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Volume 14, 1881
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Art. XLV.—Contributions to a Flora of the Nelson Provincial District.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 3rd October, 1881.]

The importance of obtaining an accurate knowledge of the geographical and altitudinal distribution of our native Flora, and of determining the correlation which exists between it and the geology, physical history, and climate of the country, is doubtless sufficiently obvious. But it must be admitted that no correct inferences can be drawn, or sure generalizations

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arrived at, until we possess carefully compiled lists of the plants of all the chief portions of the colony. The volumes of the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” bear witness that something has been done in this direction; but much more will be required before a firm basis is afforded for future work. As a slight contribution to the literature of the subject, I propose to give a list of the plants observed by myself during two visits to the Nelson Provincial District, in 1878 and 1881, when I was enabled to travel over a considerable portion of the district, and to make large collections, especially of the alpine species. Of course, it will be fully under-stood that my list can have no claim to completeness. To collect the material for even a tolerably complete catalogue of the plants of the Nelson district (or any other of similar area) would involve the expenditure of much time and labour, and is a work that can only be efficiently performed by local observers, who possess the great advantage of being able to examine the vegetation at all seasons of the year, and with more leisure and circumspection than can be given by a casual traveller, however industrious he may be. At the same time, the list will be found to represent all the chief features of the vegetation, and is probably not much more incomplete than those that have been prepared of other Provincial Districts.

At some future time I hope to consider in detail the principal features of plant-distribution in Nelson, and to suggest some possible explanation of certain curious anomalies therein. At present the known facts are not sufficient to warrant the attempt, large portions of the district never having been explored in a botanical point of view, and others being very imperfectly known.

The total number of species included in the catalogue is 666, but this will doubtless be largely added to by future observers. I have included a few species mentioned either in the “Handbook” or the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,” as occurring in the district, but which have not been observed by myself. With the exception of these, all of which are specified in the list, I am personally responsible for the whole of the determinations and for the localities quoted:—

Catalogue of The Flowering Plants and Ferns Observed in The Nelson Provincial District.

Ranunculaceæ.

Clematis indivisa, Willd. Common at low elevations. Nelson; Foxhill; Wairau Valley, etc.

" hexasepala, DC. Near Moutere.

" parviflora, A. Cunn., var. depauperata. "Nelson, Travers " (Hand-book).

"colensoi, Hook. fil., var. rutæfolia. Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

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Ranunculus insignis, Hook. f. Elevated plateau between Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, alt. 4,500 feet, extremely abundant; a small few-flowered form ascends to the summit of Mount Arthur, nearly 6,000 feet. Wairau Valley, in several localities between Top-house and the Wairau Gorge.

" pinguis, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains, not uncommon. Ascends to 6,300 feet at the Wairau Gorge.

" geraniifolius, Hook. f. Not uncommon in alpine localities. Mountains behind Lake Rotoiti; Raglan Range; Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, ascending to 5,500 feet. A most variable plant. Leaves often much dissected.

" haastii, Hook. f. Shingle slopes, Wairau Gorge.

" crithmifolius, Hook. f. "Wairau Gorge, on shingle slips, alt. 6,000 feet, Travers" (Handbook).

" sinclairii, Hook. f. Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.

" plebeius. Abundant. Ascends to 4,000 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.

" lappaceus, Sm., var. multiscapus. Common, especially in subalpine localities. Ascends to 5,000 feet on the Raglan Mountains.

" subscaposus, Hook. f.? Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,500 feet; Raglan Mountains, 5,000 feet.

" rivularis, Banks and Sol. Abundant in lowland swamps.

Caltha novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains.

Magnoliaceæ.

Drimys axillaris, Forst. Abundant in woods. The variety with blotched leaves, sometimes kept as a distinct species under the name of D. colorata, Raoul, is also plentiful.

Cruciferæ.

Nasturtium palustre, DC. Not uncommon in moist places.

Sisymbrium novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. “Mountains of Nelson, Rough; shingle slips, Wairau Gorge, alt. 4,500 feet, Travers” (Handbook).

Cardamine hirsuta, L. Abundant. An alpine variety. Ascends to 5,000 feet on Mount Arthur, and to 6,000 feet at the Wairau Gorge.

" depressa, Hk.f. Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge.

" fastigiata, Hk.f. Wairau Gorge, alt. 3,000 feet.

" latesiliqua, Cheeseman, n. sp. Mount Arthur, abundant from 4,500 to 5,500 feet; Raglan Mountains, alt. 5,000 feet.

– 304 –

Notothlaspi rosulatum, Hook. f. Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge.

" australe, Hook. f. An abundant alpine plant, alt. 3,500 to 5,000 feet.

Violarieæ.

Viola filicaulis, Hook. f. Not uncommon. Graham River; Maitai Valley; Wairau Valley.

" lyallii, Hook. f. Abundant.

" cunninghamii, Hk.f. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley, etc.

Melicytus ramiflorus, Forst. Common in woods at low elevations.

" lanceolatus, Hook. f. Forests near the source of the Takaka River, alt. 3000 feet; Clarke River; Buller Valley.

" micranthus, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Buller Valley.

Hymenanthera crassifolia, Hook. f. Near Nelson, and coast to the northwards.

" latifolia, Endl.? A slender shrub, 6–8 feet high, with obovate leaves 1½ inch long, is referred to this species for the present. Graham River, on limestone rocks.

Pittosporeæ.

Pittosporum tenuifolium, Banks and Sol. Abundant.

" patulum, Hook. f. "Wairau Mountains, alt. 5,000 feet, Sïnclair" (Handbook).

" rigidum. Maitai Valley and Dun Mountain Range; Buller Valley.

" eugenioides, A. Cunn. Not uncommon in woods at low elevations.

Caryophylleæ.

Gypsophila tubulosa, Boiss. “Tarndale Plain, 4,000 feet, Travers” (Handbook).

Stellaria parviflora, Banks and Sol. Common. Ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.

" roughii, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Wairau Gorge.

" gracilenta, Hook. f. Wairau Valley, abundant.

Colobanthus quitensis, Bartl. Dun Mountain; Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains.

" billardieri, Fenzl. Abundant.

" acicularis, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains, abundant.

Spergularia rubra, Pers., var. marina. Coast near Nelson.

Portulaceæ.

Claytonia australasica, Hook. f. An abundant alpine plant.

Montia fontana, L. Abundant in subalpine and alpine localities.

Elatineæ.

Elatine americanæ, Arnott. Lake Rotoiti. I am not aware of any previous record from the South Island.

– 305 –

Hypericineæ.

Hypericum japonicum, Thumb. Lake Rotoiti; Buller Valley.

Malvaceæ.

Plagianthus divaricatus, Forst. Salt marshes, Blind Bay. Common.

" betulinus, A. Cunn. Lower Motueka; Graham River.

" lyallii, Hook.f. Subalpine forests, abundant by the sides of streams, etc.

Hoheria populnea, A. Cunn., var. angustifolia. Near Nelson; Wakefield; Foxhill; Motueka and Motupiko, etc.

Tiliaceæ.

Aristotelia racemosa, Hook. f. Abundant in forests.

" fruticosa, Hook. f. Abundant, especially in subalpine forests.

Elæocarpus hookerianus, Raoul. Apparently common; ascending to 3,500 feet. E. dentatus, Vahl, doubtless also occurs in the district, but I do not find it in my notes.

Lineæ.

Linum monogynum, Forst. Nelson and coast line to the northwards, abundant. Inland, on Spooner's Range, alt. 1,000 feet.

Geraniaceæ.

Geranium dissectum, L., var. carolinianum. Common about Nelson and elsewhere.

" microphyllum, Hk.f. Common.

" sessiliflorum, Cav. Not uncommon.

" molle, L. Near Nelson; Motueka; Wairau Valley.

Pelargonium australe, Willd., var. clandestinum. Nelson; Foxhill, etc.

Oxalis corniculata, L. Not uncommon.

" magellanica, Forst. Abundant by the side of streams, etc., in hilly districts.

Rutaceæ.

Melicope ternata, Forst. “Nelson Province” (Handbook).

" simplex, A. Cunn. Maitai Valley; Lower Motueka; Graham River.

Olacineæ.

Pennantia corymbosa, Forst. Common in woods.

Stackhousieæ.

Stackhousia minima, Hk. f. Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,000 to 5,000 feet.

Rhamneæ.

Discaria toumatou, Raoul. Most abundant, especially in river valleys.

Sapindaceæ.

Dodonæa viscosa, Forst. Coast hills near Nelson.

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Alectryon excelsum, DC. Nelson and vicinity; Graham River; Lower Motueka.

Coriarieæ.

Coriaria ruscifolia, L. Abundant throughout the district.

" thymifolia, Humb. Mount Arthur plateau; Wairau Gorge; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley.

Leguminosæ.

Carmichælia nana, Col. Dry shingly places in river beds. Motueka and Motupiko Valleys; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley, etc.

" australis, Br. Near Nelson; Motueka; Foxhill, etc.

" odorata, Col. Buller Valley.

" flagelliformis, Col. Maitai Valley; Wairau Valley; Lake Rotoiti; Buller Valley.

Sophora tetraptera, Ait. Not uncommon.

Rosaceæ.

Rubus australis, Forst., vars. α, β, γ. Common in many places.

Potentilla anserina, L. Common.

Geum urbanum, L., var. strictum. Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

" parviflorum, Comm. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge.

Acæna sanguisorbæ, Vahl. Common. Ascends to 3,500 feet at the Wairau Gorge.

" novæ-zealandiæ, Kirk. Near Nelson; Foxhill; Motueka.

" adscendens, Vahl. Wairau Gorge.

" glabra, Buchanan. Wairau Gorge.

" microphylla, Hook. f. Buller Valley and Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.

" inermis, Hook. f. Upper Motueka and Motupiko; Wairau Valley; Lake Rotoiti.

Saxifrageæ.

Donatia novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Tarns on Mount Peel, alt. 5,000 feet. The most northern locality yet recorded.

Quintinia serrata, A. Cunn., var. β. Graham River; Takaka River; “Aorere Valley, alt. 1,400 feet, Travers” (Handbook).

Carpodetus serratus, Forst. Abundant in lowland forests.

Weinmannia racemosa, Forst. Abundant in forests. Ascends to 4,000 feet elevation.

Crassulaceæ.

Tillæa sinclairii, Hook. f. Buller Valley, between the Devil's Grip and Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.

" verticillaris, DC. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley.

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Droseraceæ.

Drosera stenopetala, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,500 feet, the most northern habitat yet recorded; mountains between the Hope and Owen rivers, Buller District, alt. 4,000 feet.

" arcturi, Hook. Common in alpine bogs.

" spathulata, Lab. Lake Rotoiti; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,500 feet.

" binata, Lab. Upper Motueka; Motupiko.

" auriculata, Backh. Near Nelson.

Halorageæ.

Haloragis alata, Jacq. Nelson; Foxhill; Motueka; Moutere, etc.

" tetragyna, Lab., var. diffusa. Spooner's Ridge, Buller Valley.

" depressa, Hook. f. Abundant. Buchanan's H. aggregata, if I rightly understand his plant, is simply a variety.

" micrantha, Br. Motueka and Motupiko; Foxhill; Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.

Myriophyllum elatinoides, Gaud. Wairau Valley.

" variæfolium, Hook. f. Lake Rotoiti.

" robustum, Hook. f. Moutere stream. I am not aware that this species has been previously recorded from the South Island.

Callitriche verna, L. Abundant.

Gunnera monoica, Raoul. Abundant by the side of streams.

" densiflora, Hook. f. “Acheron and Clarence rivers, alt. 4,000 feet, Travers” (Handbook).

Myrtaceæ.

Leptospermum scoparium, Forst. Common. Ascends to 4,500 feet on the granitic hills between the Hope and the Owen rivers.

" ericoides, A. Rich. Generally distributed in woods through out the district.

Metrosideros florida, Sm. Near Nelson.

" lucida, Menzies. Not uncommon in woods, especially in rocky places.

" hypericifolia, A. Cunn. Near Nelson; Lower Motueka; Graham River.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Maitai Valley and other localities near Nelson; Lower Motueka; Graham River; Pearce River.

" soandens, Banks and Sol. Nelson; Motueka; Ngatimoti.

Myrtus ralphii, Hk.f. Maitai Valley.

" obcordata, Hook. f. Common in forests.

" pedunculata, Hook, f. Nelson; Foxhill; Buller Valley.

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Onagrarieæ.

Fuchsia excorticata, Linn. f. Common.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Lower Motueka; Graham River.

Epilobium nummularifolium, A. Cunn. Abundant.

" linnæoides, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Buller Valley.

" macropus, Hook. Mount Arthur plateau; Lake Rotoiti and Buller Valley; Wairau Valley.

" confertifolium, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge.

" crassum, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, alt. 5,000 6,000 ft.

" microphyllum, A. Rich. Abundant in dry shingly river beds.

" rotundifolium, Forst. Motueka; Buller Valley, etc.

" glabellum, Forst. Generally distributed.

" melanocaulon, Hook. Buller Valley; Wairau Valley.

" junceum, Forst. Abundant through the district.

" pubens, A. Rich. Common.

" billardierianum, Seringe. Mount Arthur plateau; Upper Buller; Wairau District, etc.

" pallidifloum, Sol. Motueka; Moutere; Buller Valley, etc.

Passifloreæ.

Passiflora terrandara, Banks and Sol. Lower Motueka; Graham River.

Ficoideæ.

Mesembryanthemum australe, Sol. Coast near Nelson.

Umbelliferæ.

Hydrocotyle elongata, A. Cunn. Motueka; Graham River; Foxhill; Wairau Valley.

" novæ-zealandiæ, DC. Nelson; Wairau Valley.

" moschata, Forst. Nelson and vicinity.

" micorophylla, A. Cunn. Maitai River; Wairau Valley.

Pozoa reniformis, Hook. f. Slopes of Mount Peel, alt. 5,000 feet. Not previously known from beyond the Auckland Islands.

" trifoliolata, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau.

" pallida, Kirk. Mount Arthur plateau; Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.

" roughii, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.

Crantzia lineata, Nutt. Salt marshes near Nelson.

Apium australe, Thouars. Coast near Nelson.

" filiforme, Hook. Coast near Nelson.

Oreomyrrhis colensoi, Hook. f. Common in subalpine grassy places.

" ramosa, Hook. f. Head of Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Gorge.

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Aciphylla squarrosa, Forst. Subalpine localities, not uncommon.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Subalpine and alpine localities, abundant.

" tyallii, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 5,500 feet.

" monroi, Hook. f. Abundant in alpine situations.

Ligusticum filifolium, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Wairau Mountains; Hope Mountains, etc.

" deltoideum, Cheeseman, n.sp. Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,500 feet.

" carnosulum, Hook. f. Shingle slopes above the Wairau Gorge.

" piliferum, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Mount Peel; Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge. Ascends to 6,500 feet.

" aromaticum, Banks and Sol. An abundant mountain plant.

" imbricatum, Hook. f. Summit of Mount Peel, alt. 6,000 feet.

Angelica gingidium, Hook. f. Abundant in many localities.

Daucus brachiatus, Sieber. Near Nelson, etc.

Araliaceæ.

Panax simplex, Forst. Abundant in woods throughout the distriet.

" edgerleyi, Hook. f. Graham River; Pearce River.

" anomalum, Hook. Not. uncommon in lowland forests.

" lineare, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau and sources of the Takaka River, forming a large proportion of the undergrowth in the Fagus forest, above 3,000 feet alt. The most northern locality yet recorded.

Panax crassifolium, Dcne, and Planch. Common in woods below 2,000 feet alt.

" ferox, Kirk. Graham River; Buller Nelson, Kirk!

" colensoi, Hook. f. Abundant. Ascends to nearly 5,000 feet.

" arboreum, Forst. Common throughout the district.

Schefflera digitata, Forst. Nelson; Motueka; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

Corneæ.

Griselinia lucida, Forst. Mackay's Knob, near Nelson.

" littoralis. Everywhere in the Fagus forests.

Corokia cotoneaster, Raoul. Nelson; Lake Rotoiti and Buller Valley; Wairau Valley.

Loranthaceæ.

Loranthus colensoi, Hook. f. Common; parasitic on the species of Fagus.

" decussatus, Kirk. Mount Arthur plateau; mountains in the Buller Valley; Wairau Valley. Ascends to a higher elevation than the preceding species.

" flavidus, Hook. f. Abundant; usually parasitic on Fagus solandri.

Tupeia antarctica, Cham, and Schl. Lower Motueka; Graham River.

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Rubiaceæ.

Coprosma lucida, Forst. Abundant throughout the district.

" grandifolia, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Foxhill; Lower Motueka; Moutere, etc.; Buller Valley. I can find no previous record of the occurrence of this species in the South Island; but it is too abundant to have escaped observation.

" baueriana, Endl. Coast north of Nelson, T.F.C.; "Massacre Bay, Lyall " (Handbook).

" robusta, Raoul. Abundant.

" cunninghamii, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Graham River.

" serrulata, Hook. f. Alpine localities in Nelson, Buchanan (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. iii., p. 212).

" rotundifolia, A. Cunn. Apparently common in swampy forests at low elevations. Foxhill; Moutere; Lower Motueka, etc.

" rhamnoides, A. Cunn. Nelson; Foxhill, etc.

" parviflora, Hook. f. Common in many places.

" fætidissima, Forst. Plentiful throughout the district, in many places forming the chief undergrowth in the Fagus forests.

" cuneata, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains.

" acerosa, A. Cuin. Sand-hills, shores of Blind Bay.

" depressa, Col. ? Mount Arthur plateau.

" microcarpa, Col.? Graham River; Mount Arthur plateau; Maitai Valley, etc.

" linariifolia. Hook. f. Abundant.

" repens, Hook. f. In alpine localities, not uncommon. I can find no distinguishing characters between this and C. pumila, and believe both to be forms of the same plant.

Nertera depressa, Banks and Sol. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains.

" dichondrœfolia, Hook. f. Abundant.

Galium umbrosum, Forst. Nelson and vicinity; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

Asperula perpusilla, Hook. f. Not uncommon in dry and subalpine localities. Ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.

Compositæ.

Olearia nitida, Hook. f. Not uncommon.

" cunninghamii, Hook. f. From Nelson and Motueka to the Big Bush, abundant.

" lacunosa, Hook. f. Sources of the Takaka River, alt. 3,000 feet; Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000 feet; Mountains between the Hope and Owen Rivers, Buller District, alt. 4,000 feet; "Lake Rotoroa " (Handbook).

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Olearia nummularifolia, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Mount Arthur plateau; Wairau Mountains.

" cymbifolia, Hook. f. In several places in the Wairau Valley, alt. 1,500–3,000 feet.

" forsteri, Hook. f. Nelson and coast to the northward.

" avicenniæfolia, Hook. f. Abundant through the district.

" virgata, Hook. f. Common, especially in river valleys.

Celmisia, n. sp. Mount Arthur plateau, abundant between 4,000 and 5,000 feet elevation. A most handsome and distinct species, remarkable for the large and broad bracts.

" discolor, Hook. f. Plentiful. Dun Mountain; Wairau Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau; Buller Valley.

" hieracifolia, Hook. f. Dun Mountain.

" incana, Hook. f. Generally distributed in subalpine and alpine localities.

" sinclairii, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, alt. 5,000 feet. "Dun Mountain and Tarndale, Sinclair" (Handbook).

" coriacea, Hook. f. Plentiful.

" monroi, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Raglan Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau; Mount Peel.

" viscosa, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, 5–6,000 feet.

" spectabilis, Hook. f. Abundant above 1,000 feet altitude.

" traversii, Hook. f. Mount Arthur, Mount Peel, and adjoining high land, abundant from 4,500 to 5,800 feet; Raglan Mountains, 4–5,500 feet. A most magnificent species.

" cordatifolia, Buchanan. "Mount Starvation, Nelson, A. Mackay" (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xi., p. 427). I have not seen specimens of this, but it must be very close to C. traversii, if not a form of that plant.

" longifolia, Cass. Plentiful in the mountains; usually in swampy places.

" laricifolia, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Wairau Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau; Mount Peel; Hope Mountains, etc.

" lateralis, Buchanan. "Mountains near Lake Guyon, H. H. Travers" (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. iv., p. 226).

" n. sp. Slopes of Mount Arthur, 5–6,000 feet. Allied to C. hectori, but amply distinct.

" sessiliflora, Hook. f. A most abundant alpine plant, 3,500–6,000 feet alt.

" n. sp. Ravines on Mount Peel, alt. 5,000 feet. Nearest to C. walkeri, but easily distinguished by the smaller, narrower leaves, with margins revolute to the midrib.

– 312 –

Celmisia bellidioides, Hook. f. Mount Peel, alt. 5,500 feet.

" glandulosa, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau.

Vittadinia australis, A. Rich. Common; ascending to 4,000 feet. An Australian form of this genus, considered by Bentham (Flora Australiensis, iii., p. 491) to be a variety (dissecta) of V. australis is naturalized on sea-cliffs to the north of Nelson Harbour.

Lagenophora forsteri, DC. Not uncommon.

" petiolata, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley; Graham River; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,500 feet.

" pinnatifida, Hook. f. Wairau Valley, abundant.

Brachycome sinclairii, Hook. f. Apparently common in alpine situations. Dun Mountain; Wairau Mountains; Mount Arthur, etc.

Abrotanella linearis, Berggren. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,500 feet; Mountains between the Hope and Owen Rivers, alt. 4,000 feet.

" sp. Mountains between the Hope and Owen Rivers, alt. 4,000 feet, on bare granitic rocks. Perhaps A. pusilla, Hook. f., but the specimens are imperfect.

Cotula coronopifolia, L. Vicinity of Nelson; Moutere; Motueka, etc.

" atrata, Hook. f. Shingle slips, Wairau Gorge, ascending to 6,000 feet.

" minor, Hook. f. Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

" pyrethrifolia, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Mount Peel; Raglan Range; Wairau Gorge (ascending to 6,300 feet).

" perpusilla, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; "Tarndale, Sinclair" (Handbook).

" dioica, Hook. f. Apparently not uncommon. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley, etc.

" squalida, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.

Craspedia fimbriata, DC. Abundant in the mountains.

" alpina, Backhouse. Often found with the preceding.

Cassinia leptophylla, Br. Near Nelson, and shores of Blind Bay, abundant; Foxhill; Upper Motueka; Motupiko, etc.

" fulvida, Hook. f. Dun Mountain range; Mount Arthur plateau.

" vauvilliersii, Hook. f. A common mountain plant.

Ozothamnus glomeratus, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Wakapuaka; Motueka; Graham River.

" microphyllus, Hook. f. Mount Peel; Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge.

" depressus, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.

" selago, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge.

– 313 –

Raoulia australis, Hook. f. Abundant in shingly river beds, etc., from sea-level (mouth of the Motueka River) to 4,000 feet elevation.

" apice-nigra, Kirk. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, ascending to 6,000 feet.

" tenuicaulis, Hook. f. Abundant in similar localities to R. australis.

" subulata, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, alt. 6,000 ft.

" glabra, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Raglan Range; Wairau Gorge.

" subsericea, Hook. f. Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

" grandiflora, Hook. f. An abundant alpine plant, ascending to 6,000 feet.

" mammillaris, Hook. f. Summit of Mount Peel, alt. 6,000 feet.

" bryoides, Hook. f. St. Arnaud Mountains; Raglan Range; Wairau Gorge.

Gnaphalium bellidioides, Hook. f. Common.

" lyallii, Hook. f. "Massacre Bay, Lyall" (Handbook).

" keriense, A. Cunn. "Near Nelson, Travers" (Handbook).

" filicaule, Hook. f. Abundant on dry hillsides, etc.

" traversii, Hook. f. Wairau Valley, not uncommon.

" nitidulum, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000 feet. Specimens immature, and identification consequently doubtful.

" luteo-album, L. Abundant throughout the district.

" colensoi, Hook f. Raglan Range, alt. 5,000 feet; mountains above the Wairau Gorge, 5,000–6,000 feet.

" grandiceps, Hook. f. Mount Arthur; Mount Peel.

" involueratum, Forst. Abundant throughout the district.

" collinum, Lab. Common. Ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.

Haastia pulvinaris, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, alt. 5,000–6,000 feet.

" recurva, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge; Mount Peel, alt. 5,000–6,000 feet.

" sinclairii, Hook. f. Raglan Range and St. Arnaud Mountains, alt. 4,000–5,500 feet, not uncommon on dry shingle slopes.

Erechtites prenanthoides, DC. Nelson and vicinity; Moutere; Motueka; Foxhill, etc.

" arguta, DC. Nelson to Motueka, not uncommon.

" scaberula, Hook. f. Near Nelson.

" glabrescens, Kirk. Graham River; Upper Takaka; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,500 feet; Upper Buller Valley; Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.

" quadridentata, DC. Abundant.

– 314 –

Senecio lagopus, Raoul. Common in subalpine localities.

" bellidioides, Hook. f. Common with the preceding.

" latifolius, Banks and Sol. Sources of the Takaka River, alt. 3,000 feet. Leaves unusually broad, but the specimens do not otherwise differ from North Island ones.

" lautus, Forst. Coast near Nelson, and shores of Blind Bay, abundant; Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,000 feet (a stout, succulent, large-flowered form).

" lyallii, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge; mountains by the Rainbow River.

" hectori, Buchanan. Graham River, Pearce River, and other tributaries of the Motueka rising on the Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 400 to 2,800 feet; sources of the Takaka River, alt. 3,000 feet; Upper Buller Valley. I am also informed that it is abundant in the upper part of the Aorere Valley. The finest species of the genus in New Zealand.

" laxiflorus, Buchanan. Wairau Gorge, alt. 3,000 feet.

" elæagnifolius, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, abundant; Upper Buller Valley; Wairau Valley.

" bidwillii, Hook. f. "Mountains of Nelson, Bidwill, Rough" (Handbook).

" n. sp. Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, ascending to 5,500 feet. Allied to S. robusta, Buchanan, but differing in the lax panicled infloresence, smaller, oblong, much more coriaceous leaves, with strongly revolute margins. The whole plant is even more viscid than S. robusta. Inflorescence nearly glabrous.

" monroi, Hook. f. "Nelson Mountains, Monro" (Handbook).

" cassinioides, Hook. f. Upper Wairau Valley.

Brachyglottis repanda, Forst. Lowland forests, especially on dry soils.

Traversia baccharoides, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Upper Buller Valley and Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.

Microseris forsteri, Hook. f. Common.

Crepis novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.

Taraxacum dens-leonis, Desf. In many places on the mountains.

Sonchus oleraceus, L. Abundant through the district.

Stylidieæ.

Oreostylidium subulatum, Berggren. Not uncommon in alpine localities. Mount Arthur plateau, Hope Mountains; Buller Valley, between the Devil's Grip and Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Mountains; Wairau Gorge.

– 315 –

Forstera sedifolia, Linn. f. Hope Mountains, Buller District, alt. 4,000 feet; Wairau Gorge.

" tenella, Hook. f. Not uncommon in subalpine and alpine localities.

Phyllachne colensoi, Hook. f. An abundant alpine plant.

Campanulaceæ.

Wahlenbergia gracilis, A. Rich. Abundant throughout the district.

" saxicola, A.DC. Abundant throughout the district.

" cartilaginea, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge.

Lobelia anceps, Thunb. Near Nelson, etc.

" roughii, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Wairau Gorge.

Pratia angulata, Hook. f. Abundant.

" macrodon, Hook. f. Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge.

Selliera radicans, Cav. Salt marshes, Blind Bay.

Ericeæ.

Gaultheria antipoda, Forst. Abundant.

" rupestris, Br. Throughout the district, but not so common as the preceding.

Cyathodes acerosa, Br. Abundant.

" empetrifolia. An abundant mountain plant.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; mountains between the Hope and Owen Rivers; Raglan Mountains.

" pumila, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet.

Lencopogon fasciculatus, A. Rich. Generally distributed below 3,000 feet alt.

" fraseri, A. Cunn. Abundant. Ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.

Pentachondra pumila, Br. Common in mountain districts, alt. 2,000–5,500 feet.

Epacris pauciflora, A, Rich. “Nelson” (Handbook).

" alpina, Hook. f. Mountains between the Hope and Owen Rivers, alt. 4,000 feet.

Archeria traversii, Hook. f. Sources of the Takaka River; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,000 feet; “Aorere River” (Handbook).

Dracophyllum traversii, Hook. f. Upper Takaka; Mount Arthur plateau; 3,000–4,500 feet.

" longifolium, Br. Dun Mountain range; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

" urvilleanum, A. Rich. Not uncommon, ascending to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.

" uniflorum, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains; Wairau Gorge, etc.

" rosmarinifolium, Forst. Dun Mountain; Wairau Mountains; Mount Arthur, etc.

– 316 –

Myrsineæ.

Myrsine salicina, Heward. Moutere, Ngatimoti, etc., in woods at low elevations. I am not aware of any previous record from the South Island.

" urvillei, A.DC. Not uncommon in woods at low elevations.

" divaricata, A. Cunn. Common, ascends to 3,500 feet near Mount Arthur.

" montana, Hook. f. Upper Maitai Valley.

" nummmularifolia, Hook. f. Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge; Hope Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau.

Primulaceæ.

Samolus repens, Pers. Coast near Nelson, and shores of Blind Bay.

Apocyneæ.

Parsonsia albiflora, Raoul. Common at low elevations.

" rosea, Raoul. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley.

Gentianeæ.

Gentiana montana, Forst. All more or less abundant in mountain districts.

" pleurogynoides, Griseb.

" saxosa, Forst.

Boragineæ.

Myosotis spathulata, Forst. Near Nelson; Maitai Valley; Wairau Valley.

" antarctica, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.

" australis, Br. Mount Arthur plateau, up to 4,500 feet; Wairau Valley 2,000–4,500 feet.

" forsteri, Ræm. and Sch. Near Nelson; Takaka River; Buller Valley.

" traversii, Hook. f. Shingle slopes, Wairau Gorge, alt. 5,000–6,000 feet; "Tarndale, Sinclair" (Handbook).

Exarrhena macrantha, Hook. f. Dun Mountain, alt. 4,000 feet; Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, ascending to 5,500 feet; Wairau Mountains, 3,000–5,000 feet.

" saxosa, Hook. f. Dun Mountain, 4,000 feet; Raglan Mountains, 4,000–4,500 feet.

Convolvulaceæ.

Convolvulus sepium, L. Common at low elevations.

" tuguriorum, Forst. Not uncommon.

" soldanella, L. Sand-hills, Blind Bay.

Dichondra repens, Forst. Nelson to Motueka, abundant.

Solanaceæ.

Solanum aviculare, Forst. Motueka, Motupiko, etc.

" nigrum, L. Nelson.

– 317 –

Scrophularineæ.

Mimulus repens, Br. “Nelson, Bidwill” (Flora Novæ-Zealandiæ, vol. i., p. 188).

" radicans, Hook. f. Hope Mountains, Buller District.

Glossostigma elatinoides, Benth. Lake Rotoiti.

Limosella aquatica, L., var. tenuifolia. Buller Valley.

Veronica salicifolia, Forst. Common.

" parviflora, Vahl. Near Nelson; Motueka Valley; Buller Valley.

" ligustrifolia, A. Cunn. Near Nelson.

" traversii, Hook. f. Common in river valleys in the interior of the district.

" vernicosa, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,500 feet; Buller Valley; Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley to Wairau Gorge, etc.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Not uncommon.

" lævis, Benth. Dun Mountain Range; Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, etc.

" buxifolia, Benth. Wairau Valley to the Wairau Gorge; Buller Valley and the adjacent mountains; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 5,000 feet.

" carnosula, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge, etc.

" pinguifolia, Hook. f. Mount Arthur; Mount Peel; Wairau Gorge, etc.

" pimeleoides, Hook. f. Rainbow River and Wairau Gorge.

" lycopodioides, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains, abundant above 4,000 feet.

" tetrasticha, Hook. f. Mount Arthur, abundant; St. Arnaud Mountains; Wairau Gorge.

" armstrongii, Kirk. Mount Arthur plateau; mountains between the Hope and Owen rivers; Wairau Mountains.

" salicornioides, Hook. f. Mountains above the Rainbow River.

" cupressoides, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge.

" haastii, Hook. f. Summit of Mount Arthur, 5,500–6,000 feet.

" epacridea, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, ascending to 6,300 feet.

" macrantha, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains; Mount Peel.

" raoulii, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.

" lyallii, Hook. f. Buller Valley; Wairau Valley.

" bidwillii, Hook. f. River valleys in the interior of the district, not uncommon.

– 318 –

Veronica, n. sp. Raglan Mountains, alt. 5,500 feet. Habit approaching that of Pygmæa; but the corolla lobes are of the normal number; and the calyx is very peculiar, having long pinnatifid lobes. Very distinct from any described species.

Pygmæa pulvinaris, Hook. f. Raglan Mountains, 4,500–5,500 feet; mountains above the Wairau Gorge; summit of Mount Arthur.

Ourisia macrophylla, Hook. Abundant in sub-alpine damp and shaded localities.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Mount Peel; Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.

" cæspitosa, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains.

Euphrasia monroi, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; St. Arnaud Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau, etc.

" revoluta, Hook. f. St. Arnaud Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau.

" antarctica, Hook. f. An abundant alpine plant.

Verbenaceæ.

Teucridium parvifolium, Hook. f. “Nelson, Bidwill, Travers” (Handbook).

Myoporum lætum, Forst. Near Nelson; Stoke; Spring-grove; and other places near the shores of Blind Bay.

Labiatæ.

Mentha cunninghamii, Benth. Not uncommon, ascending to 4,500 feet alt.

Scutellaria novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Maitai Valley; “Foxhill, Monro” (Handbook).

Plantagineæ.

Plantago brownii, Rapin. Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.

" raoulii, Decaisne. Abundant, ascending to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.

Chenopodiaceæ.

Chenopodium triandrum, Forst. Near Nelson.

" glaucum, L., var. ambiguum. Salt marshes, Nelson Harbour, and shores of Blind Bay.

Suæda maritima, Dum. Shores of Blind Bay.

Atriplex patula, L. Salt marshes, Nelson Harbour.

Salicornia indica, Willd. Muddy shores, Nelson Harbour and Blind Bay.

Paronychieæ.

Scleranthus biflorus, Hook. f. Abundant through the district, ascending to 4,500 feet. A very variable plant. A variety with the flowers solitary instead of in pairs, is common in the Wairau Valley.

– 319 –

Polygoneæ.

Polygonum minus, Huds., var. decipiens. Lowland swamps. Nelson; Moutere; Lower Motueka, etc.

" aviculare, L. Abundant.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Muhlenbeckia adpressa, Lab. Abundant below 2,000 feet.

" complexa, Lab.

" axillaris, Hook. f. Of general occurrence in dry open shingly places.

Rumex flexuosus, Forst. Near Nelson; Lower Motueka; Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,500 feet.

Laurineæ.

Nesodaphne tawa, Hook. f. Vicinity of Nelson, but not common.

Monimiaceæ.

Atherosperma novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Wakapuaka. I am informed by Mr. Gaukrodger that some unusually fine examples formerly existed in the lower part of the Brook Street Valley, within the precincts of the present town of Nelson.

Hedycarya dentata, Forst. Near Nelson and coast to the northwards; Graham River and Lower Motueka.

Thymeleæ.

Pimelea longifolia, Banks and Sol. “Nelson Mountains, ascending to 2,000 feet, Travers” (Handbook).

" gnidia, Forst. Upper Maitai Valley.

" virgata, Vahl. Near Nelson.

" prostrata, Vahl. Not uncommon throughout the district.

" lyallii, Hook. f. Dun Mountain range; Mount Arthur plateau; St. Arnaud Mountains, etc.

Drapetes dieffenbachii, Hook. A common alpine plant.

" lyallii, Hook. f. Hope Mountains, Buller Valley; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.

Santalaceæ.

Exocarpus bidwillii, Hook. f. Dun Mountain and adjacent hills; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

Euphorbiaceæ.

Poranthera microphylla, Brong. Upper Maitai Valley.

" alpina, Cheeseman, n. sp. Mount Arthur, alt. 5,000–6,000 feet.

Cupuliferæ.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Fagus menziesii, Hook. f. Abundant in forests throughout the province.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

" fusca, Hook. f.

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" solandri, Hook. f.

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" cliffortioides, Hook. f. Wairau Mountains; Mount Arthur plateau.

– 320 –

Urticeæ.

Urtica incisa, Poir. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000 feet.

" ferox, Forst. Graham River, not common.

Parietaria debilis, Forst. Nelson.

Australina pusilla, Gaud. Lower Motueka; Graham River.

Piperaceæ.

Piper excelsum, Forst. Near Nelson; Motueka Valley, etc.

Coniferæ.

Libocedrus bidwillii, Hook. f. Abundant in mountain forests, ascending to 4,500 feet.

Podocarpus ferruginea, Don. Lowland forests, not uncommon.

" nivalis, Hook. f. Mount Arthur, Mount Peel, etc., alt. 4–5,000 feet; mountains above the Wairau Gorge, alt. 3,500–5,000 feet.

" totara, A. Cunn. Abundant in lowland woods. A distinct looking variety (?) is common in the Buller Valley, and often fruits when only two or three feet in height.

" spicata, Br. Abundant in lowland forests.

" dacrydioides, A. Rich. Abundant in moist lowland forests.

Dacrydium cupressinum, Sol. Throughout the district.

" intermedium, Kirk. Dun Mountain range; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley, alt. 2,000–4,000 feet.

" laxifolium, Hook. f. An abundant subalpine and alpine plant. Dun Mountain; Wairau Mountains; Mount Arthur and neighbouring high land; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley.

" bidwillii, Hook. f. Common on the mountains. Dun Mountain; forming most of the shrubby vegetation above the Fagus forest on the Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet; Hope Mountains and elsewhere in the Buller Valley; Lake Rotoiti; St. Arnaud Mountains; Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.

" colensoi, Hook. Dun Mountain range; Wairau Mountains.

Phyllocladus trichomanoides, Don. Maitai Valley.

" alpinus, Hook. f. An abundant subalpine tree.

Orchideæ.

Earina mucronata, Lindl. Vicinity of Nelson; Maitai Valley.

Gastrodia cunninghamii, Hook. f. Maitai Valley; Moutere Hills; Graham River; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

Cyrtostylis oblonga, Hook. f. Buller Valley.

Adenochilus gracilis, Hook. f. Buller Valley, between the Hope and Owen Rivers. Not previously recorded from the South Island.

– 321 –

Corysanthes triloba, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Graham river; Wairau Valley.

" oblonga, Hook. f. Near Nelson.

" rotundifolia, Hook. f. "Nelson, Travers" (Handbook).

" macrantha, Hook. f. Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

Microtis porrifolia, Spreng. Vicinity of Nelson; Moutere Hills; Foxhill; Motupiko; Wairau Valley.

Caladenia lyallii, Hook. f. St. Arnaud Mountains, 4,000 feet; Mount Arthur, abundant between 4,500 and 5,500 feet.

Pterostylis banksii, Brown. Not uncommon.

Chiloglottis cornuta, Hook. f. Buller Valley.

" traversii, F. Muell. Wairau Valley and the adjoining mountains, not uncommon; Mount Arthur plateau, abundant.

Thelymitra longifolia, Forst. Abundant in lowland districts.

" pulchella, Hook. f. Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley.

" uniflora, Hook. f. Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau.

Prasophyllum colensoi, Hook. f. Not uncommon; ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.

Orthoceras solandri, Lindl. Near Nelson; Foxhill; Spooner's Ridge. In the Handbook stated to ascend to an elevation of 4,000 feet in the Nelson District, on the authority of Bidwill. I have never seen it above 1,200 feet.

Irideæ.

Libertia ixioides, Spreng. Near Nelson; Lower Motueka; Graham River; Buller Valley.

" micrantha, A. Cunn. Nelson; Buller Valley, most abundant.

Pandaneæ.

Freycinetia banksii, A. Cunn. Lowland forests, but not common. Nelson and coast to the northwards: Lower Motueka; Graham River.

Typhaceæ.

Typha angustifolia, L. Common in swamps at low elevations.

Naiadeæ.

Triglochin triandrum, Michaux. Nelson Harbour; brackish-water swamps, head of Blind Bay.

Potamogeton natans, L. Moutere; Motupiko; Wairau Valley; Lake Rotoiti and Buller Valley.

Ruppia maritima, L. Salt-marshes, Blind Bay.

Zostera marina, L. Nelson Harbour.

Liliaceæ.

Rhipogonum scandens, Forst. Near Nelson, and coast to the north; Moutere Hills; Lower Motueka; Graham River, ascending to 1,500 ft.

– 322 –

Callixene parviflora, Hook. f. Dun Mountain range; Wairau Valley.

Cordyline australis, Hook. f. Abundant below 2,000 feet alt.; usually in river valleys.

" banksii, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Motueka Valley; Graham River.

" hookeriana, Kirk. Sources of the Takaka River, alt. 3,000–3,500 feet.

Dianella intermedia, Endl. Nelson and vicinity; Moutere; Motueka; Spooner's Range; Buller Valley.

Astelia cunninghamii, Hook. f. “Aorere Valley, Travers” (Handbook).

" linearis, Hook. f. Dun Mountain; Mount Arthur plateau.

" nervosa, Sol. Abundant in subalpine localities.

Arthropodium candidum, Raoul. Maitai Valley; Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau; Buller Valley.

Anthericum hookeri, Col. Common in subalpine and alpine swamps.

Phormium tenax, Forst. Abundant. Ascends to 5,000 feet on Mount Arthur.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Abundant.

Herpolirion novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet, most abundant.

Palmeæ.

Areca sapida, Soland. Wakapuaka, T.F.C.; Lower Takaka Valley, Aorere Valley, abundant, J. Heath.

Junceæ.

Juncus vaginatus, Br. Nelson; Foxhill; Lake Rotoiti; Buller Valley.

" australis, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.

" maritimus, Lam. Nelson Harbour and shores of Blind Bay.

" communis, E. Mey. Abundant throughout the district.

" planifolius, Br. Nelson, Motueka, etc.

" bufonius, L. Abundant through the district. Ascends to 4,000 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.

" sp. (Allied to J. prismatocarpus, Br.) Motueka Valley.

" scheuzerioides, Gaud.? Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,500 feet. Specimens immature, and perhaps not really belonging to this species.

" novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Common in subalpine localities.

" articulatus, L., var. lamprocarpus. Not uncommon. Foxhill; Motueka; Motupiko; Moutere; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,500 feet.

Rostkovia gracilis, Hook. f. Mount Arthur; Mount Peel; Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge, ascending to 6,000 feet.

Luzula campestris, DC. Abundant throughout the district.

" oldfieldii, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge.

– 323 –

Luzula pumila, Hook. f. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge, ascending to 6,300 feet.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Hope Mountains, Buller Valley, alt. 4,000 feet.

Restiaceæ.

Leptocarpus simplex, A. Rich. Salt-marshes, Nelson Harbour and shores of Blind Bay.

Calorophus elongata, var. minor. Not uncommon in subalpine bogs.

Gaimardia setacea, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet; Wairau Gorge.

Alepyrum, n. sp. Mount Arthur plateau, with the preceding; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley; Wairau Gorge.

Cyperaceæ.

Cyperus ustulatus, A. Rich. Lowland districts, common.

Schænus pauciflorus, Hook. f. A common alpine and subalpine plant.

Carpha alpina, Br. Everywhere in alpine bogs, ascending to 6,000 feet.

Scirpus maritimus, L. Shores of Blind Bay.

" pungens, Vahl. Nelson Harbour, abundant.

Isolepis nodosa, Br. Nelson and vicinity, Buller Valley.

" prolifer, Br. Near Nelson; Motueka; Graham River; Buller Valley; etc.

" riparia, Br. Nelson, etc.

" cartilaginea, Br. Dun Mountain.

" aucklandica, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains; Wairau Valley.

Desmoschænus spiradis, Hook. f. Sandhills, Blind Bay.

Gahnia setifolia, Hook. f. Near Nelson.

" procera, Forst. Buller Valley, between the Hope and Owen Rivers.

" hectori, Kirk. Near Nelson; slopes of Dun Mountain; Graham River; Lower Motueka; Buller Valley.

" ebenocarpa, Hook. f. Lower Motueka Valley.

Lepidosperma tetragona, Hook. f. Nelson; Foxhill; Motueka and Motupiko; Wairau Valley.

Oreobolus pumilio, Br. Common in alpine bogs.

Uncinia leptostachya, Raoul. Near Nelson; Foxhill.

" compacta, var. divaricata. Mount Arthur plateau; Wairau Valley; Raglan Mountains.

" australis, Pers. Common.

" cæpitosa, Boott. Not uncommon.

" rupestris, Raoul? Upper Takaka; Graham River.

" filiformis, Boott. Upper Takaka; Buller Valley.

" rubra, Boott. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–4,500 feet, abundant.

– 324 –

Carex pyrenaica, Wahl. Summit of Mount Arthur, circa 6,000 feet; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley, 4,000 feet; Raglan Mountains, 4,000–5,500 feet.

" acicularis, Boott. Mount Arthur plateau; Wairau Valley and adjacent mountains; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley.

" inversa, Br. Buller Valley.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Not uncommon.

" stellulata, Good. Wairau Valley, etc.; Lake Rotoiti; Buller Valley; Mount Arthur plateau.

" leporina, Good. Swampy hollows on granitic rocks, Ngatimoti; Graham River; Motueka Valley.

" kaloides, Petrie. Wairau Valley, abundant. A very distinct and well-marked species.

" virgata, Soland. The typical form and the variety secta both abundant.

" gaudichaudiana, Kunth. Buller Valley; Wairau Mountains, etc.; Mount Arthur plateau.

" subdola, Boott. "Acheron Valley, alt. 4,000 feet, Travers" (Handbook).

" ternaria, Forst. Abundant throughout the district. Ascends to 4,500 ft.

" testacea, Soland. (?) Near Nelson, and elsewhere.

" raoulii, Boott. Nelson and vicinity; Motueka; Graham River; Wairau Valley, etc.

" goyeni, Petrie, ms. Graham River. A very distinct new species, of which I have specimens also from Otago, sent by Mr. Petrie under the above name.

" lucida, Boott. Abundant.

" pulchella, Berggren. Wairau Valley.

" neesiana, Endl. Vicinity of Nelson.

" dissita, Soland. Abundant.

" lambertiana, Boott. Abundant.

" breviculmis, Br. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

" pumila, Thunb. Sandy shores of Blind Bay.

" forsteri, Wahl. Not uncommon.

" cinnamomea, Cheeseman, n. sp. Sources of the Takaka River, alt. 3,000 feet.

Gramineæ.

Ehrharta colensoi, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, and slopes of Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, 4,000–5,500 feet, abundant.

Microlæna stipoides, Br. Near Nelson; Moutere; Lower Motueka.

" avenacea, Hook. f. Nelson; Foxhill; Moutere Hills; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

" polynoda, Hook. f. Lower Motueka; Graham River.

– 325 –

Alopecurus geniculatus, L. Wairau Valley.

Hierochloe redolens, Br. Not uncommon.

" alpina, Rœm. & Sch. Common in subalpine and alpine localities.

Spinifex hirsutus, Labill. Sandhills, Blind Bay.

Panicum imbecille, Trin. “Nelson, Travers” (Buchanan, N.Z. Grasses).

Zoysia pungens, Willd. Near Nelson; Motueka Valley, abundant.

Echinopogon ovatus, Pal. Nelson; Foxhill; Moutere; Lower Motueka.

Dichelachne crinita, Hook. f. Nelson and vicinity; Spooner's Range; Motueka Valley; Graham River; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

Agrostis muscosa, Kirk. Buller Valley, between Lake Rotoiti and the Devil's Grip.

" canina, L. An abundant alpine plant.

" muelleri, Benth. Raglan Mountains, 3,000–5,000 feet; Mount Arthur; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley.

" parviflora, Br. Mount Arthur plateau; Raglan Mountains; Wairau Gorge.

" æmula, Br. Common at low elevations through the district.

" pilosa, A. Rich. "Subalpine districts of Nelson, Travers" (Buchanan, N.Z. Grasses).

" billardieri, Br. Coast near Nelson.

" setifolia, Hook. f. I have a specimen of this from Mr. Buchanan, labelled "Mount Arthur, A. McKay."

" avenoides, Hook. f. Wairau Valley.

" quadriseta, Br. Abundant.

Arundo conspicua, Forst. Abundant at low elevations.

Danthonia cunninghamii, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Buller Valley, etc.

" raoulii, Steud. Abundant in alpine and subalpine localities.

" flavescens, Hook. f.

" pilosa, Br. Nelson and vicinity; Lower Motueka.

" semi-annularis, Br. Abundant throughout the district, at all elevations.

" nuda, Br. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000 feet.

Deschampsia cæspitosa, Pal. Not uncommon. Ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.

Kæleria cristata, Pers. Common, especially in subalpine localities.

Trisetum antarcticum, Trin. Abundant, ascending to 4,500 feet.

" subspicatum, Pal. Raglan Range, 4,000–6,000 feet.

" youngii, Hook. f. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet, abundant.

Glyceria stricta, Hook. f. Nelson Harbour.

– 326 –

Poa breviglumis, Hook. f. Near Nelson; Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, alt. 4,000 feet.

" foliosa, Hook. f., var. β. Mount Arthur plateau and the adjacent mountains; Raglan Mountains; mountains above the Wairau Gorge.

" anceps, Forst. Abundant in some of its forms throughout the district, in all situations.

" australis, Br., var. lævis. Abundant, especially in flat river valleys.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Abundant, especially in alpine and subalpine localities.

" kirkii, Buchanan. Upper Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet, abundant.

" mackayi, Buchanan. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,500 feet, not so common as the preceding.

Festuca littoralis, Lab. Sandhills, Blind Bay.

" duriuscula, L. Abundant in the mountains.

Triticum multiflorum, Banks and Sol. Vicinity of Nelson.

" scabrum, Br. Not uncommon.

Gymnostichum gracile, Hook. f. Lower Motueka; Graham River.

Filices.

Gleichenia dicarpa, Br., var. alpina. Wairau Mountains; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley, ascending to 4,000 feet.

Cyathea dealbata, Swz. Lowland forests. Near Nelson; Motueka, etc.; Graham River; Buller Valley.

" medullaris, Swz. Lowland forests. Nelson and vicinity; Lower takaka.

Hemitelia smithii, Hook. Near Nelson; Maitai Valley, etc.; Motueka Valley; Graham River; Buller Valley.

Alsophila colensoi, Hook. f. Sources of the Takaka River; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 3,500 feet; Buller Valley.

Dicksonia squarrosa, Swartz. Common at low elevations.

" antarctica, Br. Common at low elevations.

" lanata, Col. "Massacre Bay, Travers" (Handbook).

Hymenophyllum rarum, Br. Vicinity of Nelson; Graham River; Buller Valley.

" polyanthos, Swz. Abundant below 2,000 feet.

" villosum, Col. Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,000 feet; Buller Valley.

" javannicum, Spreng. Maitai Valley.

" demissum, Swz. Abundant in lowland forests.

" flabellatum, Lab. Not uncommon. Ascends to 3,500 feet on the Upper Takaka.

– 327 –

Hymenophyllum scabrum, A. Rich. Nelson; Maitai Valley and Dun Mountain Range; Lower Motueka; Graham River; Buller Valley.

" dilatatum, Swz. Not uncommon in damp lowland forests.

" pulcherrimum, Col. Takaka Valley; Buller Valley.

" ciliatum, Swz. "Nelson, Travers" (Handbook).

" subtilisimum, Kunze. Maitai Valley, etc.

" rufescens, Kirk. Sources of the Takaka River; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,000 feet; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley.

" malingii, Mett. "Mountains between Blind Bay and Massacre Bay, Maling, Brunner" (Handbook).

" tunbridgense, Sm. Not uncommon.

" multifidum, Swz. Nelson; Motueka; Buller Valley, etc.

" bivalve, Swz. Common in Fagus forests, etc., throughout the district.

Trichomanes reniforme, Swz. Maitai Valley, etc.; Graham River; Takaka River; Buller Valley.

" venosum, Br. Graham River, etc.

" colensoi, Hook. f. "Nelson, Travers" (Handbook).

" strictum, Menz. "Massacre Bay, Lyall, Travers" (Handbook).

Davallia novæ-zealandiæ, Col. Graham River, Motueka.

Cystopteris fragilis, Bern. In alpine localities. Mount Arthur plateau, 4,000–5,000 feet; Wairau Gorge, 3,000–6,000 feet; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley, 4,000 feet; Raglan Range.

Lindsaya viridis, Col. “Massacre Bay, Lyall” (Journal of Botany, 1878, p. 108).

Adiantum affine, Willd. Common in lowland districts.

" æthiopicum, Swz. Near Nelson.

Hypolepis tenuifolia, Bernh. Foxhill; Graham River; Wairau Valley.

" millefolium, Hook. Common in the interior of the district. Lake Rotoiti; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley; Mount Arthur plateau.

" distans, Hook. Maitai Valley.

Cheilanthes sieberi, Kunze. Vicinity of Nelson.

Pellæa rotundifolia, Forst. Lowland situations, not uncommon.

Pteris aquilina, L., var. esculenta. Abundant at low elevations in the eastern portion of the district.

" tremula, Br. Motueka Valley; Graham River; near Nelson.

" scaberula, A. Rich. Nelson; Motueka; Moutere; Buller Valley.

" incisa, Lab. Not uncommon at low elevations.

" macilenta, A. Rich. Near Nelson.

– 328 –

Lomaria procera, Spreng. Abundant through the district.

" fluviatilis, Spreng. Lower Motueka; Graham River; Moutere; Buller Valley.

" filiformis, A. Cunn. Near Nelson; Lower Motueka.

" vulcanica, Blume. Not uncommon. Nelson; Graham River; Upper Motueka; Big Bush; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

" patersoni, Spreng. Vicinity of Nelson; Maitai Valley; Foxhill; Buller Valley.

" lanceolata, Spreng. Common.

" discolor, Willd. Common.

" alpina, Spreng. Abundant, especially in the high interior country. Ascends to 5,000 feet.

" fraseri, A. Cunn. "Massacre Bay, Lyall" (Handbook).

Asplenium obtusatum, Forst. Nelson and coast to the north; Motueka Valley; Moutere; Graham River, etc. An alpine variety ascends to 4,500 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.

" trichomanes, L. Wairau Gorge.

" flabellifolium, Cav. Nelson; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley; Mount Arthur plateau, ascending to 4,500 feet.

" falcatum, Lam. Lower Motueka; Moutere Hills; Graham River.

" hookerianum, Col. Maitai Valley; Graham River.

" bulbiferum, Forst. Abundant.

" colensoi, Hook. f. Maitai Valley.

" richardi, Hook. f. Wairau Gorge.

" flaccidum, Forst. Abundant through the district, ascending to 3,000 feet.

" umbrosum, Br. "Nelson, Travers" (Handbook).

Aspidium aculeatum, Swartz, var. vestitum. Abundant throughout the district; ascending to 4,000 feet.

" richardi, Hook. Maitai Valley; Nelson; Motueka; Graham River.

" cystostegia, Hook. Mountains above the Wairau Gorge; Raglan Mountains.

" capense, Willd. Lower Motueka; Graham River.

Nephrodium velutinum, Hook f. Vicinity of Nelson; Graham River.

" decompositum, Br. Near Nelson; Moutere; Motueka; Graham River.

" hispidum, Hook. Nelson and vicinity; Lower Motueka; Graham River.

Polypodium australe, Mett. Not uncommon. A dwarf variety ascends to 4,000 feet on the Mount Arthur plateau.

– 329 –

Polypodium grammitidis, Br. Nelson; Foxhill; Graham River.

" pennigerum, Forst. Lowland localities, not uncommon.

" punctatum, Thunb. Nelson; Foxhill; Moutere; Graham River.

" serpens, Forst. Nelson and coast to the north; Lower Motueka.

" cunninghamii, Hook. Maitai Valley.

" pustulatum, Forst. Nelson; Lower Motueka; Graham River.

" billardieri, Br. Abundant in lowland districts.

Nothochlæna distans, Br. Near Nelson.

Todea hymenophylloides, Presl. Plentiful through the district.

" superba, Col. Takaka Valley, ascending to 3,500 feet; Buller Valley. "Near Reefton, Valley of the Inangahua, etc., not uncommon,” R. W. Raithby!

Ophioglossum vulgatum, L. Maitai Valley; Wairau Valley; Lake Rotoiti.

Botrychium ternatum, Swz. Maitai Valley; near Foxhill; Wairau Valley.

Lycopodiaceæ.

Lycopodium selago, L. Wairau Gorge; Hope Mountains, Buller Valley; Mount Arthur plateau.

" varium, Br. Wairau Valley; Mount Arthur plateau.

" billardieri, Spring. Near Nelson.

" clavatum, L., var. magellanicum. Abundant in subalpine localities.

" scariosum, Forst. Near Nelson; Dun Mountain range; Wairau Valley; Buller Valley.

" volubile, Forst. Abundant throughout the district.

Rhizocarpeæ.

Azolla rubra, Br. Near Nelson; Motueka Valley; Wairau Valley.

Isoetes alpinus, Kirk. Lake Rotoiti, abundant.