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Volume 15, 1882
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Art. LIV.—Historical Traditions of the Taupo and East Coast Tribes.

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 14th August and 9th October, 1882.]

Part I.

At the request of many friends, some of whom are members of this Institute, I have consented to read from time to time translations of traditions, principally historical, of the Maoris, collected by myself during the past twenty years.

It is my intention to adhere as near as possible to a literal translation of the legends as written by the Maoris themselves, believing, as I thoroughly do, that the time to generalize has not yet arrived. That must be left to savants for time and the necessary accumulated information derived from all sources to act upon; but in the meantime every exertion should be used from all quarters to recover the records of the Maori past. Most of the traditions I have in my possession were written by the Maori priests themselves more than twenty years since. To give an example of the time and trouble required in collecting this kind of information I would mention that I have just received some books that I left seventeen years back with old chiefs to write in as they felt inclined. To talk is an easy matter with the old Maori, but to write is a great labour. Besides, many of the incantations, etc., are so sacred in their idea that they could not be repeated in a common dwelling-house, but had to be written in the open air, as there are no tapu whares now. To show to what a late period the heathen practices were carried on and these sentiments prevailed,—I am aware that, at the Wairoa, in 1865, in a sacred whare, incantations, etc., were gone through in the presence of “Kahukura,” a Maori god, the principal object being to inquire into the success or otherwise of the Hauhau movement that was then going on. But few natives are now alive who were at that meeting. I have tried hard to obtain the image of Kahukura since that time, but the old men hid it, and it is not known where. The old Maori priests who were at that meeting attended church regularly. Some of the ancient ceremonies I found to be still carried out amongst the Tahoe or Urewera at Ruatahuna on my last visit to that district in 1874. I have been present at other meetings of the kind above mentioned, but never a more earnest and sincere one.

In the course of my papers I must from time to time repeat parts of legends previously related by Mr. Colenso, and printed in the Transactions of the Institute, that gentleman having on various occasions used exactly the same words which, in giving the whole story, I shall be obliged to recapitulate.

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I shall commence with the traditions of the Taupo district, and on a future occasion will follow up with matters connected with Hawke's Bay, the East Coast, and other parts of the country, and with older traditions or myths. I am one of those who firmly believe the Maori has occupied this country for a more lengthened period than is generally supposed, and that their traditions go far to prove that the country was inhabited long before the arrival of the much-talked-of canoes, viz., Te Arawa, Tainui, etc. Supposing the Saxons had asked the ancient Britons if they were the aborigines of Britain, no doubt the answer would have been in the affirmative, and such was the universal opinion until lately. But now Sir C. Lyell, Professors Dawkins and Flowers, M. Quatrefages, M. de Mortillet, and many other men of science, have clearly proved that mankind roamed over our native country for, perhaps, one hundred thousand years before the arrival of the Celts, and probably for double that period, in fact for untold ages, and not a relic of their existence remains except a few bones and rude stone axes. But to proceed.

Historical Traditions of the Taupo and East Coast Tribes.

The names of the earliest Maori inhabitants of the districts of Taupo and Heretaonga (Hawke's Bay) were:—At Taupo, Hotu and Ruakopiri; at Patea, Whitikaupeka; at Kaimanawa, Te Orutu and Tuhiao; at Runanga and Urewera, Te Marangaranga; at Upper Mohaka, Te Maruwahine; at Heretaonga, Te Whatumamoa, Te Koaopari, Toi, Tane-nui-arangi, and Awa-nui-arangi.

Ko Hotu and Ruakopiri.

The people who first occupied Taupo and the surrounding country were Hotu and Ruakopiri, and they considered the district for ever theirs. Hotu and Ruakopiri, it is said, came to Taupo by way of Waikato and the north. Kurapoto and his followers are said to have arrived in the Arawa canoe, and travelled across from the Bay of Plenty.

On reaching Taupo, Kurapoto* found the country fully settled by Hotu and Ruakopiri. Fighting commenced between the two parties, and Kurapoto drove the Hotu to the upper end of Taupo Lake; then peace was made by Kurapoto, and the two people thenceforward resided together in the lake district. The remnant of these tribes still point out Taupo as theirs.

Ko Tia.

This is an account of one of our ancestors who came in the Arawa from Hawaiki, and travelled to Taupo. It is through Tia the present name of

[Footnote] * If Kurapoto, who is said to have arrived in the Arawa canoe, found the Taupo country filled with people, where could those people have come from, if no earlier migrations took place? For tradition says the Arawa and Tainui, and the other canoes named, arrived about the same time.

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Taupo is derived. It is so called from the place where he slept, near a small waterfall over a projecting rock on the east side of the lake, viz., Taupo-nui-a-Tia; perhaps he slept or rested there long at night.

After the Arawa landed at Maketu, Tia and Maaka travelled by way of Kaharoa, Rotorua, Horohoro, Whakamaru, Titiraupenga, and round the west side of Taupo—the side next to Waikato. They did not return to Maketu, but died near Taupo at Titiraupenga. Their skulls have been seen by this generation carried to the kumara grounds that the crops might be plentiful, a custom which is of very ancient date with the Maoris. This is all about these ancestors.

Tia's descendants reside at Taupo. All the great men of the district trace their genealogies back to him nineteen generations:—

Tia, Apa, Tamaapa, Tamaaia Tamaariki, Tamatatonga, Tatekura, Tuahatana, Takapumanuka, Kahupaunamu, Taimeneharangi, Hiko, wife of Tamamutu (grendson of Tuwharetoa) Kapawa, Meremere, Rangi-tua-Mato-toru, Rangihirauea, Tumu, Maniapoto—in all nineteen generations.

Te Heuheu, Hare Tauteka, and the other chiefs, go back to the same ancestor in their genealogies.

Ko Ngatoro-i-rangi.

This is an account of one of our renowned ancestors who visited the sea of Taupo and the open country, the forests, and the plains around. He came to this island from Hawaiki in the Arawa canoe, which landed first at Whanga-paroa (near East Cape), then sailed on to Whakatane and Maketu. After Ngatoro-i-rangi had resided on the coast for a time he travelled inland by way of Kanakaua, Ruawahia, Te Puna-takahi. After crossing the Kaingaroa plains he reached Tauhara Mountain, which he ascended, and from thence looked down on the Sea of Taupo and at the snow-capped Tongariro in the distance. From the top of Tauhara he threw a large tree into the lake, a distance of four miles, which is still to be seen by this generation; it is sticking up at the bottom of the lake near Wharewaka. The name of Ngatoro's spear is the “kuwha.” Ngatoro-i-rangi then descended to the shores of the lake, near the Waipahihi, and performed incantations, and erected a tuaahu and named it Taharepa. When he discovered there were no fish in Taupo Lake he scattered the threads of his mat on the waters and performed religious rites, and the lake at once contained fish, viz., the inanga and the kokopu. He then travelled along the shores of the lake and ascended Tongariro, and was there benumbed with the cold on that snowy mountain. (His companion Ngauruhoe died here from the cold). So Ngatoro commenced calling out to his sisters to bring him fire from Hawaiki, for they had been left behind at Hawaiki. The sound that proceeded from his mouth was like thunder. His sisters heard him and came at once bringing fire.* Their canoe

[Footnote] * See “Nga Mahinga a Nga Tupuna Maori” in Polynesian Mythology:—Sir G. Grey.

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was a taniwha. The names of the sisters were Kiniwai, Haungaroa, and Pupua-te-Hoata. The sisters landed at Whakaari (White Island, Bay of Plenty), and there lit a fire (geyser). They then came on to the mainland at Umapokapoka (a geyser), and then travelled on by the Kaingaroa Plains. This name (Kaingaroa—long at food) was given through Haungaroa being so long over her food at a place named Whakaaweawe, so-called through Haungaroa following some of her companions to chastize them for remarking on her being so long over her meal. They turned into cabbage trees, which are still to be seen by travellers, but they always recede as you appear to approach them. The sisters lit a fire (geyser) at Tarawera Lake, then ascended a hill and looked down on Rotorua Lake; one of them slipped down here, so they called the place Te Hemo, and lit a fire (geyser) there, and then proceeded on to Paeroa and Orakeikoraka, where they lit another geyser, and shortly after arrived at Taupo. But Ngatoro-i-rangi had returned to Maketu, so the sisters determined to join him there. On passing along the Kaituna stream they observed a totara tree standing. When they arrived in sight of the pa and the people saw them coming they shouted the call of welcome and beckoned them to come to the pa, but they declined, at the same time calling out that the priests should be sent to them to perform the necessary incantations to free them of the curse of Manaia. The priests were accordingly sent, and performed their religious rites to free them of the curse.* The sisters then proceeded to the pa, carrying with them the gods—viz., Rongomai, Kahukura, and others which they had brought with them from the sacred places where Ngatoro-i-rangi had left them. Enquiries were then made for news from Hawaiki. The sisters informed Ngatoro-i-rangi that they had all been cursed by Manaia. Ngatoro enquired the nature of the curse and the cause thereof. They replied Manaia had cursed Ngatoro-i-rangi saying, “Are the logs in the forest as sacred as the bones of your brother that you are afraid to use them in cooking, or are the stones of the desert the kidneys of Ngatoro-i-rangi that you do not heat them? By-and-bye I will frizzle the flesh of your brother on red-hot stones taken from Waikorora.” The cause of this curse was that Kuiwai, Ngatoro-i-rangi's sister, and wife of Manaia, had not thoroughly cooked the food at a great sacred feast at Hawaiki.

Ngatoro-i-rangi, at hearing this, was much cast down; the cause of his vexation was, he had no canoe with which to pass to Hawaiki to enable him to destroy the hosts of Manaia, as the Arawa had been burnt to ashes by

[Footnote] * Another version of this tradition says that when the sisters arrived at Maketu after their inland excursion they at once entered the pa by climbing over the fences and then seating themselves on Ngatoro-i-rangi's sacred seat, and that they were afterwards cleansed by the priests from the curse of Manaia.

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Raumati. The sisters then related that they had seen a totara in the Kaituna Stream. Early on the following morning all the people set to to dig up the totara. They did not fell the tree as they had no axes, so they dug it down and launched it with branches and roots on, which departed seventy twice told (hokowhitu, 140). It was by incantations and the help of taniwhas that canoe was propelled. Its name was Totara-Karia (the totara dug from the earth). The party landed safely on the other side (Hawaiki). The tohungas then instructed the people what to do. They said, “you must strike your noses until the blood runs”—me titoia nga ure—so they might look like dead men brought there. The people then gave severe blows on their noses, which caused the blood to flow freely. They then lay down on the beach, scattered, as it were, near the sacred places, hiding their weapons under them. The tohungas retired to the tuaahus, sacred places of augury, to perform their incantations. At the dawn of the morning the people of the pa came down to the beach, and seeing the apparently dead men scattered about, they shouted out, “Here is a work, men scattered all over the beach, sent by the gods; see, they are in our midst.” The incantations had done their work. When the people of the pa had all collected on the beach, up jumped the war-party and attacked them. The fight was severe, both sides being numerous. The people of the place retreated to their pa, but many were killed. The tohungas then performed incantations over the dead to take off the tapu. After that they were cooked and eaten. Feasting was hardly over when the people of the pa made an attack and fighting commenced again, but they were repulsed a second time with great loss, and their pa, named Whatiri-ka-papa, taken. The name of the battle, which was fought in the morning, was called Thumotomotohia. The pa was taken on that day, and many of the rangatira killed. Ngatoro and party then, after making proper offerings to the gods, returned and landed at Maketu and Motiti. Ngatoro-i-rangi lived at Motiti.

A short time after this the people of Hawaiki, led by Manaia, came to seek revenge for their losses. Their party was very numerous both in men and canoes. They arrived off the island Motiti, in the Bay of Plenty. The old man, Ngatoro-i-rangi, was residing there alone with his wife, his people being all at Maketu. The whole ocean appeared to be covered with the hosts from Hawaiki. The voice of Ngatoro-i-rangi was then heard calling out, “Stay out there for the night, in the morning we will fight when the sun will reflect the glittering of our weapons.” The host agreed to this, and cast out their anchors into the water. Ngatoro-i-rangi then hastened to his tuaahu, and performed his incantations and auguries, and called on the winds of heaven, named Tawhirimatea, Pungawere, and Utupawa; then came the rushing sound of the howling winds. The foam of the raging

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ocean was like sand-clouds of the desert in a gale. All were destroyed—the great host of Manahua were engulphed in the ocean—none escaped. That people were utterly destroyed, and the destruction was called Maikukutea. Thus were the people of Hawaiki destroyed by those of this island, and the curse of Manaia avenged.

This ends the story of Ngatoro-i-te rangi. That tohunga was the chief priest of the Arawa when they sailed from Hawaiki. From him are descended the people of Taupo, viz., Tuwharetoa and Aopouri, twenty-five generations.

1Ngatoro-i-rangi, 2Tangaroa, 3Tupai, 4Irawitiki, 5Kiwi, 6Kakeroa, 7Rongo-mai-nui, 8Rongo-mai-roa, 9Rongo-mai-a-pehu, 10Apehumatua, 11Mawake-roa, 12Mawake Taupo, 13Tuwharetoa, 14Rakeihapukia, 15Taringa, 16Tutetawha, 17Rangiita, 18Piungatai, 19Mahuika, 20Poinga, 21Tumaro, 22Whatupounamu, 23Tauiteka, 24Hare Tauteka, 25Matini Tauteka. So also do the Poihipi, Heuheu, Hohepa, and other chiefs go back to Ngatoro-i-rangi and Tuwharetoa in their genealogies.

Ko Tuwharetoa.

The following is an account of Tuwharetoa, a renowned ancestor, after whom is named the tribe possessing the country around Taupo and Rotoaira Lakes, the mountains of Tongariro and Ruapehu, the rich Patea, Kariori, Murimutu, Kaingaroa and Okahukura plains.

Tuwharetoa, of Aripouri, was an Arawa, and lived at Tamarakau, at the Awa-o-te-atua and Kawerau. He was renowned as a warrior, and had fought the tribes living on the coast; and, having subdued them, had returned home and hung up his weapons in his house. He and his people, together with those of Tutewero, son of Maruka, having made the neighbouring tribes to fear them.

After a time it occurred to Hatupere to fight with Tuwharetoa and Tutewero. Now Tuwharetoa was living at peace with his wife, Hineuotu and his children,—some ten or twelve,—at Kawerau, and was quite ignorant of the attack on Tutewero. Hatupere and the Marangaranga were defeated and fled towards the Whaiti and the mountains dividing Taupo

[Footnote] † That Ngatoro-i-rangi and his one hundred and forty picked men afterwards went to Hawaiki, as stated, and landed at Tara-i-whenua, and that he then consulted with his sister Kui-wai, and from her learned the movements of the people, by which means he was enabled to lay his plans: and that, after the capture of the pa Whaitiri-ka-papa. and the proper incantations and offerings had been made to the gods, another battle took place, called Tarai-whenua-kura, in which Manaia was defeated, and that then Ngatoro-i-rangi and people returned to Maketu and Motiti, and the battle of Taiparipari and Maikukutea occurred,—vide Sir George Grey's “Polynesian Mythology,” “The Curse of Manaia,” English translation, for the full account of this and many other interesting traditions.

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Plains from Heretaonga (Hawke's Bay). When Tuwharetoa and his sons heard of the fight which had taken place, and that Hatupere was defeated, they felt ashamed (sick with shame) about the battle of Tutewero.

Then arose the army of the sons of Tuwharetoa, Rakahopukia, Rakei-poho, Rakei-makaha, Taniwha, and Rongomai-te-ngangana. Their sons, the grendchildren of Tuwharetoa, went also. They pursued and overtook the enemy at Kakatarae, near Runanga, where a battle was fought with Marangaranga.

The children of Tuwharetoa were beaten. That battle is known as the battle of “Kakatarae.” Rakeipoho, Rongomai-te-ngangana, and Taniwha were the chiefs killed here. The women were taken prisoners by Maranga-ranga, and one hundred men killed and one hundred and forty left alive. Tuwharetoa retreated to the Ahi-o-ngatane (where Taupo road emerges on the plains near Runanga). They there caught a kiwi and killed it, and offered one half to the gods and one half to Papanui (a religious ceremony connected with war). Takatore was the name of the priest of the party who directed these things to be done. They slept there, and in the morning they marched forth and surprised the enemy, who were cooking a man for food. They rushed them, and defeated the Marangaranga at Rarauhi-papa, and captured all the women of that tribe and killed perhaps two hundred men.

The old man Tuwharetoa was residing at Kawerau all this time. The killed were carried to Hinemaiaia on the shores of Taupo Lake. The party then proceeded along the shore by Maniaheke and the Kowhaiataku, and on arriving at the point at Umu-kuri they blew the pukaea (a trumpet made of wood bound together, about five feet long) as a signal to the Ngatikurapoto living at Rotongaio. When the woman named Hine-kaho-roa (a priestess) heard the sound, she went mad with rage, and called out the curse “Pokokohua-ma” (a Maori curse signifying mummified heads).

When the sons of Tuwharetoa heard this curse they continued to blow the pukaea, thus:—To-roro-to-roro, thy brains, thy brains. Then called Hine-kaho-roa, the priestess, and said, “I will liken my fern root to the bones of your ancestors Rangitu and Tangaroa.” Then were the hearts of those people dark, and they said, “Why abide here to be put in kits of toetoe.” So they marched off to the coast, to the kainga of Tuwharetoa, and told him they had been cursed by the Ngatikurapoto, and that the fernroot of Hine-kaho-roa had been called the bones of Rangitu and Tangaroa. The old man was very sad, and went straightway to the auguries that the curse might be put off him and fall upon the woman.

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In the morning the sacred army, which had been sent for by Tuwharetoa, arrived from Puehuehu, near Tarawera-moana, and a lizard was killed by them, by which means the curse passed off. The army then returned to their home, where they waited perhaps ten nights, and prepared food.

Then said Tuwharetoa, “Go kill the Ngatikurapoto.” The army then started and marched on till they reached Waikato and on to Takapau. There they divided into two parties, one going by way of Aputahou, Tauhara, on to Waipahihi, Wharewaka, and so on to Rotongaio. On the day of their arrival they killed Kurimanga, the priest, and cooked him in an oven, from which circumstance the place is called Umu-kuri.

They slept there that night, and next morning attacked two pas, both of which fell into their hands. The names of those pas were Tara-o-te-Marama and Pa-powhatu. Some were killed, and others saved. Those of that tribe who were spared went to live on the plains in the direction of Heretaonga (Hawke's Bay). The army then proceeded along the shores of Taupo Lake.

The other division of the war-party had gone by the plains and arrived at the Kotipu without meeting anyone. They there smelt a fire, and, on searching, found a woman named Monoao, whom they killed as a sacrifice to the gods. The chief of the party which went by the plains was Rereao. The other chiefs were with the party which went by Taupo. Their names were Taringa, Waikari, Patu-iwi, and many others.

The party under Rereao marched on to Tuariki and descended to Tauranga (on the shores of Lake Taupo), where they found the Ngatihotu living. They killed Tara-o-te-Marama and made a prisoner of Kurawaha, a chief of Ngatihotu, at Kanihinuhi. When Ata-iwi-kura, daughter of Rereao, saw what a fine man Kurawaha was, she saved him and took him unto herself as a husband.

When Rereao and party had made an end of staying at Tauranga, they proceeded by way of Onemararangi. The Ngatihotu were collected at Kakapakia. That pa was then attacked and the people to the number of two hundred were killed. An oven was at once dug by Rereao, and one hundred and forty were put into that oven. They hung up Tipapa-Kereru, the chief of the pa. Rereao's killing of men ceased here. He then went about the country making landmarks (taking possession). The saying, “The long oven of Rereao,” has been handed down to this generation.

After this he and his party proceeded to Motiti, the Kotuku-o, Rereao, the Kowhiti-o-Rereao, the Pungarehu-o-Rereao, and to Pukawa-o-Rereao. Here they stopped, and here they met the party which had travelled by the other shore of Lake Taupo. The chiefs now decided to proclaim peace, all the

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chiefs and all the tribes consenting. A woman was therefore presented to the chief of Ngatihotu named Paepaetehe. The woman's name was Hineuru, sister of Taumaihi of Puteketeke and of Rorotaka. Some of the party then returned to Kawerau, the abode of Tuwharetoa in the Bay of Plenty, and some remained at Taupo.

The district now remained for many years at peace, and the Tuwharetoas considered the country theirs, when it occurred to Ngatihotu to seek revenge by murder for their former defeat and the lives of their relatives killed by Tuwharetoa. The Ngatihotu were then living at Motiti, in the mountainous country of Kaimanawa.

Rorotaka, Puteketeke, Taumaihi, and others of the Tuwharetoa tribe went at that time to Motiti, and were beckoned by the people of the place (Ngatihotu) to enter the pa. They did so, and sat down in the house. The inhabitants of the place then put feathers of birds on the oven so that the guests might think from the smell reaching their noses that birds were being cooked for them at the fire. It was only a deceit, for the chiefs of the pa (Ngatihotu) had planned to kill Puteketeke, Rorotaka, and Taumaihi. Their sister, it will be remembered, had been given as a wife to the chief of the pa—viz., Paepaetehe of Ngatihotu. She was sitting in the house talking with her brothers of the Tuwharetoa quite ignorant of the murderous intentions of her husband and his tribe. The visitors enquired of her what was going on outside, and she answered, “They are preparing some food for you.” She then went out to see how things were getting on, when she met the Ngatihotu coming to kill the people. She then cried out, “Sirs, an attack, an attack.”

The fight then commenced, the enclosure round the house and the verenda were full of people. Rorotaka stood at the door and Puteketeke at the window with ten others. Rorotaka had a pukaea (bugle made of wood). He commenced to jump about in the house shouting and yelling. The people fell back into the enclosure of the village; Rorotaka threw his pukaea at them exclaiming, “I will have the heart of the first killed.” The people all gathered outside of the house and the fighting then continued between the ten and the three hundred.

Taumaia called out, “Oh! Puteketeke; oh! we cannot hold out any longer, the people are collecting spears.”

Puteketeke now observed that Rorotaka was out of wind, so he rushed to the front, and there got stabbed in the thigh; but he did not fall, he continued rushing on while the enemy fell back before him, so he and his party escaped. No chief was killed. Puteketeke alone was wounded, but not killed. They then fled to Whaka-pou-Karakia, and concealed themselves there. Those who were able went on to Taupo.

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When Ngatituwharetoa saw them and discovered that they had been beaten, they at once sent round and collected all the people around Taupo. When they were all gathered together, they advanced against Ngatihotu, and a battle ensued. Several were killed on both sides. Ngatituwharetoa then sent Waikari to collect followers from Kawerau, from the Awa-o-te-atua, and from Whakatane. They all came with Tutewero and his people, and brought the god Rongomai with them to strengthen them in battle. They all mustered under Waikari and Tutewero, at Taupo. It was proposed that the people should separate and take different roads, which arrangement was consented to. Taringa was chief of the party which went by Waimarino. Karihi was chief of the party to go by Whakapon-karakia, Waikari was chief of another party, and Tutewero of another. So they all started, Waikari reached the Ngau-i-taua-pa, which was taken and the people killed. The whole district was cleared, and Ngatihotu destroyed. A remnant fled to Tuhua and Whanganui, and so Taupo came entirely into the possession of Tuwharetoa. Nothing was left of Hotu at Taupo, and Ngatikurapoto were totally subdued by Ngatituwharetoa.

After a time another tribe—namely, the descendants of Tamaihuturoa—came and abode at Taupo. The grendson of Tuwharetoa, named Ruawehea, made terms with these people, and they remained as his subjects. The pas occupied by these people (the Ngatitama) are called Waihaha and Opurukete.

Ruawehea's residence was called Whakaueuku at Karangahape. When he desired to visit his people he went in his canoe, and on approaching the pa sounded his pukaea as a warning to them of his coming, in order that food might be cooked for him. His call was, “Prepare food, you pokokohua-ma to-roro-to-roro” (you mummified heads, your brains, your brains).

As soon as he landed food was presented by the people. This was done on all occasions when he visited them. The thought then occurred to the chiefs of Ngatitama, viz., to Rongohape, Rongohaua, and to Atua-rere-toi, to murder Ruawehea. Shortly after this Ruawehea and his slave came paddling to their pa cursing as usual. The people then burnt some weeds to induce Ruawehea to think it was food that they were cooking for him. As soon as he landed he was invited to the house of the chiefs Rongohaua, Atua-rere-toi, and Rongohape. These men placed themselves in the following positions in the house:Rongohape sat at the window, Rongohaua was in the centre of the whare, and Atua-rere-toi at the far end. As soon as Ruawehea came near the door, he was invited in. “Come inside, sir,” they said. He then entered, and when his head was inside, Reretoi muttered, “Who was the man with Rongomaiwhiti, eh?” The old man was

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then killed, and was carried away and hidden under the waterfall at the precipice. He was not eaten. His slave escaped to the opposite side of Taupo, and informed the Ngatituwharetoa tribe that his master had been murdered. Messengers were at once sent to all parts of Taupo to collect the Ngatituwharetoa for the purpose of utterly destroying the tribe of murderers. In a few days they were all collected together. They then paddled over in canoes to the number of eight hundred men. The brave Waikari accompanied the army, his weapon being a taiaha. They paddled to the Whakauenuku, where they landed, and distributed food amongst the several hapus. Tumatangana divided the pounded fernroot, and while doing so observed Waikari sitting in his canoe, the reason for his doing so being he had brought no food with him, and felt ashamed. Tamatangana gave him some fernroot, which he did not eat, but stowed it away in his belt.

During the night the army paddled on, and in the morning landed below the pa and occupied all the approaches. They then made an attack, and the pa fell into their hands. Several people were killed. One chief, Rongohape, who was taken prisoner, tried to escape by the cliff. He descended into the water and came near a canoe, in which a boy named Rangaita and his slave were sitting. The boy seized Rongohape by the head and hauled him into the canoe and killed him. Upon enquiry being made for a chief who could not be found among the prisoners or the slain, Rangaita exclaimed, “I have the man lying in my canoe.” He was asked if he was a full-grown man, and he answered “Yes,” with a lame leg. The prisoners were then bound and placed with the army.

Waikari took Roroihape, a chieftainess, prisoner, whom he carried away with him. The men all begged for Roroihape for a wife, but Waikari would not consent, as he intended to give her to Tumatangana as compensation for his liberality in having presented him with the pounded fernroot.

The chiefs of Ngatitama who were killed in this engagement, as payment for the murder of Ruawehea, were Rongohape, Rongohaua, Atua-rere-toi, and others. Afterwards another attack was made on the Ngatitama, when the pa Purukete fell. From that originated the proverb, “Aue, mate, he mate wareware te kite au i o Purukete.” The reason of that proverb was because Ruawehea was not eaten. The remnant of Ngatitama fled to Rotorua and Lower Taupo. Kapawa collected a few of the tribe to reside with him.

That is all in reference to the Ngatitama tribe who were subdued by Ngatituwharetoa. All Taupo became the property of Ngatituwharetoa, who still hold it, and are now living there.

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The First Gun in Taupo.

The following is an account of some fights when there was only one gun in Taupo District:–-

The descendants of Tuwharetoa are still noted for their bravery; none of the tribes of this island have been able to subdue them. A tribe called the Ngatimaru came to Taupo intent on conquering them. They came at first unexpectedly and took the people by surprise, but were forced to retire. On their second coming all the men of Taupo had collected together on Motutaiko, an island situated in the Sea of Taupo, and there they determined to defend themselves against the Ngatimaru. All the people of Taupo, when they saw that Ngatimaru had come with the full intention of subduing the Ngatituwharetoa, got into their canoes and made for the Island of Motutaiko. At that time only one gun had reached Taupo.

As the enemy appeared on the shore a man in one of the canoes named Ruipawhara fired the gun and killed two of them. They took fright and retired, and in the morning we followed and overtook them at Lake Rotoaira, at the foot of Tongariro Mountain, where a chief named Arakai was killed by Poinga with a taiaha. Wharemarumaru, a Waikato chief, was also killed, as well as many others, perhaps two hundred, including women. But some escaped and fled to Hauraki (the Thames) where they gave an account of their defeat. The Ngatimaru had brought a number of women with them for holding the prisoners they expected to take, but having beaten them, we kept their women as slaves for the people of Taupo.

Shortly after this the same tribe returned reinforced, seeking revenge for their dead. They came four hundred strong under the leadership of Honorehua. A battle ensued, and they were defeated. The Ngatituwharetoa had but the one gun, while the enemy were well supplied with such weapons, but what was that to the men of Taupo? They could stab and kill with the huata and mere-mere, and other Maori weapons. Enough! The Ngatimaru tribe fled, and have never since returned.

Invasion of Ngatiraukawa.

This is another account of a war that occurred after the fight with Ngatimaru:

Another tribe which, in times past, has striven with Ngatituwharetoa was the Ngatiraukawa. The quarrel between them originated through the Ngatiraukawa digging up and taking away the bones of Rangitua and Matataru. Tawei and Hurihia fled naked to the Heuheu and informed him of what had taken place. He then assembled all Ngatituwharetoa and marched to Rangatira, where they encountered the Ngatiraukawa and defeated them, killing about two hundred, including the chief Patana. They

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rallied, however, and the fighting continued to rage in Taupo, many on both sides being destroyed; so much so that several of the Taupo people became afraid and fled. Those from Lower Taupo went to the Arawa, Rotokakahi, and Lake Tarawera, others to Tarawera beyond Runanga.

The people who remained to keep possession of Upper Taupo were the Heuheu and his hapu, and Tauteka and Rangi-monehunehu with two hundred men of their hapus. The name of the pa in which they were collected was Whakatara.

The hapu which kept possession of Lower Taupo was Ngatirangiita, comprising the families of Matatoru, Hautapu, Tauarai, and Wharengaro. The pa in which they collected was called the Tarata. From these pas, the only ones held in Taupo, fighting was carried on without ceasing until peace was made. After everything was quiet, those who had fled returned to their former habitations. Thus have the Ngatituwharetoa maintained their mana in Taupo.

Part II.

I stated in my introduction to the first part of these readings that I was one of those who firmly believed that the Maoris have occupied this country for a more lengthened period than is generally supposed, and that their traditions go far to prove that these islands were inhabited long before the arrival of the much-talked-of (mythical?) canoes, viz., the Arawa, Tainui, and others, and that in these readings I would confine myself as far as possible to traditionary evidence. The more this question is investigated by an unbiassed mind, the more clear I think it will appear that such is the case; for instance, I would draw attention to the facts set forth in Mr. Colenso's able essay on “The Maori Races”* in the Transactions and the many other articles referring to the Maoris by the same gentleman in various volumes of that work. Again in the “Mythology and Traditions of the New Zealanders,” and the “Poetry of the New Zealanders,” by Sir George Grey. The Rev. R. Taylor, in his “Ika a Maui,” shows clearly what his opinion is on the matter. Then we have, in vols. x. and xii. of the “Transactions,”–-“Traditional History of the South Island Maoris,” by the Rev. J. W. Stack, and the many contributions on the subject by the Rev. J. F. H. Wohlers; and also of Dr. Hector, Messrs. R. C. Barstow, Travers, Goodall, and the important discoveries by Dr. von. Haast and others in regard to the ancient caves and moa-hunters. I might also quote Dr. von. Hochstetter's “New Zealand,” in chapters ix. and x. of which volume he argues that Hawaiki and the legendary canoes and migration are all

[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. i.

[Footnote] † “Ika a Maui,” 2 ed., pp. 153-4, 258, 290, 291.

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mythical; besides numerous other contributors tending in the same direction, and bearing on the subject of “Polynesian Folk-lore,” and the comparative philology and comparative mythology of the Polynesian Pacific and Central American races.

I am quite aware that to approach even approximately the period that these islands may have been inhabited by man we must investigate through a different channel than the evidence given in these obscure oral traditions. But let us record them all while the opportunity offers, more particularly for their great value on other branches of the subject of “Whence the Maori,” remembering what Mr. Colenso has well said, “That while the details of a legend are always false, the legend itself always contains a kernel of truth;” for it is almost invariably the case that when a legend or tradition refers to an event even of a comparatively recent period it is clouded in mystery and fable often of a most puerile nature.

If we give credit to the accounts given of the voyages, etc., of the canoes, we must also allow the accuracy of the traditions of the subsequent wondrous doings of Ngatoro-i-rangi and his sisters starting the volcanic system of this island and the sinking of the Taupo Lake; the removal of Taranaki Mountain from between Tongariro and Ruapehu to where it now stands at New Plymouth; also the race between the Waikato and Rangataiki Rivers to reach the sea; that Manukau Harbour was once a lake; that an island called “Motukeikei” once existed off the mouth of Manukau Harbour; the severing of the North from the South Island by Kupe; the legends connected with the Waikare-moana Lake; that the Mahia Peninsula was an island; and that the sandy beach which now connects it with the main land was brought from Hawaiki: and later again, the killing of the Taniwhas; the travels of Tara and his dog, when Tara dug out the Roto-a-Tara and other lakes about Te Aute; the wonders performed by Rongo Kako, Pawa, Paikea, Ruatapu, and Kupe; the shattering of the mountains around Hikurangi (East Cape) by the two first-named; the removal of Mata-rua-hou (Scinde Island) from the Raukawa Ranges to where it now stands; the removal of the Ariel Rocks off Poverty Bay from Makauri, etc., etc. I would suggest: are not these mythical traditions of great geographical changes that have taken place in this country since it was inhabited by man, thus, indeed, taking us back to the remote past? The genuineness of one account is about on a par with the others.

I will attach some gerrealogies to this paper, one purporting to show at what period and in what manner the later migrations became amalgamated with the older inhabitants. The other is derived from Papa and Rangi, viz., the commencement of heaven and earth as it now appears. This genealogy takes in Maui, the Maori Hercules, and Tawhaki, who ascended alive

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to heaven by a spider's web; also Ruatapu, the Noah of some enthusiasts. I would mention here, in regard to Maui, that Mr. Taylor, in his “Primitive Culture,” vol. i., page 304, describes the legends of Maui as native myths of the setting sun. He arrives at this conclusion partly through having ascertained that the piwakawaka (Rhipidura flabellifera)–-the little bird that laughed when Maui jumped down his ancestress's throat–-is a bird that sings at sunset. It would be an interesting question to ascertain whether that bird is to be found on any of the Polynesian Islands; and, if so, on which?

It has been remarked that the average number of generations from the assumed arrival of the canoes to the present time is twenty, which, if we allow in accordance with Dr. Thomson's reckoning in his “New Zealand Past and Present” twenty-two years for a generation, we are taken back four hundred and forty years since that conjectured disturbance amongst the natives of Polynesia. And again the average number of generations since the separation of Rangi and Papa and the period of the early demigods to the present time is forty-five, which, at the same rate of reckoning, would take us back nine hundred and ninety years. I would ask the question: does not this latter refer to some earlier movement among those races of the Pacific? Or have the long strings of words an allegorical meaning the interpretation of which is long forgotten? The fact of the matter is, the time has not come to generalize, but every exertion should now be used to collect and publish, with as literal a translation as possible so as to convey sense, the traditions, myths, and songs of the Maori and Maoriori, including, of course, those of Polynesia generally.

In what I am about to say I shall merely touch on the accounts of the arrival of Rongokako and Tamatea, and the journeys of the latter, as that subject has been referred to by the Rev. R. Taylor in his “Ika a maui” (on New Zealand and its inhabitants), and by many others. But the history of Kahungunu, the ancestor of the tribe occupying the country stretching from the Mahia Peninsula to Wellington, and the migration of the Maoris now dwelling in our immediate neighbourhood from Poverty Bay and the Wairoa to this part of the country, as far as I am aware, has never before been referred to or published. I would draw attention to the fact that these traditions go to show that Tamatea, who is said to have come in the Takitimu canoe about the same time that the other legendary canoes arrived, found in his journeys people settled at Turanga, Arapawanui, Whanganui, Taupo, and other places; and that his son Kahungunu found people at Turanga; that the Mahia Peninsula was then thickly inhabited by an apparently old-settled population; then again his son and grendson were driven out of Poverty Bay by the

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inhabitants, and were again driven from the Mahia, although Kahugunu had become the chief there by his marriage with Rongomaiwahine; and that these wanderers are again repulsed at Wairoa and Arapawanui to find shelter at last with the people of Wakaari and Tongoio, and eventually settled on the plains of Heretaonga, which were at the time thickly inhabited by a people able to construct and garrison a pa like Otatara (Redcliffe, near Taradale), with its great entrenchments extending over an estimated area of at least eighty acres.

The Migration of Tamatea and others from Hawaiki, and early Settlement of Hawke's Bay.

This is the legend about the arrival of Tamatea, father of Kahungunu, from whom the Ngatikahungunu take their tribal name. The name of Tamatea's canoe was Takitimu. His companions were his father Rongokako, Hikitapuae, Hikitaketoke, Rongo-i-a-moa, Taihopi, Taihopa, Kahutuanui, Motoro, Angi, Kupe, Ngake, Paikea, Menuku, the children of Tato and others. The reasons for their leaving Hawaiki were two: in the first place, a quarrel about a woman; secondly, a fight amongst themselves concerning Wena. But they had previously ascertained the direction to steer. They went to the forest to search for proper timber for canoes to pass over in. The name of the forest was Tawhitinui. After searching for some time they found suitable trees, six in number, they felled the trees and made the canoos, which was a work for the gods. According to their ancestors, the gods always assisted in great works when the proper incantations and offerings were made to them. Ere long the canoes were completed and ready for sea. The names of the canoes were–-the Takitimu, Tainui, Arawa, Matatua, Kurahaupo, and Tokomaru. All being ready, they were hauled down the stream named Hauhau, to the sea. The Takitimu was the first to arrive at the stream, its name was therefore changed to Horo-uta. When all was prepared, they started on their voyage. After being out at sea for some time, the food which they brought from Hawaiki was all consumed, and they were faint with fasting. Then arose Tamatea, and chanted a mataara, glaring fiercely with his eyes. The people thought he intended to kill one of the party for food. A man then stood up and called out, “I have got a calabash (ipu), full of preserved birds,” which were eaten; but ere long hunger again oppressed them. Then, again, Tamatea stood up and repeated as before; and the same fear came over the people that some one would be set apart for food. So another called out, “I have some preserved fish,” so they ate that,–-and again they hungered. The same man stood up a third time and threatened, and once more food was found: and so it went on until they arrived at Aotearoa (the Maori name for the North Island of New

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Zealand). The name of the place where they landed was Whangaparaoa (near East Cape). After stopping there for some time, they worked along to Tauranga, in the Bay of Plenty. Here the canoes separated, some going north, others stopping there, and others again going to different places. But Kupe and Ngake returned on board the Takitimu, leaving Tamatea and his son, Kahungunu, at Tauranga. After Tamatea and his son Kahungunu had resided for some time at Tauranga, on one occasion when they were making fishing-nets, they braided-in the hair of Kahu-ngunu's mother Iwi, which was taken as a great insult. So Tamatea left that place, and settled at the pa of Wharepatari, and took his daughter to wife. Her name was Ruatai. After a time Kahungunu followed his father, and resided with him.

The descendants of Tamatea and Ruatai are:–-


Tamatea (m) = Ruatai (f)




























Rangi Ete Kahutu
















Hapuku Tamaiti.

Tamatea and his son Kuhungunu, after residing for a time at the pa of Wharepatari, proceeded to Turanga (Poverty Bay), where they took some lizards as pets, and fed them with tawa berries (Nesodaphne tawa). The lizards belonged to Tarapaikea. They journeyed on from Turanga. At Arapauanui they observed that the work of that place was catching rats and digging fern-roots. They proceeded on naming places from events that occurred. The next place was Otiere, where patiki was the food; then on to Taputeranga, carrying the pet lizards; here they lost one of their pets on the road, so they called the place Poka, which was the name of the lizard. At Waitio they consulted the gods, so that place is called Tarohanga; and they journeyed on until they arrived at Puna-Awatea and Pohukura, on the Ruahine Mountain, near the pass on the present road to Patea. Here they looked back towards Heretaonga (Hawke's Bay) and saw the sea-gulls flying about; hence the saying, “Behold the sea-gulls flying and screeching over Taputerangi (Watchman Island in Napier Harbour), and Oh! the thoughts of the feeds on the thick-sided patiki (flounders)

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of Tiere (at Roro-o-kuri Island, Napier Harbour), and the delicious fern-root at Pukehou (at Petane), and the fat rats at Ramariki (near Arapauanui), and the glutinous pauas at Tahito (near Arapauanui).” This saying was not Tamatea's, but his son's (Kahungunu). [I would draw attention here to the fact that all the places mentioned by Kahungunu in this account appear to have been well known by name, and celebrated for their various products. The same remark applies to places mentioned in other traditions–-a certain evidence that people had been there of old, and that the country was well known at the time.]

The father then said, “Are you longing for our home, if so, return?” The son replied, “No, it was only a sigh of remembrance.” Here also the lizard scratched in its calabash, so it was taken out and a heitilki (a greenstone ornament) was fastened to its neck. It was then placed in a rock cave, and a tree was planted and named Pohukura. The lizard is still there, and its mana has not left it. When it roars it is an indication of bad weather. Then they travelled on to the forest to Haupuru, and Turangakira, a rock cave. People journeying generally stop there for shelter. One of the party of Ngaitamahine died there from the frost and snow; thence on to Reporoa and then ascended the mountains at a place called Ranga-a-Tamatea. Here they left a lizard and called the place Aorangi. They afterwards arrived at a settlement near the Wanganui. The chief's name was Tarinuku, who offered the travellers food, including a calabash of preserved birds. Tamatea ate up all the birds, at which Kahungunu was angry, and quarrelled with his father, so they separated, each going by a different road. Kahungunu travelled on by way of Ngapumakaka, Owhaoko Taruarau, Ngaruroro, Ngahuinga, at the head-waters of the Mohaka River, and through to Kaingaroa (Taupo Plains), then returned to Tauranga, and there dwelt.

The father, Tamatea, after his son left him at the pa of Tarinuku, journeyed on to Wharekanae, Paraheke, the Hoko, and crossed the Whanganui at Tawhitimu, thence along in the river to Hikurangi and cast anchor at the Punga, then on by Manganui-o-te-ao, Whakapapa, thence across Okahukura Plains to Rotoaira at foot of Tongariro Mountain, then on to Taupo Lake at the Rapa, thence on to Waihi and Pungarehu. There he obtained a canoe and crossed Lake Taupo with his companions to its outlet, where he landed, and through the earth sounding hollow under his feet he called the place Tapuaeharuru (sounding footsteps). Tamatea boasted to the people residing there that he could descend the Waikato River to Okoro in his canoe. The name of his canoe was Uapiko. The people of the place warned him of the dangerous waterfalls, but what was that to this brave chieftain; away he started in his canoe. He passed on

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by Nukuhau and Hipapahua and on to the entrance of the race at the Huka falls. Here his friend Ririwai jumped ashore and was saved, but Tamatea and his thirty companions continued on over the falls and there perished. His canoe, in the form of a rock, is still to be seen at that place.

Ko Kahungunu.

We will now return to the doings of Kahungunu, the ancestor from whom the tribe is named, that, on the arrival of the European, owned the large stretch of country reaching from the north of Mahia Peninsula to near Wellington–-some two hundred and fifty miles of the east coast of this island.

After remaining for a time at Tauranga (Bay of Plenty), on a certain occasion, Kahungunu, with his sister Whaene and their people, were out fishing; the net belonging to the sister being hauled in, Kahungunu ran and sewed up the fish in the body of the net, at which Whaene was very angry and struck him a blow, of which Kahungunu was so much ashamed that he left the place. When he arrived at the forest he ate some paretas, so the place was called by that name. Further on he ate a kaka, so the place was called Kaka-Rai-a-mio, then on to Pauauehu and Ngarara, Whakawae, then to Kohahu-Paremoremo; further on he saw a cave, into which he entered. After stopping here for a time he saw a man passing named Paroa, who, seeing Kahungunu, and not knowing who he was, invited him to the village, to which, on the arrival of his companions, he proceeded. After living there for some time Paroa said to his daughter, whose name was Hinepuariari, “Girl, there is a husband for you.” Paroa by this time had found out it was Kahungunu, so they became man and wife. Shortly after this one of the women said to Hinepuariari, “How do you like your husband? and she replied, “Ehara i te hanga, kahore e rupeke ana mai takoto tome mai i waho i te tahu, ka haere te rongo mo te kuha o Kahungunu.”

When Rapa and her daughter Rongomaiwahine, who lived at Tawapata, near Table Cape, heard the report, Rapa repeated the following proverb:–-“Kei te nui he awa o tatapouri te tuhera atu nei.”

Kahungunu, on a certain occasion, requested his wife Hinepuariari to comb and dress his hair: so she combed all day until evening; and in the morning she commenced again. She then was able to form it into a topknot, she rubbed it with oil that was held in a paua shell (Haliotis). After using ten paua shells of grease, the hair was not limp, she could not bind it; so she held it fast between her knees, and was then able to get it together so as to bind it with flax; but the flax was not strong enough to hold it,–-it kept breaking. So Kahungunu told his wife to fetch his girdle. The flax from which the girdle was made grew at Tauranga. With this

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she was able to fasten his hair, the flax being so strong. Hence the proverb, “Putiki-wharanu a Kahungunu a Tamatea i Mahue atu i Tauranga.” (The flax-binding of Kahungunu, a Tamatea left behind at Tauranga. Wharanui is a variety of Phormium tenax.)

Kahungunu then left his wife and journeyed on to Nukutauroa (Table Cape), to Tawapata (near Portland Island) where Rongomaiwahine was living with her mother, Rapa, who had repeated the proverb regarding him. Rongomaiwahine was with her husband, Tamatakutai, the chief of the place, who occupied most of his time in carving. Kahungunu stayed and watched the manners of the people, their food was paua (Haliotis) and pupu (limpets).

At night Kahungunu commenced his jokes, for the purpose of causing a quarrel between Rongomaiwahine and her husband. Shortly after this Kahungunu proposed to the others that they should all go and dig fernroots, to which they agreed. When a great quantity had been obtained, the friends suggested they should tie it up and carry it home, to which he objected and sent them away. So soon as they were out of sight, he collected it all together and carried it himself. When his friends looked back, they beheld him bringing the fernroot on his shoulder. On his arrival at the precipice named Tawapata, just above the village, he let down the fernroot and undid the fastenings, so that it fell scattered into the village. It was such a large mass that the place was filled even to all the enclosures round the houses. All the men, women, and children collected and prepared it for food by the fire, at the same time praising Kahungunu, saying, “Now we have got a strong and able man, who can work and collect food.”

The children of Maringaringamai were at the fishing grounds, so Kahungunu proposed to his friends to collect paua. He sent the men to collect flax and to make paua baskets and nets, and ropes, also to prapare sticks to ward off the fish from the rocks. He then ascended a hill whence he watched the kawau–-shags–-(Graculus varius) diving for fish, and then tried if he could hold his breath as long as they could. His way of trying was thus:–-When the kawau dived, he commenced to count thus: Pepe tahi, pipi rua, and so on up to ten (tuangahuru); then commenced again at pepe tahi, etc. This he did without drawing breath while the kawau dived three times; he therefore thought he could remain some length of time under the water, so he took the net at ebb tide and entered the water and swam to the first rock, then to the second, and so on to the fourth, and passed the rocks where people usually swam to, for only a canoe could go so far. He then dived and set to work filling his nets and kits. He pressed the pauas together and filled to bursting all his kits. He then

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caused the pauas to stick to his own body, also his head, and then returned to shore. Those sticking on his head were carried to the sacred place as offerings to the gods: the others were eaten by the people. Then all the men of the village were collected to haul the kits ashore, but they could not; so all the people from the neighbouring pas were called, and then they succeeded in hauling the paua ashore, and all the multitude feasted on them.

Then the people, seeing the great works of this man and how he could collect food, wondered, and contrasted their own chief Tamatakutai, who could only carve wood, etc., and did not collect food, so they took away Rongomaiwahine from him, and gave her to Kahungunu, and they begat–-

  • Kahukuranui

  • Tupurupuru

  • Rangituehu

  • Hineao

  • Huhuti, whose husband was the Whatu-i-apiti.

From them are derived the principal families of the whole tribe of Ngatikahungunu.

The Migration from Poverty Bay (Turanga) to Hawke's Bay (Heretaonga).

Turanga was formerly the home of the present Maori owners of the land about Napier, Hawke's Bay, but through the murder of two children, the twins of Kahutapere and Rongomaitara, sister of Rakai-te-hikuroa, they were driven thence. The names of the children were Tarakuita and Tarakitai. How it happened was in this way:–-Rakai-te-hikuroa (grendson of Kahungunu, and fourth from Tamatea, who with Rongokaka came from Hawaiki) felt annoyed that the preserved food, such as birds cured in calabashes in their own fat, should be given to the twins in place of being kept for his son Tupurupuru. He therefore determined on destroying his sister's children. The plan he decided on was this:–-The children were in the habit of playing whip-top during the day. In Rakai-te-hikuroa's pa, named Maunga-puremu, near the present village of Ormond, there was a kumera pit by the side of the path. When the children commenced to play, Rakai-te-hikuroa walked up and knocked the tops into the hole, and then told the twins to get them out again. Immediately they were in the hole he filled it up. As evening advanced the parents became anxious and searched in every direction, but could not discover their children. They then made kites of raupo leaf (Typha angustifolia) shaped like hawks, covering the outside with xaute,*–-paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); these kites were sent up

[Footnote] * The aute (Broussonetia papyrifera) is said to have been brought by the early Maori settlers, and cultivated to make clothing of the bark; it is now extinct.

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into the air. They kept ascending till they were on a level with the pa of Rakai–te–hikuroa. They then sailed in a direct line to it, and hovered over his house, and commenced nodding their heads. It was then known who had killed the children. Then Kahutapere, whose pa was Pukepoto, near the residence of Mr. W. Chambers, Repongaere, collected his followers and attacked Rakai-te-hikuroa. There was killed Tupurupuru, son of Rakai-te-hikuroa who was defeated, and with his followers fled to Ukurarenga on Mahia Peninsula.

The name of the oven in which Tupurupuru was cooked was Whakatauai. The stones used were called rehu, and resembled scoria. They were also called whahukura and whaturangahua. There was also a greenstone mere used called whakatangiara. After the people had resided at Ukurarenga for some time, Kahuparoro arose to go to Turanga. Rakai-te-hikuroa, on ascertaining his intention, said to him, “Friend, go in peace to where our son rests, but let his spirit hover in quietness over Turanga.” meaning that the bones of his son shold not be disturbed. On Kahuparoro's arrival at Turanga he collected the bones of Tupurupuru and brought them to the Mahanga, near the Mahia, and there left the skull. He then proceeded on to Nukutauroa (Table Cape), and there made fish-hooks of the shoulder blades. The name of the rock from whence he started to fish is Matakana. When he threw out the hook to fish, he chanted the following hurihuri (incantation):–-Divide, divide the waters of Tawake with the red ornamental weapon of Tupurupuru and Rakai-te-hikuroa. Who is thy ancestor? He is Takitamaku Tahito-rangi and Pahito-weka.”

When he pulled up the hook he had caught a hapuku. Tamaiwiriwiri hearing the chant thought it was Tupurupuru fishing, so he hastened to Ukuraienga and informed Rakai-te-hikuroa what he had heard; Tamaruihiri also discovered that Tupurupuru's bones had been used to dig fernroot with by Hauhau. Then fighting commenced to avenge the insult, and many were killed on both sides. In one of these engagements Hauhau and several others were slain.

Rakai-te-hikuroa and his followers had to retreat to the Wairoa, but the people of that place did not give them welcome, nor supplied them with canoes to cross the river with, so Rakai-te-hikuroa, to make his party appear more formidable, tatooed the women like men, and set up tatooed calabashes, and performed a haka led on by Hinekura. The chant used was–-“A tie kei, tie kei tietiekei tiekei tie ha koa, koa koa ei ei.” The Wairoa people residing near the crossing came to look on, so when they were well scattered Rakai-te-hikuroa and party attacked them and killed many of them, and then proceeded to Arapauanui.

– 455 –

When Tarangakahutai, the chief of the pa, saw him and his party coming, he called out “Where is Taraia?” Taraia replied, “Here I am.” Tarangakahutai then shouted, “Stand forth that I may know you,” which Taraia did. His dress was a mat made of feathers. Tarangakahutai then said, “I shall know you directly, your heart shall be my food.”

Taraia then took a stone, and repeating the tipihoumea (incantation), threw it at Tarangakahutai, and it knocked his head-dress of feathers off. They fell at Taraia's feet, who called out, “I know that it is I that shall eat your heart presently.”

The fighting then commenced, and Rakai-te-hikuroa was driven back. A woman named Hinepare, thinking her poople were defeated, took the calabash in which the gods were kept and ascended a rock and broke the calabash, crying out,–-“Cursed be the mothers of these men, presently our nakedness will be exposed to the enemy.” Her brothers hearing the corse, the crash of the calabash on the rock, and the lamentations of the women, imagined that the head of a man had been broken. So Taraia rallied his people again and returned to the fight, and many were killed.

Here was killed Tarangakahutai and Rakaiweriweri and others of the enemy, and Waikari and others of Rakai-te-hikuroa's party. A dispute arose over the body of Rakaiweriweri as to which family he belonged. Taraia hearing of the dispute, arose and took two pieces of toi-toi (Arundo conspicua), and cast lots with the mii, saying, if of Rakaiweriweri go, if you hold, you belong to this tribe. He cast it, and the mii held, he was therefore declared to be of the family of Rakai-te-hikuroa. The incantation used was;–-“Unihia i te pu, unihia i te weri, unihia i takitaki, unihia i tamore i Hawaiki.” This was the fourth death in payment of Tupurupuru.

Rakai-te-hikuroa and party then moved on to Wakaari, Tauranga, and Heipipi, near Tangoio. The chiefs of those pas were Tautu and Tunui. While at Wakaari, there arrived from Heretaonga a man named Totara, who boasted of the abundance and goodness of the food of his place. Tawao said, on hearing of this, the Wanga-nui-o-roto (Napier Harbour, celebrated for its shellfish), shall be the mara (garden) of Tawao. Taraia said the Ngaruroro celebrated for kahawai shall be the ipu (calabash) of Taraia.

The party then moved on to the mouth of the Ngaruroro and drove off Hatupuna and his people, and the Awa-nui-a-rangi and Whatu-ma-moa. Their principal pa was Otatara (Redcliffe, near Taradale). Kahukura-nui, father of Rakai-te-hikuroa, took to wife Tu-te-ihonga, chieftainness of Whatu-ma-moa, after he had returned from Motuo. Taraia and Porangahou had avenged the death of her former husband who had been killed by the people of that district. So we became amalgamated with that people in the second generation, after the arrival of Takitimu from Hawaiki.

– 456 –

The Migration from Wairoa to Heretaonga.

Wairoa was formerly the home of the Maoris now occupying the inland portion of Hawke's Bay about Te Aute and Poukawa.

The reason for their leaving Wairoa was this:–-A chief named Iwi-Katere, living at a pa near Turiroa Wairoa, had a pet tui (parson-bird, Prosthemadera novœ-zealandiœ), which had been taught to repeat the proper prayers and incantations used while planting kumaras, taro, etc., and thus was very valuable as an economizer of labour. Tamatera, a chief of the adjoining pa, borrowed the bird of Iwi-Katere. After having detained it for a length of time, Iwi-Katere sent for his pet, but Tamatera would not give it up, so Iwi-Katere went and fetched it away. When night came on Tamatera went by stealth and took the bird. The tui kept repeating to its master the following words:–-“I am gone, I am gone, on the handle of a paddle; I am tired of fighting. Oh, Sir, I am gone!” It was waste of words on the bird's part, for its master did not understand the meaning. So Tamatera took it safe away. On the following day Iwi-Katere attacked the thieves, but was repulsed, so he obtained the assistance of Rakaipaka from the Mahia, who had been driven away from Turanga, and attacked and killed Tamatera, Taupara, and many others; but many were destroyed on both sides. After this Ngarengare and the survivors, including his grenddaughter Hine-te-moa, moved to Heretaonga and settled in the neighbourhood of Poukawa and Te Aute, driving away the original owners from that district, viz., Tane-nui-a-rangi and others. A great battle took place near Tahoraite, in the Seventy-mile Bush, and from the length of time the people who had been killed took in cooking in the hangi or umu, the place was called Umutaoroa,–-that is the site of the present village of Danevirk. These events happened in the days of Rakaipaka, a contemporary of Kahukuranui and Rakai-te-hikuroa, viz., in the second and third generation after the arrival of the canoe “Takitimu.”

– 457 –

The Maori Genealogy from Rangi and Papa to the present time, including Tawhaki and Ruatapu. From the first night to the tenth night.

– 458 –

The following is the Genealogy of the late Chiefs Tareha, Ihaka Whanga, and Te Moananui, through the Whatu-Mamoa Tribe–-forty-eight Generations:—

– 459 –

A Genealogy including Maui from the commencement, viz., from Rangi and Papa to the present time.

  • Rarotimu

  • Rarotake

  • Potu

  • Pohaere

  • Powhakataka

  • Po-aniwaniwa

  • Maheatu

  • Maheawa

  • Takahuriwhenua

  • Murirangawhenua

  • Taranga

  • Maui.— Sir, this is our ancestor who fished up this island of Aotearoa: he hauled it up with the jawbone of his ancestress. The hook caught the house of Hinenui-te-po. The name of the house was Rarotonga.

  • Maui begat Wharuakura

  • Uhenga

  • Poutaua

  • Whitirangi mamao

  • Kupe

  • Hina

  • Houmataumata

  • Paikuiha

  • Tu-whaitini

  • Tutaraupoko

  • Tuaruma

  • Tukonona

  • Tuhurutira

  • Aokarere

  • Tu-Makaueuru

  • Tu Makawerangi

  • Tu-te-Rangikawekite

  • Tu-te-Rangiwetewetea

  • Tu-hakirikona

  • Rakaiherea

  • Poutawiti

  • Rakaikoao

  • Whana

  • Hora

  • Tamatetane

  • Hoakakari

  • Ropata.