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Volume 14, 1881
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Art. XLVII.—On the Alpine Flora of New Zealand.
Plates XXIV.–XXXV.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 20th August and 21st September, 1881, and 21st February, 1882.]

The present contribution to the Alpine Flora of New Zealand has been prepared from collections of plants made during Dr. Hector's geological visit to the Lake Districts of Otago in 1863–4, and more recently in the same districts including the mountains environing Lake Ohou, Canterbury, during Mr. McKay's geological visit there in 1881–2.

The first collection was submitted by Dr. Hector to Sir Joseph Hooker, for identification, and as many of the plants proved new to science they were added to the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” then in the press. Unfortunately good specimens of this collection were not retained in the colony for comparison and identification of future collections, and all our more recent alpine collections have been worked out since from description alone.

The purpose of the present paper is not only to place upon record new species, but also to assist in naming them, by illustrations, those who take a popular interest in our beautiful Alpine flora; the spread of population towards the lake districts of the South Island having no doubt added greatly to the number of those who take advantage of their alpine neighbourhood to make collections. Many of our alpine plants are very beautiful when in flower, and when seen aggregated in close, often rounded masses, firmly adhering to rock surfaces in sheltered places of the mountains, where favourable conditions exist for their full development, they in many instances excel the gardener's art. It is doubtful, however, if they will prove a success under cultivation, as certain conditions of life necessary for their healthy development only exist at great altitudes. The nearest approach to these healthy conditions of growth would be found under glass with a warm temperature when growing and flowering, after which a long period of rest during winter under a low temperature would be necessary to prevent exhaustion.

The altitudinal range of the New Zealand alpine flowering plants extends from 3,500 to 8,000 feet, but there is reason to assume that, but for the presence of snow, they would attain a greater altitude. Latitude is no doubt an indefinite influence in plant distribution, being so much controlled by local influences that identical floras may be found on distant mountain ranges with botanical altitudes inverse to their latitudes. This may be

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caused by ocean currents of different temperatures impinging on opposite coast lines, or by local hot winds; but, whatever may be the influencing cause, representative plants of the North Island pass several degrees of latitude southwards on the west side of the South Island, which are not found on the east side of that Island, thus indicating a higher temperature on the west; and this is also consistent with the alpine flora of the North Island being found at higher altitudes on the mountains of the South Island than on those of the North.

The alpine flora as observed has a rapid development. This is no doubt necessitated by the short period which intervenes between the melting of the snows and the next seasonal fall. The intense heat of the sun at high altitudes, is no doubt an important element in hastening growth, but the chief cause must be ascribed in many cases to the advanced stage at which the plants have arrived before the melting of the snows in spring has uncovered them. Large plants such as Ranunculus buchanani were found 8–10 inches high, breaking through their snowy covering, with the leaves and flower-buds fully formed; no sooner, however, did the last film of snow melt from above them, than they burst into flower while the leaves were yet blanched and colourless, and it is probable that in favourable weather seed may ripen in a few weeks.

On the Mount Aspiring Range may be seen, covering patches of snow, that peculiar 1-celled plant—Protococcus, or red snow. This plant was observed by Captain Ross on one of his expeditions to the Arctic regions, covering the surface of the snow over large areas, and penetrating downwards several feet.

Pachycladon novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. fil.
Braya novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. fil., Handb. N. Z. Fl., vol. i., p. 13.

A short depressed alpine plant, covered with stellate pubescence; root long, fusiform, ¼–⅓ inch diameter, bearing 1–6 stout branches, each branch terminating in a rosulate head of small imbricating leaves. Leaves in several series ⅓–½ inch long, including the petiole, pinnatifidly lobed and narrowed into flat, short petioles, those on the scapes with longer petioles, and a minute ovoid blade, which is digitately lobed at top; scapes numerous, shorter or longer than the leaves, rising from the branches or root below them, and spreading horizontally, 3–5-flowered; flowers white, 1/7 inch long, sepals obovate, obtuse, petals longer than the sepals, upper half round, tapering below to a narrow point; stamens 6, two longer than the others; pods ⅓ inch long, 1/12 inch broad, laterally compressed, linear oblong, septum incomplete; seeds 6–8 in each valve, ovoid, and with vertical ridges.

Hab.—Mount Alta Range, 6,000 feet alt.—Hector and Buchanan, 1862; A. McKay, 1881.

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Plate XXIV., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, flower; 1 b, pod; 1 b′, seed; 1 c, 1 c′, leaves.

The present plant was collected on Mount Alta, Wanaka Lake District, where it is found on exposed ridges not under 5,000 feet alt., either in firm shingle or in crevices of the rocks, where it is often surrounded by snow. The progress of flowering and seeding is rapid, as the heat during the day in sunshine at these high altitudes is intense, producing a rapid vegetation.

Pachycladon glabra, Buchanan, n.s.

A short depressed, glabrous, alpine plant. Root long, fusiform, ⅕–¼ inch diameter, bearing 1–2 stout branches, each terminating in a loose rosulate head of long slender leaves. Leaves ¾–1 inch long including the petiole, in irregular series, pinnatifidly lobed and narrowed into long flat petioles. Scape leaves long narrow linear. Scapes few, shorter or longer than the leaves, and rising from the branches below them, 1–3 flowered. Flowers white, ⅕ inch long. Sepals linear-obovate, petals longer than the sepals, narrow linear-obovate, rounded at top, tapering at bottom to a narrow point; stamens six, two longer than the others; pods ¼ inch long, 1/20 inch broad, laterally compressed, linear, septum complete; seeds 8–10 in each valve, ovoid.

Hab.—Mountain range, head of Lake Ohou, 5,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.

Plate XXIV., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, flower; 2 b, b′, pod and section; 2 c, leaf.

The present plant may probably be considered as only a form of Pachycladon novæ-zealandiæ, produced by climatic causes; the prevailing hot winds of the Lake Ohou District, where it was collected, being well known to exercise a great influence on the vegetation of both mountain and low lands. The upright habit and glabrous parts however of the present plant with other changes in the inflorescence necessitate a distinguishing name.

Notothlaspi notabilis, Buch., n.s.

A small circular densely-leaved biennial (?) plant, with the inflorescence forming a terminal sphere of small white flowers; stem none; leaves numerous, ¾–1 inch long, spathulate, crenate on the upper half, sparsely covered on margins and surface with ribbon-like hairs, 1-veined, and pitted on the surface; scape, 1–2 inches long, hollow, apparently formed by the union of the petioles, thus probably relegating the leaves to flower bracts; pods, ⅓ inch long, obovate, with a very short style.

Hab.—Mountain range, head of Lake Ohou, 3,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.

Plate XXV. figs. 1, 2, plant nat. size, different views; 3, flower, 4, pod; 5, leaves, both sides; 5 a, portion of leaf much enlarged.

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1. Pachycladon Novæ-Zealandiæ, Hook. f. 2. Pachycladon Clabra, Buchanan, n.s.

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Notothlaspi Notabilis, Buchanan.

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This remarkable little plant agrees in several details with Hooker's description of Notothlaspi rosulatum (“Handbook of New Zealand Flora”); that species, however, being described as a pyramidal fleshy herb, with a scape thicker than the little finger, and a span high, presents sufficient differences to claim for the present plant a distinguishing name. The illustrations given on pl. XXV. are drawn from the largest specimens in a collection of over fifty.

Hab.—Fine loose shingle slopes, where its fine thread-like roots penetrate to a considerable depth, presenting an unique botanical form in the Flora of New Zealand, the leaves being arranged like a miniature umbrella, surmounted by a small dense ball of white flowers.

Hectorella cæspitosa, Hook. fil.

Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 27.

Leaves densely imbricated round the stem, spreading, variable in form and size, linear-acuminate, or oblong-obtuse, membraneous and much dilated at the bottom, entire. Flowers of two kinds, smallest with stamens only; sessile among the uppermost leaves, white or sometimes pale salmon colour; pedicel with 2 bracts at the base; sepals 2, ovate acute, continuous with the pedicel; petals 5, united at the base, erect and thickened beneath the tip; capsule not seen.

Hab.—This beautiful alpine is found abundantly on Mount Alta, where it may be seen in large patches on steep, rocky places, at an altitude of 5,000 feet.

A marked feature in this plant, and which adds much to its floral beauty, is the arrangement of the flowers in circles at the ends of the branches, many of the patch plants having only one terminal flower on each branch.

Plate XXVI., fig. 1, portion of plant nat. size; 1 a and 1 b, fertile and staminiferous flowers; 1 c, 1 d, 1 e, different forms and sizes of leaves.

Pozoa exigua, Hook. fil.

Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 87.

Plant, ½–1 inch high. Leaves long, petioled, numerous, rising from a small rhizome, ovate, generally 3-lobed, petioles forming a close bundle. Scape longer than the petioles, involucral leaves linear-oblong, acute, connate at the base. Fruit linear, scarcely 1/10 inch long, much longer than its pedicel, 5-ribbed, ribs terminating in unequal-sized hooked teeth. See description of flower in “Handb. N.Z. Fl.,” vol. i., p. 87.

Hab.—South Island: Black Peak, 6,000 feet alt.—Hector and Buchanan, 1862; A. McKay, 1881.

Plate XXVI., fig. 2, plant enlarged; 2 a and 2 b, fruit, front and side views.

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A most minute plant, and easily overlooked, although probably abundant in wet places at high altitudes.

Dracophyllum muscoides, Hook. fil.

Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 183.

A small, rigid, densely-branched shrub. Branches closely covered with minute, imbricate leaves. Leaves 1/10 inch long, ovate, obtuse when young, inflexed and subulate at top when mature, coriaceous, sheathing at base, and minutely ciliate. Flower white, ⅛ inch long, terminal, sepals ovate, as long as corolla tube.

Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta and Hector's Col, 5–7,000 feet alt.—Hector and Buchanan, 1862; Buchanan and McKay, 1881.

Plate XXVI., fig. 3, plant nat. size; 3 a, flowering branch, enlarged; 3 b, sepal; 3 c, leaf, showing the early ovate and later subulate forms.

This beautiful little alpine is worthy of attention as an ornamental plant for gardens, and probably under cultivation the close habit of growth might open out and produce a finer shrub.

Aciphylla hectori, Buch., n.s.

Stem 10–12 inches high, deeply grooved. Leaves all radical, sheathing near the root and forming a circle 6–8 inches diameter, pinnate, 3–5-foliate, leaflets 1½–2½ inches long, ⅕–⅙ inch broad, rigid, smooth, margins finely serrulate, pungent, striate. Male inflorescence racemose, occupying three-quarters of the stem, and with a 3-foliate stem-leaf at the base. Flowering bracts with large sheaths, 1–3 inches long, 3-foliate, soft, and membraneous, each bract enfolding a small spike of male flowers. Female racemes rigid, occupying less than the half of the stem, bracts ½–1 inch long, 3-foliolate, sheaths very small. Carpels 3–5-winged.

Allied to Aciphylla colensoi, and may be considered as its alpine representative. Collected near Hector's Col on the Mount Aspiring range, at 5,000 feet alt. Named in compliment to Dr. Hector, who accomplished the passage in 1862.

Plate XXVII., fig. 1, spike of male plant; 1′, portion enlarged; 2, female plant in seed; 3, seed, front view; 3′, seed, side view.

Note on the genus Aciphylla.—At the period of Dr. Hector's explorations in the Wanaka District in 1862, the valley of the Matukituki River was, on account of the prevalence of spear-grass (chiefly Aciphylla colensoi) impassable except by frequently crossing the river, which latter was often dangerous; at the present date scarcely a plant is to be seen, frequent burnings, and stocking the country with cattle and sheep, having destroyed the plants.

The alpine forms of the genus may still be collected in abundance, those collected at this time were Aciphylla monroi, A. lyallii, and A. dobsonii, the latter a very rare plant, being found only on Station Mountain, Lake Ohou, at an alt. of 6,000 feet where only a few plants were seen.

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1. Hectorella Cæspitosa, Hook.f.
2. Pozoa Exicua, Hook.f.
3. Dracophyllum Muscoides, Hook,f.

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Aciphylla Hectori, Buchanan, n.s.

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Lobelia roughii, Hook. f.

A small glabrous alpine plant, full of white acrid fluid. Leaves ½–1 inch long, petioled, ovate or obovate, acute, deeply toothed or lobed, the sinus often round, more or less reticulated on 5–7 leading nerves, coriaceous. Peduncles erect, axillary, 1–1½ inches long, growing out as the fruit ripens, 1-flowered, calyx tube globose, lobes linear, obtuse, coriaceous. Corolla 5-partite, but by the frequent union of three lobes, 3-partite, lobes long, very narrow, round at top. Anthers glabrous, united round the style and supported by the filaments. Capsule ovoid, ¼–⅓ inch long.

Hab.—Lake Ohou Mountains; alt., 5,000 feet on loose shingle.—Buchanan and McKay, 1882.

Plate XXVIII., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, capsule with adherent anthers; 1 b, b′, b″, lobes of corolla, 1- and 3-partite; 1 c, anther.

A remarkable little alpine plant with smooth purplish green foliage, found always on shingle slopes, often getting buried by the sliding debris, and generally growing up again through deposits of several feet.

Logania tetragona, Hook. fil.

A small coriaceous prostrate plant, branches ascending, 1–3 inches long, ¼ inch diameter. Leaves closely 4-fariously imbricate, erect or spreading, linear obovate, rounded at the tip, entire, concave, ciliate on the margins of the lower half, connate in pairs at base. Flowers solitary, terminal, sepals 5, rugose and pubescent on the lower half, corolla 5-lobed, ⅓ inch diameter, tube short, stamens 2, inserted within the mouth of the corolla, anthers large, 2-cleft half-way up, capsule ovate, 2-valved.

Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.

Plate XXVIII, fig. 2, plant, nat. size; 2 a, leaf; 2 b, flower enlarged; 2 c, sepal.

Not uncommon on the mountains, and easily mistaken for a Veronica, more especially as all the specimens collected were found to have only 2 stamens.

Logania armstrongii, Buch., n.s.

A small rigid, close-branched prostrate plant, branches ascending, ½–1½ inches long, 1/7–⅙ inch diameter. Leaves densely 4-fariously imbricate, ovate, obtuse, entire, concave, ciliate on the margins of the lower half, connate in pairs at the base. Flowers solitary, terminal. Sepals 5, ciliate over the whole margins and back. Corolla 5-lobed, ⅙ inch diameter, tube short. Stamens 2, anthers 2-cleft half-way up, inserted within the mouth of the corolla. Capsule ovate, ciliate on the top, 2-valved.

Hab.—South Island: Hector's Col, Mount Aspiring, 5,000 feet alt,—Buchanan and McKay, 1881,

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Plate XXVIII., fig. 3, plant nat. size; 3 a, leaf; 3 b, corolla; 3 c, diagram of corolla; 3 d, sepal; 3 e, ciliate capsule, etc.

A small inconspicuous alpine plant, closely related to Logania tetragona, Hook, fil., but differing much from that plant in the small closely-arranged rigid branches and leaves, the sepals being hispid over the back and margins, and in the ciliated capsule.

Named in compliment to J. B. Armstrong, who has added much to our knowledge of the Alpine Flora of New Zealand.

Mitrasacme hookeri, Buch., n.s.

Stems prostrate, much-branched, branches ascending, 1–4 inches high, ¼ inch diameter with the leaves on. Leaves coriaceous, closely 4-fariously imbricate, spreading, linear, widening at the base, obtuse, connate in pairs, ciliate along the margins, convex at back. Flowers tetramerous umbelled, umbels consisting of several 4-flowered spikes, each spike having two opposite pairs of bracteate flowers, the whole forming a ball near the ends of the branches. Calyx deeply 4-cleft, lobes glabrous, veined and ciliate on the margins. Corolla with a short tube, lobes orbicular. Stamens 2, inserted within the mouth of the corolla. Anthers oblong, sagittate. Capsule large, ovate or obovate, 2-celled. Seed numerous, ovate.

Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.

Plate XXIX, fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, leaf; 1 b, 4-merous flowered spikelet with 2-opposite pairs of leaves; 1 c, single flower; 1 d, bract, calyx, and capsule of lower pair of flowers; 1 e, diagram of corolla; 1 f, capsule and stigma; 1 g, sepal; 1 h, flower-bract of upper pair of flowers.

This plant bears a general resemblance to Hooker's Logania ciliolata. See Supplement to the “Handb. of the N.Z. Flora,” but that plant is described as having the flowers solitary in the axils of the upper leaves, whereas in the present plant they are arranged in umbels of bracteate spikelets, agreeing with Bentham's formula distinguishing between Logania and Mitrasacme.* It has therefore been considered necessary to place the present and following species, M. cheesemanii, in that genus.

Mitrasacme cheesemanii, Buch., n.s.

A small, much-branched, rigid, woody shrub, branches ascending, 3–5 inches long, with the leaves on 1/16 inch diameter. Leaves coriaceous, densely, 4-fariously imbricate, triangular, acute, entire, concave, ciliate on the margins of the lower half, connate in pairs at the base. Flowers tetramerous umbelled, umbels consisting of 4 or more 4-flowered spikelets, each having 2 opposite pairs of bracteate flowers, forming a small ball at the termination of branches. Calyx deeply 4-cleft, lobes linear-obtuse, ciliate on the margins

[Footnote] * “Flora Australiensis,” vol. iv., p. 348.

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1. Lobelia Rouchii, Hook f.
2. Locania Tetracona, Hook. f.
Locania Armstrongh, Buchanan, n.s.

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1. Mitrasacme Hookeri. Buchanan.n.s.
2. Mitrasacme Cheesemanii, Buchanan.n.s.

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and outer base. Corolla with a short tube, lobes 4, linear, obovate, obtuse. Stamens 2 inserted within the mouth of the corolla. Anthers large on top, and cleft half way up, capsule narrow-oblong, seated in a cup-shaped disc.

Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.

Plate XXIX., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, leaf; 2 b, 4-flowered spikelet; 2 c, flower; 2 d, diagram of corolla; 2 e, sepals front and side view; 2f, flower bract.

The tetramerous flowers and clustered arrangement of the spikelets place this species also in Mitrasacme, and the very small triangular-shaped leaves distinguish it from M. hookeri. The peculiar leafless-like branches and inconspicuous flowers of this small alpine cause it to be easily overlooked, but it is none the less interesting to botanists. Named in honour of T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S., who has added much to our knowledge of the botany of New Zealand.

Mitrasacme petriei, Buch., n.s.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Stems prostrate, branched, branches ascending, 2/4 inches long. Leaves ⅓–½ inch long, oblong, or linear-oblong, obtuse, membraneous, sparingly cilio-glandular on the margins, 1-nerved, in opposite pairs, and connate at the base without stipules; flowering branches covered on the upper ⅔ of their length with closely-arranged tetramerous cilio-glandular leaf-like bracts. Flowers numerous, solitary in the axils of the upper bracts. Calyx deeply 4–5-cleft, lobes falcate, varying in size, linear-obtuse, and cilioglandular on the margins. Corolla with a rather long funnel-shaped tube; lobes 4, unequal, linear-oblong, acuminate, spreading. Stamens 2, filaments short, inserted within the mouth of the corolla, anthers short, cleft half way up and rounded on the points. Capsule ovoid, compressed, seated in a shallow cup. Seeds ovate, few.

Hab.—South Island: Mount Bonpland, 6,000 feet alt.—D. Petrie, 1881.

Plate XXX., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, leaves; 1 d, floret; 1 e, bract, sepals, and capsule; 1f, diagram of sepals; 1g, position of stamens; 1 h, seed.

The tetramerous flowers and absence of leaf stipules in the present plant are sufficient reasons for placing it in Mitrasacme, and the large distant leaves present sufficient claim as a new species. This addition to the Loganial alliance in New Zealand also maintains the peculiar feature of possessing only two stamens.

Collected on Mount Bonpland, at 5,000 feet alt., by D. Petrie, in compliment to whom it has been named.

Raoulia rubra, Buch., n.s.

A small fragrant patch plant, forming dense hemispherical balls or patches on the ground or on rocks, 4–8 inches high, and 6–12 inches across.

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Branches short, with the leaves on ⅙ inch diameter, closely compacted, and terminating on the surface in numerous small firm knobs. Leaves imbricating in many series, ⅛ inch long, spathulate, rounded at top, membraneous, 1-nerved, with dense patches of pale blueish-green hairs on both surfaces above the middle, and exceeding the tip of the leaf. Heads very small, 1/10 inch diameter, 10–14-flowered; flowers dark crimson, in two series, inner bisexual, outer pistiliferous only, pistil sometimes 3-cleft, involucral scales numerous, glabrous, narrow-linear and rounded at the entire tip, or linear-spathulate with radiating tips. Pappus of few rigid, broad, or flattishshaped hairs, thickened towards the tip, and incised along its length.

Hab.—Mount Holdsworth, Tararua range, North Island, 4,500 feet alt., 1882.

Plate XXX., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, leaf; 2 b, floret; 2 c, scale; 2 d, pappus hair.

This plant is closely allied to Raoulia eximia, Hook. fil., from the Canterbury Mountains, and difficult to describe botanically as possessing much difference, yet its smaller size and bright red fragrant flowers present such contrasts as to claim for it a distinguishing name. This is the first occasion on which the vegetable sheep, as this and other species of Raoulia and Haastia are popularly named, have been collected in the North Island, affording an additional link in connecting the alpine floras of both islands.

Haastia loganii, Buch., n.s.

A small soft patch plant, forming little cushions on the ground or rocks, 6–12 inches across, and covered with soft, pale greenish-white wool, branches with the leaves on ⅓ inch diameter. Leaves ¼ inch long, entire, obovate or oblong, rounded at the tip or slightly cuneate, membraneous, 3-nerved, the nerves branching from near the bottom, recurved, arranged in several series, and hidden by the soft woolly hairs, which form a patch on the inner surface above the middle, and entirely covering the back. Heads ⅕ inch diameter, 40–50-flowered, involucral scales numerous, in several series, narrow-linear, obtuse, entire or with scarious tips, and with a small tuft of hairs on the middle of the back. Florets reddish, of two series, bisexual and pistiliferous, the first numerous, widening at the mouth, arms of style short, anthers without tails, the second with the corolla very short, tubular, mouth crenulate, styles with long exserted arms which are pappillose at the tip; pappus of 1 series of rigid hairs, free below, very much thickened at the tip and often incised. Achene compressed, linear, and covered with long silky hairs.

Hab.—Mount Holdsworth, Tararua Range, North Island, 4,500 feet alt., 1882.

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1. Mitrasacme Petriel, Buchanan, n.s.
2. Raoulia Rubra, "
3. Haastia Loganii, "

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1 Phyllacne Haastii. Berggrer.
2. Helophyllum Rubrum. Hook.f.

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Plate XXX., fig. 3, plant nat. size; 3 a, 3 b, leaves, back and front views; 3 c, floret; 3 d, scale; 3 e, pappus hair, much enlarged.

A very distinct little species, much smaller than Haastia pulvinaris, covered with soft, white, cottony wool, and with long silky hairs on the achene.

Named in honour of H. F. Logan, whose zeal in botanical science has added much to our knowledge of the flora of the North Island.

Phyllacne haastii, Berggen.

Helophyllum colensoi, Hook. fil. Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 168.

Stems 1–1¼ inch long, with the leaves on ⅕ inch diameter. Leaves obtuse, broad at the base. Flowers with the staminal column much exserted.

Hab.—North Island: Tararua Mountains, 4,500 feet alt.; South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.

Plate XXXI., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, branch, enlarged; 1 b, flower, much enlarged; 1 c, 1 c′, 1 c″, flower bracts; 1 d, 1 d′, 1 d″, sepals; 1 e, leaf, enlarged.

Helophyllum rubrum, Hook. fil.

Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 168.

Stems much shorter than the last. Leaves narrow, coriaceous, with thick knobs. Flowers white, becoming bright red when dry. Corolla 5–7-cleft, column included, or slightly exserted.

Hab.—South Island: Mount Aspiring range, 5,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.

Plate XXXI., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, plant enlarged; 2 b, flower much larger; 2 c, 2 c′, 2 c″, flower bracts; 2 d, 2 d′, sepals; 2 e, 2 e′, leaves.

The present two plants are but little known, and may be considered rare, no doubt they are often overlooked when not in flower by the few who venture into their habitats plant-collecting. H. rubrum, Hook. fil., has not been seen till the present time, so far as known, since its first discovery on Dr. Hector's expedition to the West Coast of Otago in 1860. The peculiarity in this species is its white flowers becoming bright red when dry, hence its name.

Veronica müelleri, Buch., n.s.

A low flexuose, straggling, prostrate, glabrous or puberulent plant, 6–18 inches long, rooting along its numerous branches. Leaves shortly petioled, ⅕–⅓ inch long, ovate, ovate-oblong or linear-oblong, entire, or with 1–2 notches on each side. Flowers 1–2, terminal on the branches, and sitting among the leaves. Pedicels 1/10-⅙ inch long. Sepals ⅙ inch long, very obtuse. Corolla ⅓ inch diameter, dark pink, tube long, stamens large. Capsule didymous, shorter than the sepals.

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Hab.—South Island: Hector's Col, Mount Aspiring Range. Alt. 5,000 feet—Buchanan and McKay, 1881. On open ridgey patches where the snows melt in summer. Allied to V. bidwillii in size and form of leaves, but entirely different in their fascicular arrangement, and the absence of flowering racemes.

Named in compliment to the distinguished botanist Baron von Müeller.

Plate XXXII., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 2, flower; 3, capsule; 4, capsule, with pistil; 5, different forms of leaf.

Notes on the genus Veronica.—This beautiful family of plants has suffered much by the settlement of the Lake districts, few being now seen on the river flats where they were once abundant. A few collected previously in 1862 were not seen at this time, although it is probable they may still be found in the more inaccessible parts of the mountains. The large ornamental shrub, Veronica cupressoides, once abundant, and often cultivated in gardens, is now rare. The alpine forms are apparently safe, being chiefly found on barren ground with a sparse vegetation where fires do not run. The highest altitude to which any of this genus reaches was on Mount Alta, where Veronica buchanani was collected at 7,500 feet. The following is a list of those collected at this time:—Veronica haastii, V. buxifolia, V. pimeleoides, V. buchanani, V. canescens, V. linifolia, V. salicifolia, V. ligustri-folia, V. macrantha, V. bidwillii, V. raoulii, V. tetragona, V. hectori, V. colensoi, V. lævis.

Pygmea ciliolata, Hook. fil.

A hoary moss-like plant, 1 inch high, forming compacted patches on the ground. Branches with the leaves on ⅕ inch diameter. Leaves densely imbricate, ⅛ inch long, obovate and rounded at top, entire, ciliate on the margins and nearly glabrous on both surfaces, 1-veined. Flowers 1/10-⅛ inch long, terminal on the branches. Sepals shorter than the corolla tube.

Hab.—Mount Alta, 6,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.

Plate XXXII., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, flower, enlarged 4/1; 1 b, leaf enlarged 6/1.

Pygmea pulvinaris, Hook. fil.

A white very hoary moss-like plant, 1 inch high, forming compacted patches on the ground. Branches with the leaves on ⅛ inch diameter. Leaves densely imbricate 1/10 inch long, narrow linear oblong, obtuse, upper half covered on both surfaces with white hairs, 1-veined. Flowers shortly peduncled, sepals linear, obtuse, nearly as long as the corolla tube.

Hab.—Mount Alta, 6,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.

Plate XXXII., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, flower enlarged 4/1; 2 b, c, leaves enlarged 5/1.

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1. Pycmea Ciliolata. Hook. fil.
2. Pycmea Pulvinaris. Hook.fil.
3. Pycmea Thomsoni. Bucharar. n.sp.

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1. Myosotis Uniflora. Hook.fil.
2. Myosotis Pulvinaris. Hook.fil.
3. Myosotis Hectori. Hook.fil.

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Pygmea thomsoni, Buch., n.s.

A small scarcely hoary moss-like plant, 1 inch high, forming compacted patches on the ground. Branches with the leaves on ⅙ inch diameter. Leaves coriaceous, densely imbricate, ⅛ inch long, quadrately obovate, obtuse, entire, ciliate on the margins, and on the upper part of the outer surface, 1-veined. Flowers ⅛ inch long, terminal on the branches, sepals linear, obtuse, shorter than the corolla tube.

Hab.—Mount Alta, 6,000 feet alt.—Buchanan and McKay, 1881.

Plate XXXII., fig. 3, plant nat. size; 3 a, flower enlarged ¼; 3 b, c, leaves enlarged 5/1.

The three species here figured comprise all at present known of the Genus Pygmea. From their extremely small size and hoary appearance they may easily escape observation, and except when in flower they are difficult to distinguish from hoary mosses such as species of Grimmia and Racomitrium. They may be recommended as well adapted for garden rockeries, living specimens being easily transported for long distanees.

Myosotis uniflora, Hook. fil.

Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 192.

A densely tufted perennial, forming rounded cushions, whole plant very hoary with white harsh hairs. Flowers buff or pale yellow, terminal, solitary.

Plate XXXIII., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, flower enlarged; 1 b, leaf enlarged.

Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.—Hector and Buchanan, 1862; Buchanan and McKay, 1881.

Myosotis pulvinaris, Hook. fil.

Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 193.

A densely tufted perennial, forming rounded cushions, hoary, softer to the touch than the last species. Flowers white, terminal, solitary.

Plate XXXIII., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, flower enlarged; 2 b, 2 c, leaf forms enlarged.

Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.—Hector and Buchanan, 1862; Buchanan and McKay, 1881.

Myosotis hectori, Hook. fil.

Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 193.

A densely tufted perennial, forming close rounded cushions. Leaves with a firmer and closer growth than the previous two species. Wool shorter and less soft. Flowers shortly peduncled, white, terminal, solitary.

Plate XXXIII., fig. 3, plant nat. size; 3 a, flower enlarged; 3 b, leaf enlarged.

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Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 5,000 feet alt.—Hector and Buchanan, 1862; Buchanan and McKay, 1881.

The present three species of Myosotis occupy a prominent place in the alpine flora of New Zealand as showy plants; the soft rounded cushions when nearly covered with small white flowers would no doubt be much admired in the garden, but it is doubtful if they would retain that beauty as found on the mountain if translated to lower levels.

Abrotanella inconspicua, Hook. fil.

Handb. N.Z. Flora, vol. i., p. 140.

A minute glabrous prostrate dark green moss-like plant, ½ inch high, branches rooting on the lower side. Leaves ¼–⅓ inch long, 1/20 inch broad, linear, obtuse or acuminate, entire, closely sheathing at the base, 3-veined, ciliate on the margins at base, and forming fascicles at the ends of the ascending branches. Heads ⅛–⅙ inch diameter, spherical, terminal, and nearly hidden amongst the upper leaves, involucral scales in several series, similar to the leaves, but shorter, and without cilia at base, receptacle rounded, florets 12–20 outer, females much smaller than the central males. Achene flat, narrowly winged. A most inconspicuous plant and easily overlooked.

Hab.—South Island: Mount Alta, 6,000 feet alt. Hector and Buchanan, 1862; Black Peak, 6,000 feet alt., McKay, 1881.

Plate XXXIV., fig. 1, plant nat. size; 1 a, single head of flowers; 1 b, male floret; 1 c, female floret; 1 d, abnormal florets; 1 e, scale; 1 f, leaf.

Raoulia m'kayi, Buch., n.s.

A slender open-foliaged plant. Stems 2–3 inches long, prostrate. Branches ½–1 inch long, erect or depressed. Leaves membraneous, spreading, ½–¾ inch long, narrow, linear-oblong, round on the tip, apiculate, covered on the upper third on both sides with white, loose, silky wool, veins reticulate. Heads small, ⅛ inch across, involucral scales ¼ inch long, in 3 series of 8–9 each series, linear, or narrow-oblong, acuminate or obtuse, scarcely radiating at tip, inner series very narrow, the whole shining, pale-yellow, florets numerous, 50–60, receptacle flat, pappus hairs few, slender, pilose, not thickened at the tips. Achene glabrous, with a thickened areole at the base.

The silvery open foliage and scattered golden-coloured flowers of this small swamp-plant, as it is usually found on dark peaty bottoms, is very attractive. It is evidently in its general features, and in the pappus hairs not being swollen at the tips, allied to Raoulia tenuicaulis, Hook. fil., but the large reticulate leaves and numerous florets determine its claim as a new species of Raoulia, if the large foliage does not ally it more closely to Gnaphalium.

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1. Abrotanella Inconspicua, Hook f.
2. Raoulia Mackayi, Buchanan, n.s. 3.
Raoulia Parkii, Buchanan, n.s.

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Named in compliment to Mr. A. McKay, of the Geological Survey, as a successful collector, who discovered the present species on Black Peak Range, South Island, at 5,000 feet alt.

Hab.—In swampy places.

Plate XXXIV., fig. 2, plant nat. size; 2 a, floret; 2 b, scales; 2 c, leaves.

Roulia parkii, Buch., n.s.

A small densely tufted plant. Stems prostrate, ascending. Branches numerous, erect, with the leaves on ⅙ inch diameter. Leaves closely imbricating, erecto-patent, ⅛ inch long, spathulate and covered on both surfaces with closely appressed, pale greenish-yellow, or white, tomentum. Heads ¼ inch across, 14–16-flowered, scales in 2 series, inner, narrow, linear, obtuse, entire, or finely crenate at tip; outer, shorter and broader, finely crenate on the obtuse tip, receptacle concave or flat, naked; pappus hairs swollen at the tip and incised. Achene glandular.

This beautiful little alpine was collected on Mount Alta range, South Island, by Mr. McKay, at an alt. of 5,000 feet.

Hab.—Dry places. It is also found in the North Island.

Named in compliment to Mr. J. Park, assistant, Geological Survey.

Plate XXXIV., fig. 3, plant nat. size; 3 a, floret; 3 b, pappus hair; 3 c, scale; 3 d, leaf.

Notes on the genus Raoulia.—The genus Raoulia may be considered as one of the best represented in New Zealand, both as regards number of species, and abundance of plants. Not only do they enjoy an almost entire immunity from fire, but they increase and spread on the ashes of other plants, they flourish on the most barren ground, and cover poverty of soil and gravels with much floral beauty; on river flats and mountain sides they are equally abundant, proving useful as sand-binders, or in fixing springy hill slopes. They may be considered worthless as food, and, in fact, were they otherwise, it would be almost impossible for stock to break in on the hard, close, compacted masses of such species as Raoulia eximia, or R. mammillaris, the vegetable sheep of the shepherds. The species of this genus collected were Raoulia australis, R. tenuicaulis, R. hectori, R. m'kayi, R. parkii, R. subserica, R. glabra, R. mammillaris.

Celmisia dallii, Buch., n.s.

Leaves radical, rosulate, 6–8 inches long, 1½–2 inches broad, sessile, coriaceous, linear-oblong, acute, serrate and apiculate on the serratures, closely covered on back with shining pale buff tomentum. Scape 8–10 inches long, glabrous, bracts few, alternate, large, leafy, coriaceous, 1½–2½ inches long, ¼–½ inch broad with pale buff tomentum on back, same as leaves. Head 1½ inches diameter, involucre of 2 forms. Outer, large, leaf-like, ¼–1 inch long ⅛–¼ broad, covered on the back with shining pale buff tomentum.

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Inner, in several series ½ inch long, 1/16 inch broad, membraneous and glabrous, inner series ciliate on upper half and margins, the whole more or less viscid, rays in 1 series numerous, ½ inch long, narrow, pappus ⅕ inch long, scabrid. Achene linear, hispid.

Hab.—South Island: Nelson; on the Golden Downs near the head of the Aorere River—J. Dall; in compliment to whom as an explorer and collector it has been named.

Plate XXXV., fig. 1, plant ⅔ nat. size; 2, back view of flower head, showing outer form of flower-bracts; 3, inner form of flower-bracts; 4, fertile floret; 5, rayed floret; 6, pappus hair; 7, stamens.

This singular plant approaches the genus Senecio closer than any Celmisia hitherto found in New Zealand, especially in the presence of large coriaceous leaf-like bracts on the scape. Its habit of growth, however, especially in the large radical and rosulate leaves, relate it more to Celmisia. It may be necessary if other species with this remarkable double form of flower-bracts be discovered that a new genus be constructed for their reception.