Art. XLIII.—On the Fresh-water Algæ of New Zealand.
[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 11th July, 1881.]
Reference to Sir J. Hooker's “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” pp. 645–646, will show how little attention has in this country been hitherto bestowed upon one of the most beautiful orders of the vegetable kingdom. And as one reads in paragraph after paragraph, in which the various tribes of the fresh-water Algæ are enumerated, such statements as “Very numerous, not hitherto collected in New Zealand —” This beautiful fresh-water group has not hitherto been collected in New Zealand—and again, “The species are very numerous and have never been collected or studied in New Zealand,” one cannot help feeling that the reiteration suggests to the naturalists of this colony a powerful incentive to undertake the systematic study of this most remarkable and interesting order of plants.
It is with much diffidence that I lay this paper before you to-night, because I feel that I am treading upon unbroken ground, and that the subject is a vast one, involving for its complete investigation much study and much time, neither of which I have been able to devote to it, and also the consultation and comparison of many books which have not been at my command. Nevertheless, if my imperfect attempt has the result of drawing the attention of some of the many able naturalists in this country to a hitherto neglected section of its natural history, and of enlisting other and more competent workers than myself in its investigation, I shall feel that the object I proposed in drawing up this paper has been fully accomplished.
The fresh-water Algæ comprise a large proportion of the Chlorospermeæ or Confervoideæ the number of green Algæ which are inhabitants of sea water being comparatively small. They are to be found on damp ground, under the drippings of water, in ponds, streams, waterfalls, even in hot springs where the water has a nearly boiling temperature. They form a green scum on walls, on the bark of trees, and on stones in damp weather—in fact, given the one condition of fresh water moisture, they are almost ubiquitous. Many are plainly visible to the naked eye, and may be seen floating in water, either as scum, as compact green or purple masses, as skeins of threads attached to stones, sticks, or water plants, or as a simple discolora-
tion mingled with the mud at the bottom;—others again are only discover able by the microscope, or by the fact that, when they exist in vast numbers, they impart to the water a distinctive colour. But, in whatever situation or habitat these Algæ are found, microscopic analysis reduces them all to the same elements as exist in the higher aerial plants—the vegetable cell—composed of an outer cellulose coat, a primordial utricle, and within this the coloured cell-contents, the endochrome, in which its vital activity is situated.
A comparison of these subaqueous plants with their terrestrial congeners would form a most interesting subject of enquiry, but one of such vast dimensions that I can only venture to touch upon one or two of its most salient points this evening.
Probably the typical form of the vegetable cell is a sphere. In all plants, however except the very simplest-the unicellular—the spheres by aggregation become changed into various other figures, by mutual compression, and by their growing in the lines of least resistance. Thus we have the free globular cells of the Volvocineæ; the cylindrical ones of the Confervæ, the Zrignemacæ, etc., corresponding to the elongated cells of vascular and woody tissue;—the quadrangular, polygonal, and irregular cells of Ulvaceæ, Pediastreæ and Desmidiaceæ, which find their analogues in many parts of the epidermis, the expanded portion of leaves, the petals, etc., of the higher plants. Again the markings in dotted, spiral, and glandular vessels, are very similar in appearance, if in nothing else, to the markings in Lyngbyæ, Spirogyræ, Calothrices, etc. It is singular to notice also, how, under some circumstances, the cell appears to endeavour to revert to its typical form, as in pl. XXIII., fig. 10, where the front view of the pediastrum shows a complex geometrical outline, and the side view exhibits four simple circular cells.
Into the question of the modes of combination of these algal cells, and the exquisitely beautiful geometrical figures they often form, or of the siliceous patterns secreted by the Diatoms, it is not my purpose to enter at present, though doubtless they have analogues in the shapes and forms of various flowers, and the arrangements of the elements of many leaf-buds.
The colour of the endochrome of the fresh water Algæ varies nearly as much as it does in flowering plants. In most it is green; in some, as the Oscillatorieæ, it varies from light green through various shades of blue and purple to black; in the Protococci again, we meet with different and often brilliant tints of red, and lastly in some Desmids and the majority of Diatoms with a reddish or yellowish brown hue, although the endochrome of many Diatoms is, in early life, of a brilliant green colour. Taking the fresh-water Algæ altogether, and comparing them with the leaves and flowers of the aerial plants, there appears to be a strong resemblance between the colours exhibited by these two extremes of the vegetable kingdom. The various
shades of green, from dark olive to emerald, of red, and of blue, from purple to sky blue, which we find in the Algæ, are very much the prevailing tints of the leaves and flowers of aerial plants. And again the reddish and yellowish brown hues of some Batrachospermeæ, Lyngbyæ, Desmids and Diatoms, correspond closely with the shades assumed by the leaves of trees, shrubs, and herbs, after they have lost their summer verdure, and to which is due the picturesqueness of their autumnal foliage. Many Confervoids, which when young have green endrochrome, assume in more adult age a yellowish or brownish hue, and the analogy between this change and that which occurs in the leaves of the oak, the ash, the elm, and other trees, is at least both striking and suggestive.
Many Algæ, exhibit colours which cannot be referred to autumnal influences, or to the effects of age. The prevailing tints among some of the Volvocineæ and Oscillatorieæ have strong points of resemblance with those of the flowers of phanerogamous plants. In the latter the diversities of colour appear to be connected in some way (of which various explanations have been advanced) with the multiplication of the plant, and so we find that the flowers are the parts which are most liable to variations of colouration. On the other hand, in these simple organisms there is no division into stem, leaves, and flowers, almost every portion is concerned in the process of reproduction—each filament or frond represents a perfect herb, shrub, or tree, and every sporiferous cell is the analogue of a flower. In the phæno-gamic class the floral colours are useful as attractions to insects of various kinds, which, visiting them for food, carry away the pollen to other flowers, and so conduce to their fertilization. Although, so far as I am aware, no observations have been made on the subject, is it not something more than possible that the multitudes of Infusoria, Rotatoria, Paramecia, etc., which we continually meet with seeking their food amongst the Algæ, may assist in the same way as insects in conveying antheridial spores from one plant to another; and that the varying colours of the filaments may be attractive to them as those of flowers are to insects; and that thus may be reproduced in the subaqueous world some of those phenomena with which we are familiar in the aerial? Should future observation verify this conjecture we shall see amongst the Algæ the exact analogue of the entomophilous fertilization of flowers, and also be able to understand why the various and beautiful tints they exhibit are, to a certain though much less extent, reproduced in the filaments and fronds of the fresh-water Algæ.
In submerged vegetation anemophilous fertilization is of course out of the question, yet even here a substitute appears to have been afforded by the provision of cilia to the androspores and zoospores, to enable them to perform the requisite movements through the water which is their home,
and to guide themselves, the former to their relative gymnospores, the latter to appropriate places whereon to rest and recommence the process of germination and growth.
In the methods of fructification, moreover, the resemblances between flowering plants and Algæ are probably as close as in any other particular. Setting aside the Volvocineæ, Palmellaceæ, and some others in which the process of multiplication is merely a process of cell division, either intrinsic or extrinsic, we find in the Confervæ, Siphonaceæ, Oscillatorieæ, etc., that the single cell has the power of producing reproductive spores, thus (keeping in mind that an algal cell is the equivalent of a phænogamic flower) affording an analogy with the class of so-called hermaphrodite flowers. A strictly monœcious form of fertilization is met with in the œdogoniaceæ, where the contents of certain inflated cells are vivified by the contents of contiguous antheridial cells which, by rupture of the cell division, gain access to the inflated cells. A distinct advance upon this method is found in many œdogonia and Chætophoræ. Here the distinction between antheridial and sporidial cells is evident—they often occur upon different filaments, though sometimes upon distant portions of the same, and are easily recognized by their shape and appearance. The contents of the antheridial cell (androspore) when mature escape through rupture of the cell wall, and, being furnished with cilia, lead an active locomotor life until, coming in contact with the gonidial cell (oospore), the locomotion comes to an end and the contents of the two combined form a zoospore which eventually becomes a young plant.
The Zygnemaceæ are veritable diœcious plants, and propagate by a process of conjugation—the cells of two contiguous filaments throw out a connecting tube through which the contents of one (the antheridial) cell pass into the other (the gonidial), and thus fertilize them, the result being a zoospore. in this process the fertilization of the ovule by the pollen tube in Phanerogams is closely imitated. But further, that abnormal self-fertilization that takes place in certain flowers under unusual conditions, and which is termed cleistogamy, would appear to occur at times in certain Spirogyræ, the filaments of which have the power of producing zoospores—the so-called pseudogonia—in certain cells without conjugation; in fact these cells are, like the cleistogamous flowers, not only hermaphrodite, but contain within themselves the power of self-fecundation.
In the following list of fresh-water Algæ which have come under my observation during the last eighteen months I have included only such as I feel pretty certain I have verified. Many others are not enumerated, because I am at present doubtful of their classification; but with further search and observation I have no doubt the list may be extended indefinitely.
Batrachospermum moniliforme. Not uncommon.
" pulcherrimum, H., xiv., 1. From river Esk.
" vagum, H., Ixiii., 2. From a creek on the Ruataniwha Plains. An unusual specimen of this plant was given me by Mr. Hamilton, from the Horokiwi river. Its peculiarity consists in the development of a vast number of hair-like appendages, on some parts of the filament, of considerable length, and forming in some places a densely intricate matwork round the filament which not only obscures it but also the whorls that emanate from it.
Draparnaldia tenuis, H., xi.
Chætophora endiæfolia, H. ix.
" elegans, H., ix.
" sp. n.
In the species marked n. above, the filament tapers from base to apex. It is irregularly branched, with few ramuli. Gelatinous investment not apparent. Cells of the ramuli (varying from four to eight) filled with endo-chrome. Terminal cell broad at the base, narrowing to a not very acute point, exceeding the ordinary cells three or four times in length, hyaline. Cells of the filament and branches as long, or twice as long, as broad. Antheridial cells half to a quarter as long as broad, compressed. Stipitate, capsular fructification was observed attached to both sporiferous and antheridial filaments. Zoospore, the only one seen, commencing to germinate, quadrangular in outline, contains two large sporules, surmounted by four cilia, one at each angle; motile.
Conferva bombycina, M.D., p. 158.
" floccosa, M.D., pl. V.
Cladophora crispata, H., lv.
" glomerata, H., lvi.
" lyallii, Hooker, Fl. N.Z.
" sp. n. (1).
" sp. n. (2).
Ulothrix mucosa, M.D., pl. V.
Cladophora lyallii is described by Hooker—“Handbook N. Z. Flora,” p. 717, and “Fl. N.Z. Ant. Voyage,” vol. ii. p. 262. He mentions it as having been found in Stewart Island.
Cladophora crispata occurs in Kerguelen's Land, Hooker “Ant. Voyage.”
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
Cladophora, sp. n. (1), I found in gently flowing water, attached by a short stem to a piece of iron pipe. It is nearly spherical in shape, about 1/12″ in diameter, tufted, green. Filaments bright green, alternately branched, articulations 1½ to 2 times longer than broad, slightly constricted at the nodes. Branches of two kinds—chætophorous, of which the articulations are 2–3 times longer than broad, filled with endochrome, ending in elongated bristly processes; and sporiferous with articulations constricted at the nodes, cells from ½ to 1½ times as long as broad, terminal cells sometimes clubbed. Capsular fructification on some of the rami either terminal or shortly stipitate. Fig. 2.
Cladophora, sp. n. (2). Filaments have a distinct gelatinous investment. Cells three times longer than broad. Here and there, mostly at attachment of rami, occur large hexagonal cells, very like the inflated cells of œdogonium, containing a circular spore. Terminal cells elongated, tapering to a rounded point. Antheridial cells broader than long, spores subglobose, compressed. Free zoospores I have seen only once, and failed to discover cilia. Fig. 3.
Spirogyra communis, H., xviii.
" quinina, H., xxviii.
" nitida, H., xxii.
" interrupta, H., xxi.
" rostrata, H., xxiii.
" quadrata, H., xxxvii.
" pellucida, H., xxv.
" sp. (?)
Zygnema cruciata, H., xxxviii.
This family is tolerably abundant in the locality. I have, I think, been able to discriminate all the species that have come under my observation, with one exception. In this specimen the band of endochrome commences at one end of the cell, and after making a spiral and a half reaches the further extremity of the cell, where it bends upon itself, and after another spiral and a half reaches the end from which it started; here it bends a second time, and finally terminates at the opposite end of the cell, forming altogether a series of figure-of-8 knots. Fig. 4.
In this family the normal mode of reproduction is by the conjugation of cells of distinct filiaments; it is distinctly diœcious. In certain cases, however, and they are not uncommon, the endochrome of a filament appears to have the power of self-fertilization, and spores are formed in the cells either with or without communication with contiguous cells. In this process we have a close analogy with the peculiar phenomenon of self-fertilization
seen in some normally wind- or insect-fertilized flowers at certain seasons. In fact, we find cleistogamous flowers in our subaqueous plants as well as in their aerial congeners.
Œdogonium ciliatum (?), H., lii.
" compressum, H., liii.
Bacterium, M. Dic., p. 3.
2. Vibrio rugula (?), M. Dic., p. 3.
3. Spirillum volutans, M. Dic., p. 3.
4. Spirulina jenneri, M. Dic., p. 3.
5. Oscillatoria autumnalis, H., lxxii.
" decorticans, H., lxxi.
" nigra, H., lxxi.
" tenuis, H., lxxii.
" limosa, H., lxxi.
" contexta (?), H., lxxi.
" sp. n. (?)
Microleus gracilis, H., lxx.
Lyngbya muralis, H., lix.
Oscillatoria.—I have no doubt that with further research this list may be indefinitely extended. The characters of some of the species are not very distinctly marked; and I imagine their nomenclature is not yet settled. Certainly the description and figure of O. autumnalis as given by Hassall are very different from those in the Micrographic Dictionary. The peculiar characteristic of this genus, from which its name is derived, is the singular movements of the filaments. What the cause of these move-ments is has been the subject of some speculation, but has not been determined. No special organs of motion have been discovered. Whether they are vital or merely mechanical phenomena, is at present impossible to decide. I have seen them in plants which had been immersed many days in Hantzsch's fluid still continuing, feebly but quite perceptibly. The movements are of two kinds—oscillatory and progressive. In the first, the filament, being apparently fixed at one end, sways backwards and forwards upon a centre like the pendulum of a clock, and it may either remain in a state of rigidity, or may curve with a flexibility resembling that of the long thin branch of a tree when agitated by the wind. The other movement is one of direct progression. A filament will, after a period of quiescence, begin to move forward, end on as it were, and having
advanced a certain distance will, without any discoverable cause, suddenly reverse the direction and, retrograde. It is a very interesting sight some-times to watch these minute organisms in their advance across the field of the microscope. I have seen in O. tenuis the two or three end cells waving backwards and forwards slowly and deliberately as though the filament were feeling its way across the field of view. On meeting an obstacle, such as another Alga, the filament would halt as though it were investigating the nature of the obstruction—if the Alga happened to lie at an acute angle the Oscillatoria would accommodate itself and move along the side in contact with it; if, however, it lay at a right angle, it would, after a short examination, pass either over or under it, and continue its onward march, or occasionally begin to move backwards, and so retrace its steps. In one specimen the terminal cell was surmounted by a short bristle, which was used apparently as a feeler. The singular deliberative motions I have attempted to describe, I have never seen except when the filament was moving forward; they do not seem to occur when it is performing a movement of retrogression.
Oscillatoria, sp. n.? The usual method of reproduction in this genus is stated to be by the breaking up of the filaments, each articulation of which then takes upon itself the functions of a gonidium. I believe, however, they do sometimes emit spores, though I have not had an opportunity of watching them after their detachment from the parent filament. And in one instance—a specimen occurring as a purple stratum on a damp stone, which I have not been able to specify—there appears to be a series of special sporiferous cells, amongst, but quite distinct from, the ordinary articulation. (Fig. 5.)
Polypothrix distorta (?). I do not feel sure of this species, as I have seen only a single specimen.
Nostoc commune, M. Dic., 4.
" verrucosum, H., lxxvi.
Enteromorpha intestinalis, H., lxxvii; M. Dic, 5.
Ulva bullosa, H., lxxviii.
" crispa, H., lxxviii.
Tetraspora (lubrica?), H., lxxviii.
Microhaloa rupestris, M. Dic., 3.
Botrydina vulgaris, H., lxxxi.
Coccochloris vulgaris, M. Dic, 3.
" protuberans, H., lxxvi.
Hydrocytrum acuminatum, M. Dic., 45.
Desmidiaceæ (including Pediastreæ).
Hyalotheca dissiliens, R., i; H., lxxxiii.
" dubia, R., xxxv.
Sphærozosma vertebratum, R., vi.
" pulchrum, R., xxxv.
Micrasterias pinnatifida, R., x.
" ampullacea, Maskell, "Trans. N.Z.I.,” vol. xiii.
" var. α, β.
Cosmarium cucumis, H., lxxxvi.
" undulatum, R., xv.
" tetraophthalmium, R., xvii.
" botrytis, R., xvi.
" margaritiferum, R., xvi.
" sp. n.
Staurastrum muticum, R., xxi.
" orbiculare, R., xxi.
" gracile, R., xxii.
" tetracerum, R., xxiii.
" paradoxum, R., xxiii.
" sp. n.
Closterium lunula, R., xxvii.
" acerosum, R., xxvii.
" lanceolatum, R., xxviii.
" moniliferum, R., xxviii.
" jenneri, R., xxviii.
" leibleinii, R., xxviii.
" dianæ (venus), R., xxviii.
" attenuatum, R., xxix.
" striolatum, R., xxix.
" lineatum, R., xxx.
" cornu, R., xxx.
" acutum (tenerrimum), R., xxx.
Pediastrum tetras, R., xxxi.
" heptactis, R., xxxi.
" pertusum, R., xxxi.
" napoleonis, R., xxxi.
" boryanum, R., xxxi.
" ellipticum, R., xxxi.
Scenedesmus quadricauda, R., xxxi.
" obliquus, R., xxxi.
" obtusus, R., xxxi.
I have included the Pediastreæ in this family for the sake of convenience, although the definition of the Desmids as given by both Hassall and Ralfs would exclude them, and Carpenter arranges them as a separate family. (When this paper was read I had not seen Mr. Maskell's article on the Desmidiaceæ of Canterbury.* Since then I have considerably modified my remarks on this family, in order to avoid useless repetition and to bring it as far as possible into accordance with Mr. Maskell's paper).
Micrasterias ampullacea, var. (α) from Ruataniwha.
" var. (β) Ruataniwha. This plant resembles var. β, in general outline, but differs in the smoothness of the edges of the fronds, in the flatness of the tips of the segments of the lobes, and in the absence of punctæ inside the margins of the frond. The flask-like shape of the segments is very marked. I have placed it under the head of M. ampullacea, var. β, for the present, but I am not sure that it will remain there permanently. Fig. 6.
Cosmarium cucumis? I have marked this with a note of interrogation, because I have seen only one specimen. It corresponds, however, so entirely with Ralfs' description in the smoothness of the frond, the deep constriction, and the equality of length and breadth, and the rotundity of the ends of the segments, that I have little doubt as to its identity.
Cosmarium tetraophthalmium is common.
" margaritiferum abundant.
" sp. n. Frond quadrate, slightly longer than broad, not deeply constricted. Segments conical truncated, united at the truncations, edges smooth. End view circular. This plant is remarkable for its peculiar hour-glass shape. I have found no description of anything like it in such books as have been accessible to me. If it prove a new species I should propose the name of C. clepshydra. Fig 7.
Staurastrum, sp.? Edges of frond smooth, segments united below, divaricating. Upper and outer borders concave, uniting at an acute angle, inner slightly convex, lower rounded. On the upper concave border are three hyaline processes with smooth sides and flattened ends. At junction of outer and lower borders is one process similar to the upper ones but curved slightly outwards. This little plant is unlike anything in Ralfs—it might be an unusual form of S. læve, but in the latter the processes are forked, in the former not. Fig. 8.
Closterium. In this genus I have not found any specimen that could not be referred to Ralfs.
[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xiii., art. xxxviii., pp. 297–317.
Pediastrum tetras, and P. heptactis are both common.
" pertusum. Intestines of the frond hyaline; some of the inner cells are gone, therefore the foraminal appearance is uncertain. The rectangularity of the outer row of cells and the shape of the notch point to pertusum. On the other hand, the number of rows, and the number of circumferential cells, might lead one to infer a new species. On careful comparison, however, I am inclined to consider it as an unusually large specimen of P. pertusum. Number of rows, five; number of cells in inner circle, five. The two next rows are broken down. The fourth circle contains apparently eighteen, and the outer one—the fifth—twenty-one cells. Fig. 9.
Pediastrum, sp.n. Frond square, divided into four equal lobes by a crucial hyaline division. Lobes divided into segments by a deep narrow notch, which extends from the four corners towards the centre of the frond, the segments again partially subdivided by a broad shallow notch. Side view, four cells placed end to end, the central ones about twice the size of the terminal. Although at first sight so very unlike, there is a remarkable similarity between this plant and P. tetras; in fact, the only point of difference consists in the secondary segmentation of the lobes. Fig. 10.
Scenedesmus quadricauda. I have placed before you a figure of this Desmid, because it shows the unusual phenomenon of a broad well-defined coating of hyaline matter external to the cells, and further that the bristles are appendages of the investing coat and not of the cells themselves. Fig. 11.
Meridion constrictum, H., xevi.; M.Dic, 12.
Diatoma elongatum, H., xciv.
" vulgare, H., xciv.; M.Dic., 12.
" grande, M.Dic.
Campylodiscus costatus, M.Dic., 12.
Surirella bifrons, M. Dic., 13.
Synedra splendens, H., xcvii.
Gyrosigma macrum, M.Dic., 11.
" attenuatum, M.Dic., 11.
Pinnularia oblonga, M.Dic., 11.
Stauroneis phænicenteron, M.Dic., 11.
The usual modes of multiplication of the Diatomaceæ are stated to be either division or conjugation. Facke however suspected, though he did not actually observe, a formation of spores or gonidia such as are found in many of the filamentous Confervoids. This method of reproduction I believe I have seen in Synedra ulna. In the autumn of last year I found, amongst a growth of Spirogyræ and Oscillatoriæ, a number of unusually large specimens of Synedra, some of such magnitude as to be visible to the naked eye. They were active, and evidently in a state of vigorous growth.
In fig. 12 I have endeavoured to depict the various stages of sporidial growth: a shows a full-grown Synedra with the endochrome diffused throughout the frond; at b the endochrome is beginning to gather itself into a distinct mass; at c it has divided, and a portion is attached to each of the frus-tules, and a division into definite masses is commencing; at d this division is complete, the masses forming lenticular bodies; at e they have moved into pairs, so that their convex surfaces are in contact; in the next stage (f) each pair has united and formed an elliptical spore; at g the frustule has been ruptured, and the spores are escaping. The escaped spores were evidently held together by a hyaline substance, and exhibited the peculiar motion termed swarming; h, i, j, show different stages of growth of the young Synedræ, until, at k, a perfect siliceous deposit has been formed, and the young Diatom is ready to recommence the whole process so soon as its endochrome is sufficiently mature.
Protococcus viridis, M.Dic., 3.
" murorum, H., lxxxi.
Volvox globator, M.Dic., 3.
Pandorina murorum, M.Dic., 45.
Hæmatococcus.—I have had a colony of this protophyte in my possession for two years. I first discovered it in a jar which happened to be standing in the rain and was half filled with water. By keeping water continually in the jar the supply of Hæmatococcus has never failed. Mr. Hamilton, of Petane, also brought me a sample in the wool of a sheep.*
[Footnote] * See “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. vii., art. lv.
Explanation of Plate XXIII.
Fig. 1. Chætophora, showing stipitate fructification; (a) filament, (b) antheridial filament, (c) zoospore.
" 2. Cladophora (a) ordinary cells. (b)sporiferous cells.
" 3. " (a) portion of filament. (b) antheridial filament. (c) zoospores.
" 4. Spirogyra.
" 5. Oscillatoria with sporidial cells.
" 6. Micrasterias ampullacea, var. β.
" 7. Cosmarium, sp.?
" 8. Staurastrum, sp.?
" 9. Pediastrum pertusum.
" 10. " sp.? (a) front. (b) end.
" 11. Scenedesmus quadricauda.
" 12. Synedra ulna—to illustrate sporidial multiplication.
Art. XLIV.—On some Additions to the Flora of New Zealand.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 11th July, 1881.]
1. Pozoa reniformis, Hook. f.
Although this plant has long been known to occur in the Auckland Islands, where it was originally discovered by the Antarctic Expedition in 1840, there is no recorded instance of its having been collected in New Zealand proper. In January, 1881, I found it growing in some profusion in clefts of rocks on the slopes of Mount Peel, Nelson, at an altitude of about 5,000 feet. A good description and excellent plate will be found in the “Flora Antarctica.”
2. Ligusticum deltoideum, n. sp.
Small, stout, dark green and shining, very aromatic, 2–6 inches high. Rootstock stout, covered with pale chaffy scales. Leaves numerous, all radical, 2–4 inches long, petiole half the length, broadly deltoid in outline, bipinnate; segments broadly cuneate, cut down nearly to the base into 3–5 sharp flat spreading lobes, ⅛–⅕ inch long, or again pinnate. Peduncles usually shorter than the leaves, naked or with one small leaflet. Umbels small, ½–1 inch in diameter. Flowers white or pinkish. Ripe fruit not seen.
This is nearest to L. filifolium, but differs in its stemless habit, smaller size, more numerous leaves with much more copious divisions, and in the shorter peduncles.
Hab.—Grassy slopes on Mount Arthur, Nelson, alt. 4,000–5,500 feet.
3. Poranthera alpina, n.sp.
Small, perfectly glabrous, 2–4 inches high. Branches numerous, decumbent or suberect, usually densely compacted and interlaced, hard and woody at the base, scarred. Leaves opposite, all uniform, crowded, sessile or narrowed into a very short petiole, linear-oblong, quite entire, obtuse, ⅛–⅕. inch long, smooth and veinless above, margins usually so much revolute as to conceal the whole of the under surface except the very thick and prominent midrib. Stipules large, triangular, entire or very slightly jagged, persistent. Flowers apparently diœcious; minute, greenish-white, shortly pedicelled, solitary in the axils of the upper leaves, and thus forming short leafy terminal heads. Males:—Labyx divided nearly to the base into 5 oblong segments. Petals wanting in all the flowers examined. Stamens 5, alternating with 5 rounded green glands. Females:—Labyx, etc., as in the males. Stamens, 0; ovary large, rounded, 6-lobed, 3-celled, ovules 2 in each cell. Capsule globose-depressed, apparently splitting into 3 cocci, but not seen perfectly ripe.
Hab.—Rocky ledges on Mount Arthur, Nelson, ascending to within a short distance of the summit of the mountain. Alt. 6,000ft.
This is a most unexpected and interesting addition to our Flora, and is perfectly distinct from any of the Australian species. The only other plant of the genus known from New Zealand is P. microphylla, Brong., which I discovered in the Nelson district in 1878.*
4. Triglochin palustre, L.
In January, 1880, when botanizing in the Canterbury mountains with my friend Mr. J. D. Enys, numerous specimens of a plant clearly referable to this species were collected, by a small tributary of the Broken river, at an altitude of about 2,500ft., and Mr. Enys has since met with it in several localities in the vicinity of the first station. T. palustre is a common plant in the northern hemisphere, being found throughout Northern and Central Europe, North Africa, North Asia to the Himalaya Mountains, and in North America. In the South Temperate Zone it has as yet only been recorded from Chili. T. palustre may be distinguished from T. triandrum, our only other native species, by its much larger size (some of my Canterbury specimens are nearly two feet high), stouter scape, more numerous flowers, and particularly by the linear-clavate fruit.
[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xi., p. 432.
5. Carex leporina, L. C. ovalis, Good.
This is also an abundant plant in Northern Europe and Asia, and in some parts of North America. In the “Flora Antarctica” it is recorded as a doubtful inhabitant of the Falkland Islands, but I am not aware that it has been collected elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. The following description is drawn up from New Zealand specimens:—
Culms 12–18 inches high, rather slender. Leaves usually much shorter, flat, grassy, ⅛ inch broad. Spikelets 4–8, androgynous, ovoid, pale, brown, shining, collected into an oblong head an inch long; male flowers at the base. Bracts wanting, or small and glume-like. Perigynia as long as the acute glumes, elliptic, plano-convex, striate, winged, narrowed into a long beak; margins and beak finely serrulate. Stigmas 2.
Hab.—Motueka Valley, Ngatimoti, and other places in the western portion of the Nelson district.
6. Carex cinnamomea, n. sp.
Slender, 1–2 feet high. Leaves longer than the culms, with harsh cutting edges, flat, striate, ¼–⅓ inch broad. Culms dropping, bracts long and leafy. Spikelets 5–8, distant, upper sessile, lower pedunculate, curved, nodding, 2½–4 inches long, ¼ inch in diameter; terminal one male, or male at the base only, the rest female, but usually with a few lax male flowers below. Glumes longer than the perigynia, lanceolate, cuspidate, entire; with a green keel and reddish-brown margins. Perigynia slightly spreading when ripe, pale, stipitate, narrow elliptic, strongly nerved, narrowed into a short stout beak; beak minutely 2-toothed. Stigmas 3.
Hab.—Graham River and other tributaries of the Motueka rising in Mount Arthur. Sources of the Takaka River, ascending to 3,500 feet altitude.
Most nearly allied to C. vacillans, but readily distinguished by its larger size, longer much stouter spikelets, longer glumes, and by the shape of the perigynia, which want the tapering deeply bifid beak of that species.
Art. XLV.—Contributions to a Flora of the Nelson Provincial District.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 3rd October, 1881.]
The importance of obtaining an accurate knowledge of the geographical and altitudinal distribution of our native Flora, and of determining the correlation which exists between it and the geology, physical history, and climate of the country, is doubtless sufficiently obvious. But it must be admitted that no correct inferences can be drawn, or sure generalizations
arrived at, until we possess carefully compiled lists of the plants of all the chief portions of the colony. The volumes of the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” bear witness that something has been done in this direction; but much more will be required before a firm basis is afforded for future work. As a slight contribution to the literature of the subject, I propose to give a list of the plants observed by myself during two visits to the Nelson Provincial District, in 1878 and 1881, when I was enabled to travel over a considerable portion of the district, and to make large collections, especially of the alpine species. Of course, it will be fully under-stood that my list can have no claim to completeness. To collect the material for even a tolerably complete catalogue of the plants of the Nelson district (or any other of similar area) would involve the expenditure of much time and labour, and is a work that can only be efficiently performed by local observers, who possess the great advantage of being able to examine the vegetation at all seasons of the year, and with more leisure and circumspection than can be given by a casual traveller, however industrious he may be. At the same time, the list will be found to represent all the chief features of the vegetation, and is probably not much more incomplete than those that have been prepared of other Provincial Districts.
At some future time I hope to consider in detail the principal features of plant-distribution in Nelson, and to suggest some possible explanation of certain curious anomalies therein. At present the known facts are not sufficient to warrant the attempt, large portions of the district never having been explored in a botanical point of view, and others being very imperfectly known.
The total number of species included in the catalogue is 666, but this will doubtless be largely added to by future observers. I have included a few species mentioned either in the “Handbook” or the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” as occurring in the district, but which have not been observed by myself. With the exception of these, all of which are specified in the list, I am personally responsible for the whole of the determinations and for the localities quoted:—
Catalogue of The Flowering Plants and Ferns Observed in The Nelson Provincial District.
Clematis indivisa, Willd. Common at low elevations. Nelson; Foxhill; Wairau Valley, etc.
" hexasepala, DC. Near Moutere.
" parviflora, A. Cunn., var. depauperata. "Nelson, Travers " (Hand-book).
"colensoi, Hook. fil., var. rutæfolia. Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
Ranunculus insignis, Hook. f. Elevated plateau between Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, alt. 4,500 feet, extremely abundant; a small few-flowered form ascends to the summit of Mount Arthur, nearly 6,000 feet. Wairau Valley, in several localities between Top-house and the Wairau Gorge.
" pinguis, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains, not uncommon. Ascends to 6,300 feet at the Wairau Gorge.
" geraniifolius, Hook. f. Not uncommon in alpine localities. Mountains behind Lake Rotoiti; Raglan Range; Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, ascending to 5,500 feet. A most variable plant. Leaves often much dissected.
" haastii, Hook. f. Shingle slopes, Wairau Gorge.
" crithmifolius, Hook. f. "Wairau Gorge, on shingle slips, alt. 6,000 feet, Travers" (Handbook).
" sinclairii, Hook. f. Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.
" plebeius. Abundant. Ascends to 4,000 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.
" lappaceus, Sm., var. multiscapus. Common, especially in subalpine localities. Ascends to 5,000 feet on the Raglan Mountains.
" subscaposus, Hook. f.? Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,500 feet; Raglan Mountains, 5,000 feet.
" rivularis, Banks and Sol. Abundant in lowland swamps.
Caltha novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains.
Drimys axillaris, Forst. Abundant in woods. The variety with blotched leaves, sometimes kept as a distinct species under the name of D. colorata, Raoul, is also plentiful.
Nasturtium palustre, DC. Not uncommon in moist places.
Sisymbrium novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. “Mountains of Nelson, Rough; shingle slips, Wairau Gorge, alt. 4,500 feet, Travers” (Handbook).
Cardamine hirsuta, L. Abundant. An alpine variety. Ascends to 5,000 feet on Mount Arthur, and to 6,000 feet at the Wairau Gorge.
" depressa, Hk.f. Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge.
" fastigiata, Hk.f. Wairau Gorge, alt. 3,000 feet.
" latesiliqua, Cheeseman, n. sp. Mount Arthur, abundant from 4,500 to 5,500 feet; Raglan Mountains, alt. 5,000 feet.
Notothlaspi rosulatum, Hook. f. Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge.
" australe, Hook. f. An abundant alpine plant, alt. 3,500 to 5,000 feet.
Viola filicaulis, Hook. f. Not uncommon. Graham River; Maitai Valley; Wairau Valley.
" lyallii, Hook. f. Abundant.
" cunninghamii, Hk.f. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley, etc.
Melicytus ramiflorus, Forst. Common in woods at low elevations.
" lanceolatus, Hook. f. Forests near the source of the Takaka River, alt. 3000 feet; Clarke River; Buller Valley.
" micranthus, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Buller Valley.
Hymenanthera crassifolia, Hook. f. Near Nelson, and coast to the northwards.
" latifolia, Endl.? A slender shrub, 6–8 feet high, with obovate leaves 1½ inch long, is referred to this species for the present. Graham River, on limestone rocks.
Pittosporum tenuifolium, Banks and Sol. Abundant.
" patulum, Hook. f. "Wairau Mountains, alt. 5,000 feet, Sïnclair" (Handbook).
" rigidum. Maitai Valley and Dun Mountain Range; Buller Valley.
" eugenioides, A. Cunn. Not uncommon in woods at low elevations.
Gypsophila tubulosa, Boiss. “Tarndale Plain, 4,000 feet, Travers” (Handbook).
Stellaria parviflora, Banks and Sol. Common. Ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.
" roughii, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Wairau Gorge.
" gracilenta, Hook. f. Wairau Valley, abundant.
Colobanthus quitensis, Bartl. Dun Mountain; Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains.
" billardieri, Fenzl. Abundant.
" acicularis, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains, abundant.
Spergularia rubra, Pers., var. marina. Coast near Nelson.
Claytonia australasica, Hook. f. An abundant alpine plant.
Montia fontana, L. Abundant in subalpine and alpine localities.
Elatine americanæ, Arnott. Lake Rotoiti. I am not aware of any previous record from the South Island.
Hypericum japonicum, Thumb. Lake Rotoiti; Buller Valley.
Plagianthus divaricatus, Forst. Salt marshes, Blind Bay. Common.
" betulinus, A. Cunn. Lower Motueka; Graham River.
" lyallii, Hook.f. Subalpine forests, abundant by the sides of streams, etc.
Hoheria populnea, A. Cunn., var. angustifolia. Near Nelson; Wakefield; Foxhill; Motueka and Motupiko, etc.
Aristotelia racemosa, Hook. f. Abundant in forests.
" fruticosa, Hook. f. Abundant, especially in subalpine forests.
Elæocarpus hookerianus, Raoul. Apparently common; ascending to 3,500 feet. E. dentatus, Vahl, doubtless also occurs in the district, but I do not find it in my notes.
Linum monogynum, Forst. Nelson and coast line to the northwards, abundant. Inland, on Spooner's Range, alt. 1,000 feet.
Geranium dissectum, L., var. carolinianum. Common about Nelson and elsewhere.
" microphyllum, Hk.f. Common.
" sessiliflorum, Cav. Not uncommon.
" molle, L. Near Nelson; Motueka; Wairau Valley.
Pelargonium australe, Willd., var. clandestinum. Nelson; Foxhill, etc.
Oxalis corniculata, L. Not uncommon.
" magellanica, Forst. Abundant by the side of streams, etc., in hilly districts.
Melicope ternata, Forst. “Nelson Province” (Handbook).
" simplex, A. Cunn. Maitai Valley; Lower Motueka; Graham River.
Pennantia corymbosa, Forst. Common in woods.
Stackhousia minima, Hk. f. Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,000 to 5,000 feet.
Discaria toumatou, Raoul. Most abundant, especially in river valleys.
Dodonæa viscosa, Forst. Coast hills near Nelson.
Alectryon excelsum, DC. Nelson and vicinity; Graham River; Lower Motueka.
Coriaria ruscifolia, L. Abundant throughout the district.
" thymifolia, Humb. Mount Arthur plateau; Wairau Gorge; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley.
Carmichælia nana, Col. Dry shingly places in river beds. Motueka and Motupiko Valleys; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley, etc.
" australis, Br. Near Nelson; Motueka; Foxhill, etc.
" odorata, Col. Buller Valley.
" flagelliformis, Col. Maitai Valley; Wairau Valley; Lake Rotoiti; Buller Valley.
Sophora tetraptera, Ait. Not uncommon.
Rubus australis, Forst., vars. α, β, γ. Common in many places.
Potentilla anserina, L. Common.
Geum urbanum, L., var. strictum. Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
" parviflorum, Comm. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge.
Acæna sanguisorbæ, Vahl. Common. Ascends to 3,500 feet at the Wairau Gorge.
" novæ-zealandiæ, Kirk. Near Nelson; Foxhill; Motueka.
" adscendens, Vahl. Wairau Gorge.
" glabra, Buchanan. Wairau Gorge.
" microphylla, Hook. f. Buller Valley and Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.
" inermis, Hook. f. Upper Motueka and Motupiko; Wairau Valley; Lake Rotoiti.
Donatia novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Tarns on Mount Peel, alt. 5,000 feet. The most northern locality yet recorded.
Quintinia serrata, A. Cunn., var. β. Graham River; Takaka River; “Aorere Valley, alt. 1,400 feet, Travers” (Handbook).
Carpodetus serratus, Forst. Abundant in lowland forests.
Weinmannia racemosa, Forst. Abundant in forests. Ascends to 4,000 feet elevation.
Tillæa sinclairii, Hook. f. Buller Valley, between the Devil's Grip and Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.
" verticillaris, DC. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley.
Drosera stenopetala, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,500 feet, the most northern habitat yet recorded; mountains between the Hope and Owen rivers, Buller District, alt. 4,000 feet.
" arcturi, Hook. Common in alpine bogs.
" spathulata, Lab. Lake Rotoiti; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,500 feet.
" binata, Lab. Upper Motueka; Motupiko.
" auriculata, Backh. Near Nelson.
Haloragis alata, Jacq. Nelson; Foxhill; Motueka; Moutere, etc.
" tetragyna, Lab., var. diffusa. Spooner's Ridge, Buller Valley.
" depressa, Hook. f. Abundant. Buchanan's H. aggregata, if I rightly understand his plant, is simply a variety.
" micrantha, Br. Motueka and Motupiko; Foxhill; Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.
Myriophyllum elatinoides, Gaud. Wairau Valley.
" variæfolium, Hook. f. Lake Rotoiti.
" robustum, Hook. f. Moutere stream. I am not aware that this species has been previously recorded from the South Island.
Callitriche verna, L. Abundant.
Gunnera monoica, Raoul. Abundant by the side of streams.
" densiflora, Hook. f. “Acheron and Clarence rivers, alt. 4,000 feet, Travers” (Handbook).
Leptospermum scoparium, Forst. Common. Ascends to 4,500 feet on the granitic hills between the Hope and the Owen rivers.
" ericoides, A. Rich. Generally distributed in woods through out the district.
Metrosideros florida, Sm. Near Nelson.
" lucida, Menzies. Not uncommon in woods, especially in rocky places.
" hypericifolia, A. Cunn. Near Nelson; Lower Motueka; Graham River.
" colensoi, Hook. f. Maitai Valley and other localities near Nelson; Lower Motueka; Graham River; Pearce River.
" soandens, Banks and Sol. Nelson; Motueka; Ngatimoti.
Myrtus ralphii, Hk.f. Maitai Valley.
" obcordata, Hook. f. Common in forests.
" pedunculata, Hook, f. Nelson; Foxhill; Buller Valley.
Fuchsia excorticata, Linn. f. Common.
" colensoi, Hook. f. Lower Motueka; Graham River.
Epilobium nummularifolium, A. Cunn. Abundant.
" linnæoides, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Buller Valley.
" macropus, Hook. Mount Arthur plateau; Lake Rotoiti and Buller Valley; Wairau Valley.
" confertifolium, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge.
" crassum, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, alt. 5,000 6,000 ft.
" microphyllum, A. Rich. Abundant in dry shingly river beds.
" rotundifolium, Forst. Motueka; Buller Valley, etc.
" glabellum, Forst. Generally distributed.
" melanocaulon, Hook. Buller Valley; Wairau Valley.
" junceum, Forst. Abundant through the district.
" pubens, A. Rich. Common.
" billardierianum, Seringe. Mount Arthur plateau; Upper Buller; Wairau District, etc.
" pallidifloum, Sol. Motueka; Moutere; Buller Valley, etc.
Passiflora terrandara, Banks and Sol. Lower Motueka; Graham River.
Mesembryanthemum australe, Sol. Coast near Nelson.
Hydrocotyle elongata, A. Cunn. Motueka; Graham River; Foxhill; Wairau Valley.
" novæ-zealandiæ, DC. Nelson; Wairau Valley.
" moschata, Forst. Nelson and vicinity.
" micorophylla, A. Cunn. Maitai River; Wairau Valley.
Pozoa reniformis, Hook. f. Slopes of Mount Peel, alt. 5,000 feet. Not previously known from beyond the Auckland Islands.
" trifoliolata, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau.
" pallida, Kirk. Mount Arthur plateau; Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.
" roughii, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.
Crantzia lineata, Nutt. Salt marshes near Nelson.
Apium australe, Thouars. Coast near Nelson.
" filiforme, Hook. Coast near Nelson.
Oreomyrrhis colensoi, Hook. f. Common in subalpine grassy places.
" ramosa, Hook. f. Head of Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Gorge.
Aciphylla squarrosa, Forst. Subalpine localities, not uncommon.
" colensoi, Hook. f. Subalpine and alpine localities, abundant.
" tyallii, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 5,500 feet.
" monroi, Hook. f. Abundant in alpine situations.
Ligusticum filifolium, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Wairau Mountains; Hope Mountains, etc.
" deltoideum, Cheeseman, n.sp. Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,500 feet.
" carnosulum, Hook. f. Shingle slopes above the Wairau Gorge.
" piliferum, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Mount Peel; Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge. Ascends to 6,500 feet.
" aromaticum, Banks and Sol. An abundant mountain plant.
" imbricatum, Hook. f. Summit of Mount Peel, alt. 6,000 feet.
Angelica gingidium, Hook. f. Abundant in many localities.
Daucus brachiatus, Sieber. Near Nelson, etc.
Panax simplex, Forst. Abundant in woods throughout the distriet.
" edgerleyi, Hook. f. Graham River; Pearce River.
" anomalum, Hook. Not. uncommon in lowland forests.
" lineare, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau and sources of the Takaka River, forming a large proportion of the undergrowth in the Fagus forest, above 3,000 feet alt. The most northern locality yet recorded.
Panax crassifolium, Dcne, and Planch. Common in woods below 2,000 feet alt.
" ferox, Kirk. Graham River; Buller Nelson, Kirk!
" colensoi, Hook. f. Abundant. Ascends to nearly 5,000 feet.
" arboreum, Forst. Common throughout the district.
Schefflera digitata, Forst. Nelson; Motueka; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
Griselinia lucida, Forst. Mackay's Knob, near Nelson.
" littoralis. Everywhere in the Fagus forests.
Corokia cotoneaster, Raoul. Nelson; Lake Rotoiti and Buller Valley; Wairau Valley.
Loranthus colensoi, Hook. f. Common; parasitic on the species of Fagus.
" decussatus, Kirk. Mount Arthur plateau; mountains in the Buller Valley; Wairau Valley. Ascends to a higher elevation than the preceding species.
" flavidus, Hook. f. Abundant; usually parasitic on Fagus solandri.
Tupeia antarctica, Cham, and Schl. Lower Motueka; Graham River.
Coprosma lucida, Forst. Abundant throughout the district.
" grandifolia, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Foxhill; Lower Motueka; Moutere, etc.; Buller Valley. I can find no previous record of the occurrence of this species in the South Island; but it is too abundant to have escaped observation.
" baueriana, Endl. Coast north of Nelson, T.F.C.; "Massacre Bay, Lyall " (Handbook).
" robusta, Raoul. Abundant.
" cunninghamii, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Graham River.
" serrulata, Hook. f. Alpine localities in Nelson, Buchanan (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. iii., p. 212).
" rotundifolia, A. Cunn. Apparently common in swampy forests at low elevations. Foxhill; Moutere; Lower Motueka, etc.
" rhamnoides, A. Cunn. Nelson; Foxhill, etc.
" parviflora, Hook. f. Common in many places.
" fætidissima, Forst. Plentiful throughout the district, in many places forming the chief undergrowth in the Fagus forests.
" cuneata, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains.
" acerosa, A. Cuin. Sand-hills, shores of Blind Bay.
" depressa, Col. ? Mount Arthur plateau.
" microcarpa, Col.? Graham River; Mount Arthur plateau; Maitai Valley, etc.
" linariifolia. Hook. f. Abundant.
" repens, Hook. f. In alpine localities, not uncommon. I can find no distinguishing characters between this and C. pumila, and believe both to be forms of the same plant.
Nertera depressa, Banks and Sol. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains.
" dichondrœfolia, Hook. f. Abundant.
Galium umbrosum, Forst. Nelson and vicinity; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
Asperula perpusilla, Hook. f. Not uncommon in dry and subalpine localities. Ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.
Olearia nitida, Hook. f. Not uncommon.
" cunninghamii, Hook. f. From Nelson and Motueka to the Big Bush, abundant.
" lacunosa, Hook. f. Sources of the Takaka River, alt. 3,000 feet; Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000 feet; Mountains between the Hope and Owen Rivers, Buller District, alt. 4,000 feet; "Lake Rotoroa " (Handbook).
Olearia nummularifolia, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Mount Arthur plateau; Wairau Mountains.
" cymbifolia, Hook. f. In several places in the Wairau Valley, alt. 1,500–3,000 feet.
" forsteri, Hook. f. Nelson and coast to the northward.
" avicenniæfolia, Hook. f. Abundant through the district.
" virgata, Hook. f. Common, especially in river valleys.
Celmisia, n. sp. Mount Arthur plateau, abundant between 4,000 and 5,000 feet elevation. A most handsome and distinct species, remarkable for the large and broad bracts.
" discolor, Hook. f. Plentiful. Dun Mountain; Wairau Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau; Buller Valley.
" hieracifolia, Hook. f. Dun Mountain.
" incana, Hook. f. Generally distributed in subalpine and alpine localities.
" sinclairii, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, alt. 5,000 feet. "Dun Mountain and Tarndale, Sinclair" (Handbook).
" coriacea, Hook. f. Plentiful.
" monroi, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Raglan Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau; Mount Peel.
" viscosa, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, 5–6,000 feet.
" spectabilis, Hook. f. Abundant above 1,000 feet altitude.
" traversii, Hook. f. Mount Arthur, Mount Peel, and adjoining high land, abundant from 4,500 to 5,800 feet; Raglan Mountains, 4–5,500 feet. A most magnificent species.
" cordatifolia, Buchanan. "Mount Starvation, Nelson, A. Mackay" (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xi., p. 427). I have not seen specimens of this, but it must be very close to C. traversii, if not a form of that plant.
" longifolia, Cass. Plentiful in the mountains; usually in swampy places.
" laricifolia, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Wairau Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau; Mount Peel; Hope Mountains, etc.
" lateralis, Buchanan. "Mountains near Lake Guyon, H. H. Travers" (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. iv., p. 226).
" n. sp. Slopes of Mount Arthur, 5–6,000 feet. Allied to C. hectori, but amply distinct.
" sessiliflora, Hook. f. A most abundant alpine plant, 3,500–6,000 feet alt.
" n. sp. Ravines on Mount Peel, alt. 5,000 feet. Nearest to C. walkeri, but easily distinguished by the smaller, narrower leaves, with margins revolute to the midrib.
Celmisia bellidioides, Hook. f. Mount Peel, alt. 5,500 feet.
" glandulosa, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau.
Vittadinia australis, A. Rich. Common; ascending to 4,000 feet. An Australian form of this genus, considered by Bentham (Flora Australiensis, iii., p. 491) to be a variety (dissecta) of V. australis is naturalized on sea-cliffs to the north of Nelson Harbour.
Lagenophora forsteri, DC. Not uncommon.
" petiolata, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley; Graham River; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,500 feet.
" pinnatifida, Hook. f. Wairau Valley, abundant.
Brachycome sinclairii, Hook. f. Apparently common in alpine situations. Dun Mountain; Wairau Mountains; Mount Arthur, etc.
Abrotanella linearis, Berggren. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,500 feet; Mountains between the Hope and Owen Rivers, alt. 4,000 feet.
" sp. Mountains between the Hope and Owen Rivers, alt. 4,000 feet, on bare granitic rocks. Perhaps A. pusilla, Hook. f., but the specimens are imperfect.
Cotula coronopifolia, L. Vicinity of Nelson; Moutere; Motueka, etc.
" atrata, Hook. f. Shingle slips, Wairau Gorge, ascending to 6,000 feet.
" minor, Hook. f. Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
" pyrethrifolia, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Mount Peel; Raglan Range; Wairau Gorge (ascending to 6,300 feet).
" perpusilla, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; "Tarndale, Sinclair" (Handbook).
" dioica, Hook. f. Apparently not uncommon. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley, etc.
" squalida, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.
Craspedia fimbriata, DC. Abundant in the mountains.
" alpina, Backhouse. Often found with the preceding.
Cassinia leptophylla, Br. Near Nelson, and shores of Blind Bay, abundant; Foxhill; Upper Motueka; Motupiko, etc.
" fulvida, Hook. f. Dun Mountain range; Mount Arthur plateau.
" vauvilliersii, Hook. f. A common mountain plant.
Ozothamnus glomeratus, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Wakapuaka; Motueka; Graham River.
" microphyllus, Hook. f. Mount Peel; Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge.
" depressus, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.
" selago, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge.
Raoulia australis, Hook. f. Abundant in shingly river beds, etc., from sea-level (mouth of the Motueka River) to 4,000 feet elevation.
" apice-nigra, Kirk. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, ascending to 6,000 feet.
" tenuicaulis, Hook. f. Abundant in similar localities to R. australis.
" subulata, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, alt. 6,000 ft.
" glabra, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Raglan Range; Wairau Gorge.
" subsericea, Hook. f. Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
" grandiflora, Hook. f. An abundant alpine plant, ascending to 6,000 feet.
" mammillaris, Hook. f. Summit of Mount Peel, alt. 6,000 feet.
" bryoides, Hook. f. St. Arnaud Mountains; Raglan Range; Wairau Gorge.
Gnaphalium bellidioides, Hook. f. Common.
" lyallii, Hook. f. "Massacre Bay, Lyall" (Handbook).
" keriense, A. Cunn. "Near Nelson, Travers" (Handbook).
" filicaule, Hook. f. Abundant on dry hillsides, etc.
" traversii, Hook. f. Wairau Valley, not uncommon.
" nitidulum, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000 feet. Specimens immature, and identification consequently doubtful.
" luteo-album, L. Abundant throughout the district.
" colensoi, Hook f. Raglan Range, alt. 5,000 feet; mountains above the Wairau Gorge, 5,000–6,000 feet.
" grandiceps, Hook. f. Mount Arthur; Mount Peel.
" involueratum, Forst. Abundant throughout the district.
" collinum, Lab. Common. Ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.
Haastia pulvinaris, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, alt. 5,000–6,000 feet.
" recurva, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge; Mount Peel, alt. 5,000–6,000 feet.
" sinclairii, Hook. f. Raglan Range and St. Arnaud Mountains, alt. 4,000–5,500 feet, not uncommon on dry shingle slopes.
Erechtites prenanthoides, DC. Nelson and vicinity; Moutere; Motueka; Foxhill, etc.
" arguta, DC. Nelson to Motueka, not uncommon.
" scaberula, Hook. f. Near Nelson.
" glabrescens, Kirk. Graham River; Upper Takaka; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,500 feet; Upper Buller Valley; Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.
" quadridentata, DC. Abundant.
Senecio lagopus, Raoul. Common in subalpine localities.
" bellidioides, Hook. f. Common with the preceding.
" latifolius, Banks and Sol. Sources of the Takaka River, alt. 3,000 feet. Leaves unusually broad, but the specimens do not otherwise differ from North Island ones.
" lautus, Forst. Coast near Nelson, and shores of Blind Bay, abundant; Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,000 feet (a stout, succulent, large-flowered form).
" lyallii, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge; mountains by the Rainbow River.
" hectori, Buchanan. Graham River, Pearce River, and other tributaries of the Motueka rising on the Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 400 to 2,800 feet; sources of the Takaka River, alt. 3,000 feet; Upper Buller Valley. I am also informed that it is abundant in the upper part of the Aorere Valley. The finest species of the genus in New Zealand.
" laxiflorus, Buchanan. Wairau Gorge, alt. 3,000 feet.
" elæagnifolius, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, abundant; Upper Buller Valley; Wairau Valley.
" bidwillii, Hook. f. "Mountains of Nelson, Bidwill, Rough" (Handbook).
" n. sp. Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, ascending to 5,500 feet. Allied to S. robusta, Buchanan, but differing in the lax panicled infloresence, smaller, oblong, much more coriaceous leaves, with strongly revolute margins. The whole plant is even more viscid than S. robusta. Inflorescence nearly glabrous.
" monroi, Hook. f. "Nelson Mountains, Monro" (Handbook).
" cassinioides, Hook. f. Upper Wairau Valley.
Brachyglottis repanda, Forst. Lowland forests, especially on dry soils.
Traversia baccharoides, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Upper Buller Valley and Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.
Microseris forsteri, Hook. f. Common.
Crepis novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.
Taraxacum dens-leonis, Desf. In many places on the mountains.
Sonchus oleraceus, L. Abundant through the district.
Oreostylidium subulatum, Berggren. Not uncommon in alpine localities. Mount Arthur plateau, Hope Mountains; Buller Valley, between the Devil's Grip and Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Mountains; Wairau Gorge.
Forstera sedifolia, Linn. f. Hope Mountains, Buller District, alt. 4,000 feet; Wairau Gorge.
" tenella, Hook. f. Not uncommon in subalpine and alpine localities.
Phyllachne colensoi, Hook. f. An abundant alpine plant.
Wahlenbergia gracilis, A. Rich. Abundant throughout the district.
" saxicola, A.DC. Abundant throughout the district.
" cartilaginea, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge.
Lobelia anceps, Thunb. Near Nelson, etc.
" roughii, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Wairau Gorge.
Pratia angulata, Hook. f. Abundant.
" macrodon, Hook. f. Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge.
Selliera radicans, Cav. Salt marshes, Blind Bay.
Gaultheria antipoda, Forst. Abundant.
" rupestris, Br. Throughout the district, but not so common as the preceding.
Cyathodes acerosa, Br. Abundant.
" empetrifolia. An abundant mountain plant.
" colensoi, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; mountains between the Hope and Owen Rivers; Raglan Mountains.
" pumila, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet.
Lencopogon fasciculatus, A. Rich. Generally distributed below 3,000 feet alt.
" fraseri, A. Cunn. Abundant. Ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.
Pentachondra pumila, Br. Common in mountain districts, alt. 2,000–5,500 feet.
Epacris pauciflora, A, Rich. “Nelson” (Handbook).
" alpina, Hook. f. Mountains between the Hope and Owen Rivers, alt. 4,000 feet.
Archeria traversii, Hook. f. Sources of the Takaka River; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,000 feet; “Aorere River” (Handbook).
Dracophyllum traversii, Hook. f. Upper Takaka; Mount Arthur plateau; 3,000–4,500 feet.
" longifolium, Br. Dun Mountain range; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
" urvilleanum, A. Rich. Not uncommon, ascending to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.
" uniflorum, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains; Wairau Gorge, etc.
" rosmarinifolium, Forst. Dun Mountain; Wairau Mountains; Mount Arthur, etc.
Myrsine salicina, Heward. Moutere, Ngatimoti, etc., in woods at low elevations. I am not aware of any previous record from the South Island.
" urvillei, A.DC. Not uncommon in woods at low elevations.
" divaricata, A. Cunn. Common, ascends to 3,500 feet near Mount Arthur.
" montana, Hook. f. Upper Maitai Valley.
" nummmularifolia, Hook. f. Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge; Hope Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau.
Samolus repens, Pers. Coast near Nelson, and shores of Blind Bay.
Parsonsia albiflora, Raoul. Common at low elevations.
" rosea, Raoul. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley.
Gentiana montana, Forst. All more or less abundant in mountain districts.
" pleurogynoides, Griseb.
" saxosa, Forst.
Myosotis spathulata, Forst. Near Nelson; Maitai Valley; Wairau Valley.
" antarctica, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.
" australis, Br. Mount Arthur plateau, up to 4,500 feet; Wairau Valley 2,000–4,500 feet.
" forsteri, Ræm. and Sch. Near Nelson; Takaka River; Buller Valley.
" traversii, Hook. f. Shingle slopes, Wairau Gorge, alt. 5,000–6,000 feet; "Tarndale, Sinclair" (Handbook).
Exarrhena macrantha, Hook. f. Dun Mountain, alt. 4,000 feet; Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, ascending to 5,500 feet; Wairau Mountains, 3,000–5,000 feet.
" saxosa, Hook. f. Dun Mountain, 4,000 feet; Raglan Mountains, 4,000–4,500 feet.
Convolvulus sepium, L. Common at low elevations.
" tuguriorum, Forst. Not uncommon.
" soldanella, L. Sand-hills, Blind Bay.
Dichondra repens, Forst. Nelson to Motueka, abundant.
Solanum aviculare, Forst. Motueka, Motupiko, etc.
" nigrum, L. Nelson.
Mimulus repens, Br. “Nelson, Bidwill” (Flora Novæ-Zealandiæ, vol. i., p. 188).
" radicans, Hook. f. Hope Mountains, Buller District.
Glossostigma elatinoides, Benth. Lake Rotoiti.
Limosella aquatica, L., var. tenuifolia. Buller Valley.
Veronica salicifolia, Forst. Common.
" parviflora, Vahl. Near Nelson; Motueka Valley; Buller Valley.
" ligustrifolia, A. Cunn. Near Nelson.
" traversii, Hook. f. Common in river valleys in the interior of the district.
" vernicosa, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,500 feet; Buller Valley; Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley to Wairau Gorge, etc.
" colensoi, Hook. f. Not uncommon.
" lævis, Benth. Dun Mountain Range; Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, etc.
" buxifolia, Benth. Wairau Valley to the Wairau Gorge; Buller Valley and the adjacent mountains; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 5,000 feet.
" carnosula, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge, etc.
" pinguifolia, Hook. f. Mount Arthur; Mount Peel; Wairau Gorge, etc.
" pimeleoides, Hook. f. Rainbow River and Wairau Gorge.
" lycopodioides, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains, abundant above 4,000 feet.
" tetrasticha, Hook. f. Mount Arthur, abundant; St. Arnaud Mountains; Wairau Gorge.
" armstrongii, Kirk. Mount Arthur plateau; mountains between the Hope and Owen rivers; Wairau Mountains.
" salicornioides, Hook. f. Mountains above the Rainbow River.
" cupressoides, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge.
" haastii, Hook. f. Summit of Mount Arthur, 5,500–6,000 feet.
" epacridea, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, ascending to 6,300 feet.
" macrantha, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains; Mount Peel.
" raoulii, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.
" lyallii, Hook. f. Buller Valley; Wairau Valley.
" bidwillii, Hook. f. River valleys in the interior of the district, not uncommon.
Veronica, n. sp. Raglan Mountains, alt. 5,500 feet. Habit approaching that of Pygmæa; but the corolla lobes are of the normal number; and the calyx is very peculiar, having long pinnatifid lobes. Very distinct from any described species.
Pygmæa pulvinaris, Hook. f. Raglan Mountains, 4,500–5,500 feet; mountains above the Wairau Gorge; summit of Mount Arthur.
Ourisia macrophylla, Hook. Abundant in sub-alpine damp and shaded localities.
" colensoi, Hook. f. Mount Peel; Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.
" cæspitosa, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains.
Euphrasia monroi, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; St. Arnaud Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau, etc.
" revoluta, Hook. f. St. Arnaud Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau.
" antarctica, Hook. f. An abundant alpine plant.
Teucridium parvifolium, Hook. f. “Nelson, Bidwill, Travers” (Handbook).
Myoporum lætum, Forst. Near Nelson; Stoke; Spring-grove; and other places near the shores of Blind Bay.
Mentha cunninghamii, Benth. Not uncommon, ascending to 4,500 feet alt.
Scutellaria novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Maitai Valley; “Foxhill, Monro” (Handbook).
Plantago brownii, Rapin. Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.
" raoulii, Decaisne. Abundant, ascending to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.
Chenopodium triandrum, Forst. Near Nelson.
" glaucum, L., var. ambiguum. Salt marshes, Nelson Harbour, and shores of Blind Bay.
Suæda maritima, Dum. Shores of Blind Bay.
Atriplex patula, L. Salt marshes, Nelson Harbour.
Salicornia indica, Willd. Muddy shores, Nelson Harbour and Blind Bay.
Scleranthus biflorus, Hook. f. Abundant through the district, ascending to 4,500 feet. A very variable plant. A variety with the flowers solitary instead of in pairs, is common in the Wairau Valley.
Polygonum minus, Huds., var. decipiens. Lowland swamps. Nelson; Moutere; Lower Motueka, etc.
" aviculare, L. Abundant.
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Muhlenbeckia adpressa, Lab. Abundant below 2,000 feet.
" complexa, Lab.
" axillaris, Hook. f. Of general occurrence in dry open shingly places.
Rumex flexuosus, Forst. Near Nelson; Lower Motueka; Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,500 feet.
Nesodaphne tawa, Hook. f. Vicinity of Nelson, but not common.
Atherosperma novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Wakapuaka. I am informed by Mr. Gaukrodger that some unusually fine examples formerly existed in the lower part of the Brook Street Valley, within the precincts of the present town of Nelson.
Hedycarya dentata, Forst. Near Nelson and coast to the northwards; Graham River and Lower Motueka.
Pimelea longifolia, Banks and Sol. “Nelson Mountains, ascending to 2,000 feet, Travers” (Handbook).
" gnidia, Forst. Upper Maitai Valley.
" virgata, Vahl. Near Nelson.
" prostrata, Vahl. Not uncommon throughout the district.
" lyallii, Hook. f. Dun Mountain range; Mount Arthur plateau; St. Arnaud Mountains, etc.
Drapetes dieffenbachii, Hook. A common alpine plant.
" lyallii, Hook. f. Hope Mountains, Buller Valley; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.
Exocarpus bidwillii, Hook. f. Dun Mountain and adjacent hills; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
Poranthera microphylla, Brong. Upper Maitai Valley.
" alpina, Cheeseman, n. sp. Mount Arthur, alt. 5,000–6,000 feet.
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Fagus menziesii, Hook. f. Abundant in forests throughout the province.
" fusca, Hook. f.
" solandri, Hook. f.
" cliffortioides, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau.
Urtica incisa, Poir. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000 feet.
" ferox, Forst. Graham River, not common.
Parietaria debilis, Forst. Nelson.
Australina pusilla, Gaud. Lower Motueka; Graham River.
Piper excelsum, Forst. Near Nelson; Motueka Valley, etc.
Libocedrus bidwillii, Hook. f. Abundant in mountain forests, ascending to 4,500 feet.
Podocarpus ferruginea, Don. Lowland forests, not uncommon.
" nivalis, Hook. f. Mount Arthur, Mount Peel, etc., alt. 4–5,000 feet; mountains above the Wairau Gorge, alt. 3,500–5,000 feet.
" totara, A. Cunn. Abundant in lowland woods. A distinct looking variety (?) is common in the Buller Valley, and often fruits when only two or three feet in height.
" spicata, Br. Abundant in lowland forests.
" dacrydioides, A. Rich. Abundant in moist lowland forests.
Dacrydium cupressinum, Sol. Throughout the district.
" intermedium, Kirk. Dun Mountain range; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley, alt. 2,000–4,000 feet.
" laxifolium, Hook. f. An abundant subalpine and alpine plant. Dun Mountain; Wairau Mountains; Mount Arthur and neighbouring high land; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley.
" bidwillii, Hook. f. Common on the mountains. Dun Mountain; forming most of the shrubby vegetation above the Fagus forest on the Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet; Hope Mountains and elsewhere in the Buller Valley; Lake Rotoiti; St. Arnaud Mountains; Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.
" colensoi, Hook. Dun Mountain range; Wairau Mountains.
Phyllocladus trichomanoides, Don. Maitai Valley.
" alpinus, Hook. f. An abundant subalpine tree.
Earina mucronata, Lindl. Vicinity of Nelson; Maitai Valley.
Gastrodia cunninghamii, Hook. f. Maitai Valley; Moutere Hills; Graham River; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
Cyrtostylis oblonga, Hook. f. Buller Valley.
Adenochilus gracilis, Hook. f. Buller Valley, between the Hope and Owen Rivers. Not previously recorded from the South Island.
Corysanthes triloba, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Graham river; Wairau Valley.
" oblonga, Hook. f. Near Nelson.
" rotundifolia, Hook. f. "Nelson, Travers" (Handbook).
" macrantha, Hook. f. Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
Microtis porrifolia, Spreng. Vicinity of Nelson; Moutere Hills; Foxhill; Motupiko; Wairau Valley.
Caladenia lyallii, Hook. f. St. Arnaud Mountains, 4,000 feet; Mount Arthur, abundant between 4,500 and 5,500 feet.
Pterostylis banksii, Brown. Not uncommon.
Chiloglottis cornuta, Hook. f. Buller Valley.
" traversii, F. Muell. Wairau Valley and the adjoining mountains, not uncommon; Mount Arthur plateau, abundant.
Thelymitra longifolia, Forst. Abundant in lowland districts.
" pulchella, Hook. f. Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.
" uniflora, Hook. f. Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau.
Prasophyllum colensoi, Hook. f. Not uncommon; ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.
Orthoceras solandri, Lindl. Near Nelson; Foxhill; Spooner's Ridge. In the Handbook stated to ascend to an elevation of 4,000 feet in the Nelson District, on the authority of Bidwill. I have never seen it above 1,200 feet.
Libertia ixioides, Spreng. Near Nelson; Lower Motueka; Graham River; Buller Valley.
" micrantha, A. Cunn. Nelson; Buller Valley, most abundant.
Freycinetia banksii, A. Cunn. Lowland forests, but not common. Nelson and coast to the northwards: Lower Motueka; Graham River.
Typha angustifolia, L. Common in swamps at low elevations.
Triglochin triandrum, Michaux. Nelson Harbour; brackish-water swamps, head of Blind Bay.
Potamogeton natans, L. Moutere; Motupiko; Wairau Valley; Lake Rotoiti and Buller Valley.
Ruppia maritima, L. Salt-marshes, Blind Bay.
Zostera marina, L. Nelson Harbour.
Rhipogonum scandens, Forst. Near Nelson, and coast to the north; Moutere Hills; Lower Motueka; Graham River, ascending to 1,500 ft.
Callixene parviflora, Hook. f. Dun Mountain range; Wairau Valley.
Cordyline australis, Hook. f. Abundant below 2,000 feet alt.; usually in river valleys.
" banksii, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Motueka Valley; Graham River.
" hookeriana, Kirk. Sources of the Takaka River, alt. 3,000–3,500 feet.
Dianella intermedia, Endl. Nelson and vicinity; Moutere; Motueka; Spooner's Range; Buller Valley.
Astelia cunninghamii, Hook. f. “Aorere Valley, Travers” (Handbook).
" linearis, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Mount Arthur plateau.
" nervosa, Sol. Abundant in subalpine localities.
Arthropodium candidum, Raoul. Maitai Valley; Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau; Buller Valley.
Anthericum hookeri, Col. Common in subalpine and alpine swamps.
Phormium tenax, Forst. Abundant. Ascends to 5,000 feet on Mount Arthur.
" colensoi, Hook. f. Abundant.
Herpolirion novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet, most abundant.
Areca sapida, Soland. Wakapuaka, T.F.C.; Lower Takaka Valley, Aorere Valley, abundant, J. Heath.
Juncus vaginatus, Br. Nelson; Foxhill; Lake Rotoiti; Buller Valley.
" australis, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.
" maritimus, Lam. Nelson Harbour and shores of Blind Bay.
" communis, E. Mey. Abundant throughout the district.
" planifolius, Br. Nelson, Motueka, etc.
" bufonius, L. Abundant through the district. Ascends to 4,000 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.
" sp. (Allied to J. prismatocarpus, Br.) Motueka Valley.
" scheuzerioides, Gaud.? Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,500 feet. Specimens immature, and perhaps not really belonging to this species.
" novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Common in subalpine localities.
" articulatus, L., var. lamprocarpus. Not uncommon. Foxhill; Motueka; Motupiko; Moutere; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,500 feet.
Rostkovia gracilis, Hook. f. Mount Arthur; Mount Peel; Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge, ascending to 6,000 feet.
Luzula campestris, DC. Abundant throughout the district.
" oldfieldii, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge.
Luzula pumila, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, ascending to 6,300 feet.
" colensoi, Hook. f. Hope Mountains, Buller Valley, alt. 4,000 feet.
Leptocarpus simplex, A. Rich. Salt-marshes, Nelson Harbour and shores of Blind Bay.
Calorophus elongata, var. minor. Not uncommon in subalpine bogs.
Gaimardia setacea, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet; Wairau Gorge.
Alepyrum, n. sp. Mount Arthur plateau, with the preceding; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley; Wairau Gorge.
Cyperus ustulatus, A. Rich. Lowland districts, common.
Schænus pauciflorus, Hook. f. A common alpine and subalpine plant.
Carpha alpina, Br. Everywhere in alpine bogs, ascending to 6,000 feet.
Scirpus maritimus, L. Shores of Blind Bay.
" pungens, Vahl. Nelson Harbour, abundant.
Isolepis nodosa, Br. Nelson and vicinity, Buller Valley.
" prolifer, Br. Near Nelson; Motueka; Graham River; Buller Valley; etc.
" riparia, Br. Nelson, etc.
" cartilaginea, Br. Dun Mountain.
" aucklandica, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains; Wairau Valley.
Desmoschænus spiradis, Hook. f. Sandhills, Blind Bay.
Gahnia setifolia, Hook. f. Near Nelson.
" procera, Forst. Buller Valley, between the Hope and Owen Rivers.
" hectori, Kirk. Near Nelson; slopes of Dun Mountain; Graham River; Lower Motueka; Buller Valley.
" ebenocarpa, Hook. f. Lower Motueka Valley.
Lepidosperma tetragona, Hook. f. Nelson; Foxhill; Motueka and Motupiko; Wairau Valley.
Oreobolus pumilio, Br. Common in alpine bogs.
Uncinia leptostachya, Raoul. Near Nelson; Foxhill.
" compacta, var. divaricata. Mount Arthur plateau; Wairau Valley; Raglan Mountains.
" australis, Pers. Common.
" cæpitosa, Boott. Not uncommon.
" rupestris, Raoul? Upper Takaka; Graham River.
" filiformis, Boott. Upper Takaka; Buller Valley.
" rubra, Boott. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–4,500 feet, abundant.
Carex pyrenaica, Wahl. Summit of Mount Arthur, circa 6,000 feet; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley, 4,000 feet; Raglan Mountains, 4,000–5,500 feet.
" acicularis, Boott. Mount Arthur plateau; Wairau Valley and adjacent mountains; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley.
" inversa, Br. Buller Valley.
" colensoi, Hook. f. Not uncommon.
" stellulata, Good. Wairau Valley, etc.; Lake Rotoiti; Buller Valley; Mount Arthur plateau.
" leporina, Good. Swampy hollows on granitic rocks, Ngatimoti; Graham River; Motueka Valley.
" kaloides, Petrie. Wairau Valley, abundant. A very distinct and well-marked species.
" virgata, Soland. The typical form and the variety secta both abundant.
" gaudichaudiana, Kunth. Buller Valley; Wairau Mountains, etc.; Mount Arthur plateau.
" subdola, Boott. "Acheron Valley, alt. 4,000 feet, Travers" (Handbook).
" ternaria, Forst. Abundant throughout the district. Ascends to 4,500 ft.
" testacea, Soland. (?) Near Nelson, and elsewhere.
" raoulii, Boott. Nelson and vicinity; Motueka; Graham River; Wairau Valley, etc.
" goyeni, Petrie, ms. Graham River. A very distinct new species, of which I have specimens also from Otago, sent by Mr. Petrie under the above name.
" lucida, Boott. Abundant.
" pulchella, Berggren. Wairau Valley.
" neesiana, Endl. Vicinity of Nelson.
" dissita, Soland. Abundant.
" lambertiana, Boott. Abundant.
" breviculmis, Br. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
" pumila, Thunb. Sandy shores of Blind Bay.
" forsteri, Wahl. Not uncommon.
" cinnamomea, Cheeseman, n. sp. Sources of the Takaka River, alt. 3,000 feet.
Ehrharta colensoi, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, and slopes of Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, 4,000–5,500 feet, abundant.
Microlæna stipoides, Br. Near Nelson; Moutere; Lower Motueka.
" avenacea, Hook. f. Nelson; Foxhill; Moutere Hills; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
" polynoda, Hook. f. Lower Motueka; Graham River.
Alopecurus geniculatus, L. Wairau Valley.
Hierochloe redolens, Br. Not uncommon.
" alpina, Rœm. & Sch. Common in subalpine and alpine localities.
Spinifex hirsutus, Labill. Sandhills, Blind Bay.
Panicum imbecille, Trin. “Nelson, Travers” (Buchanan, N.Z. Grasses).
Zoysia pungens, Willd. Near Nelson; Motueka Valley, abundant.
Echinopogon ovatus, Pal. Nelson; Foxhill; Moutere; Lower Motueka.
Dichelachne crinita, Hook. f. Nelson and vicinity; Spooner's Range; Motueka Valley; Graham River; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
Agrostis muscosa, Kirk. Buller Valley, between Lake Rotoiti and the Devil's Grip.
" canina, L. An abundant alpine plant.
" muelleri, Benth. Raglan Mountains, 3,000–5,000 feet; Mount Arthur; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley.
" parviflora, Br. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge.
" æmula, Br. Common at low elevations through the district.
" pilosa, A. Rich. "Subalpine districts of Nelson, Travers" (Buchanan, N.Z. Grasses).
" billardieri, Br. Coast near Nelson.
" setifolia, Hook. f. I have a specimen of this from Mr. Buchanan, labelled "Mount Arthur, A. McKay."
" avenoides, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.
" quadriseta, Br. Abundant.
Arundo conspicua, Forst. Abundant at low elevations.
Danthonia cunninghamii, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Buller Valley, etc.
" raoulii, Steud. Abundant in alpine and subalpine localities.
" flavescens, Hook. f.
" pilosa, Br. Nelson and vicinity; Lower Motueka.
" semi-annularis, Br. Abundant throughout the district, at all elevations.
" nuda, Br. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000 feet.
Deschampsia cæspitosa, Pal. Not uncommon. Ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.
Kæleria cristata, Pers. Common, especially in subalpine localities.
Trisetum antarcticum, Trin. Abundant, ascending to 4,500 feet.
" subspicatum, Pal. Raglan Range, 4,000–6,000 feet.
" youngii, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet, abundant.
Glyceria stricta, Hook. f. Nelson Harbour.
Poa breviglumis, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,000 feet.
" foliosa, Hook. f., var. β. Mount Arthur plateau and the adjacent mountains; Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.
" anceps, Forst. Abundant in some of its forms throughout the district, in all situations.
" australis, Br., var. lævis. Abundant, especially in flat river valleys.
" colensoi, Hook. f. Abundant, especially in alpine and subalpine localities.
" kirkii, Buchanan. Upper Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet, abundant.
" mackayi, Buchanan. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,500 feet, not so common as the preceding.
Festuca littoralis, Lab. Sandhills, Blind Bay.
" duriuscula, L. Abundant in the mountains.
Triticum multiflorum, Banks and Sol. Vicinity of Nelson.
" scabrum, Br. Not uncommon.
Gymnostichum gracile, Hook. f. Lower Motueka; Graham River.
Gleichenia dicarpa, Br., var. alpina. Wairau Mountains; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley, ascending to 4,000 feet.
Cyathea dealbata, Swz. Lowland forests. Near Nelson; Motueka, etc.; Graham River; Buller Valley.
" medullaris, Swz. Lowland forests. Nelson and vicinity; Lower takaka.
Hemitelia smithii, Hook. Near Nelson; Maitai Valley, etc.; Motueka Valley; Graham River; Buller Valley.
Alsophila colensoi, Hook. f. Sources of the Takaka River; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 3,500 feet; Buller Valley.
Dicksonia squarrosa, Swartz. Common at low elevations.
" antarctica, Br. Common at low elevations.
" lanata, Col. "Massacre Bay, Travers" (Handbook).
Hymenophyllum rarum, Br. Vicinity of Nelson; Graham River; Buller Valley.
" polyanthos, Swz. Abundant below 2,000 feet.
" villosum, Col. Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,000 feet; Buller Valley.
" javannicum, Spreng. Maitai Valley.
" demissum, Swz. Abundant in lowland forests.
" flabellatum, Lab. Not uncommon. Ascends to 3,500 feet on the Upper Takaka.
Hymenophyllum scabrum, A. Rich. Nelson; Maitai Valley and Dun Mountain Range; Lower Motueka; Graham River; Buller Valley.
" dilatatum, Swz. Not uncommon in damp lowland forests.
" pulcherrimum, Col. Takaka Valley; Buller Valley.
" ciliatum, Swz. "Nelson, Travers" (Handbook).
" subtilisimum, Kunze. Maitai Valley, etc.
" rufescens, Kirk. Sources of the Takaka River; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,000 feet; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley.
" malingii, Mett. "Mountains between Blind Bay and Massacre Bay, Maling, Brunner" (Handbook).
" tunbridgense, Sm. Not uncommon.
" multifidum, Swz. Nelson; Motueka; Buller Valley, etc.
" bivalve, Swz. Common in Fagus forests, etc., throughout the district.
Trichomanes reniforme, Swz. Maitai Valley, etc.; Graham River; Takaka River; Buller Valley.
" venosum, Br. Graham River, etc.
" colensoi, Hook. f. "Nelson, Travers" (Handbook).
" strictum, Menz. "Massacre Bay, Lyall, Travers" (Handbook).
Davallia novæ-zealandiæ, Col. Graham River, Motueka.
Cystopteris fragilis, Bern. In alpine localities. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet; Wairau Gorge, 3,000–6,000 feet; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley, 4,000 feet; Raglan Range.
Lindsaya viridis, Col. “Massacre Bay, Lyall” (Journal of Botany, 1878, p. 108).
Adiantum affine, Willd. Common in lowland districts.
" æthiopicum, Swz. Near Nelson.
Hypolepis tenuifolia, Bernh. Foxhill; Graham River; Wairau Valley.
" millefolium, Hook. Common in the interior of the district. Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley; Mount Arthur plateau.
" distans, Hook. Maitai Valley.
Cheilanthes sieberi, Kunze. Vicinity of Nelson.
Pellæa rotundifolia, Forst. Lowland situations, not uncommon.
Pteris aquilina, L., var. esculenta. Abundant at low elevations in the eastern portion of the district.
" tremula, Br. Motueka Valley; Graham River; near Nelson.
" scaberula, A. Rich. Nelson; Motueka; Moutere; Buller Valley.
" incisa, Lab. Not uncommon at low elevations.
" macilenta, A. Rich. Near Nelson.
Lomaria procera, Spreng. Abundant through the district.
" fluviatilis, Spreng. Lower Motueka; Graham River; Moutere; Buller Valley.
" filiformis, A. Cunn. Near Nelson; Lower Motueka.
" vulcanica, Blume. Not uncommon. Nelson; Graham River; Upper Motueka; Big Bush; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
" patersoni, Spreng. Vicinity of Nelson; Maitai Valley; Foxhill; Buller Valley.
" lanceolata, Spreng. Common.
" discolor, Willd. Common.
" alpina, Spreng. Abundant, especially in the high interior country. Ascends to 5,000 feet.
" fraseri, A. Cunn. "Massacre Bay, Lyall" (Handbook).
Asplenium obtusatum, Forst. Nelson and coast to the north; Motueka Valley; Moutere; Graham River, etc. An alpine variety ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.
" trichomanes, L. Wairau Gorge.
" flabellifolium, Cav. Nelson; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,500 feet.
" falcatum, Lam. Lower Motueka; Moutere Hills; Graham River.
" hookerianum, Col. Maitai Valley; Graham River.
" bulbiferum, Forst. Abundant.
" colensoi, Hook. f. Maitai Valley.
" richardi, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge.
" flaccidum, Forst. Abundant through the district, ascending to 3,000 feet.
" umbrosum, Br. "Nelson, Travers" (Handbook).
Aspidium aculeatum, Swartz, var. vestitum. Abundant throughout the district; ascending to 4,000 feet.
" richardi, Hook. Maitai Valley; Nelson; Motueka; Graham River.
" cystostegia, Hook. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge; Raglan Mountains.
" capense, Willd. Lower Motueka; Graham River.
Nephrodium velutinum, Hook f. Vicinity of Nelson; Graham River.
" decompositum, Br. Near Nelson; Moutere; Motueka; Graham River.
" hispidum, Hook. Nelson and vicinity; Lower Motueka; Graham River.
Polypodium australe, Mett. Not uncommon. A dwarf variety ascends to 4,000 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.
Polypodium grammitidis, Br. Nelson; Foxhill; Graham River.
" pennigerum, Forst. Lowland localities, not uncommon.
" punctatum, Thunb. Nelson; Foxhill; Moutere; Graham River.
" serpens, Forst. Nelson and coast to the north; Lower Motueka.
" cunninghamii, Hook. Maitai Valley.
" pustulatum, Forst. Nelson; Lower Motueka; Graham River.
" billardieri, Br. Abundant in lowland districts.
Nothochlæna distans, Br. Near Nelson.
Todea hymenophylloides, Presl. Plentiful through the district.
" superba, Col. Takaka Valley, ascending to 3,500 feet; Buller Valley. "Near Reefton, Valley of the Inangahua, etc., not uncommon,” R. W. Raithby!
Ophioglossum vulgatum, L. Maitai Valley; Wairau Valley; Lake Rotoiti.
Botrychium ternatum, Swz. Maitai Valley; near Foxhill; Wairau Valley.
Lycopodium selago, L. Wairau Gorge; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley; Mount Arthur plateau.
" varium, Br. Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau.
" billardieri, Spring. Near Nelson.
" clavatum, L., var. magellanicum. Abundant in subalpine localities.
" scariosum, Forst. Near Nelson; Dun Mountain range; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.
" volubile, Forst. Abundant throughout the district.
Azolla rubra, Br. Near Nelson; Motueka Valley; Wairau Valley.
Isoetes alpinus, Kirk. Lake Rotoiti, abundant.
Art. XLVI.—A Description of a few new Plants from our New Zealand Forests.
[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 14th November, 1881.]
Class I. Dicotyledons.
Order 1. Ranunculaceæ.
Genus 1. Clematis, Linn.
Clematis quadribracteolata, n.sp.
Plant diæcious, small, very slender, trailing, extending only a few feet each way; branches sulcated, glabrous or with the young ones slightly and finely puberulent; leaves few, very minute, trifoliolate, on long petiolules 2–3 lines long, mostly ovate-acuminate and broadly lanceolate, or spathulate, ½–1½ lines long, and sometimes linear-lanceolate 3–5 lines long acute with a knobbed point, no lateral veins, only a mid-rib, with here and there a
trifid leaflet, glabrous on both sides, sub-coriaceous, entire, dark-green margined with a deep black line; petioles glabrous, opposite, 1–2 inches long; flowers opposite, axillary solitary, sometimes (though rarely) two from one axil, and very rarely three pedicelled on one peduncle; peduncle ½–1½ inches long, shorter than petioles, tri- and quadri-bracteolate, slightly pubescent below, densely so from uppermost pair of bracteoles; bracteoles free, connate, cup-shaped, pubescent, very obtuse and rotund at apices, obsoletely veined, each pair increasing in size upwards, the largest pair nearest the flower; sepals four, dull light-purple, thin, slightly spreading and revolute, 3 rarely 4 lines long, ovate, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, glabrous within, silky pubescent without, ciliated, finely and obscurely veined longitudinally with 4–5 veins; male flowers on peduncles usually shorter than those bearing the hermaphrodite ones, and with only three pairs of bracteoles; anthers 25–28, elliptic, obtuse, light yellow; filaments broadly linear-lanceolate, flat, dark purple, outer shorter than sepals, inner sub-sessile; hermaphrodite flowers with only four stamens; pistils white, silky, very glossy at first, a little longer than sepals, glabrous, curved and clubbed at points; achenes 22–24, capitate, sessile, ovate, subsetose with short white hairs; tails very hairy, 8–9 lines long.
Hab.—In low-lying marshy spots, Hawke's Bay, S.W. and S. side.
This little plant has long been imperfectly known, no doubt partly owing to its small size (when compared with its indigenous congeners), to its want of striking colours, to its lowly growth, and to its peculiar habitat—hidden among the rank vegetation of marshes and on the edges of watery places, and not unfrequently springing from within a large tuft of Carex virgata. I first met with it so long back as 1847, on the banks of the Lake Rotoatara, near Te Aute, but my specimens then were incomplete. Subsequently (1872) it was detected by Mr. Sturm in the low ground between the Ngaruroro and Tukituki rivers, near Clive. Mr. Sturm also removed plants to his nurseries in hopes of cultivating them, but failed. Last year (1880) it was also found by Mr. Hamilton, in similar localities, near Petane; from him I have received ample specimens, in various states, which have enabled me to draw up this description. Though small, it is a neat-looking, almost a graceful plant, and differs widely from all our indigenous species of Clematis, as well as from the described Australian, Tasmanian, and South Pacific species. This species has but very slight affinity with C. fœtida, Raoul, under which species Dr. Sir Jos. Hooker had provisionally placed it as a variety.*
Clematis parkinsoniana, W.C.
Hermaphrodite, or Female, Plant: Leaves trifoliolate, smaller and much more regular in size and outline than in the male plant, each leaflet usually ovate, 4–10 lines long, and deeply incised with 2–6 incisions,
[Footnote] * “Flora Novæ-Zealandiæ,” vol. i., p. 7, and “Handbook New Zealand Flora,” p. 2.
mucronate, not unfrequently a leaflet is again subdivided into three leaflets, when each lesser leaflet is also petiolulate, and then is pinnate below; veins as in male plant; hairs the same, but the whole plant is still more thickly covered with them, golden and glossy; common petiole 1–1½ inches long, slender, filiform; petiolules 4–12 lines long flowers numerous, diameter 9–12 lines, disposed in opposite axillary free panicles, 2½–3 inches long, bibracteolate at or near base; sepals six, as in male flower, longer than pistils; anthers (infertile) 8–9, narrow, linear; filaments somewhat lanceolate, broad, flat, one-nerved, shorter than pistils, about half the length of the sepals; pistils, at first silky, shorter than the sepals; pedicels opposite, 5–7 lines long, single-flowered, braeteolate at base, lowermost ones also bracteolate about the middle and 8–10 lines long; bracts and bracteoles connate, etc., as in male plant: achenes, 22–26, capitate, sessile, broadly oblong-lanceolate, sub-hispid with short patent hairs; tails very hairy, 12–14 lines long, flexuose, with curved and thickened tips.
Hab.—In forests, banks of streamlets, head of River Manawatu, 1881, (same localities as male plant), flowering in October, fruiting in December.
This, the female plant, bears a generally neater and more graceful appearance than the male plant, owing to its smaller, more regular, and more silky foliage; like the male plant it forms thick, dense, impassable bushes, often enveloping other plants and shrubs. I noticed, also (this year), that the flowers of the male plant were not so fugacious as I had formerly found and described them; which, at that time (in 1879), was-no doubt owing to my first finding them later in the season (November) and just after very heavy rains.
For a full description of the male plant, see “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xii., p. 359.
Order 47*. Apocyneæ.
Genus 1. Parsonsia, R. Brown.
Parsonsia macrocarpa, n.sp.
Plant, a shrub of very diffuse rambling growth, climbing over shrubs and bushes to the height of 12–14 feet; stem stout, ¾–1 inch diameter; branches pubescent with scattered white adpressed hairs; young branches densely tomentose; leaves papyraceous, opposite, elliptic-lanceolate (sometimes obovate), 2½ inches long (with a few smaller, 1–1½ inches), mucronate, pubescent, margins entire, slightly revolute, bright green above, pale yellowish-green below; midrib stout, tomentose on both sides, lateral veins opposite, nearly straight, parallel and regular, rather obscure; petioles slender, 5–6 lines long, slightly pubescent.
[Footnote] * The numbers here attached to both Orders and Genera are those of the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora.”
Flowers numerous, 12–00, terminal in long loose panicles and cymose-panicles, on long leafy axillary and opposite branchlets much longer than the leaves, scentless: calyx large, coloured dark pink, (and with pedicels and peduncle) densely velvety tomentose with light brown hairs; lobes acuminate acute, teeth about ½ line long, spreading, ciliated; the lobes lengthen much after flowering on the fruit: pedicels 2 lines long, each with one small bracteole: corolla pure white, urceolate, inflated, 3½–5 lines long, finely pubescent on the outside with very short scattered squarrose hairs; lobes small, scarcely 1 line long, subacute, subrevolute; throat constricted with a slightly raised corona: anthers wholly included below constriction. Follicles (immature and green) sub-cylindrical, tapering gradually to apex, points very obtuse, 8 inches long, 2½ lines in diameter, 8 lines circumference, striated longitudinally, umber-brown when dry, minutely strigose-pubescent with small scattered white adpressed hairs.
The nodal stipules or appendages, on the young long flagelliform densely tomentose branches (rami viminei) present a very curious appearance; they are opposite, erect, large, 3 lines long, subulate or linear with small dilated sub-leafy apices; at first, however, each one projects squarely out, about a line, at a right angle from the stem, with the outer point or elbow slightly dropping downwards, after the manner of a bracket corbel or drip; the whole possessing a peculiar quadrate and regular appearance.
Hab.—“Seventy-mile Bush,” Hawke's Bay; thickets near banks of streams, 1876–1881: flowering in April, also in November, and possibly throughout the summer.
I had long known this plant in its leafing state, and had suspected—from its general tomentose appearance, and the regularity of the outline of its large leaves—that it might prove to be distinct from the two established New Zealand species, P. rosea and P. albiflora. Last autumn I was so fortunate as to obtain good flowering and fruiting specimens, which proved my conjecture to be correct, as it very widely differs, specifically, from both of those species,—more so indeed, than they do from each other. It is, however, allied to P. albiflora; and probably to an Australian species. It is a fine healthy-looking large and thickly-leaved species, and is evidently a fast grower.
Class II. Monocotyledons.
Order 1. Orchideæ.
Genus 4. Sarcochilus, Brown.
Sarcochilus breviscapa, n. sp.
Plant epiphytical; roots stout, clasping, issuing from bases of leaves and forming large irregular masses, from which 4–8 plants grow: stems 6–10 lines high, compressed, subcylindrical, very stout, glabrous, purple,
covered by the imbricated sheathing bases of the leaves: leaves, usually 4–5 to a plant at a time, thick, glabrous, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acute and pointletted, with a distinct mucro (almost like a short awn, so that each leaf has a vertical double-pointed apex), diminishing but slightly towards base, 1, 1½–2 inches long, 5–6 lines broad at middle, and 2–3 lines broad at base, sessile, sheathing, jointed immediately above clasping sheath, somewhat keeled, distichous, spreading, sub-falcate, dark-green spotted with purple, mid-rib below purple, 8-nerved longitudinally, nerves parallel and sparingly transversely netted, but only visible when leaf is dried: scape, slender, axillary in lower leaves, 4–8 lines long, (and with rhachis) green, closely spotted and blotched with purple; two solitary sheathing bracts, one at base, and one much larger and acuminate on one side in the middle: rhachis, 6–12 lines long, thickened.
Raceme 5–8-flowered, flowers not crowded: pedicels 2 lines long, alternate and scattered, purple striped, each having a single broadly ovate acute bract, embracing at base. Perianth conniving, not split quite to base, 3 lines diameter, light-green, striped and spotted with purple: sepals oblong-ovate, obtuse, with a purple stripe down the centre on outside; dorsal one largest: petals oblong-lanceolate, subacute, smaller than sepals, margined spotted and blotched with purple: labellum shorter than petals, greenish-white minutely spotted with purple without, green within, gibbous at apex, subcucullate with a minute notch on each side of lip; lateral lobes very slightly produced, conniving, with two thick transverse opposite ridges (calli) within. Capsule oblong-linear, pointletted, stout, turgid, 7–8 lines long, light-greenish, striped longitudinally with purple; densely woolly within: seeds minute, lanceolate, and with their wool light-brown.
Hab.—High up in forks of large pine trees (Podocarpus dacrydioides and P. totara), “Seventy Mile Bush” (1878–80), and at Glenross (1881, D. P. Balfour), Hawke's Bay; flowering in September. A species allied to some of the smaller Australian species of this genus, and possessing close affinity with S. adversus, Hook. fil., but very distinct.
Order 7. Liliaceæ.
Genus 5. Astelia, Banks and Solander.
Astelia polyneuron, n. sp.
A middle-sized species, few-leaved and not bushy; epiphytical.
Male Plant: Leaves spreading drooping sub-coriaceous, 4.9–5 feet long, linear-lanceolate very acuminate acute, 1¼ inch wide at middle, largely sub-recurved, dark green, glabrous on upper surface, canescent-tomentose below with fine white closely adpressed hairs, possessing (under a lens) a minutely and regularly dotted appearance, 1½ inch wide at base and there densely clothed with long straight white hair, deeply furrowed on
each side of the mid-rib, mid-rib keeled, ciliated at edges and on mid-rib below with longish white hairs, 12-nerved longitudinally, nerves white clear and parallel: scape, sub-flexuous, pendulous, 16 inches long, obtusely trigonous, very stout, thickest and more angular at top, shaggy throughout with dense white floccose cottony wool, particularly at base, and bearing a branched loose panicle 9 inches long, composed, below, of 5 symmetrical alternate sub-panicles, the lowermost one having 4 racemes, and each of the upper four 3 racemes, 6–2 inches long springing from one base or short peduncle, the middle raceme of each sub-panicle always the longest, and each of the five with a single leafy sessile bract at its base, the lowermost bract being 2 feet long and 8 lines wide at the base, rather suddenly widening at 3 inches from base to 1¼ inch, and 10-nerved; the next bract 14 inches long, and both lanceolate and very acumimate from the widest part, light-green and glabrous above; the remaining three bracts small; above, the panicle is composed of five single alternate bractless racemes; racemes, smaller bracts, peduncles, pedicels and bracteoles densely clothed with silky hairs: flowers numerous, free, scattered on long pedicels; pedicels 3 lines long and bracteolate; bracteoles linear, as long as pedicels, reddish: perianth glabrous, light-green with a dash of yellow, each segment bearing a reddish central stripe on the outside, stellate, ½ inch diameter; segments free to base, nearly equal, sub-recurved; sepals larger, ovate-lanceolate, sub-acuminate, with a slight protuberance a little way in from the tip; petals narrower obtuse: filaments long, slender, spreading: anthers oblong, obtuse, almost circular after bursting.
Female plant smaller in all its parts than the male plant; leaves 2 feet 3 inches—2 feet 6 inches long, ¾ inch broad at the middle, and only 8–10-nerved: scape as in the male, but straight and shorter, 8–9 inches long: bracts as in the male, but smaller; the lowermost 14–17 inches long, and 6-nerved; the next one 3½ inches long, the other three small: panicle erect, 7 inches long, free; composed below of three alternate subpanicles, each containing three racemes of flowers springing from one base or peduncle; and above, of five single racemes, the upper two being without bracts: flowers as in male, but smaller, with shorter pedicels and bracteoles, which are white: perianth greenish-yellow, scented, densely clothed on the outside with silky hairs: segments spreading, not recurved, and broader than those of the male plant: style short, stout: stigma sessile, trifid, very obtuse, smooth: ovary globose, red, succulent (like a small red currant when fully ripe, and of the same colour), very slightly marked from top downwards with three angular furrows: anthers (infertile) very small, oblong, narrow, obtuse, just appearing from under the ovary, and closely embracing it.
Hab.—In dense forests near the head of the river Manawatu, North Island; epiphytical on living trees, at no great height from the ground; 1880–1881; flowering in December.
This species of Astelia is very distinct from all our known New Zealand (and other described) species; still, in some respects, it has affinity with Hamelinia veratroides of A. Richard, (a New Zealand species of this genus), judging from his copious description of the female plant of that species and his botanical drawing of the same*; which species Dr. Sir Joseph Hooker has placed with a doubt, under Astelia cunninghamii, in his “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora;” but I do not thing it will be found to belong to it. Indeed I think that A. Richard's plant,† (collected in New Zealand by D'Urville and Lesson) has not been subsequently detected in this country. A. Cunningham, in his “Precursor of the Botany of New Zealand,” placed it under A. banksii, as a synonym of that species; I doubt, however, if Cunningham ever gathered it.
Astelia spicata, n. sp.
Plant small, cæspitose, sub-grass-like, throwing out many young ones from axils of lower leaves; epiphytical on the lower bare branches of trees, and on prostrate trees and logs, forming small thick tufts. Leaves thickish, spreading, 6–9 inches long, 3–7 lines wide, sessile, much dilated at base and clasping, linear-elongate, acuminate, distichous, falcate, light-green, almost glaucous, slightly keeled, glabrous above but slightly scurfy and margined (above) with a narrow silvery shining line of closely adpressed hairs, hoary below, much as in A. polyneuron (supra), obscurely 6-nerved, striated, and with short transverse veins near base, and finely ciliated with white hairs at margins, and on midrib below: scape (female) erect, 2 inches long, cylindrical, succulent, and (together with pedicels) clothed with fine and closely adpressed silky white hairs; spike 1½ inches long, bearing 25–30 flowers; the lowermost four, however, are distant from each other and pedicelled, each one of them is also singly bracteated with a long leaf-like lanceolate bract, the lowermost one being 3 inches long; the upper flowers are subsessile, clustered in a dense cylindrical obtuse spike; a few only of the lower ones are free on very short pedicels, each one having a subulate reddish bracteole, 6–9 lines long, hanging downwards from its base: perianth free half-way down, white, shining, very membraneous, semi-transparent; lobes long, oblong-ovate, obtuse, thickened at tips, and one-nerved, at first completely enclosing the ovary, though open and gaping at the sides; afterwards they are wholly recurved from the centre of the same, which is still embraced closely below by the tube, when the whole assumes
[Footnote] * Atlas Botanique, “Voy. de L'Astrolabe,” t. 24.
[Footnote] † Astelia richardi, Endl., apud Kunth, Enum. Plant., vol. iii., p. 365.
a light-brown scarious appearance: ovary large for the plant, ovate obtuse, succulent, green, slightly marked above with three sutures: style, o: stigma sessile, trifid, finely penicillate and spreading: anthers (infertile) opposite segments, long and linear, almost subulate.
Hab.—In the forests about Kopua and Norsewood, North Island, 1878–1881: flowering in December. Often found in a leafing state on trees and logs, but perfect specimens are rarely met within reach. This, however, in those parts, is mainly owing to the settlers' cattle, which seem very fond of this plant, apparently preferring it to much other good green food around.
This is an interesting little species, by far the smallest of all the epiphytical ones of this genus; and, indeed, the smallest of all our known New Zealand ones, save the smaller alpine one (A. linearis), found by me on the summits of the Ruahine mountain range;* and by Dr. Sir Jos. Hooker in Auckland and Campbell Islands. This species is so very distinct, that (although I have not yet detected a perfect male plant) I have ventured to describe it from the female ones. Some leafing states of it remind one at first sight of a large species of Luzula.
Class III. Cryptogamia.
Order 1. Filices.
Genus 22. Polypodium, Linn.
Polypodium (Grammitis) paradoxum, n. sp.
Plant small, cæspitose, suberect, 4–6-fronded, with a compact mass of large light-brown scales at base; roots many, long, filiform, rich dark-brown and very hairy; fronds thin, submembranaceous, sub-sessile, linear-lanceolate or ligulate, subfalcate, very obtuse at apices, 2–3¼ inches long, 1–1½ lines broad (broadest part about middle), decreasing very gradually quite to base, light-green above, lighter below, villous on both sides with long reddish hairs, margin entire but slightly undulated, ciliated with stout long red hairs; midrib black-purple, flexuose, scarcely continued to apex; veins alternate, rather distant, simple, and only once forked on the inside, not produced to the edge; sori separate, oblique on inner fork of veins, rather nearer the midrib than the margin, rich red-brown, from close to apex downwards throughout two-thirds length of the frond, at first linear-oblong afterwards elliptic, completely hidden by long villous adpressed whitish hairs growing from each side of the sori and permanent; scales, at base, large, ovate-acuminate, 1–1½ lines long, thin, shining, finely reticulated, chesnut-brown.
[Footnote] * Not, however, “in swamps” (“Handbook New Zealand Flora,” p. 284), but on the open hill-tops, with caltha, Euphrasia revoluta and antarctica, Myrsine nummulari-folia, etc.
Hab.—Forests between head of Wairarapa Valley and Manawatu River, 1850 (W.C.); also near Takapau, S.W. end of Ruataniwha Plains, Hawke's Bay, 1881 (Mr. John Stewart); on the ground.
This little fern has been long known to me, though, originally, only from a single plant of some 4–5 fronds, discovered by me in 1850, and though often sought (in subsequent travelling through those woods) never again met with: specimens of its fronds were sent to Sir W. J. Hooker; those, however, were not in so good a state (being only old) as these I have lately received from Mr. Stewart. And, no doubt, at Kew, those have been considered and described as belonging to Polypodium australe. To this, however, I could never consent, for I know P. australe well; two other allied yet much smaller New Zealand ferns, have also been described with it, viz., Grammitis ciliata (mihi),* which always grows in single plants on trees—and a curious stout dwarf broadly spathulate form, from holes and cavernous places in the rocks on the hills, which always grows in dense masses.
Polypodium australe (or Grammitis australis), vera, with which (as I take it) other allied ferns have been mixed up, is altogether a very different plant, and possesses characters not to be found in P. paradoxum, and vice versa. That fern was originally described by its discoverer, the celebrated botanist R. Brown, who also (as he says) had the great advantage of seeing it in its living state; Brown describes it as “frondibus linearibus v. lanceolato-linearibus obtusiusculis, integris glabris, marginibus simplicibus.”† And just so its latest describer, Bentham, who describes it more fully and from ample specimens, obtained from various places in Australia and Tasmania, saying—“Fronds entire, coriaceous, glabrous, * * * contracted into a short stipes. Veins * * once or twice forked, free, and concealed in the thick substance of the frond.” ‡ Bentham also includes with it a new species of Baker's—P. diminutum, from Lord Howe's Island; which also has a “creeping rhizome, surfaces naked, and texture rigidly coriaceous.”§ This new species of Baker's, I may further observe, is also placed by him as coming next in regular natural succession to P. australe, and, like that species, belonging to what he has classed as the “Eremobryoid series (of the genus), having their stems articulated at the point of junction with the (creeping) rhizome;”‖ to which natural series the plant I have above described does not belong.
[Footnote] * Described in “Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science,” vol. ii., p. 166, 1843.
[Footnote] † Prodromus “Flora Novæ-Hollandiæ,” p. 2.
[Footnote] ‡ Bentham's “Flora Australiensis,” vol. vii., p. 762.
[Footnote] § “Syn.—Fil.,” p. 507.
[Footnote] ‖ Loc. cit., p. 319.
Sir W. Hooker, in his “Species Filicum,” gives a full description of P. australe, (in which, however, other allied plants from other countries, described by other botanists, are also by him included,)—in his description, he says,—“at the base and also on the stipites deciduously hairy, the rest at least in maturity glabrous.” Baker also, in his late edition of “Synopsis Filicum,” describes P. australe as having, “Rhizome creeping, texture coriaceous, stipes and both sides naked or slightly ciliated,* and Dr. Sir Jos. Hooker, both in his “Flora Novæ-Zealandæ,” and his “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” describes P. australe as being “glabrous, pubescent, pilose, or ciliate,” etc., etc.—done, as I take it, and as I have already observed, to embrace all our New Zealand allied plants in one specific description; believing them to be but one species; but there are great natural and characteristic differences separating them.
The rather coarse and long villous adpressed hairs on the under side of P. paradoxum, growing across and hiding the sori, and giving it there a kind of coarse matted arachnoid appearance, the persistent stout marginal rufous hairs, and the numerous large and reticulated basal scales,—together with each plant being of strictly defined single cæspitose growth,—are good natural characters not pertaining to P. australe, vera.
Polypodium (? Goniopteris) pennigerum, Forst., var. hamiltonii, W.C.
Rhizome erect, tufted: fronds 15–18 inches high, glabrous, oblong-lanceolate, very membraneous, pinnate, slightly pinnatifid at top, light-green; stipes and rhachis slender, subsucculent; rhachis and mid-rib hairy above, hairs light-brown; pinnules opposite, distant, slightly petiolate, broadly linear-elongate, not acuminate, pinnatifid to below the veins very nearly to mid-rib, middle ones 3 inches long, 1 inch broad, lowermost pairs very distant, small and auricled upwards, the upper ones are sometimes forked near tips; lobes large, 5–6 lines long, 3 lines broad, very irregular, puckered and crisped, deeply cut into 4–5 incisions on each side, truncate, retuse, and sharply pointed, the sinus between the lobes large and semicircular; veins, 4–5 pairs to each lobe, opposite, distant, free throughout; sori globose, few, only a single sorus central on each of lowermost pair of veins: stipes 2–2½ inches long, scaly at base; scales ovate, obtuse, rich dark-brown, and finely reticulated.
Hab.—Wet rocky sides of mountain streamlets, country S.W. from Napier, North Island; found by Mr. A. Hamilton in 1881.
This is an elegant species (or new variety) of fern, and will, I have no doubt (if it continues true), become a garden favourite; at present, plants of it are thriving well in Mrs. Tiffen's fernery in Napier. For some little
[Footnote] * Loc. cit., p. 322.
time it has been a puzzler, as it was not originally found bearing fruit, and its richly crisped very membraneous form was so widely different from all our New Zealand ferns; yet, from its regular and simple venation, etc., I supposed it to be closely allied to P. pennigerum. This is now proved, from the plants in cultivation having produced fruitful fronds bearing similar sori, whence this description is in part made; but another great and striking difference is the not-meeting of the lower pair of veins (as in that species), the lobes being separated much beyond them; and this character (if constant) would cause the removal of this fern from Goniopteris. There are also other and great differences between these two ferns; still, I cannot bring myself to consider them as really specific—time, however, will show. I have very great pleasure in naming this pretty plant after its zealous discoverer.
Polypodium (Goniopteris) pennigerum, Forst., var. giganteum, W.C.
Whole plant, pretty nearly as P. pennigerum, is described in “Handbook Flora of N.Z.” (and in other botanical works), but with these differences:—Fronds, 5–6 feet long, 14–16 inches wide, broad-oblong lanceolate; stipes very stout, woody, semi-circular, deeply channelled on upper surface, and marked on both upper outer edges with a continuous white ridge, scaly below; scales scarious, large, 2–3 lines long, ovate, rich dark-brown, elegantly reticulated; rhachis and midribs of pinnules, hairy (hirsute) above; pinnules 7–8 inches long, 1¼ inch broad, broadest at base, sub-petiolate, acute, alternate, distant, patent, largely and regularly conniving towards apex but not falcate; lobes 7–8 lines long, 2–2¼ lines broad, linear-oblong, slightly falcate, rather distant, toothed, margin recurved, and slightly and sparsely hairy at tips and edges; sinus between the lobes acute; each lobe with 9–10 pairs of veins, lowest two pairs of veins opposite, those above sub-opposite, and all bearing a single sorus, the lowermost two veins meeting the opposite two above them, and so generally throughout the pinnule; the lowermost pair of lobes on each pinnule are the longest, the lowermost lobe is auricled, the auricle bearing 1–2 sori extra on small veinlets.
Hab.—Skirts of woods and thickets, head of River Manawatu; 1875–1881.
This fern seems to be a large var. of P. pennigerum, possessing however several characters differing from that plant, which are noted above. P. pennigerum, the common form, is also plentiful in the same localities. I have long known this plant, but should not care to bring it forward, were it not for the still more striking var. (or species) discovered by Mr. Hamilton (supra).
Order 5. Hepaticæ.
Genus 3. Plagiochila, Nees and Montagne.
Plagiochila subsimilis, n. sp.
Rhizome stout, creeping, long, irregular, densely covered with short brown hair, much-branched, with many long rootlets; main stems pretty close together, erect or pendulous, 6–8 inches long, flattish, sulcated on back, very dark purple-brown almost black, sometimes forked below, 1–2 inches from base, and occasionally each of those main stems again forked; bipinnately branched, sub-fastigiate; branches crowded above, 3–5 inches from base, patent, plane, taken together 2–3 inches broad; stems rich red-brown and semi-translucent; lowermost pair of branches opposite, others sub-opposite and alternate; all, together with main stem, closely leaved throughout: leaves laxly imbricate, opposite, distichous, patent, dimidiate-ovate; apices obtuse and rotund; light green, translucent, finely and irregularly toothed (denticulato-ciliatis) on ventral side and round the apex, dorsal side entire, slightly recurved and greatly decurrent; those on middle of main stem subrotund and larger, above 1 line in length, decreasing in size downwards, lowermost very much smaller, alternate and 1 line apart, and sometimes slightly denticulate also on dorsal edge; involucral leaves more rotund, and more closely and deeply ciliate-toothed. Perianth produced, 1 line long, elliptic or broadly obovate, apiculate (obtusus cum acumine), inflated, whitish-brown, semi-transparent, terminal on upper branches and on short lateral branchlets near the tops; sometimes 2–3 perianths very nearly together; lips very large, open, entire. Calyptra cylindrical, enclosed, half the length of the perianth; seta longer than perianth, erect and nodding; capsule exserted, free, oblong-ovate, rich deep brown.
Hab.—On standing (living) and fallen rotten trees, and on earth damp sides of watercourses, “Seventy-Mile Bush” forest, head of the Manawatu River, Hawke's Bay; 1875–1881. Some living trees have their trunks completely hidden with the dense growth of this plant.
A fine species, having pretty close affinity with P. stephensoniana and P. gigantea, and in the shape of its leaves with P. annotina; and belonging to that same dendroid section of the genus.
Genus 11. Gymnanthe, Taylor.
Gen. nov. Marsupidium, Mitten.
Gymnanthe (Marsupidium) hirsutum, n. sp.
Rhizome creeping, slightly hairy. Plant thickly tufted, sending out long stoloniferous succulent branches, erect, 1–2½ inches high, simple and 2–6-branched, drooping at tips; colour of leaves and young stems a lively green (which it retains in drying), of the short stipes, yellowish. Leaves
pinnate, sessile, free, alternate, patent, 1 line or a little more long, sub-quadrate with a single deep notch at apex and nearer to the inferior side, slightly arcuated on the superior side, and very finely and closely toothed on its outer corner and round it a little way on the apex: sac, or torus, sub-terminal on both main and lateral branchlets, sub-globose or broadly oval, 1½–2 lines long, densely hirsute-hispid, colour light brown.
Hab.—On shaded clay banks and on rotten logs near watercourses in thick wood near head of the River Manawatu, North Island; 1879–1881.
A species possessing close affinity with Gymnanthe tenella, Taylor, and Marsupidium knightii, Mitten.
This species I have long known in its barren state; and although it appeared to be very nearly allied to Gymnanthe tenella, Taylor, of New Zealand and Tasmania (vide “Fl. Tasmaniæ”), yet I could never quite believe it to be the same; and now that I have found it pretty copiously in fruit, I am certain of its specific distinction. G. tenella is fully described by Taylor (who established the genus on that species), in “Lond. Journal of Botany,” vol. iii., p. 377 (and in “Syn. Hepatic.,” p. 192), and a drawing of it is also given in the “Fl. Tasmaniæ.” In foliage and in size and in manner of growth the two plants are very much alike; still, the leaves of this species are not so closely set, and have many more and finer serratures at the apex (9–10) than there are in that one, which usually bears but three. But the chief distinction is in its sac or torus, which in G. tenella is described as “elongato obconico striato”; while in this species the same part is densely shaggy, almost echinate when fresh.
In the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” p. 520, G. tenella, G. saccata, and G. urvilleana, with other Hepaticæ, were all lumped together under the one species—G. saccata. (This, to me, who had formerly collected them all in New Zealand, seemed surprising, as I could not discern much of a close resemblance between them.) Subsequently, however, Mitten broke up the genus (though but a small one) into several new genera,* and in so doing not only restored the three above-mentioned species of Gymnanthe (which I was pleased to see) but even separated them into distinct genera.
It is not, however, stated in which of those new genera G. tenella is now placed; possibly in Tylimanthus; but this plant of mine will, I think, be found to rank naturally with Marsupidium, and seems pretty closely allied (judging from the short description) to Mitten's new species, M. knightii (p. 753, l.c.), which is also a New Zealand species.
[Footnote] * See “Handbook N.Z. Flora,” pp. 751–754.
Art. XLVII.—On the Alpine Flora of New Zealand.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 20th August and 21st September, 1881, and 21st February, 1882.]
The present contribution to the Alpine Flora of New Zealand has been prepared from collections of plants made during Dr. Hector's geological visit to the Lake Districts of Otago in 1863–4, and more recently in the same districts including the mountains environing Lake Ohou, Canterbury, during Mr. McKay's geological visit there in 1881–2.
The first collection was submitted by Dr. Hector to Sir Joseph Hooker, for identification, and as many of the plants proved new to science they were added to the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” then in the press. Unfortunately good specimens of this collection were not retained in the colony for comparison and identification of future collections, and all our more recent alpine collections have been worked out since from description alone.
The purpose of the present paper is not only to place upon record new species, but also to assist in naming them, by illustrations, those who take a popular interest in our beautiful Alpine flora; the spread of population towards the lake districts of the South Island having no doubt added greatly to the number of those who take advantage of their alpine neighbourhood to make collections. Many of our alpine plants are very beautiful when in flower, and when seen aggregated in close, often rounded masses, firmly adhering to rock surfaces in sheltered places of the mountains, where favourable conditions exist for their full development, they in many instances excel the gardener's art. It is doubtful, however, if they will prove a success under cultivation, as certain conditions of life necessary for their healthy development only exist at great altitudes. The nearest approach to these healthy conditions of growth would be found under glass with a warm temperature when growing and flowering, after which a long period of rest during winter under a low temperature would be necessary to prevent exhaustion.
The altitudinal range of the New Zealand alpine flowering plants extends from 3,500 to 8,000 feet, but there is reason to assume that, but for the presence of snow, they would attain a greater altitude. Latitude is no doubt an indefinite influence in plant distribution, being so much controlled by local influences that identical floras may be found on distant mountain ranges with botanical altitudes inverse to their latitudes. This may be
caused by ocean currents of different temperatures impinging on opposite coast lines, or by local hot winds; but, whatever may be the influencing cause, representative plants of the North Island pass several degrees of latitude southwards on the west side of the South Island, which are not found on the east side of that Island, thus indicating a higher temperature on the west; and this is also consistent with the alpine flora of the North Island being found at higher altitudes on the mountains of the South Island than on those of the North.
The alpine flora as observed has a rapid development. This is no doubt necessitated by the short period which intervenes between the melting of the snows and the next seasonal fall. The intense heat of the sun at high altitudes, is no doubt an important element in hastening growth, but the chief cause must be ascribed in many cases to the advanced stage at which the plants have arrived before the melting of the snows in spring has uncovered them. Large plants such as Ranunculus buchanani were found 8–10 inches high, breaking through their snowy covering, with the leaves and flower-buds fully formed; no sooner, however, did the last film of snow melt from above them, than they burst into flower while the leaves were yet blanched and colourless, and it is probable that in favourable weather seed may ripen in a few weeks.
On the Mount Aspiring Range may be seen, covering patches of snow, that peculiar 1-celled plant—Protococcus, or red snow. This plant was observed by Captain Ross on one of his expeditions to the Arctic regions, covering the surface of the snow over large areas, and penetrating downwards several feet.
Pachycladon novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. fil.
Braya novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. fil., Handb. N. Z. Fl., vol. i., p. 13.
A short depressed alpine plant, covered with stellate pubescence; root long, fusiform, ¼–⅓ inch diameter, bearing 1–6 stout branches, each branch terminating in a rosulate head of small imbricating leaves. Leaves in several series ⅓–½ inch long, including the petiole, pinnatifidly lobed and narrowed into flat, short petioles, those on the scapes with longer petioles, and a minute ovoid blade, which is digitately lobed at top; scapes numerous, shorter or longer than the leaves, rising from the branches or root below them, and spreading horizontally, 3–5-flowered; flowers white, 1/7 inch long, sepals obovate, obtuse, petals longer than the sepals, upper half round, tapering below to a narrow point; stamens 6, two longer than the others; pods ⅓ inch long, 1/12 inch broad, laterally compressed, linear oblong, septum incomplete; seeds 6–8 in each valve, ovoid, and with vertical ridges.
Hab.—Mount Alta Range, 6,000 feet alt.—Hector and Buchanan, 1862; A. McKay, 1881.
Plate XXIV., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, flower; 1 b, pod; 1 b′, seed; 1 c, 1 c′, leaves.
The present plant was collected on Mount Alta, Wanaka Lake District, where it is found on exposed ridges not under 5,000 feet alt., either in firm shingle or in crevices of the rocks, where it is often surrounded by snow. The progress of flowering and seeding is rapid, as the heat during the day in sunshine at these high altitudes is intense, producing a rapid vegetation.
Pachycladon glabra, Buchanan, n.s.
A short depressed, glabrous, alpine plant. Root long, fusiform, ⅕–¼ inch diameter, bearing 1–2 stout branches, each terminating in a loose rosulate head of long slender leaves. Leaves ¾–1 inch long including the petiole, in irregular series, pinnatifidly lobed and narrowed into long flat petioles. Scape leaves long narrow linear. Scapes few, shorter or longer than the leaves, and rising from the branches below them, 1–3 flowered. Flowers white, ⅕ inch long. Sepals linear-obovate, petals longer than the sepals, narrow linear-obovate, rounded at top, tapering at bottom to a narrow point; stamens six, two longer than the others; pods ¼ inch long, 1/20 inch broad, laterally compressed, linear, septum complete; seeds 8–10 in each valve, ovoid.
Hab.—Mountain range, head of Lake Ohou, 5,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.
Plate XXIV., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, flower; 2 b, b′, pod and section; 2 c, leaf.
The present plant may probably be considered as only a form of Pachycladon novæ-zealandiæ, produced by climatic causes; the prevailing hot winds of the Lake Ohou District, where it was collected, being well known to exercise a great influence on the vegetation of both mountain and low lands. The upright habit and glabrous parts however of the present plant with other changes in the inflorescence necessitate a distinguishing name.
Notothlaspi notabilis, Buch., n.s.
A small circular densely-leaved biennial (?) plant, with the inflorescence forming a terminal sphere of small white flowers; stem none; leaves numerous, ¾–1 inch long, spathulate, crenate on the upper half, sparsely covered on margins and surface with ribbon-like hairs, 1-veined, and pitted on the surface; scape, 1–2 inches long, hollow, apparently formed by the union of the petioles, thus probably relegating the leaves to flower bracts; pods, ⅓ inch long, obovate, with a very short style.
Hab.—Mountain range, head of Lake Ohou, 3,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.
Plate XXV. figs. 1, 2, plant nat. size, different views; 3, flower, 4, pod; 5, leaves, both sides; 5 a, portion of leaf much enlarged.
This remarkable little plant agrees in several details with Hooker's description of Notothlaspi rosulatum (“Handbook of New Zealand Flora”); that species, however, being described as a pyramidal fleshy herb, with a scape thicker than the little finger, and a span high, presents sufficient differences to claim for the present plant a distinguishing name. The illustrations given on pl. XXV. are drawn from the largest specimens in a collection of over fifty.
Hab.—Fine loose shingle slopes, where its fine thread-like roots penetrate to a considerable depth, presenting an unique botanical form in the Flora of New Zealand, the leaves being arranged like a miniature umbrella, surmounted by a small dense ball of white flowers.
Hectorella cæspitosa, Hook. fil.
Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 27.
Leaves densely imbricated round the stem, spreading, variable in form and size, linear-acuminate, or oblong-obtuse, membraneous and much dilated at the bottom, entire. Flowers of two kinds, smallest with stamens only; sessile among the uppermost leaves, white or sometimes pale salmon colour; pedicel with 2 bracts at the base; sepals 2, ovate acute, continuous with the pedicel; petals 5, united at the base, erect and thickened beneath the tip; capsule not seen.
Hab.—This beautiful alpine is found abundantly on Mount Alta, where it may be seen in large patches on steep, rocky places, at an altitude of 5,000 feet.
A marked feature in this plant, and which adds much to its floral beauty, is the arrangement of the flowers in circles at the ends of the branches, many of the patch plants having only one terminal flower on each branch.
Plate XXVI., fig. 1, portion of plant nat. size; 1 a and 1 b, fertile and staminiferous flowers; 1 c, 1 d, 1 e, different forms and sizes of leaves.
Pozoa exigua, Hook. fil.
Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 87.
Plant, ½–1 inch high. Leaves long, petioled, numerous, rising from a small rhizome, ovate, generally 3-lobed, petioles forming a close bundle. Scape longer than the petioles, involucral leaves linear-oblong, acute, connate at the base. Fruit linear, scarcely 1/10 inch long, much longer than its pedicel, 5-ribbed, ribs terminating in unequal-sized hooked teeth. See description of flower in “Handb. N.Z. Fl.,” vol. i., p. 87.
Hab.—South Island: Black Peak, 6,000 feet alt.—Hector and Buchanan, 1862; A. McKay, 1881.
Plate XXVI., fig. 2, plant enlarged; 2 a and 2 b, fruit, front and side views.
A most minute plant, and easily overlooked, although probably abundant in wet places at high altitudes.
Dracophyllum muscoides, Hook. fil.
Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 183.
A small, rigid, densely-branched shrub. Branches closely covered with minute, imbricate leaves. Leaves 1/10 inch long, ovate, obtuse when young, inflexed and subulate at top when mature, coriaceous, sheathing at base, and minutely ciliate. Flower white, ⅛ inch long, terminal, sepals ovate, as long as corolla tube.
Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta and Hector's Col, 5–7,000 feet alt.—Hector and Buchanan, 1862; Buchanan and McKay, 1881.
Plate XXVI., fig. 3, plant nat. size; 3 a, flowering branch, enlarged; 3 b, sepal; 3 c, leaf, showing the early ovate and later subulate forms.
This beautiful little alpine is worthy of attention as an ornamental plant for gardens, and probably under cultivation the close habit of growth might open out and produce a finer shrub.
Aciphylla hectori, Buch., n.s.
Stem 10–12 inches high, deeply grooved. Leaves all radical, sheathing near the root and forming a circle 6–8 inches diameter, pinnate, 3–5-foliate, leaflets 1½–2½ inches long, ⅕–⅙ inch broad, rigid, smooth, margins finely serrulate, pungent, striate. Male inflorescence racemose, occupying three-quarters of the stem, and with a 3-foliate stem-leaf at the base. Flowering bracts with large sheaths, 1–3 inches long, 3-foliate, soft, and membraneous, each bract enfolding a small spike of male flowers. Female racemes rigid, occupying less than the half of the stem, bracts ½–1 inch long, 3-foliolate, sheaths very small. Carpels 3–5-winged.
Allied to Aciphylla colensoi, and may be considered as its alpine representative. Collected near Hector's Col on the Mount Aspiring range, at 5,000 feet alt. Named in compliment to Dr. Hector, who accomplished the passage in 1862.
Plate XXVII., fig. 1, spike of male plant; 1′, portion enlarged; 2, female plant in seed; 3, seed, front view; 3′, seed, side view.
Note on the genus Aciphylla.—At the period of Dr. Hector's explorations in the Wanaka District in 1862, the valley of the Matukituki River was, on account of the prevalence of spear-grass (chiefly Aciphylla colensoi) impassable except by frequently crossing the river, which latter was often dangerous; at the present date scarcely a plant is to be seen, frequent burnings, and stocking the country with cattle and sheep, having destroyed the plants.
The alpine forms of the genus may still be collected in abundance, those collected at this time were Aciphylla monroi, A. lyallii, and A. dobsonii, the latter a very rare plant, being found only on Station Mountain, Lake Ohou, at an alt. of 6,000 feet where only a few plants were seen.
Lobelia roughii, Hook. f.
A small glabrous alpine plant, full of white acrid fluid. Leaves ½–1 inch long, petioled, ovate or obovate, acute, deeply toothed or lobed, the sinus often round, more or less reticulated on 5–7 leading nerves, coriaceous. Peduncles erect, axillary, 1–1½ inches long, growing out as the fruit ripens, 1-flowered, calyx tube globose, lobes linear, obtuse, coriaceous. Corolla 5-partite, but by the frequent union of three lobes, 3-partite, lobes long, very narrow, round at top. Anthers glabrous, united round the style and supported by the filaments. Capsule ovoid, ¼–⅓ inch long.
Hab.—Lake Ohou Mountains; alt., 5,000 feet on loose shingle.—Buchanan and McKay, 1882.
Plate XXVIII., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, capsule with adherent anthers; 1 b, b′, b″, lobes of corolla, 1- and 3-partite; 1 c, anther.
A remarkable little alpine plant with smooth purplish green foliage, found always on shingle slopes, often getting buried by the sliding debris, and generally growing up again through deposits of several feet.
Logania tetragona, Hook. fil.
A small coriaceous prostrate plant, branches ascending, 1–3 inches long, ¼ inch diameter. Leaves closely 4-fariously imbricate, erect or spreading, linear obovate, rounded at the tip, entire, concave, ciliate on the margins of the lower half, connate in pairs at base. Flowers solitary, terminal, sepals 5, rugose and pubescent on the lower half, corolla 5-lobed, ⅓ inch diameter, tube short, stamens 2, inserted within the mouth of the corolla, anthers large, 2-cleft half-way up, capsule ovate, 2-valved.
Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.
Plate XXVIII, fig. 2, plant, nat. size; 2 a, leaf; 2 b, flower enlarged; 2 c, sepal.
Not uncommon on the mountains, and easily mistaken for a Veronica, more especially as all the specimens collected were found to have only 2 stamens.
Logania armstrongii, Buch., n.s.
A small rigid, close-branched prostrate plant, branches ascending, ½–1½ inches long, 1/7–⅙ inch diameter. Leaves densely 4-fariously imbricate, ovate, obtuse, entire, concave, ciliate on the margins of the lower half, connate in pairs at the base. Flowers solitary, terminal. Sepals 5, ciliate over the whole margins and back. Corolla 5-lobed, ⅙ inch diameter, tube short. Stamens 2, anthers 2-cleft half-way up, inserted within the mouth of the corolla. Capsule ovate, ciliate on the top, 2-valved.
Hab.—South Island: Hector's Col, Mount Aspiring, 5,000 feet alt,—Buchanan and McKay, 1881,
Plate XXVIII., fig. 3, plant nat. size; 3 a, leaf; 3 b, corolla; 3 c, diagram of corolla; 3 d, sepal; 3 e, ciliate capsule, etc.
A small inconspicuous alpine plant, closely related to Logania tetragona, Hook, fil., but differing much from that plant in the small closely-arranged rigid branches and leaves, the sepals being hispid over the back and margins, and in the ciliated capsule.
Named in compliment to J. B. Armstrong, who has added much to our knowledge of the Alpine Flora of New Zealand.
Mitrasacme hookeri, Buch., n.s.
Stems prostrate, much-branched, branches ascending, 1–4 inches high, ¼ inch diameter with the leaves on. Leaves coriaceous, closely 4-fariously imbricate, spreading, linear, widening at the base, obtuse, connate in pairs, ciliate along the margins, convex at back. Flowers tetramerous umbelled, umbels consisting of several 4-flowered spikes, each spike having two opposite pairs of bracteate flowers, the whole forming a ball near the ends of the branches. Calyx deeply 4-cleft, lobes glabrous, veined and ciliate on the margins. Corolla with a short tube, lobes orbicular. Stamens 2, inserted within the mouth of the corolla. Anthers oblong, sagittate. Capsule large, ovate or obovate, 2-celled. Seed numerous, ovate.
Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.
Plate XXIX, fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, leaf; 1 b, 4-merous flowered spikelet with 2-opposite pairs of leaves; 1 c, single flower; 1 d, bract, calyx, and capsule of lower pair of flowers; 1 e, diagram of corolla; 1 f, capsule and stigma; 1 g, sepal; 1 h, flower-bract of upper pair of flowers.
This plant bears a general resemblance to Hooker's Logania ciliolata. See Supplement to the “Handb. of the N.Z. Flora,” but that plant is described as having the flowers solitary in the axils of the upper leaves, whereas in the present plant they are arranged in umbels of bracteate spikelets, agreeing with Bentham's formula distinguishing between Logania and Mitrasacme.* It has therefore been considered necessary to place the present and following species, M. cheesemanii, in that genus.
Mitrasacme cheesemanii, Buch., n.s.
A small, much-branched, rigid, woody shrub, branches ascending, 3–5 inches long, with the leaves on 1/16 inch diameter. Leaves coriaceous, densely, 4-fariously imbricate, triangular, acute, entire, concave, ciliate on the margins of the lower half, connate in pairs at the base. Flowers tetramerous umbelled, umbels consisting of 4 or more 4-flowered spikelets, each having 2 opposite pairs of bracteate flowers, forming a small ball at the termination of branches. Calyx deeply 4-cleft, lobes linear-obtuse, ciliate on the margins
[Footnote] * “Flora Australiensis,” vol. iv., p. 348.
and outer base. Corolla with a short tube, lobes 4, linear, obovate, obtuse. Stamens 2 inserted within the mouth of the corolla. Anthers large on top, and cleft half way up, capsule narrow-oblong, seated in a cup-shaped disc.
Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.
Plate XXIX., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, leaf; 2 b, 4-flowered spikelet; 2 c, flower; 2 d, diagram of corolla; 2 e, sepals front and side view; 2f, flower bract.
The tetramerous flowers and clustered arrangement of the spikelets place this species also in Mitrasacme, and the very small triangular-shaped leaves distinguish it from M. hookeri. The peculiar leafless-like branches and inconspicuous flowers of this small alpine cause it to be easily overlooked, but it is none the less interesting to botanists. Named in honour of T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S., who has added much to our knowledge of the botany of New Zealand.
Mitrasacme petriei, Buch., n.s.
Stems prostrate, branched, branches ascending, 2/4 inches long. Leaves ⅓–½ inch long, oblong, or linear-oblong, obtuse, membraneous, sparingly cilio-glandular on the margins, 1-nerved, in opposite pairs, and connate at the base without stipules; flowering branches covered on the upper ⅔ of their length with closely-arranged tetramerous cilio-glandular leaf-like bracts. Flowers numerous, solitary in the axils of the upper bracts. Calyx deeply 4–5-cleft, lobes falcate, varying in size, linear-obtuse, and cilioglandular on the margins. Corolla with a rather long funnel-shaped tube; lobes 4, unequal, linear-oblong, acuminate, spreading. Stamens 2, filaments short, inserted within the mouth of the corolla, anthers short, cleft half way up and rounded on the points. Capsule ovoid, compressed, seated in a shallow cup. Seeds ovate, few.
Hab.—South Island: Mount Bonpland, 6,000 feet alt.—D. Petrie, 1881.
Plate XXX., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, leaves; 1 d, floret; 1 e, bract, sepals, and capsule; 1f, diagram of sepals; 1g, position of stamens; 1 h, seed.
The tetramerous flowers and absence of leaf stipules in the present plant are sufficient reasons for placing it in Mitrasacme, and the large distant leaves present sufficient claim as a new species. This addition to the Loganial alliance in New Zealand also maintains the peculiar feature of possessing only two stamens.
Collected on Mount Bonpland, at 5,000 feet alt., by D. Petrie, in compliment to whom it has been named.
Raoulia rubra, Buch., n.s.
A small fragrant patch plant, forming dense hemispherical balls or patches on the ground or on rocks, 4–8 inches high, and 6–12 inches across.
Branches short, with the leaves on ⅙ inch diameter, closely compacted, and terminating on the surface in numerous small firm knobs. Leaves imbricating in many series, ⅛ inch long, spathulate, rounded at top, membraneous, 1-nerved, with dense patches of pale blueish-green hairs on both surfaces above the middle, and exceeding the tip of the leaf. Heads very small, 1/10 inch diameter, 10–14-flowered; flowers dark crimson, in two series, inner bisexual, outer pistiliferous only, pistil sometimes 3-cleft, involucral scales numerous, glabrous, narrow-linear and rounded at the entire tip, or linear-spathulate with radiating tips. Pappus of few rigid, broad, or flattishshaped hairs, thickened towards the tip, and incised along its length.
Hab.—Mount Holdsworth, Tararua range, North Island, 4,500 feet alt., 1882.
Plate XXX., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, leaf; 2 b, floret; 2 c, scale; 2 d, pappus hair.
This plant is closely allied to Raoulia eximia, Hook. fil., from the Canterbury Mountains, and difficult to describe botanically as possessing much difference, yet its smaller size and bright red fragrant flowers present such contrasts as to claim for it a distinguishing name. This is the first occasion on which the vegetable sheep, as this and other species of Raoulia and Haastia are popularly named, have been collected in the North Island, affording an additional link in connecting the alpine floras of both islands.
Haastia loganii, Buch., n.s.
A small soft patch plant, forming little cushions on the ground or rocks, 6–12 inches across, and covered with soft, pale greenish-white wool, branches with the leaves on ⅓ inch diameter. Leaves ¼ inch long, entire, obovate or oblong, rounded at the tip or slightly cuneate, membraneous, 3-nerved, the nerves branching from near the bottom, recurved, arranged in several series, and hidden by the soft woolly hairs, which form a patch on the inner surface above the middle, and entirely covering the back. Heads ⅕ inch diameter, 40–50-flowered, involucral scales numerous, in several series, narrow-linear, obtuse, entire or with scarious tips, and with a small tuft of hairs on the middle of the back. Florets reddish, of two series, bisexual and pistiliferous, the first numerous, widening at the mouth, arms of style short, anthers without tails, the second with the corolla very short, tubular, mouth crenulate, styles with long exserted arms which are pappillose at the tip; pappus of 1 series of rigid hairs, free below, very much thickened at the tip and often incised. Achene compressed, linear, and covered with long silky hairs.
Hab.—Mount Holdsworth, Tararua Range, North Island, 4,500 feet alt., 1882.
Plate XXX., fig. 3, plant nat. size; 3 a, 3 b, leaves, back and front views; 3 c, floret; 3 d, scale; 3 e, pappus hair, much enlarged.
A very distinct little species, much smaller than Haastia pulvinaris, covered with soft, white, cottony wool, and with long silky hairs on the achene.
Named in honour of H. F. Logan, whose zeal in botanical science has added much to our knowledge of the flora of the North Island.
Phyllacne haastii, Berggen.
Helophyllum colensoi, Hook. fil. Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 168.
Stems 1–1¼ inch long, with the leaves on ⅕ inch diameter. Leaves obtuse, broad at the base. Flowers with the staminal column much exserted.
Hab.—North Island: Tararua Mountains, 4,500 feet alt.; South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.
Plate XXXI., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, branch, enlarged; 1 b, flower, much enlarged; 1 c, 1 c′, 1 c″, flower bracts; 1 d, 1 d′, 1 d″, sepals; 1 e, leaf, enlarged.
Helophyllum rubrum, Hook. fil.
Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 168.
Stems much shorter than the last. Leaves narrow, coriaceous, with thick knobs. Flowers white, becoming bright red when dry. Corolla 5–7-cleft, column included, or slightly exserted.
Hab.—South Island: Mount Aspiring range, 5,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.
Plate XXXI., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, plant enlarged; 2 b, flower much larger; 2 c, 2 c′, 2 c″, flower bracts; 2 d, 2 d′, sepals; 2 e, 2 e′, leaves.
The present two plants are but little known, and may be considered rare, no doubt they are often overlooked when not in flower by the few who venture into their habitats plant-collecting. H. rubrum, Hook. fil., has not been seen till the present time, so far as known, since its first discovery on Dr. Hector's expedition to the West Coast of Otago in 1860. The peculiarity in this species is its white flowers becoming bright red when dry, hence its name.
Veronica müelleri, Buch., n.s.
A low flexuose, straggling, prostrate, glabrous or puberulent plant, 6–18 inches long, rooting along its numerous branches. Leaves shortly petioled, ⅕–⅓ inch long, ovate, ovate-oblong or linear-oblong, entire, or with 1–2 notches on each side. Flowers 1–2, terminal on the branches, and sitting among the leaves. Pedicels 1/10-⅙ inch long. Sepals ⅙ inch long, very obtuse. Corolla ⅓ inch diameter, dark pink, tube long, stamens large. Capsule didymous, shorter than the sepals.
Hab.—South Island: Hector's Col, Mount Aspiring Range. Alt. 5,000 feet—Buchanan and McKay, 1881. On open ridgey patches where the snows melt in summer. Allied to V. bidwillii in size and form of leaves, but entirely different in their fascicular arrangement, and the absence of flowering racemes.
Named in compliment to the distinguished botanist Baron von Müeller.
Plate XXXII., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 2, flower; 3, capsule; 4, capsule, with pistil; 5, different forms of leaf.
Notes on the genus Veronica.—This beautiful family of plants has suffered much by the settlement of the Lake districts, few being now seen on the river flats where they were once abundant. A few collected previously in 1862 were not seen at this time, although it is probable they may still be found in the more inaccessible parts of the mountains. The large ornamental shrub, Veronica cupressoides, once abundant, and often cultivated in gardens, is now rare. The alpine forms are apparently safe, being chiefly found on barren ground with a sparse vegetation where fires do not run. The highest altitude to which any of this genus reaches was on Mount Alta, where Veronica buchanani was collected at 7,500 feet. The following is a list of those collected at this time:—Veronica haastii, V. buxifolia, V. pimeleoides, V. buchanani, V. canescens, V. linifolia, V. salicifolia, V. ligustri-folia, V. macrantha, V. bidwillii, V. raoulii, V. tetragona, V. hectori, V. colensoi, V. lævis.
Pygmea ciliolata, Hook. fil.
A hoary moss-like plant, 1 inch high, forming compacted patches on the ground. Branches with the leaves on ⅕ inch diameter. Leaves densely imbricate, ⅛ inch long, obovate and rounded at top, entire, ciliate on the margins and nearly glabrous on both surfaces, 1-veined. Flowers 1/10-⅛ inch long, terminal on the branches. Sepals shorter than the corolla tube.
Hab.—Mount Alta, 6,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.
Plate XXXII., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, flower, enlarged 4/1; 1 b, leaf enlarged 6/1.
Pygmea pulvinaris, Hook. fil.
A white very hoary moss-like plant, 1 inch high, forming compacted patches on the ground. Branches with the leaves on ⅛ inch diameter. Leaves densely imbricate 1/10 inch long, narrow linear oblong, obtuse, upper half covered on both surfaces with white hairs, 1-veined. Flowers shortly peduncled, sepals linear, obtuse, nearly as long as the corolla tube.
Hab.—Mount Alta, 6,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.
Plate XXXII., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, flower enlarged 4/1; 2 b, c, leaves enlarged 5/1.
Pygmea thomsoni, Buch., n.s.
A small scarcely hoary moss-like plant, 1 inch high, forming compacted patches on the ground. Branches with the leaves on ⅙ inch diameter. Leaves coriaceous, densely imbricate, ⅛ inch long, quadrately obovate, obtuse, entire, ciliate on the margins, and on the upper part of the outer surface, 1-veined. Flowers ⅛ inch long, terminal on the branches, sepals linear, obtuse, shorter than the corolla tube.
Hab.—Mount Alta, 6,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.
Plate XXXII., fig. 3, plant nat. size; 3 a, flower enlarged ¼; 3 b, c, leaves enlarged 5/1.
The three species here figured comprise all at present known of the Genus Pygmea. From their extremely small size and hoary appearance they may easily escape observation, and except when in flower they are difficult to distinguish from hoary mosses such as species of Grimmia and Racomitrium. They may be recommended as well adapted for garden rockeries, living specimens being easily transported for long distanees.
Myosotis uniflora, Hook. fil.
Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 192.
A densely tufted perennial, forming rounded cushions, whole plant very hoary with white harsh hairs. Flowers buff or pale yellow, terminal, solitary.
Plate XXXIII., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, flower enlarged; 1 b, leaf enlarged.
Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.—Hector and Buchanan, 1862; Buchanan and McKay, 1881.
Myosotis pulvinaris, Hook. fil.
Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 193.
A densely tufted perennial, forming rounded cushions, hoary, softer to the touch than the last species. Flowers white, terminal, solitary.
Plate XXXIII., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, flower enlarged; 2 b, 2 c, leaf forms enlarged.
Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.—Hector and Buchanan, 1862; Buchanan and McKay, 1881.
Myosotis hectori, Hook. fil.
Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 193.
A densely tufted perennial, forming close rounded cushions. Leaves with a firmer and closer growth than the previous two species. Wool shorter and less soft. Flowers shortly peduncled, white, terminal, solitary.
Plate XXXIII., fig. 3, plant nat. size; 3 a, flower enlarged; 3 b, leaf enlarged.
Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.—Hector and Buchanan, 1862; Buchanan and McKay, 1881.
The present three species of Myosotis occupy a prominent place in the alpine flora of New Zealand as showy plants; the soft rounded cushions when nearly covered with small white flowers would no doubt be much admired in the garden, but it is doubtful if they would retain that beauty as found on the mountain if translated to lower levels.
Abrotanella inconspicua, Hook. fil.
Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 140.
A minute glabrous prostrate dark green moss-like plant, ½ inch high, branches rooting on the lower side. Leaves ¼–⅓ inch long, 1/20 inch broad, linear, obtuse or acuminate, entire, closely sheathing at the base, 3-veined, ciliate on the margins at base, and forming fascicles at the ends of the ascending branches. Heads ⅛–⅙ inch diameter, spherical, terminal, and nearly hidden amongst the upper leaves, involucral scales in several series, similar to the leaves, but shorter, and without cilia at base, receptacle rounded, florets 12–20 outer, females much smaller than the central males. Achene flat, narrowly winged. A most inconspicuous plant and easily overlooked.
Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 6,000 feet alt. Hector and Buchanan, 1862; Black Peak, 6,000 feet alt., McKay, 1881.
Plate XXXIV., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, single head of flowers; 1 b, male floret; 1 c, female floret; 1 d, abnormal florets; 1 e, scale; 1 f, leaf.
Raoulia m'kayi, Buch., n.s.
A slender open-foliaged plant. Stems 2–3 inches long, prostrate. Branches ½–1 inch long, erect or depressed. Leaves membraneous, spreading, ½–¾ inch long, narrow, linear-oblong, round on the tip, apiculate, covered on the upper third on both sides with white, loose, silky wool, veins reticulate. Heads small, ⅛ inch across, involucral scales ¼ inch long, in 3 series of 8–9 each series, linear, or narrow-oblong, acuminate or obtuse, scarcely radiating at tip, inner series very narrow, the whole shining, pale-yellow, florets numerous, 50–60, receptacle flat, pappus hairs few, slender, pilose, not thickened at the tips. Achene glabrous, with a thickened areole at the base.
The silvery open foliage and scattered golden-coloured flowers of this small swamp-plant, as it is usually found on dark peaty bottoms, is very attractive. It is evidently in its general features, and in the pappus hairs not being swollen at the tips, allied to Raoulia tenuicaulis, Hook. fil., but the large reticulate leaves and numerous florets determine its claim as a new species of Raoulia, if the large foliage does not ally it more closely to Gnaphalium.
Named in compliment to Mr. A. McKay, of the Geological Survey, as a successful collector, who discovered the present species on Black Peak Range, South Island, at 5,000 feet alt.
Hab.—In swampy places.
Plate XXXIV., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, floret; 2 b, scales; 2 c, leaves.
Roulia parkii, Buch., n.s.
A small densely tufted plant. Stems prostrate, ascending. Branches numerous, erect, with the leaves on ⅙ inch diameter. Leaves closely imbricating, erecto-patent, ⅛ inch long, spathulate and covered on both surfaces with closely appressed, pale greenish-yellow, or white, tomentum. Heads ¼ inch across, 14–16-flowered, scales in 2 series, inner, narrow, linear, obtuse, entire, or finely crenate at tip; outer, shorter and broader, finely crenate on the obtuse tip, receptacle concave or flat, naked; pappus hairs swollen at the tip and incised. Achene glandular.
This beautiful little alpine was collected on Mount Alta range, South Island, by Mr. McKay, at an alt. of 5,000 feet.
Hab.—Dry places. It is also found in the North Island.
Named in compliment to Mr. J. Park, assistant, Geological Survey.
Plate XXXIV., fig. 3, plant nat. size; 3 a, floret; 3 b, pappus hair; 3 c, scale; 3 d, leaf.
Notes on the genus Raoulia.—The genus Raoulia may be considered as one of the best represented in New Zealand, both as regards number of species, and abundance of plants. Not only do they enjoy an almost entire immunity from fire, but they increase and spread on the ashes of other plants, they flourish on the most barren ground, and cover poverty of soil and gravels with much floral beauty; on river flats and mountain sides they are equally abundant, proving useful as sand-binders, or in fixing springy hill slopes. They may be considered worthless as food, and, in fact, were they otherwise, it would be almost impossible for stock to break in on the hard, close, compacted masses of such species as Raoulia eximia, or R. mammillaris, the vegetable sheep of the shepherds. The species of this genus collected were Raoulia australis, R. tenuicaulis, R. hectori, R. m'kayi, R. parkii, R. subserica, R. glabra, R. mammillaris.
Celmisia dallii, Buch., n.s.
Leaves radical, rosulate, 6–8 inches long, 1½–2 inches broad, sessile, coriaceous, linear-oblong, acute, serrate and apiculate on the serratures, closely covered on back with shining pale buff tomentum. Scape 8–10 inches long, glabrous, bracts few, alternate, large, leafy, coriaceous, 1½–2½ inches long, ¼–½ inch broad with pale buff tomentum on back, same as leaves. Head 1½ inches diameter, involucre of 2 forms. Outer, large, leaf-like, ¼–1 inch long ⅛–¼ broad, covered on the back with shining pale buff tomentum.
Inner, in several series ½ inch long, 1/16 inch broad, membraneous and glabrous, inner series ciliate on upper half and margins, the whole more or less viscid, rays in 1 series numerous, ½ inch long, narrow, pappus ⅕ inch long, scabrid. Achene linear, hispid.
Hab.—South Island: Nelson; on the Golden Downs near the head of the Aorere River—J. Dall; in compliment to whom as an explorer and collector it has been named.
Plate XXXV., fig. 1, plant ⅔ nat. size; 2, back view of flower head, showing outer form of flower-bracts; 3, inner form of flower-bracts; 4, fertile floret; 5, rayed floret; 6, pappus hair; 7, stamens.
This singular plant approaches the genus Senecio closer than any Celmisia hitherto found in New Zealand, especially in the presence of large coriaceous leaf-like bracts on the scape. Its habit of growth, however, especially in the large radical and rosulate leaves, relate it more to Celmisia. It may be necessary if other species with this remarkable double form of flower-bracts be discovered that a new genus be constructed for their reception.
Art. XLVIII.—On some Plants new to New Zealand, and Description of a new Species.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 21st February, 1882.]
Pteris longifolia, Linn.
Specimens of this fern have lately been forwarded to the Museum by Mr. Lascelles, of Napier. They were collected by him in the Tarawera country under circumstances which preclude the possibility of its having been introduced.
This is a fern widely distributed over the globe, having been collected in many countries, and named by each collector with a different name. Hooker gives for it in his “Species Filicum” eighteen synonyms of different authors.
It may be mentioned that the New Zealand plant has the pinnæ serrated, which may claim for it the position of a variety.
On a Genus of Orchidaceæ new to New Zealand.
The following short description of a new Orchid, which proves to belong to an Australian genus not previously represented in New Zealand, is taken from Bentham's “Flora Australiensis,” vol. vi., p. 324. The plant was collected by W. T. L. Travers, Esq., near the Mungaroa Swamp, and was sent by him to the Museum for examination.
Epiblema grandiflorum, R. Br.
Stem erect, 1–15 inches high, with one long narrow leaf and two short sheathing leaves. Flowers 3–4, pedicillate in a short raceme, dark purple, bracts shorter than the ovary. Sepals and petals alike, ½ inch long, narrow-linear, acute, finely veined. Labellum as long as the sepals. Anther erect, or slightly bent forward, the cells distinct, with a short recurved point.
Brachyglottis rangiora, Buch., n.s.
A small branching tree, 8–12 feet high; branches, petioles, leaves below, and inflorescence, covered closely with white or pale buff tomentum. Leaves large, 6–8 inches long, ovate or oblong, irregularly sinuato-dentate along the margin, often tapering to an acute point, coriaceous, or stoutly membranous, young leaves generally lobulate and dentate, covered on both sides with soft pale buff tomentum. Panicles as large as the leaves, spreading, drooping, or erect, covered with appressed tomentum. Heads numerous, sessile, 1/7 inch long, involucral scales 7, in one series, linear, obovate, obtuse or acuminate, or pilose on top. Florets 9, of which 5 are fertile.
This is a very distinct plant from Forster's Brachyglottis repanda, differing in its smaller size, coriaceous leaves, which have generally deeper sinuations and more acute angles; the flower-heads are also constantly sessile. Its geographical distribution is also distinct, being apparently limited to the lands of both islands abutting on Cook Strait. The Maoris also distinguish the two plants by different names, the present plant being known as Rangiora, while the northern plant described by Forster, is called Wharangita-whita. Both plants are poisonous to horses.
Art. XLIX.—On new Species of New Zealand Diatoms.
Description of a new Species of Nitzchia.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 1st July, 1880.]
Nitzchia nova-zealandia, sp. nov.
Frustule: front view linear, narrowing at the truncated extremities, opposite side of each end obliquely sloping. Valve: linear on side view and sigmoid, attenuated towards the extremities, and rounded at the ends; one row of puncta round the margin of the valve. Puncta: there are twenty-four puncta or beads to .001 of an inch.
I have been unable to make out any striæ or keel under Beck's 1/10th immersion. The valves of Nitzchia nova-zealandia resemble Homœocladia sigmoidea, but the latter is frondose and the frustules are sigmoidal on the front view, while the former is free and sigmoidal on the side view.
I found this Diatom in quantities during the months of April and May, in a spring at Ngapari on the side of North Moeraki Downs, facing the river Ashley.
I am indebted to Professor Hutton for the verification of this description.
Plate XXII., fig. 1: a, front view; b, suture; c, side view.
On the Identity of Amphicampa with Himantidium, and Description of a new Species.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 4th August, 1881.]
About four years ago I found, quite accidentally, in a drain in the Cust Valley swamp a small pocket of diatomaceous earth, which on examination much resembled Amphicampa mirabilis, Ehr., described in the Micrographical Dictionary as a doubtful genus of fossil Diatomaceæ. The other species named is A. eruca, and both are represented as found fossil at Tizar, Mexico.
Professor Hutton found fossil valves in Waikato and elsewhere, and Mr. George Gray recognized them in gatherings taken from the River Avon.
In the month of May last I gathered a considerable quantity of a filamentous Diatom from a spring at Ngapari, Fernside, which, after treating in various ways, I resolved into the hitherto so-called genus Amphicampa (both sides sinuated). That genus, however, appears to have been considered “free,” while in the form which I gathered it is filamentous, and cannot be separated generically from Himantidium. The resent species is, however, certainly not A. eruca; and as A. mirabilis is figured with 7/6 bends, while my species varies from 4/3 to 6/5, I assume it to be a new species.
Himantidium maskellii, sp. nov.
Frustule: front view rectangular; length about four times the breadth, straight, forming a lengthened tenacious filament, showing lines of dots at the points of suture corresponding to the striæ on the side view. Valve: elongated, slightly arcuated, and attenuated towards the extremities, which are boldly rounded; both edges are sinuated; length about seven times the breadth. The convex edge has invariably one more bend than the concave. The valves vary in the number of the bends from 4/3 to 6/5. Striæ: parallel and transverse, and there are 23 to 27 to the .001 of an inch.
Hab.—Ngapari, Fernside, and River Avon, North Canterbury; Waikato and Cabbage Tree Swamp, Auckland (fossil)-Hutton; Cust Valley Swamp, North Canterbury (fossil).
On a new Species of Pleurosigma.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 13th October, 1881.]
Pleurosigma crookii, sp. nov.
Frustule: front view linear, narrowing towards the truncated extremities; length about eight times its breadth. Valve: side view, linear for the greater part of its length and slightly sigmoidal towards the rounded extremities, making the flexum only terminal; length, .0025 to .0040 inch. Colour light brown. Striæ obscure. Median line central, approaching concave side near extremity.
Hab.—Fresh-water, New Brighton.
The genus Pleurosigma has not been found hitherto in New Zealand. I believe I saw it a few months ago in a very small gathering which I obtained from Ngapari, Fernside, but as the frustules were so few in number I could not examine them satisfactorily. The present species occurs in considerable numbers in the ditches which drain New Brighton swamp. Whenever the median line is not absolutely central, it approaches (in the species figured by Smith) the extremities, more or less nearly on the convex side. In the present species the line draws slightly nearer to the concave side; and the frustule is smaller than any described in Mr. Smith's work. I have therefore ventured to consider it a new species.
It would probably be a good test object.
Plate XXII., fig. 3: a, front view; b, suture; c, side view.
Art. L.—Description of new Plants.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 3rd March, 1881.]
Asperula fragrantissima, n. sp.
The Strong-scented Woodroof.
Diff. char.—Perennial, matted. Flowers in clusters, pedunculate.
Description.—A small creeping perennial bright-green herb (black when dry) forming dense broad patches 1–3 feet across, scarcely raised above the surface of the ground. Stems wiry slender reddish 6–15 inches long, branching freely and sending down wiry roots. Branches slender, round, glabrous or glandular pubescent. Leaves sessile, entire, in whorls of 4 (2 opposite leaves and 2 leaf-like stipules) 1/12-⅛ inch long or more, linear-oblong, obtuse, rarely sub-acute, not awned, glandular, dotted and slightly pubescent on both surfaces, rather succulent in texture, flaccid when dry. Flowers very numerous, creamy white tinged with rose-in-bud, very fragrant, in axillary clusters of 3–8, rarely only 1, on branched peduncles, which are 1/10-⅛ inch long or more, glandular-pubescent and rather, stout for the size of the plant. Calyx reduced to an extremely short tube and adnate with
the ovary. Corolla 1/10-⅛ inch across, campanulate, split to below the middle into 4, rarely 5, sometimes only 3, rather broad obtuse lobes, which are covered more or less on both surfaces with glistening frost-like particles. Stamens seated on the corolla, always the same in number as the lobes and alternate with them. Styles 2, shorter than the stamens, united almost throughout their whole length, with the tips divergent and surmounted by unequal sized pinhead-shaped stigmas. Ovary inferior, distinctly 2-celled glandular. Fruit not seen. Other characters as in genus.
Hab.—On dry banks at Fairlie Creek, County of Geraldine; 15 Dec., 1880.—Mr. J. F. Armstrong. Also in Selwyn County about 1868, by the same collector.
The discovery of a second species of woodroof in New Zealand is highly interesting. The present seems sufficiently distinct from A. perpusilla, Hk. fil. in the perennial habit, absence of awns on the leaves, the larger size and peduncled clustered flowers; the latter character, however, is liable to vary. The plant is evidently very local, and should be sought for in subalpine and upland localities. Like so many other species of the genus it is very difficult to determine when dried, and the above description has been drawn up from living plants. It is, to my mind, somewhat curious that this plant should possess, in common with the British A. odorata and other species from distant countries, such apparently unimportant characters as the frost-like particles on the corolla and the unevenness in the size of the stigmas. The flowers are exceedingly sweet-scented when fresh, and while drying the leaves emit a smell of newly mown hay, but in a less degree than the common British species. The plant is extremely pretty on account of the immense number of flowers it produces, and might prove a useful plant for rock-work if it should prove amenable to cultivation.
Viola hydrocotyloides, n. sp.
The Water-penny Violet.
Diff. char.—Stems creeping, hairy, perennial. Leaves reniform, hairy. Flowers solitary, axillary.
Description.—A small creeping perennial herb, with glandular hairy branches rooting at the joints, and spotted with purple. Leaves alternate, stipulate, coriaceous, petiolate, reniform, ⅛–¼ inch diameter, glandular and hairy, especially on the margins, which are coarsely obtusely crenate; petioles about half an inch long, rather stout for the size of the plant, slightly channelled, glandular, and hairy; veins netted, conspicuous; stipules deeply lacerated, large for the size of the plant. Flowers irregular, solitary, axillary, about ⅛ of an inch long; peduncles about ¼–½ inch long, glandular, curved, spotted with purple, rather stout, with two opposite small linear sessile entire or serrate subacute bracts. Sepals 5,
subacute, produced at the base and continued downwards as in most other species of the genus, glandular-pubescent. Petals 5, the two upper smallest, the three lower much larger, the central lower one gibbous or slightly spurred at the base, the tip incurved and held in by the two side ones; all pure white; stamens 5, hypogynous; filaments very broad, short, and membraneous; connective membraneous, broad and continued above the anthers into a broad, slightly-hooded or flat appendage. Anthers apparently not spurred. Style declinate, very short and stout. Stigma oblique, slightly pitted. Ovary either glabrous or pubescent. Capsule ¼–⅓ inch long, 1-celled, either glabrous or pubescent, 3-valved, surmounted by the remains of the style. Seeds numerous, on parietal placentas. Other characters as in the genus.
Hab.—Stewart Island—Rev. Mr. Stack, 1879. Apparently an inhabitant of bogs on the outskirts of woods.
Flowers from November to March.
This curious and remarkable little plant was picked out of a tuft of a Cyathodes, brought from Stewart Island by Mr. Stack and presented by him to the Christchurch Public Garden. It appears to be perfectly distinct from all the other New Zealand violets in all its parts, and is readily distinguished when growing by the reniform hairy leaves, much resembling the foliage of some of our native species of Hydrocotyle, with which the plant also coincides in habit.
It is evident that the flora of Stewart Island is at present very imperfectly known, and some efforts should be made to explore the whole island thoroughly. Such an exploration might prove highly valuable and instructive in connection with the important study of the geographical distribution of New Zealand plants.
Asplenium canterburiense, n. sp.
The Canterbury Spleenwort.
Diff. char.—Fronds lanceolate sub-coriaceous, bi-pinnate, pubescent. Pinnæ lanceolate, or deltoid-cuneate, sori covering the whole under surface.
Description.—Rhizome short, tufted, clothed with black, acuminate, narrow-lanceolate scales. Frands tufted, lanceolate, acuminate, erect, 2-pinnate, 3–8 inches long, 2–4 inches wide, rather coriaceous in texture, dark-green, clothed with minute pubescence on both surfaces. Stipes and rachis slender, pale coloured, minutely pubescent or slightly scaley and silky at the base. Pinna deltoid-cuneate below, linear-oblong-cuneate above, alternate or opposite, ½–2 inches long, stipitate, acute; pinnules stalked, ovate-oblong, acute, with cuneate bases, lower deeply pinnatifid, upper confluent, entire or toothed; segments linear-lanceolate, acute; sori, one to a segment. Indusium, linear-falcate, whitish-membraneous, some
what vaulted, fixed in the centre of the segment and opening towards the central vein. Sporangia excessively numerous, ultimately spreading over the whole under-surface of the frond which when mature is a dense mass of rich brown-coloured sporangia entirely covering the involucres.
Hab.—Mount Arrowsmith and Mount Torlesse—J' F. Armstrong; near the Waimakiriri Grorge-J. B. Armstrong. First collected in 1864.
This is a peculiar and interesting little fern hitherto much neglected by fern collectors, and not at present in cultivation. It belongs to the series represented by A. bulbiferum, A. colensoi, richardi, and A. hookerianum, and is by far the most distinct species of the group, differing from all the others in the minute pubescence, the great abundance of sporangia, and the central sori. Any authors who are disposed to unite the previously described species of the group, will of course decline to admit this plant to specific validity; but such a course would be productive of so much confusion that it is to be hoped nothing of the kind will be attempted. In working up the species for my work on the native ferns, I find several new species in my Herbarium which shall be described in due course.
Art. LI.—Description of new Plants.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 21st June, 1881.]
Cotula maniototo, n. sp.
A Minute densely-tufted moss-like species. Stems creeping, with short leafy branches.
Leaves sessile, linear-oblong, pinnatifid, with few linear segments on each side, silky on both surfaces, ⅙–⅓ ineh long, broader and more membraneous at the base. Heads small, bisexual, sessile on the tips of the lateral branches: involucral scales in two series, broad, entire, membraneous, outer more or less silky. Female flowers in one outer series, with narrow-oblong 2-lobed corolla, and 2-lobed stigma. Hermaphrodite flowers 15–20, with corolla dilated above, and 4- or 5-lobed. Stigma flattened at the top; achenes oblong, turgid, slightly winged.
Hab.—Maniototo Plain, Otago, in moist hollows containing water in wet seasons.
I have never seen this plant except on the Maniototo Plain and its borders. It ranges from Kyeburn Crossing to the Styx, a tributary of the Upper Taieri. It is a very inconspicuous plant, and might readily be overlooked, as was long the case with Veronica canescens, Buch., which occurs in the same locality and in similar situations. The species is an extremely distinct one.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 19th July, 1881.]
Carex wakatipu, n. sp.
A cæspitose small species, much branched at the base.
Leaves usually broad, flat, much longer than the culms, slightly scabrid at the margins. Culms much shorter than the leaves 8-angled, smooth, invested by the sheathing bases of the leaves. Spikelets 4–6, erect, lower shortly peduncled, upper sessile; uppermost male, others male at the top only. Bracts long and leaf-like. Glumes ovate-oblong, brownish, membraneous, bifid, with a rather long hispid awn, being a continuation of the strong green nerve. Utricles turgid, biconvex, nerved, shortly bifid at the smooth apex but scarcely produced into a beak. Stigmas 2.
Hab.—Ben Lomond, near Queenstown, 3–5,000 feet.
I have a good series of depauperized forms in some of which the spikelets are reduced in number, and conspicuously in length and stoutness.
Carex goyeni, n. sp.
A tufted strong-growing, dark-green, species. Culms stout, 3-angled, almost smooth, a foot high or less.
Leaves longer than the culms, flat, broad, keeled, scabrid at the margins. Bracts long, leafy, flat. Spikelets 7 to 9, stout, cylindric, erect, 1 inch long or less; the lower somewhat distant, peduncled; upper sessile, approximate; uppermost male in the lower half, female above, others female with a few male flowers at the bottom of the lower spikelets. Glumes nearly as long as the utricles, rounded-ovate, membraneous, brown, shortly awned. Utricles turgid, divaricating, pale, shining, nerveless, with a short bifid beak which is smooth or slightly scabrid at the margins. Styles 2, short.
Hab.—Head of Lake Wakatipu, 1,100 feet.
This species is easily distinguished by its robust habit, its broad flat leaves exceeding the culms, its short spikelets, and the absence of any entirely male spikelet. It is named in honour of Mr. P.: Goyen, who has been for some time engaged in work calculated to throw considerable light on the alpine flora of the S.W. of Otago.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 22nd November, 1881.]
Carex longiculmis, n. sp.
A tall cæspitose species, somewhat similar to Carex trifida, Cavanilles, but more slender lax and tall.
Leaves shorter than the culms, pale green, ⅕ of an inch broad, usually flat, keeled, smooth save at the margins near the top, the lower part with a expanded sheath ending in a truncated ligule. Culms tall, rounded, 2–8 3½ feet high. Bracts long, leaf-like. Spikelets 5 or 6, erect, stout; one and sometimes two uppermost male only; others with a few male flowers at
the base; lowermost 1–1½ inches long distant and shortly peduncled, the upper approximate, sessile, becoming progressively shorter. Glumes ovateoblong, membraneous, brown at the edges, produced into a cuspidate awn, usually bifid at the apex, but sometimes acute. Utricle as long as the glumes, shortly stipitate, strongly nerved, usually deep-brown above, narrowed into a short bifid beak. Arms of style 3.
Hab.—Glory Cove, Paterson's Inlet, Stewart Island. Gathered January, 1880.
Art. LII.—Notes on Epacris microphylla in New Zealand.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 5th September, 1881.]
In comparing the flora of New Zealand with that of Australia, the striking fact presents itself to us, that nearly all the species which are identical, and peculiar to the two countries, are plants bearing seeds specially adapted for dispersal by wind. Any evidence bearing on the interchange of species, by natural means, between Australia and New Zealand in the past, and more especially the present time, is of some value in assisting us in solving the problem of insular floras. In a partially occupied country positive evidence can hardly be expected; however, as the placing on record the time when a new species was first observed, independently of its possible mode of introduction, will be of great assistance to future botanists, my friend Mr. T. F. Oheeseman, F.L.S., suggested I should send a few notes on the discovery I made, about six years ago, of three plants of Epacris on the southern side of Manukau Harbour; which have since been determined by him as the Australian E. microphylla. It differs from any of our described species.
Shrub 2–3 feet in height, with virgate slender branches, stem often much branched. Leaves cordate, broadly ovate, shortly acuminate, tip slightly recurved, concave spreading, 3 millimètres long. Flowers small, white, numerous, often one in each axil, almost sessile, or on peduncles 1 mm. long. Bracts and sepals obtuse, or almost acute, sepals 1½ mm. long. Corolla tube shorter than the calyx; lobes 5, as long as the tube. Anthers wholly included. Hypogynous scales short. Style short. Seeds indefinite, extremely minute. Commences flowering in February, and attains its maximum of bloom in July.
The spikes are visited by the bee (Apis mellifica) and a number of small insects (Colaspis). As some of the plants are now growing under slightly changed conditions, it is not improbable their visits are beneficial. It is a shrub of great fertility and constitutional vigour. Considering it has had
to compete against a hardy indigenous vegetation, its increase has certainly, been rapid, especially within the last two years. It now forms a dense mass sixty years in circumference; the intermediate vegetation, Leptospernum, Pteris, and Pomaderris, is almost completely destroyed. From the main-mass seeds are being disseminated in a line with the prevailing winds.
Probably the reason that E. microphylla has become so firmly established in its new habitat is that when the seeds (or seed) fell they met with favourable conditions; that is, they germinated in a moist loamy hollow, and being unpalatable to all kinds of stock escaped destruction.
As to how it was introduced, I can only satisfactorily account for it on the hypothesis that the seeds were carried over from Australia by aerial currents; it is not improbable that was the was E. purpurascens (discovered nearly forty years ago by the late Dr. Sinclair) reached Manurewa, four miles N.E. of the present station of E. microphylla. Upwards of 1,300 miles may seem an enormous distance for seeds to be transported across the sea, independent of oceanic currents; and I would have hesitated in asserting that that was the way E. microphylla was introduced, only that I cannot account for its having reached so isolated a district except by natural means.
It may be of interest to mention that there are two plants of E. purpurascens established on the southern side of the river Pahurehure, about 5 and 7 miles southwest of Manurewa.
Art. LIII.—On the Sugar Values of Beet-roots grown in the Waikato District
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 5th September, 1881]
During the session of 1880 a paper was read before this Institute entitled “On the growth of Sugar-beet in New Zealand,” by Dr. S. M. Curl.* In this paper the writer very ably reviewed the subject and placed much valuable data before us, but when speaking of the values of sugar in the different varieties of beetroot examined by him, he claimed to have found as high as 17.5 per cent. This excessive amount, and the fact that Parliamentary Papers had been published giving analysis of New Zealand grown beets, showing much less favourable results, and the absence of any details of examination, led me to take up this subject with the view of practical operations should the experiments justify it. About this period also, I had interested myself in the matter of sugar-best, owing to some superior seed having been brought from Hamburgh by Mr. G. S. Graham, and finding it had been distributed amongst some of the Waikato settlers for planting,
I undertook the examination of the roots when they should be sufficiently grown. Mr. W. A. Graham, of Tamahere, who had taken a very great interest in the matter, had papers printed according to a plan drawn out by myself, and forwarded to those settlers who had undertaken to grow the roots. These papers were designed to obtain data for the future guidance of a company, should one be formed through any satisfactory result of these experiments, and were divided into columns requesting information, as follows:—
|From whom forwarded, and name of estate.||Character of soil, and whether drained, etc.||Whether manured or otherwise; if manured, state character of manure.||Whether from imported seeds, or from where obtained.||Give approximate of weight to the acre if possible.||Analytical Results.|
|% of beet sugar.||Notes.|
While the reverse of the paper was headed
“Special Notes” [Add here anything of interest to obtain complete details.] and also my address, to which the roots when required or matured were to be forwarded.
The first instalment I received was from Mr. L. O'Neill, Hamilton, and came to hand on the 28th January. There were three roots, grown from seed imported by Mr. Lavers, and resulted as follows:—
No. 1.—Weight, 2 lbs. 2 ozs.; percentage of cane-sugar 10.95
" 2.—" 1 " 2 " " " " 10·17
" 3.—" 0 " 12 " " " " 13.55
On the 24th February, one month later, Mr. O'Neill again forwarded a parcel of four roots from the same crop. Taking the largest of them, weighing 2 lbs. 2 ozs., I found the percentage of sugar to be 14.25, the three others I aggregated with a like percentage of 14.25.
Finally, on the 24th August I received a parcel of five roots from the same grower, which had been removed from the ground and stored, some of which are on the table. Two of these I have examined, with the following results:—
No. 8.—Weight, 2 lbs. 7 ozs.; percentage of sugar 11.40
" 9.—" 2 " 0 " " " " 14.25
The further examination of these roots I will speak of again, in relation to the specific gravity of the juice.
On the 18th of February I received three roots from Mr. Ralph, Huntley, marked sugar-beet. They were of a full red-coloured skin, but I have obtained no knowledge of the name of the seed or where procured. Result of analysis:—
No. 1.—Weight, 51bs. 5 ozs.; percentage of sugar 4–31
" 2.—" 12 " " " 7.50
" 3.—" 9 " " " 11.87
This root No. 1 was a well-shaped one, of large proportions, very watery, but with a very low percentage of sugar. This is the lowest result I have obtained, and far below any other. At the same time its excessive size would lead to the conclusion that its value in sugar was low.
One more parcel I received of unknown seed, from Raglan, through Mr. Will, comprising five small roots, badly formed, the largest of which, weighing 1 lb. 12 ozs., yielded a percentage of sugar, 8.14.
I now proceed to note the results of the seed obtained by Mr. Graham from Hamburgh, and which had been distributed as already noted. There were three kinds in all.
No. 1.—Genuine white small Wanzlebenel Imperial.
No 2.—Deppe's pure white improved Silesian Imperial.
" 3.—Extra sacaharine Red-top Imperial.
In the following notes I will simply call these varieties by their respective numbers—1, 2, and 3.
On the 10th March I received three roots, one of each variety, from Mr. R. Watson, Pukerimu.
No. 1.—Weight, 13 ozs.; percentage of sugar 13.57
" 2.—" 1 lb. 1 oz.; and No. 3 (weight, 12 ozs.), I treated in the aggregate, with the result of 15 per cent. of sugar, this being the highest value obtained.
On the 2nd of April I received a parcel of five roots from Mr. E. B. Walker, Cambridge, the weights of which were between 1 lb. 1 oz. and 1 lb. 15 ozs. and were of the three varieties, but without anything to distinguish them. These I treated in the aggregate with the result of 13.57 per cent, of sugar. Taking the best proportioned root of the parcel, weight 1 lb. 10 ozs., I found it to contain 15 per cent, of sugar.
On the 10th August I received samples of the three kinds of root already named, from Mr. T. Goodfellow, Alexandra, which gave the following results:—
No. 1.—Weight, 1½ lbs., percentage of sugar 12.66
" 2.—" 1½ " " " 11.40
" 3.—" 2½ " " " 9.82
These roots arrived with the crowns removed. I had, therefore, no apportunity of observing whether there had been any late growth of leaves, but from the freshness of the roots and the results above quoted, I should think they had been left in the ground, and not dug up at maturity and stored.
I have now given the results of the examination of roots grown in the different parts of the Waikato, and will not unnecessarily multiply the details for you, but take as a last experiment the result of analysis of roots grown upon Mr. Graham's estate at Tamahere. It was my desire to
examine these roots while they grew, and, if possible, to note the time at which they became matured, and on that account, the crop having been sown late, I received samaples of the three varieties on the 8th February, resulting as follows:—
No. 1.—Weight 1 lb. 1 oz.; percentage of sugar 8.90
" 2.—" 1 " 6 " " " 7.50
" 3.—" 0 " 9 " " 8.38
These roots were immature, and consequently the results were low. On the 26th March I received another parcel of the three kinds from the same estate, yielding as follows:
No. 1.—Weight, 1 lb. 2 oz.; percentage of sugar 10.55
" 2.—" 2 " 2 " " " 11.87
" 3.—" 1 " 7 " " " 11.17
On the 7th of May I visited the ground and chose samples of the three varieties which were still in the ground, rather overgrown with weeds and certainly having been left too long in the earth, the leaves still growing vigorously, the result no doubt of the late rains which had then been falling. Still they were fine roots, averaging from 1 to 3lbs. They had been planted too far apart, and much space had been lost and room given for weeds to accumulate in. Being rather pressed for time I was unable to make a separate examination of these roots, and therefore I treated them in the aggregate with a result of 12.79 per cent, of sugar.
Finally, on the 29th August, I received samples of each variety fresh from the ground where they had still been allowed to remain, though fully four months had elapsed since they had reached maturity. These roots had been growing vigorously, a large crop of young leaves shooting up at the expense of the sugar stored up in the root. The result of the analyses, though low, has surprised me at the amount even yet left in the roots.
No. 1.—Weight, 2 lbs. 9 ozs.; percentage of sugar 7.42
" 2.—" 2 lbs. 4 " " " 6.47
" 3.—" 3 " 5 " " " 8.65
Three of this parcel of roots were forwarded by Mr. Graham to Dr. Hector, Wellington, for analysis, with the result appended.
“Results of Analysis.—Three roots of Sugar-beet for sugar. Received 13th September, reported on 23rd September, 1881.
No. 1.—Weight, 1 lb. 2 oz.; sugar per cent 8.42
No. 2.—" 1 " 10 " " " 8.01
" 3.—" 2 " 10 " " " 6.94
“These are fairly good yields.” W. Skey.
In reference to the methods of analysis and the sampling of the roots, I may remark that in every case, to ensure a true average, I have punctured the root from crown to apex, taking the core for purposes of analysis, as it is a well known fact that the sugar is not found in equal proportions through-
out, the root being richer in sugar in the lower than in the upper portion. Having thus obtained a fair average of the root, I have accurately weighed and then pulped the assay portion in a mortar with distilled water, and inverted the sugar in the ordinary manner with dilute sulphuric acid, making my quantity up to a known amount, from which I have charged the burette in the ordinary way.
Fearful of the conversion of the woody fibre into glucose, and a consequent false increase of the results, I have frequently checked this process by filtering off the diffused juice from the pulp, well washing the latter, and then inverting the sugar contained, but in all these cases the pulp still retains a small amount of saccharine matter, but the difference between these two methods is so small as not to cause much disparity, and here I will give one experiment to show the difference. A root of the Bed-top Imperial, weighing 2½ lbs., was taken, and two cores from the puncture tube fairly chosen, to the weight of 2 grammes each, pulped, and the one inverted with the pulp, the second filtered, the pulp washed and the filtrate inverted; the percentage of sugar being 9.82 in the first portion, and 9.50 in the second. The difference I attribute to the sugar still left in the pulp. The methods by which I have determined the percentages of sugar, have been with Fehling's copper solution, and Knapp's mercuric cyanide solution, both volumetric analyses, the former being in my opinion the most accurate. To ensure precision, I have frequently inverted pure anhydrous cane sugar, and estimated my standard solutions with it, and therefore feel justified in saying that the analyses given by me in this paper are reliable.
In addition to the chemical analysis we have the specific gravity, this being a very reliable guide to the value of sugar present, and this I have obtained after expression of the juice on several occasions by means of the balance. Before concluding this portion of my paper on the chemical manipulations, it will be interesting in a few cases to note the relative proportions between the chemical values and the specific gravities.
The root already mentioned as having been received from Mr. Walker, Cambridge, and which I estimated to contain 15 per cent, of sugar, was grated until it had lost weight equal to 200 grammes, the juice from which being expressed equalled 128 c.c, added water to the pulp and macerated, pressed to near dryness and made up the amount with water to 200 c.c. Found the specific gravity of the pure juice before adding water to be 1.08087, and the percentage of cane sugar in the 200 c.c. to be 14.35, the difference being the amount of sugar still retained by the pulp. Again a root from Mr. O'Neill was grated, 1lb. of which yielded 14½ozs., weight of juice, and 1¾oz. pulp. The specific gravity equalled 1.0528, and the percentage of sugar in the juice was 11.4.
One more experiment I will give, that of a root weighing 21lbs. of which 14 zs. was grated, yielding 12 ozs. juice and 2 ozs. pulp; the specific gravity of the juice being 1.0653, and the percentage of sugar present 14.25
There is one point in connection with this subject which deserves more than a passing notice, and that is in reference to the presence of chlorides, and especially that of chloride of sodium—common salt—this being so detrimental as to result in a loss of 5 per cent. of sugar for every 1 per cent. of the salt. When making my examination for sugar I have also tested for the presence of chlorine, but only to find a trace in any of the Waikato beetroots with the exception of those now before you, which, having been left in the ground at least four months too long, are heavily charged with chlorides. One interesting feature is in the absence, beyond a trace, of chlorides in the roots received from Raglan, already mentioned, and this though grown in the vicinity of the sea. I may state that I have not estimated the amount of chlorides, but simply as a qualitative test.
The distribution of the seed in the Waikato alone was in consequence of its distance from the sea and the very favourable situation and comparative absence of chloride of sodium from the pumice soil, but its cultivation in other portions of the Auckland district fairly deserves a trial.
The great objection to the presence of salt, either from the proximity to sea air, fertilization of the ground with it, or from an abnormal amount being naturally present, is owing to the impossibility of freeing the sugar from this substance, and in consequence the estimation of chlorides is only second in importance to that of the sugar present. So inimical is this salt that M. Baruchson says:—“In some instances the undue proportion of this salt in sugar has nearly rendered the sugar unsaleable; and so generally is this recognized abroad, especially in Germany, that the manufacturers in contracting with the growers of the root stipulate that it shall not be grown on certain soils, and often even name the manure which shall be used.” It is owing to this substance, and the want of sufficient care in eliminating the molasses that beet-sugar at one time was strongly objected to on account of the taste, and even here I have heard complaints of the same character. On this subject Grant, in his “Beetroot Sugar” remarks:—” There was formerly a prejudice in the minds of many people against beet-sugar; but it is perfectly well ascertained, that, if properly refined, it cannot be distinguished from the best sugar of sugar-cane, either by taste, appearance, or chemical analysis: the two are identical.” Again, on page 24 he remarks: “The cost of producing from the beet a pure white sugar, entirely free from unpleasant smell or taste, is but a trifle more than is required to produce a lower grade. In Germany refined loaf sugar is produced directly from the beet. In France the brown is first produced, and then refined. Within
the last two years, however, sugar has been produced of such purity and whiteness, that it has been sold directly for consumption without refining; and there is no question that the peculiar odour of the beet may be entirely got rid of in the manufactory.” I will quote one more authority on this subject, and that one of the highest we could have. I allude to Crookes, who says in his work “Manufacture of Beetroot Sugar”:—” Crystalized beetroot sugar is perfectly identical in composition with cane-sugar, and is indistinguishable from it by the sight, the taste, or by chemical tests.
Proceeding from the foregoing facts to summarize my results, I find that the value of sugar obtained from the whole of the roots examined by me last season under 3½ lbs. in weight is a percentage of 11.66, but this average includes the immature ones from Tamahere, made when they were but half-grown, and also these roots now before us, which, having remained in the earth so many months after coming to maturity, have deteriorated considerably. If then we exclude these, the average result of the rest shows a percentage of 12.45; but as some of the roots examined were practically too small for manufacturing purposes, I propose to exclude all under 1 lb. weight, and thus reduce the average to roots between one and three pounds weight, this being a useful size for manufacturing purposes, large enough to pass safely through the washing machine without being lost or clogging the bars, and yet not too large to materially reduce the percentage of sugar. By this exclusion the average is 12.29, my highest being 15 and lowest 9.82.
In arriving at these results, I do so after a series of experiments extending over the past seven months, in which time I have made upwards of eighty analyses and examined more than sixty beetroots grown in different parts of the Waikato, many of them raised under very unfavourable conditions: some I found over-run with weeds, of others cattle had destroyed the leaves, while the majority were planted too far apart, and in almost all cases not sufficiently earthed-up, in consequence of which a portion of the sugar contained in the root, exposed to sun and air, becomes converted into other substances. Yet, notwithstanding all these disadvantages, the average of all the analyses made by me, with the exception of one root weighing over 5 lbs., was 11.66, while the exclusion of those which would under no circumstances be permitted to enter a sugar factory brought up the total to 12.45, an average return so favourable that it would result in a very large profit were it achieved in the countries where beet-sugar factories are established.
That these results are not exceptional is, I think, shown by the wide area over which I have obtained my supplies for examination; and that it will be fully equalled on the large scale is shown by the unskilled manner in which some of these roots were planted and tended, and also by the request, which in many instances was adhered to, that no manure should be used.
So far from this, I feel convinced that with due attention, proper cultivation, and suitable manuring, a higher percentage will be obtained than from those which the past season's growth has furuished us with; and should a factory be established for the conversion of beet-sugar, I believe the true economy of procedure would be in the purchase of roots at a fixed rate per ton, with an additional schedule price for every degree of sugar above a minimum, a practice which works beneficially amongst some of the German factories; especially would this be the case in the colonies, where the higher price of labour would naturally lead us to seek for the maximum of sugar from a minimum of root. It is not within the scope of this paper to dilate upon the value to this district should such an industry find a home amongst us, but the benefits would be so great and varied, while the returns which I have now brought before you give so large a promise of success, that I hope the early future may find such an establishment situated where it would be most profitably worked—in the centre of the Waikato district—where soil, temperature, and the absence of sea air proclaim its fitness for the growth of the beet; and to show the results of a factory in full working order, I will conclude by reading the result of eight years' working of the North German Sugar Company, as extracted from their books by Mr. G. S. Graham:—
|Process.||Year.||Quantity of Beetroot.||Percentage of Sugar.||Rate of Dividend.||Beetroot. Quantity manipulated per diem.|
|By hydraulic pressure.||1870–71||208,575||9.13||32%||1,400|
|By diffusion,||1874–75||194,370||10.37||30 "||2,500|
Art. LIV.—Notes on Sorghum Experiment.
[Read before the Auckland, Institute, 8th August, 1881.]
Having received from Commissioner LeDuc, of the Department of Agriculture at Washington, in May, 1880, sufficient seed of the Early Amber and Honduras varieties to sow about ¾ of an acre of each, I forwarded them to New Zealand with instructions for sowing and culture. The Commissioner informed me that these two varieties were those most likely to suit the climate of Auckland, which I explained to him. On my arrival in December, 1880, I found that a piece of ground, 1½ acres of light volcanic loam, which had been for several years in grass, had been carefully ploughed arid prepared. The seed had been sown on the 28th and 29th of September (a month at least too early I now think) in drills running north and south 2 feet 6 inches apart. Instead, however, of planting in the drills a few seeds at the distance of three feet from each other,” the seed had been sown continuously like peas, consequently it did not suffice for the ground prepared and the plants had come up much too thick in the drills. After sowing the weather had been unusually dry until December, so that on my arrival on the 7th December the plants were only about eight inches high. I had them immediately thinned out to a distance of 2 feet 6 inches between each two or three plants, and moist weather coming on the remaining plants began to grow well and litter or throw out 4 to 5 lateral shoots from the roots. The Early Amber covered 9/20 of an acre; the Honduras exactly half an acre. Between the two varieties the unoccupied space, fully ½ an acre, was in October sown with maize broadcast for green food. By the middle of January the Early Amber was about 2 feet 4 inches high on an average, the Honduras 2 feet high, whilst the maize was 4 feet high. On the 4th of February a good many of the main stalks of Early Amber showed the seed top 5 to 6 feet high, none of Honduras, maize forming cobs. The crop now grew with great rapidity, but my absence from home prevented my recording the various stages of progress. On 1st April commenced cutting the Early Amber which then stood 10 to 12 feet high; weighed the cane and found the produce to be 2 tons 16 cwt. from 9/20 of an acre; stripped the seed (roughly) and obtained 130lbs. seed. On 15th April cut the Honduras which then stood about 12 feet high, and obtained from the half acre 3 tons 7 cwt. cane and 170 lbs. seed. The cane was cut about 9 inches from the ground and topped about 2 feet down and weighed immediately after cutting without stripping the leaves. Having no machinery for cleaning the seed, the weight of seed includes the husk.
Being, unfortunately, obliged to be absent from home when the crop was cut, I was unable to carry out my intended experiment of crushing and sugar making, but I hope to do so next year. One of my sons crushed a few stalks through a clothes-mangle, and boiled the juice down to the consistence of syrup, forming, when cold, a stiff toffy (to the delight of himself and his schoolfellows), showing the large amount of saccharine matter in the juice. This was from the Early Amber cane, which is much sweeter to the taste on chewing it than the Honduras.
I purpose planting one acre of Early Amber and half an acre of Honduras about the beginning of November next, and any person desiring to experiment on its growth in different soils and situations can have seed of each variety by applying to Mr. Lavers, seedsman, Queen-street.
Art. LV.—On an abnormal Growth of New Zealand Flax.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 21st January, 1882.]
On the 8th of August last, I found a very remarkable abnormal growth on a flax-bush (Phormium tenax). On one of the flower-stalks, of which there were three, the terminal bud had developed a perfect fan of leaves about two feet long, which at the date mentioned were quite green and fresh, the fan containing nine fully formed leaves, with a young leaf just shooting up in the centre.
The six uppermost lateral flower-buds had made the same abnormal growth, though in a lesser degree; two of them having formed small fans six inches and four inches in length respectively, and the other four having apparently done the same, though the leaves had fallen off, the greatly elongated stalks only being left.
The lower buds had flowered and seeded, some of the seed-pods still remaining.
The whole of the stalk was still green, in spite of the lateness of the season-August being a month in which, it is almost superfluous to state, all ordinary flax-stalks are dead and dry.
The two remaining stalks had made a similar growth to that described. They were, however, dead and withered when I found them.
The bush was one of a considerable patch of ordinary flax growing on the bank of the Papatik, a small stream in northern Taranaki. It was growing in a clayey soil, about 300 or 400 yards from the sea beach.
Art. LVI.—On the New Zealand Olives.
[Received by the Wellington Philosophical Society, 13th March, 1881]*
Few New Zealand plants have proved greater sources of perplexity to local botanists than the olives. With a certain amount of similarity in the foliage, they possess diœcious apetalous flowers which are very inconspicuous, and as they are for the most part produced on lofty trees, it is not easy to procure good specimens of each form in its various stages A limited amount of dimorphism on the foliage has increased the difficulty, and it has been erroneously supposed that the characters afforded by the fruit were of little value.
Another source of perplexity has arisen from the application of the native name “maire” to all the species alike, as well as to the sandal-wood (Santalum cunninghamii), some forms of which closely resemble Olea lanceolata and O. montana in foliage and general appearance, the resemblance extending even to the venation; the flowers and fruit, of course, differing widely in structure.
In “Flora Novæ-Zealandiæ” and the “Handbook” three species of Olea are described—O. cunninghamii, O. lanceoata, and O. montana: a fourth species, O. apetala, was added by the writer in 1867.† Together they form the section Gymnolena, restricted to New Zealand and Norfolk Island, and characterized chiefly by the absence of the corolla. I purpose offering a few remarks on the habit and characteristics of each. All the species agree in having opposite or subopposite petioled, coriaceous, glossy leaves: diœcious apetalous flowers, produced in more or less distichous racemes: each flower being jointed to the pedicel, each pedicel to the rhachis, and each rhachis to the branch. The pedicels are minutely bracteolate at the base, and the calyx is unequally 4-cleft. The style is invariably bifid, and staminodia are frequently produced in the female flowers, especially in those of O. cunninghamii. The fruit is a red or crimson coloured drupe; occasionally two perfect seeds are developed in the same fruit.
Olea apetala, Vahl.
In favourable situations this forms a small tree 20 feet in height, but in exposed situations it is little more than a bush; most frequently it forms a shrub 10 or 12 feet high and branched from the base.
The branches are spreading, and often tortuous; in old specimens the bark is very thick, deeply farrowed, and corky.
[Footnote] * Title read at Annual Meeting, 12th February, 1881.
[Footnote] † See Trans. N.Z. Inst,. vol. iii. p. 165
The leaves exhibit a marked dimorphism at different periods of growth; those of the young state, especially when growing in the shade, are broadly ovate, from 3″–6″ long and from 2½″–3″ across, petioled, acute or sub-acute, narrowed below, coriaceous and of a deep glossy green resembling those of Camellia japonica, but with the margins entire. The mature leaves are much narrower in proportion to their length, 1½″–3″ long and from 1″–11/12″ broad with the midrib prominent on both surfaces, elliptic acuminate, brownish and rough to the touch beneath.
I have not seen male flowers, but the female flowers are produced in vast abundance, the racemes being fully 1½ long, 15–18-flowered, glabrous, stout; stigmas spreading short and thick. The drupe appears to be obscurely trigonous, but I have only seen three or four old specimens.
It is worthy of note that in this species the leaves of the young tree are much broader than those of the mature state. In the other species the young leaves are invariably the narrowest. In O. apetala the broad leaves are often retained until the tree is fully grown, but this is never the case with either of the other species.
This species has been collected on the Fanal Islands, Arid Islands, Great Barrier, Little Barrier, Taranga Islands, and at Bream Head.
Olea cunninghamii, Hook. f.
This is much the largest of the New Zealand species, often attaining the height of 70 feet, with a trunk 3–6 feet in diameter at six feet from the ground, while the principal branches are often of large dimensions. The leaves are rough on both surfaces; in the young state they are linear, 6″–10″ long, 3/8-5/8 wide, acute, gradually passing into the mature form, 3″–6″ long, 1¼–1¾″broad, oblong lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, obtuse or acute. Racemes tomentose, rather shorter than those of O. apetala, pedicels short, spreading at right angles to the rhachis; pistillate flowers with two sessile staminodia. Drupe ½″-⅔″ long, ovoid, narrowed upwards, red.
This species occurs from the North Cape to Cook Strait, but is most plentiful in the southern part of the North Island, attaining its greatest dimensions in the south-eastern portion of the Wellington district. At Pakuratahi I measured five trees growing within a short distance of each other, with the following results:—
|Height of Tree.||Trunk.||Girth at 5 feet from the base.|
|No. 1.||70 feet||—||20 feet 7 inches|
|" 2.||50 "||12||13 " 4 "|
|(With six large arms averaging from 15 to 20 feet long, and 5 feet in circumference at the middle.)|
|" 3.||60 "||35||4 " 8 "|
|" 4||50 "||35||6 " 4 "|
|" 5.||60 "||30||20 " O "|
Above 6 feet from the ground the trunk tapers very gradually, and holds its girth well up to the crown. No. 5 was a magnificent tree; after making all deductions for bark and waste, it must contain over 500 cubic feet of convertible timber.
Olea lanceplata, Hook. f.
This makes a round-headed tree of smaller dimensions than O. cunninghamii, being rarely more than 50 feet in height, with a trunk from 1 to 3 feet in diameter. Not unfrequently small specimens less than 20 feet high produce fruit in abundance.
The leaves are smooth and glossy in all stages; in the young state narrow-linear, 3″–5″ long; in the mature state linear-lanceolate or ovatelanceolate, acuminate. Racemes slender, calyx deeply cleft, segments linear. Drupe trigonous crimson. There are two primary forms of this species:—
Bark of twigs whitish, prominently warted, leaves ovate, lanceolate, acuminate, segments of calyx linear.
Bark of twigs dark, scarcely warted, leaves linear-lanceolate, racemes more slender than invar, a, segments of perianth broader.
This is the most common species, especially in the north. It is also found at Wairoa, in the Nelson district.
Olea montana, Hook. f.
This species forms an excessively branched round-headed tree; branches slender. Leaves linear acute, in the young state 3″–5″ long, when mature 1″–3″ glossy. Racemes slender, finely puberulous, 1″ long, about 12-flowered. Calyx lobes shallow, broad, obtuse. Styles shorter than in O. cunning hamii. Drupe ovoid, narrowed at base and apex.
In specimens collected at Whangaroa (North) the branchlets are almost capillary, and the leaves less than ⅓ in breadth.
O. montana is rare and local north of the Rangitikei, in some localities being restricted to a few specimens, or even to a solitary tree, but in the southern part of the Wellington district it is common. It is especially plentiful in the valley of the Ruamahanga, where it attains a large size.
A solitary specimen at Karori is fully 60 feet high, with a trunk 40 feet in the clear. Girth at base 9′ 1″, tapering to 7′ 4″ at 6 feet from the ground, but above that holding its girth well up towards the crown. I have been assured that specimens are found on the lower flanks of the Rimutaka fully equal in dimensions to the largest specimens of O. cunninghamii.
It will be seen that O. apetala has the most restricted distribution, not being known to occur south of the Little Barrier Island. It extends, however, northward to Norfolk Island. O.lanceolata, is the only species found on the southen side of Cook Strait
Santalum cunninghamii, from the close similarity of its foliage to Olea montana and O. lanceolata, is often mistaken for them in districts where it is plentiful, but a cursory examination of the flowers or fruit is sufficient to prevent the error. On the other hand, Olea cunninghamii is the Santalum cunninghamii of Buchanan's list of Wellington plants, and its wood has been distributed from the Colonial Museum under the name of Santalum. It is, however, very rarely that sandalwood forms a trunk of 9″ in diameter; most frequently it is no thicker than a man's wrist, and south of the Taupo district it is usually reduced to a mere bush, 5 or 6 feet in height.
The following key to the species of Olea may be found useful:—
|A. Leaves rough.|
|1. Leaves oblong or elliptic acuminate, racemes glabrous||O. apetala.|
|2. " lanceolate, racemes tomentose||O. cunninghamii.|
|b. Leaves smooth.|
|3. Leaves lanceolate acuminate, perianth segments linear, acute||O. lanceolata.|
|4. Leaves linear lanceolate, perianth segments broad, obtuse||O. montana.|
Art. LVII.—Notice of the Occurrence of Triodia and Atropis in New Zealand with Descriptions of new Species.
[Received by the Wellington Philosophical Society, 13th March, 1882.]*
Triodia exigua, n.s.
Danthonia pauciflora, Buchanan, Grasses of N.Z., t. xxxvi. B., not of R. Brown.
A small grass forming a compact swart, root creeping, leaves tufted 1″ long, filiform, rigid, involute, pungent, glabrous, mouth of sheath clothed with a minute pencil of hairs, ligule O. Culms 1″–2″ high, slender, naked above. Panicle reduced to a single spikelet, or rarely two when the lower spikelet is pedicellate. Spikelets 2–3-flowered, empty glumes longer than the flowering, obtuse, flowering glumes 3-toothed at the apex, ciliate, nerved. Palea notched at apex. Caryopsis free.
Hab.—South Island: Broken River Basin, Canterbury, on terraces, 2,500–3000 feet; terraces of the Upper Waimakariri, 1,600–2,500 feet; Mount St. Bathans, Otago—D. Petrie.
Mr. Enys and myself collected a few specimens of this grass several years ago, but as the specimens were far advanced, little more than the outer glume remaining, it was not possible to make out its affinities. Last year Mr. Enys visited the locality and kindly sent me a supply of good specimens. I am also indebted to Mr. Petrie for good specimens from Otago. In his “Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand” Mr. Buchanan has wrongly referred Mr. Petrie's plant to Danthonia pauciflora, but it is clearly a Triodia.
[Footnote] * Title read at Annual Meeting, 12th February, 1881.
Triodia exigua occurs in great abundance in the Broken River Basin, and on the Waimakariri terraces, forming a close sward to the exclusion of all other grasses. Its red anthers, as I learn from Mr. Enys, give a perceptible tinge to the pasturage, which catches the eye when riding. Nearly all the specimens in this locality have the panicle reduced to a single spikelet. Some of Mr. Petrie's specimens are more robust and exhibit two spikelets, the second, however, being often imperfeet. Mr. Enys informs me that horses especially are very fond of it, notwithstanding its dwarf habit.
Danthonia pauciflora of Brown is a more robust grass with keeled leaves and culms with sub-erect or drooping many-flowered panicles which are usually more or less branched, while the flowering glume is never three toothed and the lodicules are never ciliated as in our plant. It has not been observed in New Zealand.
Atropis pumila, n.s.
A slender, tufted grass, 2″–8″ high. Leaves 1″–2″ long, spreading, filiform, involute, with a minute pencil of hairs at the mouth of the sheath. Sheath with a few loose hairs at the base. Culms erect, extremely slender, leafy for over one half their length. Panicle strict, linear-oblong, rarely exceeding 1″ in length, simple or with one or two short branchlets at the base. Spikelets on short capillary pedicels, minute, 2–3 flowered. Outer glumes unequal, obtuse; flowering glume convex, obtuse, 5-nerved; nerves faint; palea ciliolate at the apex; Caryopsis oblong, free.
Hab.—South Island: common in Otago from 2,000 to 3,000 feet- D. Petrie.
I am indebted to Mr. Petrie for specimens of this grass, which adds another genus to our flora. It resembles some forms of Danthonia nuda but its nearest ally amongst New Zealand grasses is Glyceria stricta, Sm.
Art. LVIII.—A Revision of the New Zealand Lepidia, with Descriptions of new Species.
[Received by the Wellington Philosophical Society, 13th March, 1882.].*
1. Lepidiun oleraceum, Forst.
A. Rich., Flore de la Nouvelle Zelande, t. 35
Hook, f., Fl. N.Z., i, 15; Handb. N.Z. Flora, 14.
Hab.—In sheltered places near the sea, North Island, South Island, Stewart Island, Auckland Islands (Bolton).
[Footnote] * Title read at Annual Meeting, 12th February, 1881
This is the most robust of all the New Zealand species; the stems being sometimes as thick as a man's little finger. The leaves are sharply serrated, never pinnate or pinnatifid, sometimes the serration is confined to the apices. The racemes are always terminal, pods entire, wingless, style exserted. The leaves are more or less succulent, and the whole plant emits a strong, unpleasant odour. A form with the radical leaves ovate or oblong on naked petioles is occasionally found.
2. L. flexicaule, n.s.
Stems numerous, flexuous, irregularly branched from the base. Radical leaves 2″–3″ long, linear-oblong, pinnate or pinnatifid; segments irregularly serrate near the apex. Cauline leaves gradually smaller, linear spathulate. Racemes lateral, leaf-opposed, each with a solitary flower a short distance below its base. Flowers perfect, petals extremely minute, pods on short pedicels; oblong, notched at the apex. Style included in the notch. formed by the wings.
Hab.—North Island: rocky places near the sea, Waitemata, Manukau, etc.
This species is characterized by the lateral racemes, which are terminal at first but become reduced to a lateral position by the growth of a stout usurping shoot which overtops them. The winged fruit has the style included in the notch, and the irregular somewhat obtuse serration of the leaves affords a strong contrast with the regular acute teeth of L. oleraeum. I have seen no South Island specimens, but have little doubt its distribution is equally extensive with that of the preceding species.
In its inflorescence this plant resembles Senebiera didyma, Pers.
3. Lepidium sisymbrioides, Hook. f.
Handb. N.Z. Flora, 14.
Hab—South Island: Lake Ohau, Haast; Mackenzie Country, J. B. Armstrong.
I have not seen good specimens of this plant, which appears to be diœcious. In two small specimens given me by Mr. Armstrong, the leaves and stem are sparingly clothed with short appressed hairs.
4. Lepidium solandri, n.s.
Root stout, one- or many-headed. Leaves crowded, rosulate, linearlanceolate, or obovate, 1″–1½″ long, with short, broad petioles, pinnatifid; segments often broad, clothed with scattered hairs, glandular. Stems spreading, sub-erect, naked, or with a few small entire leaves at the base. Flowers diœcious, petals O, ♂ fl. stamens tetrandrous; ♀ flowers numerous, pedicels very slender, pod ovate-rhomboid with very narrow wings, hairy, emarginate, style longer than the notch.
Hab.—South Island: limestone rocks, Broken River Basin, Canterbury-J. D. Enys and T. Kirk.
This species is allied to L. sisymbrioides, from which it is distinguished by the naked stems, apetalous flowers, straight pedicels, and narrowly winged pods.
In old specimens the root is four feet long, and fully one inch in diameter; much divided near the apex, so that the numerous heads form a compact hemispherical mass of leaves 6″–12″ across. The stems of the ♂ plant are more leafy at the base than the female, and produce fewer flowers. It is evidently the supposed Lepidium incisum stated in the Handbook to have been collected by Haast on “limestone rocks in the subalpine region of the Waimakariri.”
5. Lepidium tenuicaule, n.s.
Leaves all radical, and with the stems more or less clothed with short whitish hairs: pinnate or pinnatifid, 1″–3″ long: segments laciniate and sharply serrate on the upper margin; teeth linear, acute, piliferous. Stems very numerous, prostrate, 6″–12″ long, extremely slender, flexuous, simple or branched, leafless, or with two or three minute entire leaves on the lower part. Flowers excessively numerous, perfect, on short, slender pedicels, stamens 4, pod small, shorter than the peduncle, orbicular, not winged, style minute.
Hab.— South Island: Cape Whanbrow.
This species differs from all other New Zealand forms in the prostrate habit and innumerable flowers, and the orbicular pods separate it from all except L. australe; the style in the fully-formed fruit is reduced to a mere point.
It was originally discovered by Mr. D. Petrie, and is produced in abundance after every disturbance of the silt which covers the cape, but decreases in quantity as the surface becomes consolidated.
6. Lepidium australe, n.s.
An erect, much-branched, leafy species, 10″–15″ high. Radical leaves 3″–6″ long, on rather long petioles, linear-oblong, narrowed. below, pinnate; leaflets shortly petioled, incised and toothed on the upper margin, or rarely entire. Cauline leaves smaller, pinnatifid or entire serrate. Racemes terminal, spreading, flowers perfect, shortly pedicellate. Pods orbicular or ovate-orbicular, minutely emarginate, style minute.
Hab.—South Island: Cape Whanbrow-T. K.; near Cromwell-D. Petrie.
Allied to L. tenuicaule, from which it differs widely in habit, in the racemes being leafy at the base and in the somewhat wider pod, which is usually emarginate. The habit is the same as L. oleraceum, but the plant is much smaller.
Mr. Petrie has sent specimens from Otago which in some respects are intermediate between this species and L. flexicaule; but the specimens are too far advanced to allow of my forming a positive opinion.
7. Lepidium incisum, Banks and Solander.
FI. N.Z., i., 15; Handb. 14.
I have seen no specimens of this plant, which appears to be extremely local. Mr. Colenso is the only living botanist who has met with it, and the habitat in which he found it has not proved productive of late years.
The Waimakariri habitat stated in the Handbook for this species must be erased, L. solandri being the plant intended.
Art. LIX.—Notes on recent Additions to the New Zealand Flora.
[Received by the Wellington Philosophical Society, 13th March, 1882.]*
Capsella procumbens, Fries.
Hutchinsia procumbens, Hook, f., Fl. Tasm.
I Have received specimens of this species from Mr. D. Petrie, who collected them at Cape Whanbrow and Forbury Head, Otago. Those from the last-named locality are extremely small, scarcely an inch in height; and those from Cape Whanbrow do not attain the usual size of European and Australian specimens, the largest not exceeding 3 inches. The leaves are entire or toothed in all my specimens, never pinnatifid. The flowers equal the calyx; the racemes are elongated and open in fruit, and the pod is narrowed at both ends. It will doubtless be found in other localities, but may be easily overlooked.
Myriophyllum, verrucosum, Lindl.
I collected this plant in ponds between Tauranga Harbour and the sea, but am not aware of its occurrence in any other part of the colony. It differs from M. elatinoides and M. variæfolium, in its more slender habit, and in having all the floral leaves pinnatifid. The flowers are small, with minute sepals, and the carpels are tuberculated.
Azorella selago, Hook. f.
This interesting plant was discovered on Macquarrie Island, by Fraser, as stated in “Flora Antarctica” ii., 285, but owing to its not having been observed on the Auckland or Campbell Islands, some doubt arose as to the correctness of the habitat, so that it was not included in the Handbook. Botanists are greatly indebted to Professor Scott, of the Otago University, for its discovery during his recent exploration of the island.
[Footnote] * Title read at Annual Meeting, 12th February, 1881.
The plant forms large matted patches on the ground. Stems 2″ to 6″ long, branched, densely tufted and matted together. Leaves distant or close set and imbricate, appressed, petiole membraneous, broadly sheathing, blade expanded and deeply cut into from 5 to 7 subacute one-nerved segments, less than ¼″ long.
My cursory examination of Professor Scott's specimens did not enable me to detect flowers or fruit, but in “Flora Antarctica” the umbels are described as terminal, 3-flowered. Calyx teeth acute. Fruit ovate, terminated by elongated styles, mericarps convex on the back, contracted towards the suture.
Pozoa reniforme, Hook. f.
I found this species growing plentifully on a moraine close to the snowline in a deep valley of the Spenser Mountains, Amuri. Previously it was only known from the Auckland Islands.
Cotula integrifolia, Hook. f.
This plant is not uncommon in situations where water has stagnated but which have become dry on: the approach of summer. It varies greatly in stature and luxuriance, but a complete series may be traced from minute, one-flowered forms with entire leaves, the plant less than 1 inch in height, to the most luxuriant form of C. coronopifolia. It can only be regarded as a transitory state of that species and is unworthy to take rank even as a trivial variety.
Mentha australis, Br.
This species remarkable even amongst its congeners for its powerful odour occurs in great abundance in the Wairarapa, especially at Carterton, but I fear that it must be regarded as an introduced plant. I observed it at intervals for three or four miles along the road, especially plentiful in ditches but occurring also in the adjacent forest.
It is an erect herb with pale green leaves and acutely angled stems; the flowers are produced in great abundance in axillary false whorls which maybe pedicellate or sessile; the calyx is pubescent or hairy with long subulate teeth, the corolla tube, is small, scarcely exceeding the calyx in length, and the mouth is deeply two-lobed.
Our plant fills the ditches by the road-side, where it attains the height of over 2 feet. In moist places in the forest it is much smaller. It is called “turpentine” by the settlers.
Polygonum prostratum, R. Br.
A much-branched prostrate suffruticose plant, the branches rooting from beneath in the present specimen, 6″–10″ high: the young branches and leaves sparingly clothed with rather long white hairs. Leaves lanceolate, narrowed into a short petiole, 1″ long, stipules sheathing, ciliate. Spikes
axillary, or terminating short branchlets, sessile or shortly pedunculate, ½″ long: perianth small, becoming enlarged after flowering: stamens 6: nut convex, black, faintly reticulate.
Hab.—In several places by the Wairarapa Lake-Harry Borrer Kirk.
Juncus pauciflorus, It. Brown (not of T. Kirk).
Although somewhat local in distribution, this species occurs in several localities in both islands, and is generally known to New Zealand botanists under the name of Juncus communis, β hexagonus; it is, however, distinct from that species, although similar in habit.
The panicle is lax, consisting of few slender branches, flowers few in number, and small: perianth segments acute, stamens 6, capsule ovoid, faintly angled.
The culms are usually slender, and the sheaths at the base very short. It appears to have been collected in New Zealand by Banks and Solander. Juncus brevifolius, T. Kirk.
J. pauciflorus, T. Kirk (not of Brown).
In the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” vol. ix., p. 551, I described this small species under the name of Juncus pauciflorus, but as that name has been applied by Bentham to another species, I propose to call my plant J. brevifolius. It is distinguished from all New Zealand species by its rosulate leaves, slender naked erect culms, and sessile flowers. At present it has only been observed in swamps by the Thomas River, Canterbury, at an altitude of 2,000 feet.
Centrolepsis monogyna, Benth.
Alepyrum monogynum, Hook. f.
This moss-like plant occurs in swampy places, at an elevation of 3,000 feet in Arthur's Pass, where it was observed by the writer in 1877, when specimens were distributed under the MS. name of Alepyrum viride.
It forms large patches, scarcely ½″ in height when in flower. Leaves deep green, subulate, acute, dilated into a broad membraneous base, with a few short hairs at the back. Bracts sub-opposite, narrow. Flowers two, each invested by a semi-transparent scale which nearly equals the bract, and consisting of a single stamen and a single carpel.
Carex leporina, L.
C. ovalis, Good.
In November last I collected this common European species in a small valley in the Ohariu district, Wellington. The specimens were of greater luxuriance than any that had previously come under my notice, but differed in no essential particular from the type. The ovate sessile spikelets are collected into a short erect head, so that it can be easily distinguished from any of its New Zealand congeners.
Hierochloe alpina, Rœm. and Schultes, var. submutica.
H. submutica, F. Muell.
Danthonia buchanani, J. Buch., “Manual of Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand,”
p. 87, t. xxxv. (not of Hook, f.)
This form is intermediate between H. redolens and H. alpina, but is most closely related to the latter. The New Zealand plant agrees with that of Victoria in habit, and especially in. the lower glumes being scarcely ciliate, but differs slightly in having longer awns, which appear to be always developed.
The panicle is more open than in H. alpina, the branches are longer and extremely slender, distant, usually drooping. Spikelets 3–6. Leaves broad, flat.
Hab.—Common in mountain districts, especially on the west coast of the South Island.
Bentham in “Flora Australiensis” unites H. redolens and H. alpina, and considers our plant as a connecting form, which may possibly prove worthy of specific honours.
I fully agree with Mr. Buchanan in keeping H. alpina separate from the European H. borealis, but cannot understand his having mistaken our plant for a Danthonia, especially for D. buchanani, which, independently of its generic and sectional distinctive characters, is described as having a short contracted panicle and filiform leaves.
Stipa micrantha, Cav., R. Br.
Streplachne ramosissima, Trin. and Rupr.
I have already recorded the occurrence of this species in the colony, and now add that it was originally discovered by Mr. W. T. L. Travers, near Foxhill, in the Nelson District. Recently it has been found in great abundance on the Takaka ranges, Nelson, by the Rev. F. H. Spencer, who informs me that the culms are sometimes from 5 to 6 feet in length. Although formerly inclined to regard it as introduced at Lyall Bay, in the North Island, I am now convinced that it is indigenous in that habitat.*
The culms are usually from 2 to 5 feet long, hard, much branched, the branches being frequently arrested, rounded, bunches at the nodes, but usually they are long and spreading. Panicle from 6 inches to 2 feet in length, branches numerous, capillary, drooping. Spikelets small, outer glumes narrow, nearly equal. Flowering glume shortly stipitate, entire, awn ½ inch long, articulated on the glume. Palea less than half as long, as the glume.
The habit of this species resembles that of Microlæna polynoda, but the plant is much larger.
[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. x., p. 378.
Stipa setacea, R. Br.
Stipa petriei of Buchanan's “Manual of the Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand,” p. 171, t. xvii., 2, must be referred to this species, which, although local, has a wide, distribution in Australia. None of the specimens kindly sent me by Mr. Petrie have the outer glumes so unequal as represented in Mr. Buchanan's drawing.
It is not improbable that this species is merely naturalized in Otago, and has no claim to be included amongst our indigenous plants.
Davallia dubia, R. Br.
In “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” vol. xii., p. 346, this species is recorded as a native of the Canterbury Provincial District by Mr. J. B. Armstrong, but erroneously: specimens of Hypolepis millefolium, with the pinnules less divided than usual, having been mistaken for it.
Asplenium mohrioides, Bory.
Polystichum mohrioides, Presl.
I have had the pleasure of examining specimens of this southern fern, collected on the Auckland Islands by a sailor during the past year. As they differ slightly from Fuegian specimens, I append a full description.
Fronds tufted, 3 to 5 inches in length, scarcely more than an inch in width; stipes very short, covered with soft brown scales mixed with hairs; frond oblong or oblong-lanceolate, pinnate, pinnæ in about twelve pairs, close set and imbricating, the lower shortly stalked, ovate, pinnate or pinnatifid, segments close set, crenate, obtuse; sori crowded, restricted to the upper part of the frond, indusium smooth, attached by the centre.
The young fronds are very chaffy, but the scales speedily disappear from the upper portion. The scales vary greatly in size, and are minutely ciliate.
Specimens from Magellan Straits are much more robust than our plant, and frequently attain 1½ feet in length, of which the stipes constitutes nearly a third. The texture is coriaceous, and the segments larger and less obtuse than in the Auckland Island plants.
In the chaffy habit and membraneous texture our specimens approach A. cystostegia, but the lax pinnæ and acute segments of the latter afford easy marks of distinction.
The distribution of this species is very remarkable. It has been collected in Chili, Magellan Straits, Tierra del Fuego, the Falkland Islands, Marion Island, and California.
Art. LX.—Notes on Plants from Campbell Island.
[Received by the Wellington Philosophical Society, 13th March, 1882.]*
Having had the privilege of examining the collection of Campbell Island plants in the Otago Museum, and comparing it with a set presented to me by the same collector, Dr. Filhol, also with a small collection made by Lieutenant Rathouis, of the “Vire,” I find several interesting plants not previously known to exist on the island. I have therefore drawn up the following list of the plants comprised in the three collections, and added a few critical notes:—
Ranunculas pinguis, Hook. f. All the specimens with solitary flowers, and the leaves much more succulent than in alpine specimens from the South Island.
R. aucklandicus, Gray. Occurs in all the sets. Petals small, distant.
Cardamine hirsuta, L., var. carnosa.
Stellaria decipiens, Hook. f. In the Otago collection only: a mere fragment without flowers.
Colobanthus muscoides, Hook. f. A scrap mixed with Tillæa—Lieutenant Rathouis.
Montia fontana, L.
Acæna sanguisorbæ, Vahl. A form clothed with soft silky hairs.
Tillæa moschata, DC.
Epilobium linnæoides, Hook. f. In all the sets. This plant must be considered a form of E. rotundifolium, from which some of the present specimens cannot be distinguished.
E. confertifolium, Hook. f. A small form which may prove to be specifically distinct. It occurs at from 4,000 to 5,000 feet in Marlborough and Otago.
Ligusticum latifolium, Hook. f. In all the collections, but it is worthy of note that L. antipodarum is not represented in either.
Stilbocarpa polaris, Dcn. and Planch. Sir Joseph Hooker has pointed out the differences between specimens of this plant from the Auckland Islands and Stewart Island. Those from the Auckland and Campbell Islands have the leaves plaited and clothed with strong hairs. I have been much interested in observing that of three specimens from the Auckland Islands cultivated in the Wellington Botanic Garden, side by side with a strong specimen from Stewart Island, two have entirely lost these characters and exactly resemble the latter. There is, moreover, no difference in the inflorescence of plants from the two habitats, and both alike give off strong scions.
[Footnote] * Title read at Annual Meeting, 12th February, 1881.
Celmisia verbascoides, Hook. f. The occurrence of this grand Otago plant on Campbell Island is of considerable interest. The flowers are rather larger than in specimen from the Horse ranges.
C. vernicosa, Hook. f. The specimens have the ligulæ of the ray-florets whiet, not rose-coloured at the tips as represented in Flora Antarctica. In this respect it agrees with all the species of the genus, but differs in having disc-florets of a deep purple colour.
Pleurophyllum speciosum, Hook. f.
P. criniferum, Hook. f. Imperfect specimen only.
Cotula plumosa, Hook. f.
Gnaphalium prostratum, Hook. f. The specimens in the different sets show that G. bellidioides cannot be separated from this species. A complete transition may be seen from the short leafy branch terminated by a sessile head of G. prostratum, to the elongate slender peduncle of G. bellidioides.
Dracophyllum urvilleanum, A. Rich., var. scoparium.
D. longifolium, Hook. f. Otago collection only.
Veronica benthami, Hook. f.
Caladenia bifolia, Hook. f.
Anthericum rossii, Hook. f. Specimens of A. hookeri, from Lake Harris, exhibit a marked approach to the diœcious condition characteristic of A. rossii
Lazula crinita, Hook. f.
Isolepis aucklandica, Hook. f.—Lieutenant Rathouis.
Oreobolus pumilis, R. Br.
Carex appressa, Br. A small form; the panicle less than two inches in length.
C. trifida, Cav.
Poa foliosa, Hook. f. The typical form recorded by Mr. Buchanan from the Snares and from the Chatham Islands, in the latter case incorrectly, Festuca scoparia, which is omitted from his list of Chatham Island plants, having been mistaken for it.
Hymenophyllum multifidum, Swartz.
Hypolepis millefolium, Hook. f. With some hesitation I refer a sterile specimen collected by Lieutenant Rathouis to this species; it may, however, prove to be a finely cut form of Polypodium rugulosum.
Pteris incisa, Thunb.
Lomaria capense, Willd.
L. dura, Moore. In all the collections and apparently attaining a large size.
Aspidium aculeatum, Swartz, var. vestitum. The specimens are of more rigid texture than any I have seen from either the North or South Island.
Polypodium rugulosum, Lab. A large viscid form of unusually stout texture. Lycopodium billardieri, Br., β. vatrium. One specimen is an intermediate form; the others belong to the robust form commonly known as L.
Dicranum billardieri, Brid.
" setosum, Hook. f. and Wils.
Campylopus appressifolius, Mitt.
Ceratodon purpureus, Brid.
Polytrichum tortile, Swartz.
Hypnum serpens, L.
" adculare, Lab.
" chlamydophyllum, Hook. f. and Wils.
Jungermannia monodon, Hook. f. and Tayl.
Marchantia tabularis, Nees.
Cladonia pyxidata, Fries.
" gracilis, Hoffm.
" furcata, Hoffm.
" rangiferina, Hoffm.
" aggregata, Eschw.
" retipora, Flœrke.
Stereocaulon ramulosum, Ach.
Stica filicina, Ach.
" variabilis, Ach.
" fossulata, Dufour.
Polysiphonia dumosa, Hook f. and Harv.
Polyzonia cuneifolia, Mont.
Dumontia filiformis, Grev.
Codium tomentosum, Agardh.