Art. XLIV.—On some Additions to the Flora of New Zealand.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 11th July, 1881.]
1. Pozoa reniformis, Hook. f.
Although this plant has long been known to occur in the Auckland Islands, where it was originally discovered by the Antarctic Expedition in 1840, there is no recorded instance of its having been collected in New Zealand proper. In January, 1881, I found it growing in some profusion in clefts of rocks on the slopes of Mount Peel, Nelson, at an altitude of about 5,000 feet. A good description and excellent plate will be found in the “Flora Antarctica.”
2. Ligusticum deltoideum, n. sp.
Small, stout, dark green and shining, very aromatic, 2–6 inches high. Rootstock stout, covered with pale chaffy scales. Leaves numerous, all radical, 2–4 inches long, petiole half the length, broadly deltoid in outline, bipinnate; segments broadly cuneate, cut down nearly to the base into 3–5 sharp flat spreading lobes, ⅛–⅕ inch long, or again pinnate. Peduncles usually shorter than the leaves, naked or with one small leaflet. Umbels small, ½–1 inch in diameter. Flowers white or pinkish. Ripe fruit not seen.
This is nearest to L. filifolium, but differs in its stemless habit, smaller size, more numerous leaves with much more copious divisions, and in the shorter peduncles.
Hab.—Grassy slopes on Mount Arthur, Nelson, alt. 4,000–5,500 feet.
3. Poranthera alpina, n.sp.
Small, perfectly glabrous, 2–4 inches high. Branches numerous, decumbent or suberect, usually densely compacted and interlaced, hard and woody at the base, scarred. Leaves opposite, all uniform, crowded, sessile or narrowed into a very short petiole, linear-oblong, quite entire, obtuse, ⅛–⅕. inch long, smooth and veinless above, margins usually so much revolute as to conceal the whole of the under surface except the very thick and prominent midrib. Stipules large, triangular, entire or very slightly jagged, persistent. Flowers apparently diœcious; minute, greenish-white, shortly pedicelled, solitary in the axils of the upper leaves, and thus forming short leafy terminal heads. Males:—Labyx divided nearly to the base into 5 oblong segments. Petals wanting in all the flowers examined. Stamens 5, alternating with 5 rounded green glands. Females:—Labyx, etc., as in the males. Stamens, 0; ovary large, rounded, 6-lobed, 3-celled, ovules 2 in each cell. Capsule globose-depressed, apparently splitting into 3 cocci, but not seen perfectly ripe.
Hab.—Rocky ledges on Mount Arthur, Nelson, ascending to within a short distance of the summit of the mountain. Alt. 6,000ft.
This is a most unexpected and interesting addition to our Flora, and is perfectly distinct from any of the Australian species. The only other plant of the genus known from New Zealand is P. microphylla, Brong., which I discovered in the Nelson district in 1878.*
4. Triglochin palustre, L.
In January, 1880, when botanizing in the Canterbury mountains with my friend Mr. J. D. Enys, numerous specimens of a plant clearly referable to this species were collected, by a small tributary of the Broken river, at an altitude of about 2,500ft., and Mr. Enys has since met with it in several localities in the vicinity of the first station. T. palustre is a common plant in the northern hemisphere, being found throughout Northern and Central Europe, North Africa, North Asia to the Himalaya Mountains, and in North America. In the South Temperate Zone it has as yet only been recorded from Chili. T. palustre may be distinguished from T. triandrum, our only other native species, by its much larger size (some of my Canterbury specimens are nearly two feet high), stouter scape, more numerous flowers, and particularly by the linear-clavate fruit.
[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xi., p. 432.
5. Carex leporina, L. C. ovalis, Good.
This is also an abundant plant in Northern Europe and Asia, and in some parts of North America. In the “Flora Antarctica” it is recorded as a doubtful inhabitant of the Falkland Islands, but I am not aware that it has been collected elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. The following description is drawn up from New Zealand specimens:—
Culms 12–18 inches high, rather slender. Leaves usually much shorter, flat, grassy, ⅛ inch broad. Spikelets 4–8, androgynous, ovoid, pale, brown, shining, collected into an oblong head an inch long; male flowers at the base. Bracts wanting, or small and glume-like. Perigynia as long as the acute glumes, elliptic, plano-convex, striate, winged, narrowed into a long beak; margins and beak finely serrulate. Stigmas 2.
Hab.—Motueka Valley, Ngatimoti, and other places in the western portion of the Nelson district.
6. Carex cinnamomea, n. sp.
Slender, 1–2 feet high. Leaves longer than the culms, with harsh cutting edges, flat, striate, ¼–⅓ inch broad. Culms dropping, bracts long and leafy. Spikelets 5–8, distant, upper sessile, lower pedunculate, curved, nodding, 2½–4 inches long, ¼ inch in diameter; terminal one male, or male at the base only, the rest female, but usually with a few lax male flowers below. Glumes longer than the perigynia, lanceolate, cuspidate, entire; with a green keel and reddish-brown margins. Perigynia slightly spreading when ripe, pale, stipitate, narrow elliptic, strongly nerved, narrowed into a short stout beak; beak minutely 2-toothed. Stigmas 3.
Hab.—Graham River and other tributaries of the Motueka rising in Mount Arthur. Sources of the Takaka River, ascending to 3,500 feet altitude.
Most nearly allied to C. vacillans, but readily distinguished by its larger size, longer much stouter spikelets, longer glumes, and by the shape of the perigynia, which want the tapering deeply bifid beak of that species.