Anthers brown, very large. Capsules ¼ inch long, ovate-oblong, glabrous or hoary, obtuse or surmounted by the base of the style, much compressed.
Hab.—Downs near the sea in the south of Canterbury.
I have been much puzzled with this plant which is exactly intermediate in character between V. elliptica and V. speciosa. It resembles V. elliptica in the colour and size of the flowers and the colour of the leaves, and V. speciosa in the stamens and shape of the foliage. In size it is exactly intermediate between these two, and those authors who favour the hybridism theory as accounting for the variations of species would probably class this as a hybrid, but such an idea is exceedingly improbable in this case, as no plants of V. speciosa have been found within 200 miles of the district where this plant was found, although the whole district has been very carefully botanized. Besides hybrids usually show very great variations in the characters of their flowers, but this plant is one of the most constant species in the colony. It is a very beautiful shrub, with larger flowers than any other New Zealand one except V. macrantha.
Besides the above species, I have two other species belonging to this section, without flowers or fruit.
No. 1. A small, decumbent, or sub-erect shrub, about 1 foot high. Leaves imbricated, dimorphic, the young state spreading, obovate, acute, deeply lobed or pinnatifid, the old state sub-erect, not closely appressed, not connate at the bases, ovate-lanceolate, acute, keeled, gradually narrowed to the point, sessile, ciliated, ⅛–¼ inch long. Branches obscurely tetragonous, tomentose or pubescent between the leaves.
Hab.—Rangitata, Ashburton, and Rakaia valleys; differs from V. lycopodioides, in the larger size, and the leaves not connate, and gradually narrowed into the acute points.
No. 2. A very small shrub a few inches high, like V. tetragona, but the
leaves are longer, narrower, and spreading, not appressed to the twig, but connate at the base.
60. V. loganioides, Armstrong, “New Zealand Country Journal,” Vol. III. A small shrub, six inches high, decumbent and rooting at the joints. Branches hairy towards the tips. Leaves densely imbricated, appressed to the branch with spreading tips, ovate, acuminate, glabrous except the ciliated margins, usually entire, sometimes with 1–3 small teeth on each side, ¼ inch long, sessile, very sharply keeled below. Flowers in short few-flowered racemes in pairs near the points of the branches. Peduncles hairy, short. Bracts ⅛ inch long, ovate, acuminate. Pedicels hairy. Calyx-lobes lanceolate, acute, keeled, ciliated. Corolla white with pink stripes, very fugaceous; tube 1/12 inch long; lobes broadly ovate, obtuse; limb ⅓ inch across. Stamens as long as the style. Anthers brown. Capsule not seen.
Hab.—Rangitata valley, Mr. J. F. Armstrong. Clyde valley, Mr. W. Gray, 5,000–6,000 feet.
A most singular plant, quite different in appearance from any other known Veronica. Until the fruit is obtained the position and relationship cannot be determined. The corolla seems to approach that of V. linifolia, but the aspect of the plant is more that of V. tetragona, though the leaves are not connate at their bases.
Art. XLVI.—A natural Arrangement of the New Zealand Ferns founded on the System of Smith's “Historia Filicum,” with critical Notes on certain Species.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 2nd September, 1880.]
Gymnogramma rutœfolia, Br. G. alpina, Potts, is certainly referable to this species. Specimens collected on the Upper Rangitata and kindly given to me by Mr. Potts, do not present any characters differing from those of G. rutœfolia sent from other parts of the colony. I have it from several localities in Canterbury and Otago, but have seen no North Island specimens. The New Zealand plant is, however, quite distinct from G. pozoi with which it was united in the “Syn. Filicum.”
Lastrea invisa. The Nephrodium thelypteris var. squamulosum of the “Handbook” is undoubtedly the Aspidium invisum of Forster, and the specific
name must therefore be changed as I have no doubt whatever as to its distinctness from the British plant. It has not, so far as I am aware, been found in the Southern Provinces.
Cystoptoris novœ-zealandiœ. This plant is certainly distinct from C. fragilis, Bernhardi, to which it has been referred by most authors. The plant is always much smaller and more fragile with an erect underground miniature branching caudex, and is always less divided than the European plant. The indusium is often entirely absent from Canterbury specimens, and nearly always becomes obsolete with age. I have examined large numbers of British specimens together with living plants of the true C. fragilis, Bernhardi, and have found none approaching this. Some states of it, however, are much like C. dentata in aspect, but differ much in the rhizome and sori. The description in the “Handbook,” copied from the “Species Filicum,” was drawn up from European specimens, and does not apply to the New Zealand plant. It is found from near the sea-level (close to Christ-church) up to 4,800 feet or higher, but presents scarcely any variations, thus offering another point of difference from the British plant, which is exceedingly variable if I may judge from the numerous specimens in my own herbarium.
Dicksonia fibrosa. I am glad to find that Mr. Baker is disposed to admit this old species of Colenso's. We have cultivated the Tasmanian D. antarctica, and this for many years, and I have no hesitation in pronouncing them distinct if examined in the living state, as all ferns ought to be before any opinion is given as to their distinctness.
D. antarctica is the fastest growing tree-fern we have as yet experimented with. Plants only seven and a half years old from spores have made trunks varying from 3 to 10 inches high and 3 to 4 inches through. It is therefore likely that the rapidity of growth of tree-fern stems has been very much under-estimated by most writers on ferns.
Cheilanthes kirkii. An examination of cultivated plants of the true C. tenuifolia, Swzs., has convinced me of the distinctness of the New Zealand plant referred to that species by Mr. Kirk.* In my Sketch of the Flora of Canterbury† I considered this to be a variety of C. sieberi; but on further consideration I am disposed to acknowledge it as a distinct species and to attach to it the name of Mr. T. Kirk, who has done so much to increase our knowledge of New Zealand plants. Very good descriptions of this and C. sieberi will be found in the volume of the “Transactions” referred to above. C. kirkii is rather a common plant in Canterbury, but appears to be somewhat rare in the North.
[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. VI., p. 247.
[Footnote] † “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XII., pp. 325—353.
Asplenium, sp. Probably another species of this genus, found in the lower Canterbury Alps, will yet be added to our list of New Zealand ferns, and admitted to specific distinction. It is intermediate in appearance between A. flaccidum and A. hookerianum, and frequently produces dense masses of sori covering the whole under-surface of the frond. It has been erroneously referred to A. richardi by collectors of living ferns.
Hymenophyllum. The great increase in the number of species of this genus is noteworthy. In the “Handbook” only fifteen species are given, whilst I here acknowledge twenty-six, and I am by no means sure but that I ought properly to have admitted several more. This is undoubtedly the most difficult New Zealand genus of ferns, and requires to be carefully studied in the living state. I think that most of the species here given will be generally admitted in the future, seeing that most of the New Zealand species suppressed in the first edition of the “Synopsis” have been re-admitted in the second. Probably also several new ones remain to be discovered. It will be seen that I have restored Mr. Colenso's old species H. revolutum, which I consider quite as worthy of specific standing as H. unilaterale, H. montanum, and others. H. cheesemanii is closely allied to H. minimum, but differs in the ciliated margins and costa. It is the least satisfactory of all the species adopted here.
H. armstrongii is also allied to H. minimum, but differs essentially in the remarkable border, and in the columnar receptacle being frequently exerted, which led Mr. Baker to place it in the genus Trichomanes (see Synopsis Filicum, first edition in appendix). It is, however, more naturally allied in habit to Hymenophyllum, and was first referred to this genus by Sir. J. D. Hooker on its discovery in 1867.
Of Mr. Colenso's H. erecto-elatum I have not yet seen specimens, but he is such a careful observer, and is so well up in New Zealand plants, that I have little reason to doubt its distinctness. The same author's H. pusillum is certainly very near to H. tunbridgense, but I accept it for the present. I have placed H. lyallii in this genus, although it was referred to Trichomanes in the “Synopsis,” because it appears to me to have more of the habit of Hymenophyllum than of Trichomanes; but it cannot be denied that the New Zealand species of the two genera present a graduated series of forms, and the limits of these two genera are anything but clearly defined. Still, it is convenient to keep up both generic names, and I think it will be found best to refer those species with long, distinctly-exerted, columnar receptacles and densert issue to Trichomanes, and the remainder to Hymenophyllum. H. malingii is a difficult plant to place, but apparently it comes nearest H. œruginosum.
Trichomanes venustulum. This new species of Mr. Colenso's is, I believe, not uncommon in the south, but has hitherto been confounded with T. venosum.
Osmunda. I have here departed somewhat from Smith's arrangement, and united Todea with Osmunda of Linnæus. This genus has given me more trouble than any other, and consequently I do not expect New Zealand pteridologists to agree with my views at once, but I have little doubt that many of them will do so when they have studied the question as much as I have done. There is really no natural character to separate the typical species of Todea from Osmunda. The character usually given is that the fronds of Osmunda are contracted in fruit, but the fronds of Todea are often partially contracted, though never so much as those of Osmunda regalis. Consequently this character is of no value, as we cannot distinguish genera by the amount of contraction of their fertile fronds. In the variation, texture, and in the sori and venation, we find no difference beyond what is sufficient to distinguish them as species of one genus. In the case of the two species of the sub-genus Leptopteris, however, we find characters of more importance, such as the membranous texture of the fronds and the scattered sori; but these characters are not now considered by authors to be of sufficient importance for defining genera, or even for separating Leptopteris from typical Todea, and therefore I feel justified in placing all three plants in Osmunda. I find that Sir J. D. Hooker has, in the “Handbook,” given an opinion that Todea should merge into Osmunda, thus anticipating my action.
In conclusion, it is necessary to remark that I have made a very free use of Smith's generic descriptions;* but I do not suppose that the author would object, as his descriptions are so admirably drawn that it would be quite impossible for me to improve upon them, and I shall conclude with a hope that this paper will be the means of bringing before the New Zealand student the least difficult and most natural system of fern classification ever presented to the public.
Arrangement of Genera and Species.
Gen. I.—Niphobolus, Kaulfuss.
N. serpens (Fst.), J. Sm. Polypodium rupestre, Hk.
Gen. II.—Phymatodes, Presl.
P. pustulata (Fst.), Presl.; slender.
P. billardieri, Br.; stout, glaucous.
[Footnote] * All descriptions omitted, the subject of the paper being “arrangement.”—Ed.
P. cheesemanii, Baker.
P., sps. (Westland); sori not seen.
Gen. III.—Dictymia, J. Smith.
D. lanceolata, J. Sm. Polypodium cunninghami, Hk.
Gen. IV.—Lomariopsis, Fee.
L. heteromorpha, J. Sm. Lomaria filiformis, A. Cunn.
G. leptophylla, Des.
G. rutœfolia, Hk.
G. alpina Potts. Note.—In the Synopsis Filicum this is wrongly united with the South European G. Pozai. It is confined to Australia and New Zealand.
Gen. VI.—Platyloma, J. Smith.
P. rotundifolia (Fst.)
P. falcata, (Br.)
Gen. VII.—Grammitis, Swartz.
G. australis, Br. Polypodium australe, Hk.
G. Pumila, Armstrong.
Gen. VIII.—Ctenopteris, Blume.
C. grammitidis (Br.)
Gen. IX.—Goniopteris, Presl.
G. pennigera, Presl.
Gen. X.—Nephrodium, Schott.
N. molle, Br.
N. unitum, Hk.
Gen. XI.—Lastrea, Presl.
L. glabella (Cunn.)
L. decomposita (Br.)
L. velutina (A. Rich).
L. hispida, Swartz.
L. invisa (Forst.) Nephrodium Thelypteris. var., Hk.f.
Gen. XII.—Polystichum, Schott.
P. vestitum, (Swartz).
P. richardi (Hk.)
P. oculatum (Hk.)
P. cystostigium (Hk.)
Gen. XIII.—Arthropteris, J. Sm.
A. tenella, J. Sm. Polypodium tenellum, Hk.f.
Gen. XIV.—Nephrolepis, Schott.
N. tuberosa, Schott.
Gen. XV.—Hypolepis, Bernhardi.
H. tenuifolia, Bern.
H. distans, Hk.
H. millefolium, Hk.f.
H. rugulosum (Lab.)
Gen. XVI.—Cystopteris, Bernhardi.
C. novœ-zealandiœ, Armstrong. C. fragilis of authors non Bernhardi.
Gen. XVII.—Cyathea, Smith.
C. cunninghamii, Heward.
C. dealbata, Swartz.
C. medullaris, Swartz.
C. polyneuron, Colenso.
C. smithii, Hk.f.
Gen. XVIII.—Alsophila, Br.
A. colensoi, Hk.f.
Gen. XIX.—Dicksonia, L. Héritier.
D. squarrosa, Swartz.
D. fibrosa, Colenso.
D. lanata, Colenso.
D. sparmaniana, Colenso.
Gen. XX.—Microlepia, Presl.
M. novœ-zealandiœ, Col.
M. (?) forsteri, Carr.
Gen. XXI.—Loxoma, Br.
L. cunninghamii, Br.
Gen. XXII.—Lindsœa, Dryander.
L. trichomanoides. Dry.
L. lessoni, Bory.
L. viridis, Col.
L. linearis, Swartz.
Tribe XII. Adianteœ.
Gen. XXIII.—Adiantum, Linn.
A. hispidulum, Swartz.
A. setulosum, J. Sm.
A. assimile, Swartz.
A. formosum, Br.
A. affine, Willd.
A. fulvum, Raoul.
Gen. XXIV.—Nothochlœna, Br.
N. distans, Br.
Gen. XXV.—Cheilanthes, Swartz.
C. sieberi, Kunze.
C. kirkii, Armstrong. C. tenuifolis, Kirk non Swartz. C. sieberi, var. deltoidœ, Armstrong.
Gen. XXVI.—Litobrochia, Presl.
L. comans (Fst.).
L. macilenta (A. Rich.).
Gen. XXVII.—Histiopteris, Agardh.
H. incisa, Thun.
Gen. XXVIII.—Pteris, Linn.
P. tremula, Br.
Gen. XXIX.—Ornithopteris, Agardh.
O. esculenta (Fst.)
O. scaberula (Rich.)
Gen. XXX.—Lomaria, Willd.
L. elongata, Blume.
L. alpina, Spreng.
L. banksii, Hk.f
L. pumila, Raoul.
L. nigra, Colenso.
L. discolor, Willd.
L. lanceolata, Spreng.
L. rigida (J. Sm.), L. dura, Moore.
L. membranacea, Col.
L. rotundifolia, Raoul. L. fluviatilis, Hk.f., non Spreng.
L. vulcanica, R. Br.
L. noma, Colenso.
L. minor, Spreng.
L. procera, Spreng
L. duplicata, Potts.
L. fraseri, Cunn.
Gen. XXXI.—Doodia, Br.
D. caudata, Br.
D. media, Br.
Gen. XXXII.—Asplenium, Linn.
* Lucidum group.
A. lucidum, Fst.
A. obtusatum, Fst.
A. obliquam, Fst.
A. soleraprium, Hombrau.
* * Trichomanes group.
A. trichomanes, Linn.
* * * Rhizophorum group.
A. flabellifolium, Cav.
* * * * Flaccidum group.
A. bulbiferum, Fst.
A. appendiculatum, Lab.
A. flaccidum, Fst.
A. colensoi, Moore.
A. richardi, Hk.f.
A. Hookerianum, Col.
* * * * * Falcatum group.
A. falcatum, Lamarck.
Gen. XXXIII.—Athyrium, Roth.
A. brownii, J. Sm. Asplenium umbrasum, Baker. Syn. Fil.
Gen. XXXIV.—Gleichenia, Smith.
G. semi-vestita, R. Br.
G. hecistophylla, A. Cunn.
G. dicarpa, R. Br.
G. alpina, R. Br.
G. cunninghamii, Heward.
G. flabellata, R. Br.
G. dichotoma, Hk.
Gen. XXXV.—Hymenophyllum, Sm.
H. polyanthas, Swartz.
H. narum, Br.
H. nitens, Br.
H. demmissum, Swartz.
H. scabrum, A. Rich.
H. crispatum, Wallich.
H. pulcherrimum, Col.
H. erecto-elatum, Col.
H. dilatatum, Swartz.
H. villosum, Colenso.
H. montanum, Kirk.
H. tunbridgense, Sm.
H. unilaterale, Willd.
H. revolutum, Col.
H. pusillum, Col.
H. ciliatum, Swartz.
H. multifidium, Swartz.
H. bivalve, Swartz.
H. œruginosum, Carm.
H. minimum, Rich.
H. cheesmanii, Hk.f.
H. armstrongii, Hk.f.
H. lyalli, Hk.f.
H. rufescens, Kirk.
H. malingii, Hk.f.
H. sps. Aff. H. œruginosum.
Gen. XXXVI.—Trichomanes. Linn.
T. reniforme, Fst.
T. humile, Fst.
T. venustulum, Colenso.
T. venasum, Br.
T. strictum, Menzies.
T. elongatum, Cunn.
T. colensoi, Hk.f.
Gen. XXXVII.—Lygodium, Swartz.
L. articulatum, Rich.
Gen. XXXVIII.—Schizæa, Smith.
S. dichotoma, Swartz.
S. bifida, Lab.
S. fistulosa, Swartz.
Gen. XXXIX.—Osmunda, Linn.
O. barbara, Moore.
O. hymenophylloides, Presl.
O. superba, Colenso.
Gen. XL.—Marattia, Smith.
M. fraxinea, Smith.
Gen. XLI.—Ophioglossum, Linn.
O. costatum, Br.
O. gramineum, Willd.
O. lusitanicum, Linn. (?)
O. minimum, Armstrong.
B. dissectum, Muhlenberg.
B. cicutarium, Swartz.
Note.—Doubtful genus Deunstaedia, Bern.
sps. D. Dubia, J. Sm.
Dicksonia dubia of many authors. Davallia dubia of gardens and some New Zealand herbaria. Barren fronds of a fern referred to this have often been obtained in Canterbury and Otago, but I have not been able to obtain any native specimens in fruit, and perhaps the plant may turn out to be Microlepia forsteri. Many other ferns are said to grow in New Zealand, but their occurrence requires authentication.
Art. XLVII.—Description of a new species of Metzgeria; also a brief notice of the finding of Bæoniyces heteromorphus, Nyl., in New Zealand.
[Read before the Hawkes' Bay Philosophical Institute, 12th July, 1880.]
Metzgeria (Symphyogyna) rugulosa, n.s.
Plant terrestial, sub-erect, of close half imbricate growth, forming little beds; root creeping, densely tormentose, colour light brown; stipe 2–3 in. long, sub-flexuose, whitish, translucent, semi-succulent, two-nerved downwards from the fork (four-nerved above), nerves very distinct; frond darkish green, very membranaceous, drooping outwardly, flabellate and kidney-shaped in outline, 10–12 lines broad, 5–7 lines long, forked, symmetrical, each main division trichotomously divided and two-nerved, semi-rugulose on upper surface glabrous; segments linear, 2–3 lines long, 1 line broad,
bifid, emarginate, transparent, midrib very apparent and extending to margin at emarginate apex, margins entire; fructification 3–5 on one frond, from below at the fork of main division of frond, and again at each fork of the secondary divisions; calyptra tubular, 3 lines long, very slightly incised at top (somewhat resembling the tubular capsule of Cerastium vulgatum), at first white, but after flowering bearing a pale reddish tinge; involucre crisped and fimbriate; capsule (immature) at first linear-elliptic, dark coloured, enclosed in tubular calyptra, 1 line long, afterwards seated on long whitish succulent fruit-stalk, 10–12 lines long, bursting into four red-brown valves, cohering by their apices.
This interesting and curious little plant has very much of the appearance of a stipitate Symphyogyna, to which genus I should undoubtedly have referred it had I not fortunately (after much research) found it in fruit. It is very like S. flabellata in general appearance, though quite distinct, and without fruit, and at first sight might easily be confounded with it. It has many natural characters in common with that genus, but from the position of its ventral fructification it is placed (provisionally) under Metzgeria. It seems, however, to serve to unite those two genera. Although closely resembling Symphyogyna flabellata in some particulars, it differs from it not merely in the situation of its fructification, but also in its involucral scale being much more crisped and even fimbriated (which, in that species, has plain margins), while the top of its calyptra is very much less incised (which, in that species, is largely cut and fimbriated), and the segments of its fronds, instead of being obtuse, as in that plant, are emarginate. It also largely differs in its habit of growth. Another peculiarity is its bearing two manner of fronds from the same rhizome: one, the larger and often fruitful one, as described; the other is much smaller, and, though forked, is less cut, and more palmate or sub-flabellate in outline, with the upper part of the stipe winged, its colour a light green, quite glabrous and smooth, and highly transparent. At first I had supposed it to be another species, but subsequent and frequent examination has confirmed its forming with the other and larger frond only one plant.
Hab.—On the banks of a watercourse in a deep, secluded, damp glen, on the west side of the main road, about four miles south from Norsewood, in the “Seventy-mile bush,” May, 1880, with immature fruit; and again in October, 1880, with fruit fully ripened, and passing. Hitherto I have only detected it growing in one small spot, though there plentifully.
Bœomyces heteromorphus, Nyl.
Thallus constaceous, spreading, thin, greyish or dull-white; apothecia reddish flesh-coloured, orbicular, flat or very slightly depressed, with a finely crenlated margin, 1–5 together, separate rarely confluent, on a thick
short stipe (podetium), which is generally cylindrical in the lower part and sub-branched in the upper, each branchlet terminating in an apothecium.
Hab.—On sub-vertical clayey banks, in the forest (“Seventy-mile bush”), between Norsewsod and Daneverk, forming large patches, and growing with B. rufus.
I was much pleased in detecting this pretty little plant, especially in finding it growing together with its allied species B. rufus; the contrast between them was great, in the thallus as well as in apothecia, and showed advantageously. Hitherto, I believe, this species has only been found in Tasmania.
Art. XLVIII.—The Ferns of Scinde Island (Napier).
[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 11th October, 1880.]
I Have often thought that it would not be undesirable to bring to your notice the ferns of Scinde Island; that is, I regret to say, those which were here until lately, for many of them are no longer to be found within its limits.
And this fact of some of them having already become extinct (like much of the old, striking, and curious indigenous vegetation of the extensive flats and plains adjoining) is another reason, with me, for putting on record those ferns that formerly existed here, which I myself have often seen and, with one solitary exception, gathered. For, in times to come, it might well be doubted whether any ferns—save, of course, the common ubiquitous Pteris esculenta—could have ever inhabited this small high, dry, and isolated islet-like limestone mound, destitute of fresh-water.
And there is yet another valid reason, viz., that among them were two, if not three, peculiar ferns, which are also local and comparatively rare in New Zealand.
In the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” by Sir J. D. Hooker, 31 genera of ferns, containing 120 species (exclusive of varieties), are described; some of those however have not yet been detected within the area of New Zealand proper, but only in far-off outlying localities—as Chatham, Auckland, and Kermadec Islands. Here, within this small area of Scinde Island, containing only 660 acres (and now comprised within the Borough of Napier), there were no less than eleven of those 31 genera, or one-third of the whole; and of the said 120 species, fourteen, together with, at least, one new species, not known to Dr. Hooker, making a total of fifteen.
Those several genera I will take in the order in which they run in the “Handbook” of our New Zealand flora.
1. Cyathea. Of this fine genus of tree-ferns the beautiful new species, lately described by me (C. polyneuron),* was first found in 1865, young and small, growing among the common fern (Pteris esculenta), on my land on the hill-side. I removed it into my garden, where it has thriven remarkably well, although it suffered severely during those two very dry summers in succession of 1878 and 1879; it is now 7 feet high.
2. Adiantum hispidulum. This fern has been found growing sparingly in cliffy spots on the west side of the “Island.” It is rather rare in all this district.
3. Adiantum affine. This pretty little fern formerly grew densely in beds on ledges of the clayey cliffs on the north side of Hyderabad road, at the south end of the “Island.”
4. Cheilanthes tenuifolia. This fern I have often found in various parts of the hills growing among the common fern. Also, a very large and undescribed variety (or a distinct species of a fern of this genus) of diffuse rambling growth, of which I may have something more of say hereafter, as I fortunately possess specimens.
5. Pteris esculenta, formerly all over the “Island,” in some parts attaining to a large size, 6–7 feet high.†
6. Pteris tremula. This elegant species also grew strongly here. I have still good thriving plants in my garden brought in from the adjoining hill.
7. Lomaria procera—a small common variety—grew sparsely scattered in damp shaded spots and gulches on the hill-side; also, a larger variety on the flat below.
8. Doodia. A very fine species or variety of this genus also grew sparingly here, which differed largely from the northern species. I have both known and cultivated this fine fern for upwards of thirty years, having in 1848 removed plants of it from this hill to my old residence at Waitangi, near West Clive. Did I not believe that the various plants of Doodia found at the north (where also they are very common) are all varieties of one species,‡ I should be inclined to consider our Scinde Island plant as form-
[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XI., p. 429.
[Footnote] † I know that twenty years ago, before the place was cleared of fern, my mule (a tall animal) was often lost in it, and could only be detected by her big ears just peering above it!
[Footnote] ‡ In a description of some (then) newly-discovered New Zealand ferns, published by me in 1843 (in the “Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science,” Vol. II., p. 162), I said:—“The number of the species of New Zealand ferns published by A. Cunningham in his “Precursor” amounts to eighty-five, from which I venture to hazard an opinion at least two species—Niphobolus bicolor, and Doodia caudata—will have to be deducted, as I believe these will be found to be merely varieties of N. rupestris and of D. aspera.” At that time I did not know the true Doodia aspera, which was then, on the authority of the two brothers Cunningham, and of the French botanist, A. Richard, all of whom had “gathered the plant in New Zealand,” said to be a New Zealand fern, but which is now considered an endemic Australian one. Nearly twelve years after my publication, Sir W. J. Hooker, in his “Species Filicum,” when writing on D. aspera, says:—” Our herbarium, though eminently rich in New Zealand plants (including Sir J. D. Hooker's collections formed there, mainly too in the same spot where those three botanists had formerly collected, viz., the Bay of Islands), does not possess a single specimen of D. aspera from that country; and I am hence led to believe that all writers on the botany of New Zealand have mistaken a state of D. media for it.”—L.C., Vol. III., p. 72.
ing another and distinct species, inasmuch as it varies considerably from those northern plants (D. media and D. caudata, of Dr. Hooker's “Handbook”), and does not agree with their separately-published specific characters. It is much the finest of all our New Zealand varieties or species Doodia. I shall, however, in a separate paper* give a description of this plant, D. squarrosa, mihi.
9. Asplenium flabellifolium. I have formerly gathered fine specimens of this elegant little ferm among herbage in gravelly spots; even now it is to found in cliffy nooks on the west side of the “island,”
10. Asplenium obtusatum. This common sea-side fern grew on the cliffs near to the Bluff, on its north-east side.
11. Aspidium richardi.—This plant grew sparingly in fine tufts on the hill-sides among the common fern. I removed some plants into my garden a few years back, where they have grown very well.
12. Polypodium billardieri.—I have found this below at the base of the hill, growing well on, and among old drifted wood, above high water-mark, spring and flood tides, where it had become established.
13. Polypodium serpens.—This fern formerly grew in the groove or thicket of karaka trees (Corynocarpus lœvigata), which stood near the south end of the “island.” I think that grove was originally a tabooed spot (probably a burial-place) of the old aborigines, who formerly dwelt here. On my arrival in 1843, and long after, the cormorants (Graculus varius) both roosted and built their nests thickly in those trees, so that the spot had the appearance of a small rookery. It was both a pleasing and a curious sight to see them attending assiduously to their young in the breeding season, the white breasts and bellies of the parent-birds contrasting so strongly with the dense dark green foliage of the trees. Very soon after the purchase, by the Government, of this block of land the few early white residents (and especially the military) cut down the whole grove! and also
[Footnote] * See paper “On some new and undescribed ferns” (Art. XLIX.)
nearly all the other small and few scattered trees* of the “Island,” merely for the small poles, etc., for rude fencing and for tents. To some of those trees (Ngaio=Myoporum lœtum) that grew, picturesquely fringing and overhanging the sea (of the inner harbour) at high water, I have known the Natives frequently to make fast their canoes, and, in the summer season, to bivouac under their shade. No Maori of the olden time would have cut down one of those ancient and useful trees! and, when the whites did so, they complained bitterly against it.
14. Gymnogramme leptophylla.—This sweet little annual fern still grows here in a few undisturbed spots on the hill-side, where, every spring, I have the pleasure of noticing and welcoming it. I first detected this fern in 1842, growing in sheltered grassy spots among scoria on the dry hills at the head of Manukau Bay, near Auckland, which is the only other locality of its habitat known to me in New Zealand.† Believing it to be a new species, I published it as G. novœ-zealandiœ‡ but, according to Dr. Hooker, it is identical with a British (Jersey) species, which is also found in Australia and Tasmania. Nevertheless there are (as I view it) striking differences between our New Zealand plant and the British one, judging from the ample descriptions, and also the many botanical plates in my possession of that species.
15. Botrychium cicutarium.—Fine plants of this species of fern I formerly found here on the hills, but I have not noticed any for fifteen years.
I Write this (the fruit of study and research), for the especial benefit of future New Zealand Pteridologists.
Gymnogramme leptophylla. Having the good fortune to possess several drawings and dissections of the European plant, G. leptophilla, with ample descriptions, (viz., in Hook and Greville, Ic. Filicum; Hook, British Ferns, Species Filicum, etc.; T. Moore, Index Filicum; Bentham's Brit. Flora; Beddome's Ferns, South India; with others by S. Hibberd, T. Moore, J. Smith, J. G. Baker, etc.) and having also received since writing the foregoing paper, some British specimens of G. leptophyilla from Jersey,—I am inclined to say a little more about our New Zealand plant bearing that name, and to point out wherein it differs from the British and European one.
[Footnote] * As Entelea arborescens, Coprosma bauriana, Myoporum lœtum, and Cordyline australis.
[Footnote] † During this year (1880) it has also been found, by a member of our Institute, growing inland, west from Hawke's Bay, on the hills near the River Mohaka.
[Footnote] ‡ In “Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science,” Vol. II., p. 165, I find that Sir J. Hooker, in his description of this fern in his “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora,” p. 383, has quoted me as having published it as a Grammittis. This, however, is an error.
1. In all those drawings and dissections (except in the plate of G. leptophylla in Beddome's South India Ferns), though made by different persons, and at widely different times, and not being mere copies from each other, there is a great common likeness—as indeed there should be; but they all show a very much larger, stouter and more leafy and many-fronded plant than our New Zealand one. Sir W. J. Hooker says of the British fern, that “its fronds are all bi-tri-pinnate,” with their “vachises winged above”; (in his large folio drawing, with dissections in the Icones Filicum, the rachis is largely winged below also); such, however is not the case in our New Zealand plant. I have collected scores—perhaps hundreds—of the New Zealand fern (the entire little tufted plant in all its stages) in its two localities (supra), but I have never found one that approached in size or appearance the European one. In fact the New Zealand plant has no such outer (“barren”) pinnated fronds as the British one possesses. The upright fronds of the New Zealand fern are commonly very small, often under 1 inch, and never exceeding 1½ inches, while those of the British plant generally run to 3–4 inches.
2. The New Zealand plant, including its first leaves or small early fronds, has rarely ever a barren one; its first fronds are very small, and often merely kidney-shaped with crenate edges, or small incised lobes, and when tri-lobed or parted, are simply once so, and are then differently lobed to those of the European plant, never being regularly pinnated like the barren fronds of that one; they are also generally all fertile, however small. The texture of its fronds is also more stout and herbaceous than that of the British one, which is always described as being “membranaceous.”
3. The larger and more upright fronds of the New Zealand plant are not only very much smaller with fewer pinnæ, but their segments are all smaller and more acute and pointed, often sharply bifid; while those of the British plant are rounded and obtuse. Their stipes are also much longer in proportion to the size of their fronds. The stipe is also of a bright red colour, glossy and deeply channelled on the upper surface; while the stipe of the British plant is always described by all authors as being “black.”
4. The sori in our New Zealand plant are much more diffuse and confluent, generally covering the whole of the undersurface of the segment, never disposed in clear lines on the veins as in the British one. The veinules, too, are longer approaching nearer to the margin, and not extending beyond the sori as in the British plant. Often on the small reniform first fronds the sori are regularly disposed in almost circular spots, free, and distinct at the apices of the venules just within the margin of the frond. The sporules also are more angular, black, glossy, and pitted, characters which are wanting in those of the British plant.
Dr. Hooker, in his “Handbook,” says of our New Zealand plant,—“Fronds 1–8 inches, veins dichotomous;” and in his “Flora of New Zealand” (where it is more largely described), it is also said to possess a flexuose midrib (“Costa flexuosa”); characters, however, which I do not find pertaining to our New Zealand plant. In my first published description of it (supra) I said,—“Frond 6–20 lines long; veins simple, forked;” and I had plenty of specimens.
Curiously enough the first or smaller fronds of Beddome's South India plant (l.c., tab. 270) more resemble some of our New Zealand ones, in simple outline and in being fertile; although the long flexuose stipe is altogether dissimilar being very much longer and more wiry. Beddome also remarks (in opposition to Sir W. J. Hooker's observation on the British plant), that,—“All my specimens have all their fronds fertile.” From its appearance however, as shown in the drawing (by no means a good one), I should infer its being distinct from the European G. leptophylla, though nearly allied.
There are also two or three other well-known closely allied yet distinct annual species described by Sir W. J. Hooker in his “Species Filicum,” as G. chœrophylla (from South America) and G. ascensionis (only found in the small islet of Ascension); and it seems to me that the difference between those two allowed distinct species (of which I also have both drawings and dissections in the Botanical works above mentioned, and the European G. leptophylla is not greater than that between it and our New Zealand plant.
G. leptophylla is also said to be found in Australia and Tasmania (vide Hook. f., Fl., Tasmania, and Bentham's Fl. Australiensis), but I have not seen a specimen nor a drawing of either of them. They may more closely correspond with the European one than ours of New Zealand do; or they may be more closely allied with ours (which I am inclined to believe from the descriptions of them), or, as it were, be intermediate. I note that Bentham says of the Australian plant, “often under two inches high,” etc., and Dr. Hooker, of the Tasmanian one, says, “Fronds an inch to a span high; pinnules 2–4 inches long; stipes and rachis usually red-brown,” etc. All this agrees more with the New Zealand plant than with the British one, excepting the span high. It seems to be excessively rare in Tasmania, having been only found by one person, and that once only, and many years ago, and in a cave.
Evidently, however, by all those distinguished European botanists, who could only have seen the Australian, Tasmanian, and New Zealand plants in their dried state, and, I fear, without their characteristic first or early fronds, which soon wither (often before the large upright ones are fully developed) by them, one synthetic description, more particularly framed
from the handy living British plant, serves for all. I very much fear that this systematized amalgamation of ferns from all countries, however opposite in climate and geology (although a very good thing in itself, and when not pushed to extremes), will be hereafter found to have been injuriously carried too far with not a few of our New Zealand ferns. To this subject I hope to return anon.
Art. XLIX.—On some new and undescribed New Zealand Ferns.
[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 8th November, 1880.]
Hymenophyllum Pygmæum, n.s.
Rhizome capillary, creeping, spreading, much-branched and entangled, tomentose with fine red hairs; plant of densely matted growth; stipe 1–2 lines long, erect, solitary, 2–3 lines apart, sometimes two together springing from a node of the root-stock, filiform, terete, naked, sometimes bearing a few scattered minute weak reddish scales; frond 2 lines long including involucre, 2–4 lines broad, fan-shaped in outline, colour light green, glabrous, pinnate, generally one pair of pinnæ (very rarely two pairs, or three single ones, or a single pinna), which are petiolate, sub-opposite, and inclined upwards; pinnæ 1–2 lines long, membranaceous, broadly oblong, narrowest downwards, costa stout, not reaching to the margin, apex very obtuse and margin there entire, sides of pinnæ laciniated or slashed, teeth 3–5 on a side, long, acuminate, falcate, and only of the cellular substance of the pinnæ; involucre ob-conical, free on apex of short rhachis, 1½ lines long, 1 line broad at top, bearing a few scattered soft spinulose processes; valves scarcely rounded, divided less than half-way down, fimbriated with 14–17 translucent flexuose and subulate long green teeth or cilia wholly composed of cellular tissue (a truly beautiful object under a microscope); receptacle included, or slightly protruding in age.
Hab.—On cliffs, Preservation Inlet; on rocks, Resolution Island; and on rocks at the Bealey, J. D. Enys; hills round Lyttelton Harbour, Westland, coast south of Hokitika, etc.
This very minute fern (probably the smallest of the many small comforms of Hymenophyllum, and perhaps the smallest of all truly pinnate ferns) has been long known to me, but only through kind friends and correspondents; for, although I have received a copious supply of specimens both dried and living, I have never gathered it myself. It has always been
sent to me, from various sources, bearing the name of “H. minimum;” the correctness of which name I have ever doubted, but as I had never seen an authentic specimen or botanical drawing of that fern I did not greatly care to controvert, although I never could make my specimens to agree with the several published descriptions in my possession of H. minimum. Desirous however of deciding the point, I have recently obtained from Paris a copy of the Botany of the voyage of the “Astrolabe” (Admiral D'Urville) by Lesson and Richard, with its folio atlas of plates, in which that New Zealand fern is fully described by its discoverer, together with several drawings of the whole plant with dissections; and I very soon found that my conjecture was true, and that this little fern which I have here described has scarcely any affinity with A. Richard's plant H. minimum, which is altogether distinct, belonging to a widely different natural section of the genus Hymenophyllum.
Indeed, I can scarcely understand how this fern came to me so commonly, and for so long a time, too, considered as A. Richard's plant, except perhaps from its possessing a single terminal involucre, its small size, and its specific name (!) which, combined, seem to have led collectors astray. (I believe that this plant has been also published, name only, in some preceding volume of the “Transactions,” as the real H. minimum!) That plant I have never yet seen, and I almost venture to doubt of its having been again found in New Zealand since D'Urville's visit in the “Astrolabe,” who discovered it.* Dr. Hooker, however, did find it at the Auckland Islands, and has given a full and particular account of it in the “Botany of the Antarctic Voyage,” Vol. I., p. 103.
It has been the fate of the true H. minimum to be very unfortunate (like not a few others of our New Zealand ferns)! More than fifty years have passed since its discovery in New Zealand, it was soon however published at Paris to the scientific world, and well, too—both in descriptions
[Footnote] * I am aware that Dr. Hooker, in his “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” under H. minimum, says,—“Middle Island, Otago, Hector and Buchanan;” but I am not certain whether that information was obtained from specimens or from a letter. Be this as it may, Dr. Hooker also says (l.c.),—“North Island, on roots and stumps of trees, D'Urville, etc.;” which is, I think, an evident error, and it is almost certain that the French Botanists must have obtained their specimens in Tasman's Bay (“Hâvre de V Astrolabe”) on the south side of Cook Straits, where they spent some time and obtained many novelties. Moreover, who the other Botanists or collectors can possibly be (included in the “etc.” of Dr. Hooker), who found the H. minimum (A. Richard), in the North Island, I cannot imagine. I know that the Cunninghams did not detect it (Allan, C., in the specific description of it in his “Specimens of the Botany of New Zealand,” merely copying from A. Richard); and as I have already mentioned, I never found it, although I always sought it most assiduously.
and drawings with dissections. Notwithstanding Sir W. J. Hooker, in his celebrated “Species Filicum,” (published some fifteen years after), included it under H. tunbridgehense, as a mere synonym of that plant, not even allowing it to be a variety! And more lately, Baker (of Kew), in his “Synopsis Filicum,” has only tardily admitted it to a place, as a species, in the Appendix to that work. Bentham in the last volume of the “Flora Australiensis,” has included it therein—but only as having been found on one spot, on Lord Howe's Island. Can it be, that this little fern (H. minimum), is both a littoral plant and a lover of rocky islets? All present book evidence tends that way. D'Urville may have originally found it on one of the many islets or cliffy headlands in Tasman's Bay. And here it is to be noted, in passing, that while the precise spot is given of not a few of the New Zealand plants discovered by the French on that occasion, all mention of such is omitted under the full description of this one:—Crescit in Nova Zeelandia—is all that is said.
Another error occurs concerning it in the “Hand Book,” which it may be well to notice. (Amicus Plato, amicus Socrates, sed magis amica veritas.) There it is said to have a “frond 1–2 inches high,” which is further described as if possessing (several) “involucres.” Baker, however, (l. c.) rightly describes its “frond as being ½–¾ inches long,” but “with several close-spreading distinctly-toothed pinnæ (?), the upper simple ligulate, the lower often forked;” and so Bentham (l. c.)—“frond ¼–½ inch long, deeply divided into 5–8 simple or bifid segments,” adding, however, “sori, usually one only to each frond,”—as if he had seen more.
Therefore, seeing there is such great disparity between those descriptions, as well as omission of some of its more peculiar specific characters (and as H. minimum, vera, is still unknown to me as a New Zealand fern, and wishing to direct the attention of collectors in the Southern Island to it), I will just give (in English) the main part of A. Richard's original description of it (the original type specimens) from his botanical work (supra):—
“Plant very small; root creeping; frond scarcely ½ inch long, erect, solitary, stipitate, pinnatifid; colour lurid red; lowermost pair of segments greatly divided, obtuse, much serrated; segments folded lengthwise; involucre solitary, terminal, oblong, obtuse, semi-bivalve; margins of valves toothed (dentatus).”
And then the several drawings of his plant accompanying his description fully bear him out; for he has carefully given no less than five full-sized fronds, four of them singly arising from the same rhizome, and all remarkably alike, and quite symmetrical. And not only so, but from them we gain other important characters, each pinnatifid frond possessing five
pairs of involute segments, the lowermost pair being deeply and falcately cut nearly to the base, each of these forked segments being also deeply serrated on both sides, and having also a costa are very much recurved all the segments have sharply-serrated margins and apices, each having 6–8 teeth on its side and three at the apex, with the midrib extending through to the margin and terminating in the central tooth, while the involucræ possesses very short, sharp, rigid teeth. The whole appearance, at first sight, strongly reminding one of a small spiny holly leaf (Ilex aquifolium).
Hymenophyllum Scabrum var. nov. Hirtum.
Rhizome long, creeping, stout, densely clothed with red shaggy fine hair; “stipe stout, 3–3½ inch long, thickly hirsute, also the main rhachis, with light-coloured (scarcely reddish) flexuose hairs 2–3 lines, long, flattened, and finely and regularly jointed, 20–22 joints to 1 line; frond deltoid-ovate 5–6 in. long, 5–5½ in. broad near base, curved, pinnate below, elastic, and possessing a very similar strong odour to that of H. sanguinolentum; every secondary rhachis, costa vein, and veinlet thickly covered below with red adpressed hairs; pinnœ bi-pinnatified, sub-opposite, falcate, thickly set on rhachis, overlapping; segments broader, larger, and more profuse than in H. scabrum, with their apices entire; secondary rhachises, costœ, and veins prominent; involucres broadly deltoid, finely and closely toothed, free to base, inflated, open, of a lighter coloured green than the frond. Young fronds and stipes, before unrolling, densely shaggy, with long light brown hairs.
The whole appearance of this fern is widely different from H. scabrum (vera), it is not only shorter—having a dwarfed form, and is much more shaggy, but it is more dense in its vernation, and much less rigid. Its colour, too, is a lighter green.
Hab.—On the ground in the “black birch” (Fagus solandri) forests, east spurs of the Ruahine range, where it grows pretty uniformly in thick beds, but is not often found bearing fruit.
I have long known this fern (indeed, Sir W. J. Hooker had some inferior first specimens of it, which I had sent him, when he compiled Vol. I. of his Species Filicum in 1846), and I have again of late—during the summers of 1879–1880—enjoyed myself among it in its native forests, and have diligently compared its living specimens with those of the larger and coarser variety, H. scabrum. And having also lately been studying H. scabrum (vera) of A. Richard (on seeing a plate of it with dissections in his “Botany Voyage de L'Astrolabe,” already mentioned under H. pygmœum (supra), and comparing therewith the modern descriptions of H. scabrum, as given by our more eminent English pteridologists, Sir W. J. Hooker, Sir Jos. Hooker, Mr. Baker, and Mr. J. Smith, in their various works on ferns), I have noticed how greatly this plant varies, not merely from the original
type specimen as first published by A. Richard, but also from what is recorded of it by our English botanists.
Therefore, I have concluded to bring it forward, and so make it known to botanists and also to collectors, for without doubt it would form a choice and elegant garden fern, provided the proper culture could be given it.
Dr. Hooker, in his “Handbook New Zealand Flora,” says of H. scabrum: “Stipes and rhachis brisily, frond dark green, involucres orbiculate, etc.;” and Mr. Baker, in his Synopsis Filicum, where he has placed it in the section of Hymenophyllum, having “glabrous fronds,” says of it: “Stipes and main rachis ciliated with long brown brisily hairs, involucres small,” etc.; and in an additional remark mentions its “hairy rhachis as forming a link between the glabrous and truly hirsute species;” and Mr. J. Smith (who had often and that for a long period had the great advantage of seeing H. scabrum in a living state at Kew) places it, in his most recent work on ferns (Historia Filicum) in the section of Hymenophyllum, having their “fronds glabrous and stipes and rhachis rarely pilose.” All this, however, does not agree with the characters of this very villous variety; and just so it is with the descriptions and botanical plate of H. scabrum by A. Richard (supra).
Its copious large-jointed hairs form such a striking object, even to the naked eye (while under a microscope they are most beautiful!), and together with its densely hirsute ribs, veins, and veinlets, extending all over the frond, and large light-green open involucral valves, give this variety a most striking appearance.
? Pteris Lomarioides.
Stipe (upper part only) 5 in. long,? erect, straight, slender, naked, smooth, channelled above, straw coloured; frond 6½ in. long, 5 in. broad, symmetrical, broadly round cordate (in outline), pedate, smooth, glabrous, very membranaceous, semi-transparent, colour (dry) a light olive-green, pinnate, two pairs only, and one long terminal segment 5¼ in. long, 10 lines broad, petiolate, linear-lanceolate (together with pinnæ) decreasing but little and very gradually downwards, sub-accuminate acute; pinnæ opposite, linear-lanceolate oblique obtuse, the two pairs 1 in. apart on rhachis, upper pair sub-sessile and slightly decurrent on lower side, 3 ¾ in. long, 9 lines broad; lower pair petiolate and pedate, slightly decurrent on upper side 3½ in. long, and 8 lines broad, lowermost pedate segments 1¾ in. long, 6 lines broad, sub-sessile, dimidiate, and curved upwards, all four pinnæ inclined inwards and upwards; veins regular and parallel, conspicuous, fine, pretty close (about 2¼ to a line), free and simply forked with clavate apices terminating within the margin, which is slightly cartilaginous and crenulate, and closely and finely serrulate, particularly towards and at apices of pinnæ
and terminal segment; midrib finely channelled above, and very conspicuous on under-surface, slightly puckered, evanescent towards apices of pinnæ, very light straw coloured; hairs (debris of, remaining in lacunæ in axils and bases of pinnæ) bright red-brown.? Pteris lomarioides, Mihi.
Hab.—In a wood close to the coach road near Tapuaeharuru, between Napier and Taupo.
This fern, of which (I regret to say) I possess only one barren specimen, has given me no little trouble. I obtained it in 1872, from an acquaintance who had travelled overland from Taupo to Napier, and who, on passing through a wooded spot on foot, had carelessly gathered it, and afterwards, on remounting the coach, had brought it on to Napier and gave it to me; he said its habitat was near Tapuaeharuru. It was quite perfect, save the lowermost part of its stipe, fresh, and in very good condition. I have subsequently, on several occasions, endeavoured to get more and better specimens, by writing to residents in that locality (even enclosing drawings), but have always failed. Until lately, I did hope to visit the locality and to seek it myself, but that hope has been some time abandoned, and therefore I now have made it known in hopes of some one finding it. Not being certain of its genus I have merely provisionally named it Pteris lomariodes, (from those two genera being so commonly and largely represented in New Zealand, and from its possessing the venation of the more simple species of Pteris, with a faint likeness in colour and form of pinnæ to some species of Lomaria), although it may turn out to be a Gymnogramme.
One great peculiarity of this fern is, that it does not remind one at first sight of any other of our New Zealand ferns; although each of its pinnæ in single outline and appearance slightly resembles those of some states of Lomaria procera, yet in habitat, texture, oblique form and venation, they widely differ, not to mention its sub-pedate figure. In analogy it seems near to some of the simpler species of Pteris (§ Eupteris), particularly Pt. pellucida, stenophylla, dactylina, and cretica; a plate of Pt. cretica in Beddome's ferns of South India (Pl. XXXIX., the smaller right-hand figure) has a tolerably good partial resemblance, still it differs materially. Besides, in all our living plants of Pt. cretica (which species is pretty largely cultivated here), there are no such fronds as this one represented by Beddome. Nevertheless Pt. cretica is a Polynesian fern, as it is said to have been found in Fiji and the Sandwich Islands. In its simple clavate venation this fern certainly has affinity with Nephrolepis (a simple species of that genus having been also found at the hot lakes in the interior, not very distant from the habitat of this fern), but it wants the cretaceous spots of that genus. In its venation, hair, texture, and general form, it also has affinity with some species of Gymnogramme (§ 1. Eugymnogramme), particularly with G. javanica, which
is also said to have been found in the Sandwich Islands. In fine, when hereafter discovered in fruit, I have little doubt of its belonging to one of those four mentioned genera—Pteris, Lomaria, Nephrolepis or Gymnogramme.
Doodia Squarrosa, n.s.
Caudex short, thick, oblique, sub-ascending; roots many, stout, long, black, and wiry, densely clothed with shaggy black shining patent hairs; plant of densely cæspitose close, sub-erect, and squarrose habit, many fronds springing from one stock; stipe rather slender, 6–8 in. long, scabrous yet glossy, straight, and sub-flexuose, deeply channelled on upper-surface, clothed (especially below) with black chaffy acuminate hair-pointed scales, 3–3½ lines long and 1 line broad at base, striated and minutely reticulated, reticulations oblong, stipe sub-muricate in distant dots where the scales have fallen; rhachis slender, brittle, channelled throughout on upper surface, pale-coloured in the upper part, brownish in the lower, with scattered long brown tortuous weak and shrivelled scarious scales; fronds pale green, sub-membranaceous, glossy yet minutely roughish and harsh to feel, dry, sub-rugose and rigid; the very young circinate and undeveloped ones 2–3 in. high, clothed with long black subulate and pointed scales; fertile fr. lanceolate, very acuminate, 18–19 in. long, with a very long terminal segment; breadth (mid.) 4½–5¼ in., pinnate, length of pinna (mid.) 2¼–2½ in., breadth 4 lines, margins of pinnæ and segments sinuous, cartilaginous, sharply and irregularly spinuloso-serrate with white sharp teeth; costæ deeply channelled above; pinnæ opposite, 24–28 jugate, sub-falcate, linear, broadest at base, obtuse and truncate; 4–6 lowest pairs sub-petiolate, free, largely hastate, and largely auricled upwards, 10 lines long, 4–5 lines broad at base; upper pinnæ sessile, free upwards and auricled, decurrent downwards; 3–4 pairs uppermost pinnæ slighsly pinnatifid; 5–8 pairs lowermost pinnæ very distant, 1 inch apart on rhachis, with the distance between them gradually decreasing upwards; terminal segment very long, 4½–5 in. long, 3 lines broad, linear, strap-shaped, obtuse, sometimes sub-flexuose and sub-crenulated, not unfrequently auricled below and coadunate with adjoining segments, occasionally bifid at apex, each segment 8–14 lines long; veins as in the genus, but coarse and much produced; sori biserial, crowded yet not confluent (save through age in very old fronds), distant from costa, those in row nearest to costa longest, 1–2½ lines long, outer row shorter, often composed of mere dots, biserial on auricles and wings of pinnæ both upwards and downwards, sub-triserial on some long terminal segments, when fully ripe dark-brown and semi-confluent; involucre linear, narrow, pale-coloured, scarious, margin sub-erose, in outer row often sub-lunate and mere dots, but still the same kind of involucre; barren frond much as fertile, only
shorter and texture a little thinner; pinnæ linear-oblong, broader, 3–4 lines broad, obtuse; terminal segment somewhat shorter and broader, 4–6 lines broad.
Some semi-barren fronds present a peculiar appearance; a few pinnæ having single rows of scattered sori, in very small linear and semi-lunate dots, each scarely one line long, which are again sometimes biserial and distant on the terminal segment, and on a few of the larger pinnæ. If these peculiar fronds were not found growing from the same root or caudex with the larger and fertile ones, they would be set down as forming a different species or variety.
Six species of Doodia are very fully described by Sir W. J. Hooker in his Species Filicum, including those known to him from New Zealand; I possess botanical drawings with dissections of them all, with none of which as well as with their descriptions) does this plant agree. To our New Zealand “D. caudata,” of which, though possessing copious specimens from several botanists, Sir W. J. Hooker says, “All these from New Zealand border too closely upon D. media (Sp. Fil., Vol. III., p. 76); it approaches in its long terminal segment and narrow (fertile) pinnæ; but that Australian species, though a very much smaller plant, is said to be “pinnate nearly to the summit,” with the “sori in a single series,” its “indusia sub-lunate, stipes naked at base,” and “its rachis quite smooth,” etc. It also has pretty close affinity with D. media, but differs still more from this common New Zealand species. In its regular double lines of closely-compacted sori, and in their great excess, extending both upwards and downwards on the auricles and wings of its broadly-adnate pinnæ (as it were sursum currens and decurrens), which give a kind of winged appearance to the rhachis, though still truly pinnate, every pinna being separate, and also in its black paleaceous stipes and scales, it seems te have affinity with D. dives, a Ceylon species, especially with the variety β zeylanicum, Hook., of that species, of which Sir W. J. Hooker says,—“The wings of the rachis bear sori as well as the segments and pinnæ” (l.c., p. 74), but the involucres in the Ceylon plant are all lunulate and broader, and the pinnæ and venation different. (A fine free drawing, with dissections of this plant, is given in Beddome's Ferns of S. India, p. 222, all showing its very great distinctness from the Napier plant.) It seems also to be equally distinct from five newer and additional Polynesian “varieties,” briefly described by Baker in his Synopsis Filicum (appendix, p. 482), nearly all of which have their sori uni-serial.
I have given, I may say, some amount of extra examination at various times extending throughout many years, to this plant, having it here growing around me—as may be inferred from my full description of it; and
while I advance it as a distinct species, I do so with some hesitation, and mainly from the fact of its disagreeing in several important characters with those of the other described species of Doodia, not a few of which, I think, will hereafter prove, when examined and compared together in a living state (the only way of true comparison), to be but varieties. Sir W. J. Hooker truly enough said (though he only knew of those six species first mentioned above)—“All our species of the genus are singularly variable.” (l. c., III. 75.) See, also, my remarks on the genus Doodia, in my preceeding Paper “On the Ferns of Scinde Island (Napier).”
Art. L.—Descriptions of new Plants.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 4th December, 1880.]
Olearia Angulata, n.s.
A Much-Branched shrub, 8–12 feet high; branches grooved, short; leaves 1½–2½ long, broadly elliptic, rounded at the apex, truncate at the base, waved at the margins, clothed with appressed white tomentum below, veins forming nearly a right-angle with the midrib; flowers in axillary panicles, peduncles equalling the leaves or longer, branches short, spreading, angled, pubescent, heads shortly pedicelled, involucral scales linear-oblong, laxly imbricated, ciliated; florets 3–5, one or two with a broad ray, achenes strigose, pappus in two series.
Hab.—North Island, North Cape, Spirits Bay. In habit and foliage this species approaches O. fosterii, while it is closely allied to O. albiflora by the inflorescence. It appears to have been confused with O. albiflora, and has a still more restricted range than that species.
Dracophyllum Prostratum, n.s.
A small prostrate species, stems 3″–12″ long, with short branches; leaves ⅛″–1/10″ long, ovate subulate, with a broad sheathing base, glabrous; flowers solitary, terminal, sepals ovate, obtuse, shorter than the corolla.
Hab.—South Island; mountains above Lake Harris, Otago, 4,000 feet, T. Kirk; Mount St. Bathans; and Stewart's Island, D. Petrie.
A variable plant in habit, although constant in its leaves and floral characters. The branches are never so densely crowded as in D. muscoides Hook.f., although Mr. Petrie's specimens approach that species in this particular. The Lake Harris specimens, owing to their exceptional habitat, creeping amongst sphagnum, were very lax and glaucous, but in other respects agree with those from Mount St. Bathans and Stewart Island.
Schænus Moorei, n.s.
Tufted, leaves shorter than the culms, filiform, slender, grooved, with reddish brown sheaths. Culms 4″–6″ high, slender, grooved; panicle soli-
tary, lateral spikelets, 2–3 one always pedunculate, 3-flowered glumes imbricated, ovate-lanceolate, margins scarious. Bristles 6 shorter than the style, stigmas 3; nut triquetrous.
Hab.—North Island—at remarkable saline springs, Glenburn, East Coast. Forming large masses in the immediate vicinity of the springs. Allied to S. pauciflorus, Hook, f., but a much smaller, less tufted plant, with narrower, shorter spikelets, and broader glumes.
Agrostis Muscosa, n.s.
A small grass forming wide patches, not more than one inch in height. Root creeping. Leaves longer than the culms, filiform, flaccid, more or less recurved, ligule minute lacerate. Panicle hidden among the leaves, recurved, ¼″–½″ in height, few flowers. Empty glumes, equal, scabrid at the margin. Flowering glumes, ovate, truncate. Pale O. Ladicule acute. Agrostis canina and B. subulata; “Hand Book N.Z. Flora,” in part. Agrostis subulata, t. XX. “Buchanan N.Z. Grasses.”
Hab.—South Island. Broken River basin, and other places in Canterbury. Lake district of Otago. Probably not uncommon in mountain districts in the South Island, but easily overlooked. In the “Hand Book of the N. Z. Flora,” this species is confused with Agrostis subulata. Mr. Buchanan has fallen into the same error in his “Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand,” where he figures the present plant as Agrostis canina, L. B. subulata, and unaccountably identifies it with the Agrostis subulata of “Hooker's Flora Antartica,” t. LIII., a much larger grass with erect panicles.
This species is probably common in the South Island, although I have only collected it in the districts mentioned. So far as I am aware it has not been observed in the North Island.
Agrostis subulata, Hook, f. “Fl. Antartica,” t. LIII., differs from our plant in the erect keeled leaves, which are narrow and slightly keeled, never filiform; the panicle is much larger, erect, never recurved, and although hidden amongst the leaves at first, yet when fully matured it slightly exceeds them in length.
Art. LI.—Description of a new species of Thysanothecium collected by Mr. Buchanan during his recent expedition to the Southern Alps.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 12th February, 1881.]
Among Mr. Buchanan's plants, lately collected in the Southern Alps, there is a remarkable Lichen gathered on Mount Aspiring Range at an elevation
of about 4,000 feet. It belongs to the genus Thysanothecium of which there were only two species previously known, both of which were found in Western Australia by Mr. Drummond, the Colonial Botanist. It is worthy of notice that the New Zealand plant was gathered on a glacier, while those in Western Australia grew on burnt-up timber. As these Lichens are exceedingly interesting to botanists I have made drawings and drawn up description form Mr. Buchanan's specimen, and have named it Thysanothecium Buchanani in recognition of that botanist's valuable contributions to the botany of the Southern Alps.
Thysanothecium buchanani, sp. n.
Thallus in duabus partibus formatus. 1° Pars horizontalis lobulato-squamulosa e viride lurida, squamulis in crusta granulosa areolata congestis. 2° Podetia erecta brevia in apothecia foliacea dilatata (alt. circa 6 mm.).
Apothecia sciphi compressi instar plicata, nonnihil in limbum planum producta, rigida apice inflexa et granulosa, disco testaceo-rufescenti receptaculum thallinum reticulatum omnino tegenti; hymenium incolor excipulo proprio luteolo strato gonimico imposito enatum, paraphysibus rectis capillaribus septatis adglutinatis apice non dilatis. Sporæ 8næ una serie dispositæ sphericæ incolores diam .013 mm.
Corticale receptaculi stratum ex elementis filamentosis directis ad laterem constitutum.
Supra molem nivium frigoribus conglaciatam in summis montibus (“Aspiring Range”), alt. 4,000 pedes.
Explanation of Plate XVII.
Spores and Paraphyses X 470.
Gonidium X 470.
Foliaceus apothecium—Hymenium within the pseudoscyphus, X 2.
Longitudional section of apothecium, showing hymenium (a); proper excipulum (bypothecium) (b); white medullary layer with gonidia (c); colourless corticular layer (d), X 30.