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Volume 14, 1881
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I. Stories Concerning Uenuku.

Uenuku was a very great chief of the olden time; he lived many generations back on the East Coast. One of his wives was named Takarita; she was the sister of a great chief named Tawheta, who dwelt at large towns (pas) of his own, called Matikotai and Porangahau,* also on the East Coast.

I shall begin my narration with the death of Takarita, the wife of Uenuku, who was killed by him because of her great offence; she having committed adultery with two men, named Tumahunuku, and Tumahurangi. Uenuku, being very powerful, not only killed her, but also her two paramours. When she was dead, Uenuku cut her open and took out her heart, and broiled it on a sacred fire, made at the foot of the carved centre-post of his own big house; the name of that house was Te-pokinga-o-terangi—the overspreading of the sky. While it was cooking at the sacred fire, kindled purposely for the solitary bit, namely, at the fire of Takarita, Uenuku recited the following spell:—

1.

My fire is newly kindled by friction;

2.

The land approves of it (or desires it);

3.

Let a fire burn to eat up (a) great chief;

4.

Let a fire burn to eat up (a) first-born;

5.

Let a fire burn to eat up (a) principal chief (ariki);

6.

Let a fire burn to eat up (a) priest (tohunga);

7.

Let (it) burn;—but, by whom is the fire?

8.

Let (it) burn; it is (by) Hineikukutirangi;

9.

Let (it) burn; it is (by) Hineheheirangi.

10.

Let (it) burn, (throughout) two long considerations of the close-quarter-fighting of the Sky.

11.

Let (it) burn;—on, on, onwards !

12.

My sacred fire is verily kindled by friction.

13.

Above, abroad, (or, on the outside), towards the west;

14.

Towards the west; a vengeful desolating principal chief.

15.

Never shall the great chiefs be forgotten by me; never !

16.

Never shall the firstborns be forgotten by me;

17.

(An) eater of scraps and leavings !

18.

The cooking-oven is baking slowly.

19.

(I am) roasting away; naked, waiting !

[Footnote] * Not, however, the present Porangahau, but a place of the same name north of Table Cape.

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20.

The cooking-oven is baking badly;

21.

Go on, bake away the baking-oven !

22.

The oven baking above !

23.

The oven baking below !

24.

Rush to the fight, O Space !

25.

Rush to the fight, O Sky !

26.

Show forth (thy) valour;

27.

Show forth (thy) valour (or, let it be seen);

28.

Return from the charge—return;

29.

Cause (it) to return.—It is ended.*

His spell finished, he fed his own son Ira with the cooked heart of his mother. Hence arose the proverb,—“Ira, devourer of the rich soft interior,” And that same saying has descended to his offspring, namely, the tribe of Ngati Ira.

[Footnote] * A few explanatory remarks on this spell are here offered:—

  • v. 1 & 12. All sacred fires were necessarily fresh kindled, and that by fire then and there obtained by friction.

  • " 2. Meaning, in accordance with national customs and observances.

  • " 3–6. Showing the high rank of the deceased lady.

  • " 8, 9. By (or according to,—in conformity with), Hineikukutirangi, etc.

    These female personages were great ones of old; Hineikukutirangi was often invocated on their going to the deep-sea-fishing. This name means the young-lady-who-drew-the-heavens- (or skies, or clouds) together, (? to prevent the storms and squalls from bursting forth): see the charm recited over Rongoua (p. 11), line 6, and note thereon; where, I think, these two personages are also alluded to: see, also, a similar sacrifice made by Uenuku (p. 15), and note the like names of his two mysterious ceremonial garments.

  • " 10, 24–29. Celestial signs, of warring clouds, etc., are here referred to, as finally denoting approval. See Notes 2 and 4 to Paikea's spell (p. 21).

  • " 13, 14. “Towards the west,”—the quarter of the setting sun, and of death, etc. See Essay on the Maori Races, “Trans. N. Z. Inst.,” Vol. I., § 39.

  • " 15, 16. Indicating his being a strenuous upholder of their ancient traditions, customs, etc.

  • " 17. As said by the hero Whakatau,—War-song, 3, p. 68, “Trans. N.Z. inst.,” Vol. XIII.,—and always meaning the opposite.

  • " 22, 23. May mean oneness of action; i.e. what I am doing here on earth is also now being done in the sky.

[Footnote] † The word used here is a curious and uncommon one, especially in this sense, and, as such, it is almost obsolete. Primarily it denotes the soft, prized, central parts of the Maori gourd (hue), of a water-melon, etc., though it has several other allied root-meanings.

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When the news of her death first reached her brothers, they mourned greatly over their sister. Afterwards, Tawheta proceeded formally to enquire the particulars of the relater (of the tidings),*—“Why she was killed by him, Uenuku?” He replied, “Because she had committed adultery with two men, Tumahunuku and Tumahurangi”. “Then Tawheta said, “It is all right enough, no doubt, (according to his way of thinking); nevertheless, his doings shall be repaid him to-morrow. Verily, to-morrow he himself shall be eaten by grass-hoppers! Here, near me, are his food preserves, which will be sure to draw his children and people this way, in the season; to-morrow, also, he shall be full of trouble, when he shall desire the little bit of property that is lying on the ground; the women shall be as a cliff for the men to flee over!” And so this last word (or phrase) became a proverbial saying; and for a long time Tawheta dwelt quietly, brooding over his anger.

Now Uenuku did not think at all of his cruel killing (kohuru), or of the possible consequences. Another year came round, and Uenuku had forgotten all about his murder. So he sent his children and people to obtain the fruit (or product) of his preserves at Matikotai, and at Porangahau. They went, a large number, both men and women, 70 in all; and on their arrival at Tawheta's town (pa), he took them unawares and killed them, they being all unarmed and unapprehensive. Hence arose the deadly feud between Uenuku and Tawheta. Four of Uenuku's sons were slain on this occasion, namely, Maputukiterangi, Ropanui, Mahinaiteata, and Whiwhingaiterangi, while the fifth, named Rongouaroa, hardly escaped with his life, being the only survivor of the whole party. He, however, had been severely wounded; his skull was hacked and broken in, and he was left for dead by the foe, on the ground among the others. Tawheta and his people,

[Footnote] * Heralds, or messengers, on such high occasions, acted in a very careful and formal ceremonious manner, and only (at first) answered the questions put to them by the chief of the place. Instances have been known where they have been severely beaten, and wounded, and even killed! at the first outbursts of grief and passion, for their sudden and abrupt relation of bad tidings. Hence, such news was almost invariably carried by a relative or a chief.

[Footnote] † By “the property (taonga) lying on the ground,” I understand the fruits of the karaka trees, which were rigidly preserved, and were gathered up in large quantities to be stored or food in the late autumn season. (See “Trans. N. Z. Inst.,” Vol. XIII., p. 25, last paragraph). The close of Tawheta's passionate sentence may have reference to his slain sister, or to the women who would be sure to come thither in the karaka gathering party. At all events, the meaning is,—a full, stern, and dreadful revenge!

[Footnote] ‡ “70” (passim) always means a large and fully complete number for that particular purpose; sometimes, when a very large number was required, it would be twice 70=140; and, also, 170; but always so as to take in the 7 unit.

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after their cruel slaughter, went into their pa to eat their food; it was then that Rongouaroa came to himself, and opening his eyes and looking around, he saw his brothers and companions all dead on the ground; on seeing this he summoned all his remaining strength, and crawled away and hid himself among some thick bushes close by. While there, he heard them (Tawheta and his people) vaunting loudly over their doings, and Tawheta said, “Tomorrow, early, we will all go to Uenuku's pa; we will deceive him, and kill him, too, that he and his may all die together.” Their meal and talk over, they all came out to drag the bodies of the slain into the town (pa), to cut them up (for food). When it was night, Rongouaroa crept out of his hiding-place and crawled into one of their large canoes, and stowed himself snugly away in the forehold (under the nose of the canoe); and this was his charm which he uttered for his safe concealment:—

“Tu! overspread the face of the sky, that (I) may be hidden; let their eyes be dazzled (or flash waveringly) in looking at the stars, and at the moon, and at the light.”

And so, sure enough, he was hidden securely; and he, having uttered his charm, laid himself quietly down.*

Early in the morning the cajoling party was on the move, to go and kill Uenuku. They quickly put their things into their canoes, and paddled away, with vigour, to Uenuku's town (pa). Arriving there, they hastened to disembark and to drag up their canoes on the beach, when they all proceeded quietly into Uenuku's pa, amid the wavings, and shouts, and cries of welcome of Uenuku's people,—“Come hither, come hither, O ye most welcome stranger-visitors!” And so the visiting party went into the pa, and entered the big reception house of the chief and sat down. The people of the place were now all very busy in preparing a plentiful meal for their unexpected visitors; the cooking-fires and ovens were everywhere lighted, and great preparations were being made, for Uenuku and his people supposed them to have come with good intentions only, and, therefore, they were most welcome; but it was not so, as it soon appeared, for they had come to murder Uenuku, and also to eat him, which they had thought to bring to pass through their deceit. While the food was preparing, Uenuku arose, in the large open space before the house, to address his visitors; and thus he began: “Come hither, welcome hither; art thou indeed Tawheta?”

[Footnote] * “Quietly down:”—Notice here the very great influence of Rongoua's firm faith in his simple charm! (See the story of Houmea, (infra), p. 26). It was a desperate step to take, but his only possible chance of saving his people from destruction.

[Footnote] † Uenuku saying, “Art thou,” etc., meaning, Is it possible that Tawheta is come at last to see me! Tawheta, in reply, saying, “Thou thyself!” meaning, Thou alone by thy conduct wert the cause of our being so long estranged from each other.

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which Tawheta interrupted (from within) by exclaiming, “Thou thyself! thou thyself!” Then Uenuku said, “Welcome hither! Dids't thon come hither from our children and young people (leaving them well)?” To this, Tawheta replied,—“;They are all there enjoying themselves at their usual games of play; spinning tops, flying kites, making cats' cradles, darting reeds, and all manner of games.”*

Now it came to pass that, when all those visitors had entered the pa, the wounded man, Rongouaroa, had managed, though with great difficulty, to get out of the canoe in which he had been hidden, and to crawl a little way on to a bush of cutting-grass, where he lay down in the sun. Now the food for the visitors having been deposited in the ovens, and covered over with stones and earth to be cooked, the women engaged therein went outside to gather green leaves of shrubs and flax (Phormium) and sedges, on which to place the food when cooked for their visitors; and so they got to the place where Rongouaroa was lying with his smashed head! On seeing him, and hearing in a few faint words his tale, they soon went back to the pa, and calling Uenuku aside, told him, “Master! master! it is all a false story (or supposition); they are come hither with a different design. The whole of our people have been killed by Tawheta; one only escaped, Rongouaroa! They are come to cajole and destroy thee!” On hearing this, Uenuku demanded, “Where is that survivor?” “Oh! there he is, lying down outside on the tuft of cutting-grass (toetoe), with his head all broken and smashed with a club!” Then Uenuku said, “Fetch him, lead him hither into the pa.” So he was fetched; but, first of all, he was led to the sacred place (tuaahu) close by, where the charms, and recitals, and all proper sacred ceremonies were performed over him, including the feeding the demon with his blood, and the hanging-up of his blood in that spot; and this was the charm which was recited for him:—

1.

Provoking irascible sinew, striving (to) kill!

2.

Hither is come the one (they) sought to murder.

3.

Verily thy own skilful priests (are here):

4.

Thou and I together indeed! (as one).

5.

Thy wound is sacred;—

6.

The celebrated first-born priestesses shall cause the lips of the wounds to incline inwardly towards each other;

7.

Of (or by) the evening, lo! thy wound shall become as nothing!

8.

The stone axe (which caused it) was verily (as) the strong tide rushing on to the shores, and tearing up the beds of shell-fish.

9.

Striving, provoking sinew! eager after food for (their) baking

[Footnote] * This second interjected reply of Tawheta (who was still within the house, and who, according to etiquette, had no need then to speak), was, I think, mainly made to amuse his own party there with him.

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10.

The wounding, indeed, of the man who courageously enraged the demon !

11.

Thy internal parts are all opened to view !

12.

Verily, just as the stirring up of the big fire burning in the court-yard of a pa!

13.

But, lo ! thou and I together (are as one).*

This done, Rongouaroa was taken into the pa; that he might be shown publicly to Tawheta and his party, Now Uenuku had returned to his oratory, keeping his son, Rongouaroa, out of sight, on one side behind his back; the visiting party (according to strict custom) being all within the big house, while the chief of the pa, Uenuku, was outside making his speech to them; moreover, they were tired with their paddling and wanted their morning's meal; and thus Uenuku recommenced his address:—“Come hither, come hither; thou art indeed Tawheta; yes, thou thyself (come at last to see me). Thou art indeed come hither from our children; but are they living, or are they dead? On hearing this, Tawheta bounded out from within the house, and said, “And who indeed is that demon from the sky who is able to kill our children?” Then it was that Uenuku said to Tawheta, “Our children are slain, killed by thee! behold, here is the only survivor!;” at the same time bringing forward Rongouaroa, and making him to stand in the open space before the door of the house, so that he might be fully seen by all those within it. On hearing those words of Uenuku, and seeing Rongouaroa, the whole party were seized with panic fear, and would have instantly fled, or have endeavoured to do so,—and at this time they could all have been very easily slain by Uenuku, but it was owing to his noble disposition that they were not. So he kept them until the food for

[Footnote] * Of this charm, verses 4 and 13 are used to infuse hope and strength, and to assure the unity of the powerful and the weak. (See Paikea's spell, (infra) v. 5.) v. 6 no doubt refers to the two female personages mentioned before in Uenuku's spell, (supra,) vv. 8 and 9—see note there; v. 8 is a beautiful and strongly expressive metaphor tersely given in the original; v. 10 the “demon,”=atua, foe; vv. 11, 12, “internal parts,”—i.e. inner parts of the head; a severely fractured skull was common in the desperate hand-to-hand fights and massacres of old, where heavy clubs and stone axes were the weapons, and not unfrequently the sufferer recovered. (See Proverbs 155, 156, “Trans. N. Z. Inst.,” Vol. XII., p. 137.

[Footnote] † There could be no fear, on the part of Uenuku, that Tawheta, or any of his party, would come out of the reception house while he was absent, as such would be against all custom, etc.

[Footnote] ‡ “Are they living, or are they dead?” Note here the last word! This Tawheta well understood, although he could only then have supposed that Uenuku entertained a suspicion of something evil,—as from a dream, warning, omen, etc.; for, according to correct Maori idiom and syntax, that saying of Uenuku should have been reversed (if spoken at all?)- “are they dead, or are they living?”-which would have had a very different meaning, and Tawheta would have remained quietly in the house of reception. Hence, Tawheta broke the rules of etiquette, and bounded forth boldly to meet the implied and concealed charge against him.

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them was cooked and properly served up and eaten, and then they might depart, saying to them, “Do not fear anything; remain quietly; let the food which has been purposely prepared for you be well and properly cooked and served; then eat it and depart.” Therefore they did so; and when their meal was over, they left the pa in silence, and dragged down their canoes to the sea. While doing this, Uenuku's people were again very desirous to fall upon them and kill them, but Uenuku restrained them, and so they escaped without harm.* As, however, they were leaving the shore, Uenuku called out to Tawheta,—“Depart peaceably, O Tawheta ! ere long, I, also, shall go thither to our children; thou art not a warrior, but an evil-doer.” (Lit. Thou slayest not (thy foe) openly and manfully, but evilly and fraudulently). To this Tawheta replied,—“By what possible means indeed cans't thou venture to go thither; to the home of the many, of the multitude, of the numberless? “ On hearing this, Uenuku rejoined,— “Go away, depart; soon I shall be going thither; thou wilt not escape me; to-morrow thou shalt be devoured by grass-hoppers! thy bravery in battle is slippery; go away, depart!” These were the last parting words of Uenuku, and Tawheta and his party returned to their own place.

After this, Uenuku stirred up all his people to get ready his fighting canoes; so they were all newly caulked, and put together in order, and got ready, and launched to go to war. Then it was that one of his brave fighting

[Footnote] * This highly chivalrous (?) conduct,—or, rather, the noble trait in their character, never to allow the open public rites of hospitality to be infringed, (Uenuku, too, having loudly welcomed them into his village, or fort),—was sometimes strikingly exhibited. The Rev. S. Marsden of Paramatta, informed me (in 1834) of a notable instance which had taken place while some head New Zealand chiefs were staying there at his house. It happened that two of them had come to Sydney by different ships, one was from the Thames, and one from the Bay of Islands,—two tribes who were then at deadly feud in their own country, and so it would have been between those two chiefs on their suddenly and unexpectedly meeting there; but the one said to the other,—“Here, thou and I will dwell quietly, and eat, every day, at the same table together; but when we return to New Zealand I will attack thy fort, and will kill and eat thee:” and all this was carried out to the very letter. It was from the utter want of this feeling on the part of the British (in the Maori estimation), that the early colonists were so greatly twitted by the Maoris during the war of 1860-6; notably by the chief Renata Te Kawepo, in his upbraiding letter to the first Superintendent of the Province of Hawke's Bay. (See, also, “Essay on the Maori Races,” “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. I., § 34, end.

[Footnote] † This sentence deserves to be more particularly noticed:—“Ki te kaainga o tini, o te mano o te rororo, o tini o te hakuturi:” lit. to the dwelling place of (the) many, of the numberless of the ants, of (the) multitude of the imps (elves, or fairies). A curious figurative sentence, not however uncommon nor untruthful in the olden time, showing the very great number of his people. (See Houmea, (infra), p. 27, and note there). The same simile of ants, to express a great number, is also used by the Greek and Roman poets: “Theoc. Id. XV., 45. Virg. Æn. IV., 402.

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men, a chief named Whatiua, got up and made an oration against Uenuku going at once by sea to fight, saying,—“This is my opinion, first let the kumara and the karaka be ripe,* then do thou go by sea; but I and my party will go at once by land; we (my party) will first engage the enemy, and break off the tips of the branchlets of (the revenge for) our sad loss; tomorrow morning we will start.” They did so; and as they were leaving the pa, Uenuku called out to them,—“Listen, friends; this is my word to you, if you succeed in capturing Poumatangatanga, let her live, to become a wife for me.” So the war-party, 70 in number, left on their march. They went away inland up over the high hills and kept on until night-fall, when they halted and slept; at break of day they recommenced their march, and again halted at night as before to sleep; the third morning, at daybreak, they resumed their march, and kept on until they came within sight of Rangikapiti, when they again halted until it was dark. In the night they went stealthily forward and surrounded the big house of that place; the people there kept watch also by night but badly. On there arrival there they found that the demon (atua) had joined with the people in the house, and that the priest (tohunga), whose name was Hapopo, was encouraging his people by his questioning the demon as to the expected war-party, and they on the outside overheard their conversation going on between them. Hapopo, the priest, said to the demon,—“Speak, tell me, is the war-party at hand? for we are here dwelling in great fear, not daring to sleep soundly at night.” The demon, whose name was Te Kanawa, replied to him,—“No, there is no war-party near; nothing of the kind; let us dwell together quietly, even as the ancient ones are, there far off away up in the sky.”§ Those were the words spoken by the demon through the medium, whose name was Kahurangi. Hapopo, however, again asked, stirring (him) up, saying-“Tell me, sir, is not the war-party at hand?” When (he) again replied, “Not a single bit of a war-party, respected sir; no fighting whatever, great sir, will come hither against you; rest quietly.”| All this conversation between those

[Footnote] * That is, in the autumn, when the sea would be calm.

[Footnote] † Tawheta's daughter: a common practice. (See Vol. XIII, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” p. 40.

[Footnote] ‡ War-parties by land generally went forth by untrodden paths, forming a trail of their own, and often a circuitous one; their object being always to reach the place they were going to attack without being perceived, or even suspected, and to carefully avoid treading on, or walking over, a kumara root ceremonially deposited in the common path. (See below, Art II, “Contributions towards a better Knowledge of the Maori Race,” part IV., Kumara).

[Footnote] § As the gods were (according to the ancient Greek mythology) up on Olympus.

[Footnote] | I have studied to mark the great difference in the modes of address between the priest and the demon. (See, also, between Uenuku and his son Ruatapu, p. 18):—a matter much too little attended to in translations.

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two, the demon and the priest, was overheard by the armed war-party, who were outside listening. Early in the morning, at break of day, they assaulted and rushed the big house from all sides. Great was the slaughter of Tawheta's people, he, however, escaped from within the big house; they pursued him, but he got clear off; whence arose this proverbial saying;- “Through flight only was Tawheta saved.” The priest, Hapopo, they dragged outside, and they killed him there; his last word was, “Lying and deceiving demon ! thou gettest clear off, leaving the trouble with Hapopo.” Those words have ever since been used and handed down as a proverb. Paimahutanga* (Tawheta's daughter) was the only one whom Whatiua's band made prisoner and rescued from that great slaughter. The victors baked the slain in ovens, and feasted on them; some portions of their bodies were also carried away with them to their own pa. Thus was fully avenged the death of Maputukiterangi, of Mahinaiteata, of Ropanui, of Whiwhingaiterangi, of Rongoxiaroa, of Hotukura, of Inangatapukitewhao, of Rangiwhetu, and their companions, in that sad massacre by Tawheta. Those Whose names are here given were all chiefs who fell on that occasion. On the return of that war-party to their home they handed over to Uenuku the daughter of Tawheta, Paimahutanga, to become his wife, and Uenuku took her to wife. And so this first assault and carnage ends here; this exterminating slaughter was accomplished by Whatiuatakamarae.

After this was over, Uenuku, still thirsting for revenge for his many murdered children and people, commanded a war expedition to be got ready, that he might himself go and fight with Tawheta. So the warriors got themselves ready; the war canoes were dragged down and fitted up and launched, when Uenuku ordered that each canoe should also be provided with extra large stones (as anchors) and long ropes; and when this was also done, and all were ready, they set forth. On this occasion Uenuku took with him two celebrated garments of his ancestor Tumatauenga. in order to become a defensive armour for him, that is for Uenuku; those famed garments were named Te Rangituitui and Te Rangikahupapa, § and they

[Footnote] * Notice, here, the change of her name, according to custom; and, at the same time, a play upon her former one as to its sound; her new name being also one of good omen,—lit. good-healing-of-the-sore, or wound.

[Footnote] † Here is also an addition made to the name of the leader of that band,—lit. prepared (or brought to pass) in the meeting in the open court,—which may have taken its origin from the prudent counsel he had given to Uenuku, which was also adopted, and led to victory.

[Footnote] ‡ See “Contributions towards a better Knowledge of the Maori Eace;” Part TV.,— Legends concerning the Kumara Plant—Art. II (infra).

[Footnote] § Lit. the Sky-stitched (together), and the Sky-joined, or banded, or rafted (together); and, viewing the Sky as a personage, this may be taken in an active sense. See, also, Uenuku's first charm, vv. 10, 24–29 (supra).

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had ever been taken great care of by the grandson* of Tumatauenga, Uenuku. The war expedition paddled away until they came to Matikotai and Porangahau, where was Tawheta's fort, or war pa; there, at Uenuku's command, all the canoes anchored just outside the swell of the waves, each being provided with stone anchors and long ropes for that purpose; this done they paddled in towards the shore. Then it was that Tawheta and his people, who were there assembled in great numbers; rushed down to meet Uenuku's party, and even waded out into the sea to fight them, and to oppose their landing! when Putuakiterangi, one of Tawheta's braves, was seized by Uenuku's party, dragged into the canoe and carried off! Uenuku giving the order to draw all the canoes outside by their long ropes. There, according to custom, they killed their first prisoner, cut him open, and tore out his heart; then they made a sacred fire by friction, and when it was fully blazing they roasted the heart on the fire, and when it was cooked, they covered over both the heart and the sacred fire with the two garments already mentioned,—Te Rangituitui and Te Rangikahupapa. Then it was that Uenuku, standing up in his canoe, called on the mist from the summits of (the mountain) Tirikawa, saying, “Attend ! fall down and encompass; fall down and cover up!” When, lo ! it suddenly became very dark indeed, and the stars were seen in the sky. Uenuku and his people listened, and lo ! Tawheta and his people were heard fighting among themselves in the darkness, and killing each other! the curses and the groans were heard, also the hollow blows on each other's heads from their clubs; not one of them, however, was struck by Uenuku's party, who were still in their canoes; they did it all themselves. After

[Footnote] * The word mokopuna may mean, great great grandson, etc., or lineal descendant.

[Footnote] † A very similar proceeding to the first sacrifice, mentioned in the beginning of this story, only with different ceremonies. This custom was of universal application among the New Zealanders; hence, in war, it was of great importance (on either side) to seize the first prisoner for this purpose. Uenuku seems to have laid his plan well, by anchoring his canoes in the way he did, to bring the desired end so readily to pass. The student of Ancient History will know how extensively this custom was practised, both in the Old World and New (Mexico); the two things seem generally to have gone together,—the bloody offering (or the life), and the offering by fire; blood being, at all times and in every zone, supposed to be fitted to appease the gods! Sir Walter Scott has well worked upon this ancient belief in his poem of “The Lady of the Lake,” Canto V.,—the combat between FitzJames and Roderick Dhu,—

[Footnote] —–“Which spills the foremost foeman's life, That party conquers in the strife.”

[Footnote] It is even said, that the Highlanders under Montrose were so deeply imbued with this notion, that, on the morning of the battle of Tippermoor, they murdered a defenceless herdsman, whom they found in the fields, merely to secure an advantage of so much consequence to their party.

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some time, Uenuku again called on his preternatural power (atua), the mist on the mountain—that is, to the mist on Tirikawa, saying: “Clear up !” And lo ! it was all clear and bright day. Then the war party looked out from their canoes, and found that many of Tawheta's people were still alive. On this Uenuku again commanded the mist on Tirikawa, saying: “Fall on ! cover up!” when, as before, it was again as dark as night, and Tawheta's people began afresh to fight and slay each other with greater fury than before. By-and-bye Uenuku again called on the mist, saying: “The mist of Tirikawa, break up, clear up, instantly!” And lo! it was again clear daylight. Then Uenuku, thinking they had destroyed each other, pulled off the garments from the roasted heart and sacred fire, and lo! on looking at the sea they saw it was covered with floating corpses and red with the blood of the many slain; deeply red all around them with blood! Three times did Uenuku call on his demons, before that his foes were destroyed. Then Uenuku and his party paddled their canoes to the shore, and landing, killed the few survivors whom they found there on the beach. Tawheta, however, and his remaining men, rallied, and came on, and renewed the fight, which was desperately taken up by Uenuku and his party, by whom Tawheta himself was also killed; but the great multitude of his people died by their own hands, and not by Uenuku's party. The fighting in the sea was named, “The lengthened day;” “the day (of) two sunsets;” and, again, because of the great amount of the blood of man in the sea, it was also called, “The sea of loathsome water;” and the name given to the last battle on land, in which Tawheta was slain, was, “The rising tide.” These were the bloody battles of Uenuku; these were the desolations of Uenuku. The victors cooked and cooked human flesh day after day, and all day, but they could not cook all the food, so it was left and wasted because it became rotten. Here ends the relation of those fightings of Uenuku the man-eater; the evil murders of his children, however, were all sorely and fully avenged. Uenuku having taken Paimahutanga to wife, she bore him a son, whose name was Ruatapu, whose doings shall now also be narrated.