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Volume 16, 1883
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Art. I.—Descriptions of New Zealand Micro-Lepidoptera.*

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 3rd May, 1883.]

III.—œcophoridæ.

The œcophoridæ are the principal family of the Tineina in New Zealand, as in Australia, and attain considerable development; 55 species are here described, but the actual number is probably much more considerable. In addition to those characterized, I have included in an appendix references to descriptions of some other species, which I have not yet satisfactorily identified. The family here constitutes about a sixth of the entire Micro-Lepidoptera; in Australia it forms more than a fourth, whilst in Europe it is about a thirtieth.

I have elsewhere discussed the internal development of the family, and its relation to other families of the group, and need not again enter into these questions. Two points, however, present themselves, on which some-thing needs to be said; firstly, the relation of this portion of the fauna to Australian forms, and secondly, the inferences to be drawn from the character of the fauna itself.

Since the family occupies such a prominent position in both Australia and New Zealand, compared with such other regions as are yet known, it seems at first sight reasonable to infer a more or less close interconnection between the species of these two countries. Such an impression is not confirmed on investigation. No species is yet known common to both. Fourteen genera are found in New Zealand; of these, ten are endemic, three occur also in Australia, and one is cosmopolitan. Of the three genera shared with Australia, two (Eulechria and Phlœopola) are large and typically Australian genera, represented in New Zealand by three species, obviously mere stragglers; the third, Trachypepla, is a typical New Zealand genus of

[Footnote] * For Parts I. and II., see Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xv., art. i.

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probably considerable extent, and is represented in Australia by two species only, evidently also stray wanderers. Of the ten endemic genera, none are very closely related to Australian forms; the nearest approach is made by Nymphostola and Proteodes, monotypic genera which are certainly akin to Hoplitica, but whose common ancestor must have possessed characters not now exhibited by any allied Australian genus. Nearly the same may be said of the affinity of Atomotricha and Brachysara with Eulechria. The other six, of which three are probably rather extensive, are more closely allied to each other and to œcophora than to any Australian form. Finally, although œcophora is a cosmopolitan genus, the New Zealand species appear to form a single numerous group, having no direct affinity with the Australian species of the genus, any more than with the European. From these facts it may be concluded that it is not improbable that a slight interchange of species has taken place at some date not exceedingly remote, but that it is certain that almost the whole of the group is of much more ancient origin, and was derived from another and quite distinct region. I consider it probable that a much closer affinity will be found to exist with South America, of which little is known in this group; but there is one well-defined case of relationship, viz., between Gonionota and Semiocosma, which are apparently more nearly related together than to any other genus. Attention should also be given to the undoubted affinity of Trachypepla with the European Anchinia and Cacochroa; these latter are very small genera, remote from any other European forms, and of Alpine habit; they are probably surviving remnants of a once more extensive stock.

It is remarkable that of the New Zealand genera not one has vein 7 of the forewings terminating in the hindmargin. This character is found in more than half of the Australian genera, many of them being of great extent and doubtless also of considerable age. Nearly all the New Zealand species belong to the group in which vein 7 terminates in the costa, and this is undoubtedly much older, being the original type of the family; a few are of the intermediate form, in which this vein terminates in the apex. It is clear, then, that this portion of the New Zealand fauna is older than the corresponding group in Australia. It is important that the food-plants of the larvæ should be ascertained; they would probably point to the oldest portion of the New Zealand flora. It is probable that Trachypepla and Semiocosma, like other principal genera of these islands, are attached to lichens or mosses. Several species of œcophora seem to be specially adapted to Fagus solandri, as also is Proteodes, all being protectively coloured.

It will be necessary to examine the South Pacific Islands, before the origin of the New Zealand fauna can be decided. I made a hurried

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inspection of the Rev. T. Blackburn's collections from the Hawaiian Islands; the œcophoridæ appeared to be altogether absent, their place being taken by a peculiar group of the Gelechidæ.

The following is an abstract of the family characters of the œcophoridæ, which will be found given more fully in my paper on Australian species of the family:—

Head with appressed hairs and side-tufts. Antennæ shorter than forewings, in male regularly ciliated, basal joint often with a pecten of long hair-scales. Maxillary palpi usually distinct, small, simple. Labial palpi well developed, curved, ascending, acutely pointed. Hindwings not broader than forewings, elongate-ovate or lanceolate (not in New Zealand). Forewings with 12 veins, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa or apex (elsewhere also to hindmargin), 1 furcate at base. Hindwings with 8 veins, 3 and 4 from a point, 6 and 7 parallel.

Larva sixteen-legged, habits various.

The following is a tabulation of the fourteen New Zealand genera:—

1a. Vein 7 of forewings to apex.
 2a. Forewings with tufts of raised scales.
  3a. Ciliations of antennæ moderate, even 7. Trachypepla.
  3b. " long, fasciculated 4. Atomotricha.
2b. Forewings smooth.
  3a. Thorax crested 6. Phlœopola.
  3b. " smooth.
    4a. Ciliations of antennæ long (5) 5. Brachysara.
    4b. " moderate (1 to 2) 3. Eulechria.
    4c. " very short (⅓).
    5a. Second joint of palpi shortly tufted beneath 1. Nymphostola.
    5b. " evenly scaled 2. Proteodes.
1b. Vein 7 of forewings to costa.
2a. Terminal joint of palpi with median tooth of scales 9. Semiocosma.
2b. " smooth.
  3a. Second joint of palpi more or less tufted beneath.
  4a. Vein 2 of forewings widely remote from angle of cell 8. Aochleta.
  4b. " near angle 11. Thamnosara.
  3b. Second joint of palpi evenly scaled.
  4a. Basal joint of antennæ without pecten.
    5a. Thorax crested 10. Lathicrossa.
    5b. " smooth 12. Gymnobathra.
  4b. Basal joint of antennæ with pecten.
  5a. Ciliations of antennæ in an even series 13. œcophora.
  5b. " whorled or clothing whole surface 14. Cremnogenes.

1. Nymphostola, Meyr.

Head loosely haired, sidetufts large, dilated posteriorly; in male an expansible pencil of long hairs on side of face beneath eye. Antennæ in male stout, somewhat serrate, very shortly ciliated (⅓), basal joint rather stout, without pecten. Palpi moderately long, second joint reaching base of antennæ, clothed with dense rather loose scales, with a short projecting

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triangular tuft of scales beneath towards apex, terminal joint as long as second, stout, strongly reflexed. Thorax smooth. Forewings somewhat oblong, broad, apex obtusely rounded, hindmargin perpendicular, rounded beneath. Hindwings as broad as forewings, broadly ovate, apex and hindmargin evenly rounded, cilia ⅙. Abdomen moderate. Middle tibiæ roughly haired beneath; posterior tibiæ clothed with rather short rough hairs. Forewings with vein 7 to apex, 2 from distinctly before angle of cell. Hindwings with vein 5 bent and approximated to 4 at base.

This and the next genus are very closely allied, differing mainly in the structure of the palpi. Both are confined to New Zealand, but remote in character from the other New Zealand genera of the family, closely approaching the Australian Hoplitica, from which they are distinguished by the very short ciliations of the antennæ. Both must be regarded as descendants of a common ancestor, very nearly resembling Hoplitica, and doubtless an immigrant from Australia.

1. Nymph. galactina, Feld.

(Cryptolechia galactina, Feld., Reis. Nov., Pl. CXL., 34; (Nymphostola) Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1882, 492).

Media, alis ant. niveis, puncto disci postico nigro, venis omnibus punctis minimis griseis notatis; post. niveis.

Male, female.—23–26 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs snow-white. Forewings broad, costa strongly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin straight, not oblique; white, with a faint greenish tinge between the veins; all the veins are marked at regular intervals with faint minute dark grey dots; a more conspicuous dark grey dot in disc beyond middle; a very slender indistinct dark grey hindmarginal line: cilia white. Hindwings and cilia white.

A very delicate and conspicuously distinct species.

Stated by Professor Hutton to have been bred from a green pupa found on Myrtus bullata.

Hamilton, Dunedin, and Otira Gorge, in January; probably widely distributed in forest regions.

2. Proteodes, Meyr.

Head with appressed scales, sidetufts large, spreading. Antennæ in male moderate, somewhat serrate towards apex, very shortly ciliated (⅓), basal joint moderate, without pecten. Palpi moderately long, second joint reaching base of antennæ, thickened with appressed scales, rather rough beneath, terminal joint much shorter than second, rather stout, slightly rough anteriorly. Thorax smooth. Forewings somewhat oblong, moderately broad, apex obtusely rounded, hindmargin not oblique. Hindwings as broad as forewings, ovate, rounded, cilia ⅕. Abdomen moderate.

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Posterior tibiæ clothed with rather short rough hairs. Forewings with vein 7 to apex, 2 from before angle of cell. Hindwings with vein 5 bent and approximated to 4 at base.

2. Prot. carnifex, Butl.

(Cryptolechia carnifex, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 406; (Proteodes) Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1882, 493; Cryptolechia rufosparsa, Butl., l.c. 406).

Media, alis ant. griseo-ochreis vel flavis, interdum ferrugineis, costa ferruginea, linea perobliqua punctoque disci obscuris griseis, venis omnibus punctis crebris griseis notatis; post. albis, apice leviter griseo.

Male, female.—20–23 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-ochreous or yellow, palpi generally somewhat suffused with ferruginous. Antennæ grey. Abdomen whitish. Legs ochreous-whitish, tarsi more ochreous, anterior tibiæ and tarsi dull ochreous-carmine. Forewings rather broad, posteriorly dilated, costa rather strongly arched, in female faintly sinuate in middle, apex obtuse, hindmargin nearly straight, not oblique; light greyish-ochreous or yellow, often irregularly suffused with reddish or ferruginous, sometimes wholly; costal edge obscurely ferruginous or deeper yellow, except about ⅓ and ⅔; sometimes an irregular greyish suffusion; the darker shades of colour, when distinct, usually tend to form a very oblique transverse fascia before middle, extending along costa to base, and a large patch along posterior half of costa; a curved linear dark ferruginous or blackish-grey mark in disc, extending from ⅓ to ⅔, extremities directed upwards, generally obsolete in middle, or sometimes wholly; all veins regularly dotted with blackish-grey, but these dots sometimes obsolete; often a dark grey hindmarginal line: cilia light greyish-ochreous or yellow. Hindwings whitish, apex often narrowly suffused with grey, sometimes with a grey marginal line; cilia whitish.

Extremely variable; the yellow and ferruginous forms (which are principally characteristic of the female) are strikingly similar in size, shape, and colouring to the decaying or fallen leaves of the beech, which is its principal food-plant. Mr. J. D. Enys called my attention to this mimetic resemblance, in which most of the beech-feeding insects participate.

Larva 16-legged, rather stout, cylindrical, tapering behind; pale whitish-green or yellowish-green, on sides generally more greyish-green; dorsal broad, irregular, dark fuscous-purple, sap-green, or yellowish-green mixed with reddish-ochreous, bisected by a slender interrupted whitish-line, and dilated on posterior margin of segments; lateral sap-green or obsolete; subspiracular slender, interrupted, dark fuscous-purple or faintly pinkish; spots small, shining, dark-fuscous; head ochreous-brown or yellowish-green; second segment greener than body, or blackish marbled with pale ochreous; remarkably variable. Feeds on Fagus solandri (the common

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mountain booch, miscalled “birch”), making a slight web amongst the leaves, from which it is very readily dislodged. Pupa short, stout, pale-greenish, irregularly shaded with brownish, in a slight cocoon. Although specially attached to the Fagus, on which it occurs in great abundance, the larva probably affects various shrubs; and I think I have met with it on Fuchsia owortrtiata.

Christchurch, Mount Hutt, Castlo Hill, Arthur's Pass, from January to April; larvæ in all stages in January.

3. Eulechria, Meyr.

Head loosely scaled, sidetufts large. Antennæ in male moderate, evenly and moderately or rather strongly ciliated (1 to 2), basal joint moderate, with strong p [ unclear: ] t [ unclear: ] n. Palpi moderate or rathor long, second joint hardly reaching or rarely somewhat exceeding base of ant [ unclear: ] nnæ [ unclear: ] , thickened with appressed scales, somewhat loose or slightly rough beneath, terminal joint somewhat shorter than second, moderate, rocurved. Thorax smooth. Forewings elongate, moderate, apex rounded more or less strongly, hindmargin obliquely rounded. Hindwings slightly narrower than forewings, clongate-ovate, hindmargin rounded, cilia ½ to 1. Abdomon moderate, generally strongly margined. Posterior tibi [ unclear: ] clothed with long hair [ unclear: ] above. Forewings with vein 7 to apex, 2 from or close before angle of cell. Hindwings normal.

A very large Australian genus, represented in New Zealand by two species very different from each other, but quite of Australian types; they appear to be stray immigrants. This and the four [ unclear: ] su [ unclear: ] ding genera are nearly allied together, and are quite distinct from those that procede and follow.

3. Eul. zophoëssa, Meyr.

(Eulechria zophoëssa, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1882, 515.)

Minor, alis ant. fuscis, pun [ unclear: ] tis disci tribus, macula costa post medium parva, strigaque postion floxuosa saturatioribus; post. saturate grisois.

Male.—15 ½ mm. Head fuscous, mixed with whitish-ochreous. Palpi dark fuscous, second joint whitish-ochreous internally and at extreme apex, apex of terminal joint whitish-ochreous. Antonn [ unclear: ] dark fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous, becoming ochreous posteriorly. Abdomon dark fuscous. Anterior and middle legs dark fuscous, tarsi whitish-ochro [ unclear: ] us beneath; posterior legs dark grey, apex of joints whitish-ochreous. Forewings somewhat dilated, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; fuscous, slightly reddish-tinged, basal [ unclear: ] irregularly mixed and suffused with whitish-ochreous, and thinly irrorated with dark fuscous, hindmargin rather broadly suff [ unclear: ] d with dark fuscous; a small dark fuscous spot at base of costa, and another at base of inner margin; a

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small dark fuscous spot in disc before middle, a second in disc beyond middle, and a third almost directly beneath first on fold; first and second connected by a clear whitish-ochreous line, beneath which is a fourth similar spot between them; a small dark fuscous spot on costa at [ unclear: ] , its apex suffus [ unclear: ] dly confluent with second discal spot; a very indistinct suffused strongly curved dark fuscous line from [ unclear: ] of costa to anal angle, beneath closely approximating to hindmargin: cilia dark fuscous-grey, mixed with whitish-ochr [ unclear: ] ous. Hindwings dark grey; cilia grey, with a dark grey line near base.

An inconspicuous but distinct species.

Wellington, in January; one specimen.

4. Eul. photinella, Meyr.

(Eulechria photinella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1882, 541.)

Minor, alis ant. albido-griseis, basi, maculis costa duabus obscuris, tortia dorsi, quarta apicis, punctis disci tribus strigaqu [ unclear: ] postica saturate gris [ unclear: ] is; post. gristis.

Male.—17 mm. Head fuscous-grey mixed with ochreous-whitish, especially on face. Palpi fuscous-grey, base of terminal joint, and extreme apex of second ochreous-whitish. Ant [ unclear: ] nnæ grey. Thorax fuscous-grey, irrorated with whitish. Abdomen light ochreous-grey, anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Anterior and middle legs dark fuscous-grey, with ochreous-whitish rings at middle and apex of tibi [ unclear: ] , and apex of tarsal joints; posterior legs ochreous-whitish, tarsal joints grey towards base. Forewings moderately elongate, somewhat dilated, costa moderately strongly arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; light fuscous-grey, irregularly irrorated and suffused with whitish, especially in disc and posteriorly; base of wing very narrowly suffused with dark fuscous; a very ill-defined small dark fuscous-grey spot on costa at [ unclear: ] , and a similar rather larger one on costa slightly beyond middle; a third on inner margin slightly before middle; a tolerably well-defined small roundish dark fuscous spot in disc before middle, a second obliquely before it on fold, and a third in disc beyond middle; a short inwardly oblique cloudy dark fuscous-grey streak from costa at [ unclear: ] , omitting an irregular outwards-curved line to inner margin before anal angle; apex dark fuscous-grey: cilia whitish, at and above apex suffused with grey, on basal half mixed irregularly with dark fuscous-grey. Hindwings grey; cilia white, with a dark grey line near base.

Wellington, in January; one specimen.

4. Atomotricha, Meyr.

Head with appressed scales, sidetufts small. Antennæ in male moderate, with fine long ciliations (5), in whorls of six at apex of joints, basal joint

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moderate, with strong pecten. Palpi moderately long, second joint exceeding base of antennæ, clothed with appressed scales, rough and somewhat furrowed beneath, terminal joint shorter than second, slender, recurved. Thorax smooth. Forewings elongate, apex rounded, hindmargin very obliquely rounded, surface with tufts of scales; in female abbreviated, broadly lanceolate. Hindwings as broad as forewings, elongate-ovate, hindmargin rounded, cilia 3/5; in female much abbreviated, lanceolate or almost obsolete. Abdomen moderate. Posterior tibiæ clothed with loose hairs above. Forewings with vein 7 to apex, 2 from hardly before angle of cell. Hindwings normal.

Allied to Eulechria, differing in the long whorled ciliations of the antennæ, the tufts of scales on the surface of forewings, and the abbreviated wings of the female. This and the following genus are closely allied, and are apparently descendants of a single progenitor, both being confined to New Zealand; these two genera stand in exactly the same mutual relation as Hoplitica and Proteodes.

5. Atom. ommatias, n. sp.

Media, alis ant. fuscis, saturatiori-nebulosis, signis disci tribus arcuatis lineaque postica transversa obscuris saturatioribus: post. albido-griseis.

Male.—21–24 mm.; female.—13–18 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax pale fuscous, more or less suffused with dark fuscous. Antennæ pale fuscous, slenderly annulated with dark fuscous. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs ochreous-whitish, tarsal joints suffused with dark fuscous towards base. Forewings elongate, somewhat dilated posteriorly, costa moderately arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; light fuscous, irregularly or wholly suffused with dark fuscous; a large tuft of raised scales almost at base, and two or three much smaller in disc; an obscurely indicated pale dot in disc before ⅓, partially surrounded by a dark ring, and a similar one on fold obliquely beyond it; a dark fuscous crescentic spot in disc slightly beyond middle, extremities directed downwards, anteriorly and posteriorly distinctly margined with paler; a slender dark fuscous transverse line from ⅔ of costa obliquely outwards, twice angulated above middle, thence running to ⅔ of inner margin, often obsolete: cilia pale fuscous, mixed with dark fuscous, with a row of cloudy dark fuscous spots. Hindwings whitish-grey or grey, with a darker grey discal spot; cilia grey-whitish, with one or two cloudy dark grey lines.

Considerably broader - winged, and generally darker, than Brach. sordida.

An early spring species, occurring tolerably commonly at rest on tree-trunks and fences round Christchurch, in August and September; the female is quite incapable of flight.

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5. Brachysara, Meyr.

Head smooth, sidetufts small, appressed. Antennæ in male moderate, with fine long ciliations (5), in whorls of eight at apex of joints, basal joint moderate, with strong pecten. Palpi short, second joint not nearly reaching base of antennæ, with short loose rough hairs beneath somewhat projecting anteriorly, terminal joint short, slender, curved. Thorax smooth. Forewings elongate, apex rounded, hindmargin very obliquely rounded. Hindwings as broad as forewings, elongate-ovate, hindmargin very faintly sinuate, cilia 1. Abdomen moderate. Posterior tibiæ clothed with loose hairs above. Forewings with vein 7 to apex, 2 from hardly before angle of cell. Hindwings normal.

Closely allied to the preceding genus, but differing in the structure of the palpi, and the smooth surface of forewings. The female is unknown to me, but I should not be surprised to find that it had abbreviated wings, as in Atomotricha.

6. Brach. sordida, Butl.

(œcophora sordida, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 405.)

Media, alis ant. angustis, dilute fuscis, vitta media nigricante interdum obsoleta, signis disci duobus arcuatis lineaque postica transversa obscuris saturatioribus; post. albidis.

Male.—20–21 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax light fuscous, somewhat mixed with darker. Antennæ light fuscous. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs ochreous-whitish, anterior pair obscurely suffused with fuscous. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa slightly arched, distinctly sinuate in middle, apex round-pointed, hindmargin extremely oblique, slightly rounded; light fuscous, sometimes slightly mixed with darker; a straight narrow tolerably well-defined blackish longitudinal streak somewhat above middle from base nearly to apex, tending to be very slightly interrupted at ⅓ and ⅔, rather suffused beneath towards apex and near base, sometimes entirely obsolete; when obsolete, there are sometimes visible an arched fuscous mark before ⅓ and another just beyond middle, which are usually obscured by the streak; a slender very obscure fuscous transverse line from ¾ of costa to ¾ of inner margin, twice angulated above middle, usually terminating the longitudinal streak, often obsolete: cilia light fuscous, with a cloudy blackish interrupted basal line. Hindwings whitish, slightly suffused with ochreous-grey towards costa; cilia whitish, with faint cloudy grey basal and apical lines.

Variable in respect of the central streak, but easily known at once from the preceding species by the narrower wings, apart from generic differences. Butler's description would do tolerably for either, but I have seen a specimen of this species identified by Butler himself.

Mr. R. W. Fereday formerly met with this species abundantly in the Rakaia district.

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6. Phlœopola, Meyr.

Head with loosely appressed scales, sidetufts large, loosely spreading. Antennæ in male moderately stout, somewhat serrate, moderately and evenly ciliated (1), basal joint rather elongate, moderate, without pecten. Palpi long, second joint reaching or exceeding base of antennæ, dilated with dense appressed scales, slightly rough beneath, terminal joint as long as second or somewhat shorter, moderate or stout, strongly recurved. Thorax with dense posterior crest. Forewings elongate, moderate, apex bluntly rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded. Hindwings as broad as forewings or somewhat narrower, elongate-ovate, hindmargin rounded, cilia ½ to ⅔. Abdomen moderate, strongly margined. Middle tibiæ with a median whorl of projecting hairs, and roughly short-haired beneath; posterior tibiæ clothed with long dense hairs above. Forewings with vein 7 to apex, 2 from angle of cell. Hindwings normal.

An Australian genus of moderate extent; the single New Zealand species appears truly referable here, but my specimen is hardly good enough to allow of accurate determination.

7. Phlœ. dinocosma, n. sp.

Media, alis ant. fuscis, ochreo-nebulosis, costa partim, dorsi basi, maculis disci tribus strigulaque media nigricantibus; post. albido-griseis, lunula media saturatiore.

Male.—19 mm. Head pale ochreous, with a few dark fuscous scales between antennæ, and a dark fuscous spot on each side of crown. Palpi with second joint whitish-ochreous, base and a subapical ring dark fuscous, terminal joint dark fuscous, apex, base, and anterior edge whitish-ochreous. Antennæ pale ochreous, indistinctly ringed with dark fuscous. Thorax pale ochreous, anteriorly suffused with dark fuscous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Anterior and middle legs dark fuscous, tibiæ with central and apical whitish-ochreous rings, tarsi with whitish-ochreous rings at apex of joints; posterior legs ochreous-whitish, tarsal joints somewhat infuscated at base. Forewings moderate, posteriorly dilated, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; pale ochreous, coarsely and suffusedly irrorated with fuscous; costal edge suffusedly dark fuscous, interrupted by a very small pale ochreous spot in middle, and a rather larger one at ¾; a dark fuscous spot at base of costa, and a linear mark along base of inner margin; a short linear dark fuscous mark along fold near base; a very small round dark fuscous spot in disc at ⅓, and a rather larger subquadrate spot below and slightly beyond it, both margined anteriorly and posteriorly with pale ochreous; an irregular subquadrate suffused dark fuscous spot in disc beyond middle, similarly margined; between this and first discal spot is a short longitudinal dark fuscous streak; a small suffused dark fuscous spot

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beyond third discal spot; from costal spot at ¾ proceeds a slender irregular outwards-curved pale ochreous line to before anal angle, touching this spot posteriorly; a suffused dark fuscous line along hindmargin and apical fourth of costa, interrupted by pale ochreous dots: cilia whitish-ochreous, mixed with fuscous, with clear whitish-ochreous spots opposite hindmarginal dots. Hindwings light-grey, more whitish-grey towards base, with a distinct crescentic-oval darker grey spot in middle of disc; cilia grey-whitish, with an indistinct grey line near base.

Immediately separable from all other species of the genus by the distinct central lunule of the hindwings.

Wellington, in January; one specimen.

7. Trachypepla, Meyr.

Head loosely haired, sidetufts moderate or rather large, loosely spreading. Antennæ in male moderate, somewhat serrate, moderately and evenly ciliated (1 to 1 ½), rarely fasciculated, basal joint moderate, with strong pecten. Palpi moderate or rather short, second joint not exceeding base of antennæ, densely scaled, somewhat rough beneath, terminal joint markedly shorter than second, moderate, curved. Thorax smooth or crested posteriorly. Forewings elongate, moderate or narrow, apex obtuse, hindmargin very oblique; surface with tufts of raised scales. Hindwings distinctly narrower than forewings, elongate-ovate, hindmargin slightly rounded, cilia ¾ to 1. Abdomen moderate, strongly margined. Posterior tibiæ clothed with fine moderately long hairs above. Forewings with vein 7 to apex, 2 from angle of cell. Hindwings normal.

An interesting and characteristically New Zealand genus, of which at present only two other species are known, from Eastern Australia. Amongst the genera with vein 7 to apex, it is immediately known by the tufts of scales on the forewings, and the moderate ciliations of the antennæ. It is certainly allied to the European Anchinia and Cacochroa, but is of an older type. The larvæ are unknown, but I think it probable that they may be found to feed on moss or lichens. The species are forest-frequenting, and often found at rest on fences or tree-trunks. The first three species appear to mimic the droppings of birds, and the rest moss or lichens.

With respect to the variation of structure, T. leucoplanetis, T. spartodeta, T. anastrella, and T. lichenodes have the thorax distinctly crested, whilst in the rest it is smooth. T. leucoplanetis and T. anastrella have longer ciliations of the antennæ (1 ½), and in the latter species they are distinctly fasciculated; in all the other species of which the male is known the ciliations are moderate and even. The genus does not, however, admit of subdivision.

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The following is a tabulation of the species:—

1a. Head dark fuscous.
2a. Forewings with clear white markings.
3a. Basal half white 8. leucoplanetis.
3b. " third " 9. euryleucota.
3c. " fifth " 10. conspicuella.
2b. Forewings without white markings 16. anastrella.
1b. Head light greyish or ochreous.
2a. Hindwings dark fuscous 17. lichenodes.
2b. " grey.
3a. Anterior transverse line very obtusely angulated 12. nyctopis.
3b. " " " rectangularly " 11. spartodeta.
3c. " " " acutely " 14. protochlora.
2c. Hindwings grey-whitish 15. aspidephora.
1c. Head white 13. galaxias.

8. Trach. leucoplanetis, n. sp.

Parva, alis ant. dimidio anteriori niveo, posteriori fusco, costæ basi nigricante, macula costæ anteapicali cum linea transversa conjuncta nivea; post. griseis.

Male.—11–12 ½ mm. Head dark fuscous, face white. Palpi dark fuscous mixed with white, internally whitish. Antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous, posteriorly mixed with white. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs dark fuscous, middle tibiæ with central and apical whitish rings, posterior tibiæ whitish, all tarsi with whitish rings at apex of joints. Forewings moderate or rather short, costa moderately arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin obliquely rounded; white, very faintly ochreous-tinged in disc; base of costa dark fuscous, dilating basally to touch inner margin; a large fuscous-grey transverse patch, its inner edge nearly straight, extending from middle of costa to middle of inner margin, outer edge convex below middle, extending from ¾ of costa to middle of hindmargin, margins irregularly mixed with blackish, and containing some white scales in disc and towards anal angle, and some spots of raised ferruginous scales partially margined with blackish; a grey spot on costa before apex, and a small irregular grey patch extending along upper part of hindmargin: cilia grey, white at base along hindmargin and below anal angle. Hindwings grey, apex darker; cilia grey.

The smallest and proportionally shortest-winged species of the genus, very distinct.

Hamilton and at the foot of the Otira Gorge, in January; two specimens.

9. Trach. euryleucota, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. saturate fuscis, macula magna basali alteraque parva costæ postica lineam transversam emittente canis, costæ basi nigra; post. saturate griseis.

– 15 –

Male, female.—14–17 mm. Head, palpi, and antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax white, anterior margin dark fuscous. Abdomen fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, apex of tarsal joints obscurely pale. Forewings elongate, costa arched towards base and apex, rest nearly straight, apex round-pointed, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; dark fuscous; a large white basal patch, slightly ochreous-tinged, outer edge slightly irregular, extending from ¼ of costa to before middle of inner margin; a small elongate blackish spot on base of costa; two large spots of raised ochreous-brown scales, partially black-margined, in disc before middle, and two smaller ones beyond middle; a small somewhat triangular inwardly oblique white spot on costa at ⅗, emitting from its apex a slender white outwards-angulated line to hindmargin above anal angle, anteriorly blackish-margined: cilia fuscous-grey, with an obscure darker line. Hindwings fuscous-grey, darker towards apex; cilia fuscous-grey, with an obscure darker line.

Nearly allied to the following, but immediately known by the considerably larger white basal patch, and differing also in the unevenly arched costa and deeper colouring, with the clear white thorax.

Auckland, Wellington, Dunedin, in January; eight specimens.

10. Trach. conspicuella, Walk.

(Gelechia conspicuella, Walk., Brit. Mus. Cat., 651; Gelechia taongella, Feld., Reis. Nov., Pl. CXL., 45.)

Minor, alis ant. fuscis, macula ad basim transversa angustiori alteraque parva costæ postica nebulosa lineam transversam emittente canis; post. griseis.

Male, female.—13–16 ½ mm. Head, palpi, and antennæ fuscous. Thorax fuscous, posteriorly mixed with white. Abdomen pale fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, apex of tarsal joints pale. Forewings elongate, costa moderately arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; fuscous, suffused with dark fuscous towards costa, more ochreous-tinged towards inner margin; an irregularly triangular white patch towards base, its base resting on basal third of inner margin, its apex touching costa at ¼; a very large tuft of raised blackish and fuscous scales on fold at ⅓, a smaller one above it, and two others in disc beyond middle; a small suffused white spot on costa at ¾, emitting a cloudy outwards-angulated white line to anal angle, anteriorly blackish-margined: cilia grey, with two obscure dark fuscous lines. Hindwings grey; cilia pale grey.

Differs from T. euryleucota by the much smaller and differently shaped white basal patch, the lighter and more confused colouring, the suffusion of the white costal spot, and the lighter hindwings.

Wellington and Christchurch, in December and January; common at rest on fences.

– 16 –

11. Trach. spartodeta, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. dilute griseo-ochreis, linea antica transversa rectangulata, altera postica sinuata, maculaque costæ media elongata saturate fuscis, macula disci parva ferruginea; post. dilute griseis.

Female.—15 mm. Head and palpi pale greyish-ochreous, terminal joint of palpi with two obscure dark fuscous rings, second joint obscurely banded with dark fuscous. Antennæ fuscous. Thorax pale greyish-ochreous, mixed with dark fuscous. Abdomen grey. Anterior and middle legs dark fuscous, with pale greyish-ochreous rings at apex of joints; posterior legs whitish-ochreous, slightly infuscated. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa moderately arched, apex nearly pointed, hindmargin hardly rounded, very oblique; greyish-ochreous, somewhat mixed with dark fuscous; markings cloudy dark fuscous; a small spot at base of costa, and another on inner margin near base; a transverse line from ¼ of costa to ⅓ of inner margin, forming a right angle outwards in disc, where it is mixed with ferruginous, and preceded near inner margin by a tuft of raised scales; a narrow elongate spot along central third of costa, connected with a raised ferruginous spot in middle of disc, beneath which is a raised tuft and some irregular dark fuscous spots; a transverse line proceeding from costa at ⅗ obliquely inwards, a little beneath costa sharply bent outwards, and thence curved to anal angle; three or four small cloudy marginal spots round apex: cilia pale greyish-ochreous, mixed with dark fuscous. Hindwings pale grey, apex and hindmargin darker; cilia grey-whitish, with two faint grey lines.

This and the three following species are closely allied, and are most easily distinguished from one another by the angulation of the anterior transverse line; in this species and T. galaxias it forms nearly a right angle, but in this species the head and forewings are greyish-ochreous, whilst in T. galaxias they are white; the apex of the forewings is more pointed than usual.

Wellington, in January; one specimen.

12. Trach. nyctopis, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. griseis, striga antica transversa leviter flexa nigra, interdum fascia lata pallidiori, macula costæ media elongata lineaque postica transversa sinuata saturate fuscis; post. griseis.

Male, female.—13 ½–17 mm. Head and palpi whitish-grey, second joint of palpi externally suffused with dark fuscous. Antennæ grey. Thorax whitish-grey, sometimes mixed with dark fuscous. Abdomen grey. Legs dark fuscous-grey, middle tibiæ with central and apical whitish rings, all tarsi with whitish rings at apex of joints. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; grey, coarsely irrorated with dark fuscous; base of costa, and a

– 17 –

small spot on inner margin near base dark fuscous; a thick black transverse streak from ¼ of costa to ⅓ of inner margin, becoming obsolete towards margins but very conspicuous in disc, very obtusely and roundly angulated outwards in middle, including two tufts of raised scales, between which is a ferruginous mark; between this streak and base the ground-colour is often dark grey; beyond this streak is sometimes a broad transverse whitish band, becoming white on costa, but generally suffused and obsolete; an elongate cloudy dark grey spot along costa about middle, beneath which are some irregular ferruginous marks in disc; two small tufts of scales in disc beyond middle; a cloudy blackish-grey transverse line proceeding from costa at ⅗ obliquely inwards, a little beneath costa sharply bent outwards, and thence curved to anal angle; two or three obscure blackish-grey spots round apex: cilia whitish-grey, with two cloudy dark fuscous lines. Hindwings grey, towards apex dark grey; cilia whitish-grey, with two cloudy grey lines.

Characterized by the very obtuse angulation of the anterior line, which is so rounded as hardly to form any apparent angle, and is also much thicker, blacker, and more conspicuous in disc than in the allied species.

Christchurch and Dunedin, in January and February; common in forest.

13. Trach. galaxias, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. canis, griseo-sparsis, postice interdum griseo-suffusis, fascia ad basim lata postice fere rectangulata nigroque marginata, costæ triangulo medio, lineaque postica transversa sinuata saturate griseis; post. griseis.

Male, female.—14–15 mm. Head white. Palpi white, second joint externally dark fuscous, except towards apex, apex of terminal joint blackish. Antennæ grey. Thorax dark grey, irregularly mixed with white. Abdomen grey. Legs dark fuscous, middle tibiæ with whitish central and apical wings, posterior tibiæ grey-whitish, all tarsi with whitish rings at apex of joints. Forewings elongate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; white, with a few scattered grey scales; a small dark fuscous spot at base of costa; a dark grey transverse band near base, its inner edge more or less near to base and suffused into ground-colour, outer edge extending from ¼ of costa to ⅓ of inner margin, edged with blackish and almost rectangularly angulated outwards in middle, preceded by a black tuft of raised scales above and below middle, between which are some ferruginous scales; a triangular dark grey patch on costa about middle, its apex touching a ferruginous irregularly blackish-margined spot in disc, and connected with inner margin beyond middle by a twice strongly dentate blackish line; a suffused grey spot on costa at ¾,

– 18 –

another on middle of hindmargin, and sometimes a larger one on inner margin before anal angle, sometimes all partially confluent; a slender cloudy blackish transverse line from costal spot to anal angle, irregularly sinuate, and strongly dentate inwards beneath costa: cilia whitish, with two cloudy dark grey lines. Hindwings grey, apex and hindmargin darker; cilia grey-whitish, with a faint darker line.

At once distinguished by the white head and white ground-colour of the forewings; in the form of the anterior line it approaches T. spartodeta.

Hamilton, Wellington, and the Bealey River, in January; four specimens.

14. Trach. protochlora, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. albidis, virescenti-suffusis, fascia ad basim, triangulo costæ medio maculaque apicis griseis, linea antica transversa acute angulata nigra; post. griseis.

Male.—13 ½—14 ½ mm. Head, pale whitish-ochreous. Palpi ochreous-whitish, second joint dark fuscous on basal half, terminal joint with a dark fuscous subapical ring. Antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax ochreous-whitish, anterior margin suffused with dark grey. Abdomen light ochreous-grey, anal tuft ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, middle tibiæ with whitish central and apical rings, posterior tibiæ grey-whitish above, all tarsi with whitish rings at apex of joints. Forewings elongate, costa moderately arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; whitish, with numerous scattered ochreous-green scales, forming an irregular suffusion, and also partially suffused with light greyish; a small blackish spot at base of costa; basal third of costa dark grey: a slender sharply defined black line from ¼ of costa to ⅓ of inner margin, very acutely angulated outwards in middle, becoming obsolete on margins, preceded by a tuft of raised scales above and below middle; a small triangular dark grey patch on middle of costa, beneath which are two raised tufts of scales almost completely margined with black, upper one greenish, lower white; lower tuft almost connected with inner margin beyond middle by some black scales; a small cloudy grey spot on costa at ¾, whence a partially obsolete blackish line proceeds to anal angle, sharply angulated inwards beneath costa; a cloudy grey spot on upper half of hindmargin; two or three ill-defined blackish dots round apex, sometimes confluent: cilia grey-whitish, greenish-tinged, with a cloudy grey line obscurely spotted with blackish. Hindwings grey; cilia grey-whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Well separated by the acute angulation of the anterior line, and the ochreous-green suffusion of the ground-colour.

Palmerston, and at the foot of the Otira Gorge, in January and February; three specimens.

– 19 –

15. Trach. aspidephora, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. albidis, partim ochreo-suffusis, macula costæ postica magna subtriangulari alteraque apicis parva saturate griseis, nigro-mixtis; post. griseo-albidis.

Male, female.—13 ½–14 ½ mm. Head and antennæ whitish-ochreous. Palpi whitish-ochreous, mixed with dark fuscous, terminal joint with a blackish subapical ring. Thorax whitish-ochreous, anterior margin mixed with dark fuscous. Abdomen pale whitish-ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, a central ring of median tibiæ, hairs of posterior tibiæ, and apex of all joints ochreous-white. Forewings elongate, costa moderately arched, slightly sinuate in middle, apex rounded, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; whitish, irregularly suffused with whitish-ochreous; basal ⅖ of costa dark grey, with a small blackish basal spot; an obscurely indicated slender blackish transverse line in disc before middle, nearly rectangularly angulated, wholly obsolete towards margins, preceded by two tufts of raised pale ochreous scales above and below middle; a small elongate cloudy dark grey spot along costa somewhat beyond middle, beneath which is a raised ochreous partially blackish-circled spot in disc, and between this and anal angle another raised tuft; a cloudy blackish-grey elongate outwards-curved spot extending from ¾ of costa to the blackish-circled discal, more or less suffused beneath; from this near costa proceeds a transverse blackish line to anal angle, obtusely angulated outwards in middle; a cloudy blackish-grey apical spot, rather produced along hindmargin: cilia ochreous-whitish, with two cloudy blackish lines. Hindwings grey-whitish, apex darker; cilia whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Very distinctly characterized by the dark markings combining to form a large posterior patch on the costa, contrasting with the pale ochreous suffusion of the ground-colour.

Christchurch and Dunedin, in December and January; not uncommon in forest.

16. Trach. anastrella, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. fuscis, saturatiori-suffusis, linea antica transversa fere rectangulata nigra, altera postica sinuata costæque triangulo saturate fuscis; post. saturate fuscis.

Male.—11 ½–14 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous, somewhat mixed with whitish-ochreous. Antennæ dark fuscous. Abdomen fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, middle and posterior tibiæ with ochreous-whitish central and apical rings, all tarsi with ochreous-whitish rings at apex of joints. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, slightly sinuate in middle, apex rounded, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; fuscous or ochreous-fuscous, coarsely irrorated with dark fuscous or blackish; sometimes a

– 20 –

suffused oblique ochreous transverse spot almost at base; a tuft of raised scales at base; a cloudy blackish transverse line from ¼ of costa to ⅓ of inner margin, tolerably rectangularly angulated in middle, preceded by two large tufts of raised scales above and below middle; beyond this the groundcolour is suffusedly paler or mixed with ochreous-whitish towards costa; costa suffusedly dark fuscous towards middle; two tufts of raised scales in disc beyond middle; a very ill-defined dark fuscous transverse line from ⅗ of costa to anal angle, angulated inwards beneath costa, sometimes followed on costa by an ochreous-whitish spot: cilia fuscous, with two cloudy blackish lines. Hindwings dark fuscous-grey; cilia fuscous, with a cloudy darker line.

Differs from all by the general dark fuscous colouring, without definite pale markings; it is shorter-winged than any preceding species except T. leucoplanetis.

Christchurch, the foot of the Otira Gorge, Dunedin, and Invercargill, in December, January, and March; not uncommon.

17. Trach. lichenodes, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. saturate purpureo-fuscis, partim flavido-sparsis, maculis disci tribus parvis nigris, macula dorsi ad basim albida, macula dorsi postica fasciaque marginis postici flavidis; post. saturate fuscis.

Female.—14 ½ mm. Head dull whitish-yellow; palpi broken. Antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous, slightly mixed with whitish-ochreous. Abdomen dark fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, middle and posterior tibiæ with yellow-whitish central and apical rings, all tarsi with yellow-whitish rings at apex of joints. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; dark purplish-fuscous; base mixed with black, with a tuft of raised scales; a trapezoidal ochreous-white patch on inner margin, extending from near base to ⅓, and reaching half across wing; between this and costa the ground-colour is mixed with whitish-yellow; a cloudy very irregular whitish-yellow fascia from costa at ⅓ to fold, containing two tufts of raised black scales in disc; a roundish black spot in disc beyond middle, partially margined with whitish, on its lower margin containing a tuft of raised white scales, and connected with a semioval whitish-yellow spot on inner margin; a small cloudy whitish-yellow spot beneath costa at ¾, barely touching costa and hindmarginal suffusion; a suffused whitish-yellow hindmarginal patch extending from costa to anal angle, attenuated to a point beneath, mixed with dark fuscous towards hindmargin beneath apex: cilia whitish-yellow, with an ill-defined dark purplish-fuscous apical spot, a larger one at anal angle, and a cloudy basal line. Hindwings dark fuscous; cilia fuscous, with a cloudy darker line.

– 21 –

In form of wing approaching the preceding, but differing from all in the purplish-fuscous forewings variegated with yellowish, and the yellowish head.

Bealey River, in January; one specimen taken in my presence by Mr. J. D. Enys, who kindly transferred it to my possession.

8. Aochleta, Meyr.

Head with appressed scales. Antennæ in male moderate, evenly and moderately ciliated (1), basal joint rather elongate, without pecten. Palpi rather long, second joint exceeding base of antennæ, densely scaled, scales forming a short loose rough projecting tuft towards apex beneath, terminal joint as long as second, slender, curved, slightly roughened in middle. Thorax smooth (?). Forewings elongate, apex obtuse, hindmargin oblique. Hindwings as broad as forewings, somewhat trapezoidal, hindmargin rounded, cilia ⅔. Abdomen moderate. Posterior tibiæ clothed with long fine hairs above. Forewings with vein 7 to costa, 2 from considerably before angle of cell. Hindwings with veins 3 and 4 short-stalked.

Nearly allied to Semiocosma, differing essentially in the structure of the palpi, of which the second joint is distinctly tufted, and the terminal joint lacks the median tooth of scales; the forewings also appear to be without raised tufts. The genus is doubtless a development of Semiocosma, and contains only one species, confined to New Zealand.

18. Aochl. psychra, n. sp.

Media, alis ant. albidis, griseo-sparsis, postice partim griseo-suffusis, punctis disci duobus minimis ocelloque nigris; post. albidis.

Male.—21 mm. Head and thorax grey-whitish, sprinkled with fuscous-grey. Palpi grey-whitish, mixed with fuscous, basal half of second joint dark fuscous externally, terminal joint with a slender dark fuscous ring above middle. Antennæ grey. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs dark-fuscous, posterior tibiæ with grey-whitish hairs, all tarsi with obscure whitish rings at apex of joints. Forewings elongate, slightly dilated, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin oblique, nearly straight; whitish, irregularly irrorated with grey and fuscous scales; these tend to form suffused markings, a spot on middle of inner margin, another above anal angle, a narrow suffusion along posterior half of costa, and an apical patch; a small cloudy darker spot towards hindmargin in middle; a minute black dot in disc at ⅓, another slightly above it in middle, and a very small blackish ocellus in disc at ⅔: cilia whitish, with two cloudy grey lines. Hindwings whitish; cilia whitish, with two faint grey lines.

Not closely resembling any other species.

Castle Hill; one specimen received from Mr. J. D. Enys, without date.

– 22 –

9. Semiocosma, Meyr.

Heád with appressed scales, sidetufts large, loosely appressed. Antennæ in male stout, very shortly ciliated (¼), basal joint moderate, without pecten. Palpi moderately long, second joint not exceeding base of antennæ, thickened with dense scales, somewhat loose beneath, terminal joint rather shorter than second, slender, recurved, with a tooth of erect scales in middle on posterior surface. Thorax smooth. Forewings elongate, moderate, apex rounded, hindmargin almost straight, oblique; surface with tufts of raised scales. Hindwings as broad as forewings, elongate-trapezoidal, hindmargin faintly sinuate, cilia ⅔. Abdomen moderate, slightly flattened, distinctly margined. Middle tibiæ with a median whorl of projecting hairs, roughly short-haired beneath; posterior tibiæ with moderate dense somewhat appressed hairs above. Forewings with vein 7 to costa, 2 from considerably before angle of cell. Hindwings with vein 5 bent and approximated to 4 at base.

Not nearly allied to any New Zealand genus except Aochleta, and distinguished from all genera of the family, except the South American Gonionota, by the median tooth of scales on the terminal joint of the palpi; from Gonionota, which possesses similar palpi and also tufts of scales on the surface of the forewings, and is doubtless nearly related, it may be separated by the smooth thorax (in Gonionota the thorax is crested), and probably by other points, but Zeller's description of the genus is given in so little detail, that they cannot be stated. There can also be little doubt that the genus has some true affinity with the European Psecadia.

The genus is confined to New Zealand; I have five species, of which the folowing is a tabulation:—

1a. Head dark fuscous 23. austera.
1b. " white or green.
2a. Ground-colour of forewings suffused.
3a. With a sharply angulated blackish transverse line about ¼ 21. epiphanes.
3b. Without angulated anterior line 22. prasophyta.
2b. Ground-colour of forewings clear.
3a. With three transverse strigæ 20. picarella.
3b. With disconnected marks 19. peroneanella.

19. Sem. peroneanella, Walk.

(Gelechia peroneanella, Walk., Brit. Mus. Cat., 658; Cryptolechia lichenella, ib. 769; œcophora huttonii, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., 511.)

Media, alis ant. dilute viridibus, signis plerisque contortis serieque punctorum marginis postici nigris; post. albidis, apicem versus griseis.

Male, female.—15–27 mm. Head pale green, or sometimes whitish. Palpi pale green, second joint with basal third and a subapical ring, terminal joint with apex, a median band, and a dot near base black. Antennæ

– 23 –

dark fuscous, basal joint pale green. Thorax pale green, a small spot on each side of neck, an oblique mark on each side of back, and a small posterior spot black. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs dark fuscous, tibiæ with central and apical rings, tarsi with apex of joints whitish, posterior tibiæ with whitish hairs above. Forewings moderate, costa gently or moderately arched, faintly sinuate in middle, apex obtuse, hindmargin oblique, slightly sinuate or nearly straight; pale green, with sharply defined black linear markings; a dot at base, and a small mark near base on costa, connected along costal edge; a dot on inner margin near base; a mark very near base and an inwardly oblique bar in disc at ⅕, connected centrally by a longitudinal line; an oblique bar from costa at ⅓, forked at apex, not reaching middle; a short longitudinal mark beneath fold at ⅓, anteriorly furcate; a short oblique bar in disc below middle, very shortly furcate beneath; a short sinuate oblique bar in disc beyond middle, furcate above, (in Southern specimens connected centrally with preceding by a longitudinal line); all these markings preceded in disc by tufts of raised scales; a spot on costa beyond middle, furcate at apex; a sinuate dentate transverse bar in disc about ⅗; a row of small spots along hindmargin and apical third of costa: cilia pale green. Hindwings grey-whitish, posteriorly suffused with fuscous grey, with an obscure darker central spot, and a dark fuscous interrupted hindmarginal line; cilia whitish-grey, becoming whitish-green round apex, with a faint darker line.

A beautiful insect, mimicking the colour of the long drooping lichens on which it always sits, and on which the larva probably feeds; the markings are not united to form complete transverse strigæ, as in S. picarella. Butler's huttonii is merely a bleached specimen.

Hamilton, Christchurch, Dunedin, in December and January; tolerably common, and probably widely distributed. The slight difference in marking between forms from the North and South Islands is worthy of notice.

20. Sem. picarella, Walk.

(œcophora picarella, Walk., Brit. Mus. Cat., 699; Psecadia teras, Feld., Reis. Nov., Pl. CXL., 28.)

Major, alis ant. niveis, strigis tribus transversis contortis, signis duobus posticis serieque punctorum marginis postici nigris; post. griseis, disco albido-suffuso.

Male, female.—22–28 mm. Head white. Palpi white, second joint with basal third and a subapical ring, terminal joint with apex and a median band black. Antennæ dark fuscous, basal joint white at base. Thorax white, anterior margin, a central arrowhead, and small posterior spot black. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs dark fuscous, median ring of tibiæ and apex of all joints whitish, posterior tibiæ with whitish hairs above. Forewings

– 24 –

moderate, costa gently arched, faintly sinuate in middle, apex rounded, hindmargin rather oblique, slightly rounded; white, with sharply defined black linear markings; costa black at base, emitting a transverse streak, twice deeply angulated, to inner margin at ⅕, its inner angle connected by a bar with base of inner margin; an irregular oblique transverse streak from ¼ of costa to fold, sending a tooth inwards beneath costa and another outwards above fold, apex reflexed towards base and sinuate; a small spot on inner margin beyond middle; a short inwardly oblique streak from costa beyond middle, emitting from middle of posterior edge an oblique sometimes interrupted line almost to anal angle, whence proceeds from middle of anterior edge a short branch obliquely downwards, and from ¾ of posterior edge a short streak obliquely upwards, almost confluent with a small spot towards costa; a somewhat crescentic transverse bar near hindmargin above middle; discal markings partially preceded by tufts of raised scales; a row of coarse black dots along hindmargin and apical third of costa: cilia white, with a small black apical spot, and another in costal cilia on second dot before apex. Hindwings grey, irregularly suffused with grey-whitish in disc, with a dark fuscous interrupted hindmarginal line; cilia grey-whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

A distinct and striking species.

Dunedin, in January; rather common on fences and at light.

21. Sem. epiphanes, n. sp.

Media, alis ant. canis, griseo-conspersis, macula basali postice angulata alteraque costæ magna signis nigris notata saturate fuscis; post. griseo-albidis.

Male.—20 mm. Head white, lower half of face sharply fuscous. Palpi white, second joint with basal ⅔ and a subapical ring dark fuscous, terminal joint with a median blackish band. Antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax grey, mixed with white. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs dark fuscous, central ring of tibiæ and apex of all joints white, posterior tibiæ with whitish hairs above. Forewings moderate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin nearly straight, rather oblique; whitish, densely irrorated and partially suffused with grey; a dark fuscous basal patch, bounded by a blackish-fuscous line from ⅕ of costa to ¼ of inner margin, acutely angulated outwards on fold, containing a large tuft of scales near base, and two others before posterior margin; immediately beyond this line the ground-colour is clearer white; a tuft of scales beneath fold at ⅓; a large fuscous patch, mixed with dark fuscous, extending on costa from ¼ to ¾, anterior edge oblique, reaching fold, posterior edge inwardly oblique, reaching middle, lower edge angularly excavated; this patch contains a large tuft of scales near middle of anterior edge, a smaller tuft in lower

– 25 –

anterior angle, and a third in lower posterior angle, first tuft bordered above anteriorly by a short blackish mark, second on three sides posteriorly by an angulated blackish streak, third anteriorly and posteriorly by two short straight blackish streaks; a very indistinct cloudy grey angulated transverse line near hindmargin; a row of cloudy dark grey spots along hindmargin and apical third of costa: cilia whitish, with an indistinct grey line. Hindwings grey-whitish, slightly darker towards apex; cilia grey-whitish.

Very distinct by the grey colouring, and dark costal and basal patches.

Wellington, in January; one fine specimen.

22. Sem. prasophyta, n. sp.

Media, alis ant. canis, virescenti-suffusis, strigula ad basim, squamis disci sparsis, punctis costæ lineaque marginis postici nigris; post. griseis, basim versus albidis.

Male, female.—17–18 mm. Head white (?). Palpi white, second joint with a subbasal and subapical ring, terminal joint with a median ring black. Antennæ grey-whitish, obscurely annulated with fuscous, basal joint whitish, with a fuscous subapical spot. Thorax whitish, anteriorly mixed with dull green and black. Abdomen grey-whitish. Anterior tibiæ dark fuscous with central and apical whitish rings, middle tibiæ dark fuscous broadly suffused with whitish towards centre and apex, posterior tibiæ whitish, all tarsi dark fuscous with whitish rings at apex of joints. Forewings moderate, costa gently arched, sinuate in middle, apex obtuse, hindmargin slightly sinuate, oblique; whitish, irrorated and partially suffused with dull ochreous-green, especially on central third and towards hindmargin; extreme base and an irregular streak from costa near base to base of inner margin black; a small cloudy blackish spot on costa before middle, and another beyond middle; two tufts of green scales in disc before middle, followed by scattered black scales, and two tufts beyond middle, preceded and followed by black scales; a clear whitish sinuate transverse line from ¾ of costa to before anal angle; three black dots on posterior third of costa, and an interrupted black hindmarginal line: cilia fuscous, with a cloudy blackish line. Hindwings grey, becoming whitish towards base; cilia grey-whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Not to be confused with any other species.

Wellington and Taranaki, in January and February; two specimens.

23. Sem. austera, n. sp.

Media, alis ant. fuscis, fascia antica lineaque postica curva vix pallidioribus, signo disci arcuato saturatiori; post. saturate fuscis.

Male.—17–18 mm. Head, antennæ, thorax, and abdomen dark fuscous. Palpi dark fuscous, second joint mixed with pale ochreous, terminal joint with a suffused pale ochreous band above and below middle. Legs dark

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fuscous, median ring of tibiæ and apex of all joints whitish-ochreous. Forewings moderate, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin oblique, hardly rounded; dull fuscous, mixed with darker and lighter; the lighter tint appears to form an obscure transverse fascia before middle parallel to hindmargin, and a curved transverse line from ¾ of costa to before anal angle; a tuft of dark fuscous scales beneath fold at ⅓; an arched dark fuscous mark in disc beyond middle; hindmargin and apical fourth of costa obscurely spotted with darker: cilia fuscous, with a darker line. Hindwings dark fuscous, somewhat lighter towards base; cilia fuscous, with a cloudy darker line.

Conspicuously distinct by its deep fuscous colouring.

Wellington, in January; two specimens.

10. Lathicrossa, n. g.

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Head with appressed scales, sidetufts moderate, loosely spreading. Antennæ in male moderate, strongly serrate towards apex, very shortly ciliated (¼), basal joint moderate, without pecten. Palpi moderately long, second joint not exceeding base of antennæ, thickened with dense appressed scales, terminal joint as long as second, rather stout, curved. Thorax crested posteriorly. Forewings moderate, apex obtuse, hindmargin oblique. Hindwings as broad as forewings, trapezoidal, hindmargin slightly sinuate, cilia 3/5. Abdomen moderate. Posterior tibiæ with short rough hairs above. Forewings with vein 7 to costa, 2 from rather before angle of cell. Hindwings normal.

Allied to Gymnobathra, from which it is distinguished by the very short ciliations of the antennæ, and the thoracic crest. The single species is confined to New Zealand.

24. Lath. leucocentra, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. saturate fuscis, maculis costæ duabus parvis serieque punctorum marginis postici albido-ochreis, punctis disci tribus niveis; post. saturate fuscis.

Male.—15 mm. Head whitish-ochreous, suffused on crown and forehead with dark fuscous. Palpi whitish-ochreous, externally sprinkled with dark fuscous, anterior edge marked throughout by a slender dark fuscous line. Antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax and abdomen dark fuscous, with a few whitish-ochreous scales. Legs dark fuscous, central ring of tibiæ, hairs of posterior tibiæ, and apex of all joints whitish-ochreous. Forewings moderate, somewhat dilated, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin oblique, almost straight, very faintly sinuate beneath apex; dark fuscous, with irregularly scattered whitish-ochreous scales; a very small whitish-ochreous spot on middle of costa, and a rather larger transverse spot on costa at ¾, giving rise to a very faint curved line of whitish-ochreous scales

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to anal angle; a white dot in disc at ⅓, a second hardly beyond middle, and a third somewhat larger on fold between these; a row of whitish-ochreous dots along hindmargin and apical fourth of costa: cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings dark fuscous; cilia fuscous, with a darker basal line.

The conspicuous white discal dots afford an easy point of recognition.

Dunedin, in January; one specimen received from Mr. A. Purdie.

11. Thamnosara, n. g.

Head with appressed scales, sidetufts moderate, loosely spreading. Antennæ in male moderate, biserrate, moderately and evenly ciliated (1), basal joint rather long, without pecten. Palpi moderate, second joint not exceeding base of antennæ, densely scaled, beneath with long projecting hairscales, forming a large square tuft, terminal joint slightly shorter than second, slender, curved. Thorax smooth. Forewings moderate, apex rounded, hindmargin oblique. Hindwings as broad as forewings, elongate-ovate, hindmargin rounded, cilia ⅗. Abdomen moderate. Posterior tibiæ shortly rough-haired above. Forewings with vein 7 to costa, 2 from rather before angle of cell. Hindwings normal.

Allied to Gymnobathra, of which it is probably a development; differs from all New Zealand genera except Aochleta in the tuft of the second joint of palpi; but in Aochleta the tuft is much less developed. Vein 2 of the forewings is widely remote from the angle of the cell; and veins 3 and 4 of the hindwings are stalked. Only one species is known, peculiar to New Zealand.

25. Thamn. chirista, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. albido-fuscis, saturate fusco creberrime irroratis; post. griseis.

Male, female.—13–14 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax fuscousgrey; terminal joint of palpi grey-whitish, anterior edge dark fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft pale greyish-ochreous. Legs dark fuscous; posterior tibiæ and apex of all tarsal joints whitish. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; whitish fuscous, very densely and finely irrorated with dark fuscous; a few scattered black scales: cilia whitish fuscous, on lower half densely irrorated with dark fuscous. Hindwings grey, somewhat darker towards apex; cilia whitish-grey, with a darker line near base.

A very dull-coloured and inconspicuous insect.

Christchurch, in December; three specimens amongst bush, in indifferent condition.

12. Gymnobathra, Meyr.

Head loosely scaled, sidetufts large, appressed, projecting over forehead. Antennæ in male moderate, moderately and evenly ciliated (1), basal joint rather elongate, moderate, without pecten. Palpi moderate,

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second joint reaching base of antennæ, with smooth appressed scales, somewhat loose beneath towards apex, terminal joint shorter than second, slender, recurved. Thorax smooth. Forewings elongate, moderate, apex obtuse, hindmargin somewhat concave or rounded, oblique. Hindwings slightly narrower than forewings, elongate-ovate, hindmargin rounded, cilia ½ to ⅔. Abdomen moderate. Posterior tibiæ clothed with rather short hairs above. Forewings with vein 7 to costa, 2 from rather considerably before angle of cell. Hindwings normal.

Nearly allied to œcophora, from which it is separated by the absence of the basal pecten of antennæ, differing also in the greater remoteness of vein 2 of the forewings from the angle of cell. The forewings are more triangular, and the hindmargin sometimes markedly concave. The genus is endemic in New Zealand, so far as is known, and has attained some degree of development; it is doubtless an offshoot of œcophora.

I have nine species, which may be tabulated as follows:—

1a. Hindwings ochreous-yellow 33. hyetodes ♀.
1b. " fuscous or grey.
2a. Hindmargin of forewings distinctly concave.
3a. Posterior fascia straight 33. hyetodes ♂.
3b. " " angulated 32. hamatella ♂.
2b. Hindmargin of forewings not distinctly concave.
3a. Forewings densely irrorated with dark fuscous 29. tholodella.
3b. " no "
4a. Costa and hindmargin spotted with dark fuscous 30. calliploca.
4b. " " " not spotted 28. parca.
1c. Hindwings more or less whitish.
2a. Hindwings becoming grey at apex.
3a. Forewings grey 34. philadelpha.
3b. " yellow 31. flavidella.
2b. Hindwings becoming grey at base 26. coarctatella.
2c. " wholly ochreous-whitish.
3a. Forewings with two transverse fasciæ 32. hamatella ♂.
3b. " not fasciated 27. sarcoxantha.

26. Gymn. coarctatella, Walk.

(Cryptolechia coarctatella, Walk., Brit. Mus. Cat., 768.)

Media, alis ant. rufo-ochreis, punctis disci tribus saturate griseis interdum obsoletis; post. ochreo-albidis, basim versus griseo-suffusis.

Male, female.—17–20 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax reddish-ochreous. Antennæ grey-whitish, slenderly annulated with dark fuscous, basal joint reddish-ochreous. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs ochreous-whitish, anterior pair infuscated. Forewings moderate, posteriorly dilated, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin somewhat sinuate, rather

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oblique; reddish-ochreous; a round cloudy dark fuscous-grey dot in disc at ⅓, a second at ⅔, a third more obscure on fold beyond first, in the female specimen all obsolete; cilia reddish-ochreous, becoming whitish-ochreous towards tips. Hindwings whitish, faintly ochreous-tinged, towards inner angle suffused with grey; cilia whitish, tinged with grey at inner angle.

Immediately known by the grey basal suffusion of the hindwings, and the pronounced reddish-ochreous forewings. This and the two following species are rather closely allied.

Wellington and Castle Hill, in January; two specimens. Walker's type is certainly of this species; it is stated to be from Auckland, but no reliance can be placed on this.

27. Gymn. sarcoxantha, n. sp.

Media, alis ant. dilute ochreis, punctis disci tribus saturate ochreo-fuscis; post. ochreo-albidis.

Male.—19–20 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax whitish-ochreous, sometimes slightly reddish-tinged. Abdomen and legs ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate, somewhat dilated, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin oblique, nearly straight; whitish-ochreous, with a few scattered reddish-ochreous scales, margins sometimes partially suffused with deeper ochreous; a reddish-ochreous or dark fuscous dot in disc at ⅓, a second, larger and oblique, at ⅔, and a third, very small, on fold very obliquely beyond first: cilia whitish-ochreous. Hindwings whitish, faintly ochreous-tinged: cilia ochreous-whitish.

Very near the preceding, but with the forewings more elongate, and the ground-colour lighter, without pronounced reddish tinge, and the hindwings without any grey suffusion.

Dunedin and Christchurch, in January and March; six specimens.

28. Gymn. parca, Butl.

(œcophora parca, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 405.)

Minor, alis ant. ochreis vel flavis, interdum griseo-mixtis, costa pallidiori, punctis disci tribus saturate griseis sæpius obsoletis; post. griseis.

Male, female.—13–16 mm. Head palpi, and thorax ochreous or yellowish. Antennæ dark - grey. Abdomen grey-whitish, anal tuft ochreous-whitish. Legs whitish, more or less wholly suffused with fuscous-grey. Forewings moderate, somewhat dilated, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin obliquely rounded; dull ochreous or yellow, sometimes partially suffused with reddish-ochreous, especially towards inner margin, and sometimes mixed with grey, except along a costal band; sometimes a cloudy round dark grey dot in disc before middle, a second beyond middle, and a third on fold obliquely beyond first, but often these are absent, or sometimes indicated by a reddish-ochreous suffusion: cilia ochreous or yellowish,

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paler and sometimes greyish towards tips. Hindwings grey, somewhat darker towards apex; cilia ochreous-whitish or grey-whitish, sometimes with a cloudy grey line.

Very variable, but hardly to be confused with any other; immediately known from the two preceding species by the grey hindwings and smaller size.

Wellington, Christchurch, Lake Wakatipu, in December and January; generally common on bare grassy hills; at Lake Wakatipu it occurred sparingly up to an elevation of 4,000 feet.

29. Gymn. tholodella, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. fuscis, ochreo-conspersis, punctis disci tribus saturatioribus; post. griseis.

Male, female.—12–13 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax light brownish-ochreous, more or less mixed and suffused with dark fuscous. Antennæ brownish-ochreous, annulated or suffused with dark fuscous. Abdomen grey-whitish, anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, central ring of anterior and middle tibiæ and apex of all joints whitish, posterior tibiæ with whitish hairs. Forewings moderate, somewhat dilated, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin oblique, hardly rounded; light brownish-ochreous, densely mixed and irregularly suffused with dark fuscous; generally a clear pale spot on costa before middle; a cloudy round dark fuscous dot in disc before middle, a second, oblique and sometimes obscurely double, in disc beyond middle, and a third on fold obliquely beyond first: cilia pale ochreous, with a cloudy dark fuscous line near base. Hindwings grey; cilia pale ochreous, with a faint fuscous line.

Not nearly resembling any other; the pale ochreous cilia contrast noticeably with the ground-colour on both wings.

Hamilton, Palmerston, Christchurch, Dunedin, from January to March; common, and sometimes very abundant, in forest; probably of general occurrence.

30. Gymn. calliploca, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. albido-ochreis, fusco-sparsis, punctis disci tribus, costæ quinque posticis serieque marginis postici saturate fuscis; post. dilute griseis.

Male.—17 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs pale whitish-ochreous; second joint of palpi externally, and anterior margin of thorax suffused with dark fuscous; anterior and middle tibiæ dark fuscous with pale central and apical rings, tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin straight, oblique; pale whitish-ochreous, finely and scantily irrorated with fuscous and dark fuscous scales; a small dark fuscous spot at base of costa; five

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conspicuous dark fuscous dots on posterior half of costa; a dark fuscous dot in disc before middle, a second beyond middle, and a third on fold rather beyond first; a cloudy dark fuscous streak along hindmargin from apex nearly to anal angle, thickest above, attenuated beneath; a row of cloudy dark fuscous dots along hindmargin, partially obscured in the streak: cilia pale whitish-ochreous, basal half with fine dark fuscous bars on the veins. Hindwings pale grey, cilia grey-whitish.

At once recognizable by the conspicuous dark costal dots.

Dunedin, in January; one specimen received from Mr. A. Purdie.

31. Gymn. flavidella, Walk.

(Gelechia flavidella, Walk., Brit. Mus. Cat., 655; œcophora utuella, Feld., Reis. Nov., Pl. CXL., 46.)

Minor, alis ant. dilute flavis, punctis disci tribus nigricantibus, triangulo marginis postici inferiori dilute fusco, antice nigro-marginato, umbramque costam versus emittente, ciliis fuscis; post. albis, postice roseo-griseis.

Male, female.—12–16 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax pale yellow. Abdomen rosy-whitish. Legs rosy-grey, central ring of tibiæ and apex of all joints whitish, posterior tibiæ with whitish hairs. Forewings moderate, rather dilated posteriorly, costa gently arched, apex almost acute, hindmargin straight, rather strongly oblique; pale yellow, rarely irrorated and suffused with reddish-ochreous; extreme costal edge pale fuscous, becoming deeper at base; a dark fuscous dot in disc before middle, a second beyond middle, and a third rather obliquely beyond first on fold; a triangular light rosy-fuscous patch on lower half of hindmargin, anterior side margined by a slightly curved black line, emitting from its apex a narrow inward-curved rosy-fuscous suffusion towards costa at ¾, very faint above, posteriorly sometimes margined by a few black scales: cilia rosy-fuscous. Hindwings white, posteriorly suffused with pale rosy-fuscous; cilia very pale rosy-fuscous, more whitish towards inner angle.

A beautiful and very distinct species.

Auckland, Taranaki, Wellington, and Christchurch, in January and February; common amongst bush, but principally in the North Island.

32. Gymn. hamatella, Walk.

(œcophora hamatella, Walk., Brit. Mus. Cat., 700.)

Minor, alis ant. albido-ochreis, interdum ochreo-suffusis, fusco-sparsis, linea transversa antica recta, altera postica angulata, punctis disci duobus strigulaque transversa, ciliis etiam saturate fuscis; post. M. griseis, F. albidis.

Male, female.—15–18 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax whitish-ochreous, suffused with deeper ochreous. Abdomen ochreous whitish. Legs dark grey, apex of tarsal joints whitish, posterior tibiæ with whitish hairs.

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Forewings moderate, considerably dilated posteriorly, costa gently arched, in male more strongly, apex acute, hindmargin sinuate, oblique; whitish-ochreous, irregularly irrorated with fuscous, sometimes wholly suffused with ochreous-fuscous; costal edge suffusedly dark fuscous; a straight narrow somewhat irregular dark fuscous fascia from ⅓ of costa to ⅓ of inner margin, dilated on margins; a round dark fuscous dot towards costa in middle, and another (sometimes two longitudinally placed) above fold in middle; a short linear dark fuscous transverse mark in disc beyond middle; a narrow dark fuscous fascia from ⅔ of costa to ⅗ of inner margin, rather acutely angulated outwards above middle, dilated on costa: cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings in male rather light grey, with a darker central lunule, cilia whitish-grey; in female whitish, posteriorly slightly ochreous-tinged, cilia ochreous-whitish.

This species and the preceding form the transition in the shape of the forewings from the rounded to the subfalcate apex. It varies considerably in depth of colour, but the characteristic fasciæ can generally be made out.

Christchurch and Akaroa, from January to March; not uncommon amongst bush.

33. Gymn. hyetodes, n. sp.

Media, alis ant. M. fuscis, F. ochreo-flavis, punctis disci tribus obscuris fasciaque postica recta nebulosa saturatioribus; post. M. saturate griseis, F. ochreo-flavis.

Male.—20 mm. Head and thorax greyish-fuscous. Palpi whitish, anterior edge marked by a sharp black line throughout, second joint also with a black stripe on each side. Antennæ dark fuscous. Abdomen fuscous-grey. Legs dark fuscous, apex of tarsal joints whitish, posterior tibiæ grey. Forewings moderate, considerably dilated posteriorly, costa moderately arched, apex acute, hindmargin sinuate, rather strongly oblique; light fuscous, paler posteriorly, irrorated with darker; an indistinct darker dot in disc before middle, and a second rather obliquely beyond it on fold; a cloudy dark fuscous transverse fascia from ⅔ of costa to ¾ of inner margin, obsolete on margins, posterior edge tolerably well-defined, slightly concave, anterior edge suffused, containing an obscure darker dot in disc: cilia with basal half dark fuscous, apical half whitish-ochreous. Hindwings dark fuscous; cilia dark fuscous, tips paler.

Female.—26 mm. Similar to male, but head, thorax, abdomen, posterior tibiæ, forewings, and hindwings with fuscous colour wholly changed to golden-ochreous.

I have little hesitation in uniting these sexes; although at first sight very dissimilar, the difference is of ground-colour only, and I suspect that the yellow tints of the female are protective, approaching those of a decaying

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leaf. This and the next species are characterized by the elegant form of the subfalcate forewings, of which however the apex is less produced than it appears to be.

Wellington, in February; two specimens of each sex taken by Mr. R. W. Fereday.

34. Gymn. philadelpha, n. sp.

Media, alis ant. griseis, leviter albido-sparsis, ciliorum apice albo; post. griseo-albidis, apice leviter griseo.

Female.—25 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, somewhat suffused with pale grey. Palpi whitish-ochreous. Antennæ grey, basal joint whitish-ochreous. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs grey, central ring of middle tibiæ and apex of all joints ochreous-whitish, posterior tibiæ ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderate, posteriorly dilated, costa moderately arched, apex acute, hindmargin sinuate, rather strongly oblique; grey, somewhat mixed with ochreous-whitish: cilia with basal half grey, terminal half ochreous-whitish. Hindwings grey-whitish, apex somewhat suffused with light grey; cilia whitish, round apex greyish-tinged.

Very similar in form to G. hyetodes, but differing from both sexes in the grey forewings, the absence of markings, and the whitish hindwings. It is probable that the male may have some points of difference from the female.

Mount Hutt, in January; two specimens taken by Mr. R. W. Fereday, without note of elevation.

13. œcophora, Z.

Head smooth, sidetufts moderate, loosely appressed, projecting somewhat above antennæ. Antennæ in male moderate, somewhat serrate, moderately and evenly ciliated (1), basal joint rather elongate, moderate, with strong pecten. Palpi moderate, second joint not exceeding base of antennæ, with appressed scales, somewhat loose beneath, terminal joint shorter than second, moderate, curved, Thorax smooth. Forewings elongate, moderate or rather narrow, apex obtusely pointed, hindmargin very oblique, slightly rounded. Hindwings somewhat narrower than forewings, elongate-ovate, hindmargin rounded, cilia ⅔ to 1. Abdomen moderate, often somewhat flattened, more or less distinctly margined. Posterior tibiæ clothed with long fine hairs. Forewings with vein 7 to costa, 2 from or somewhat before angle of cell, rarely stalked with 3. Hindwings normal.

This is the typical genus of the family; it is also the most widely distributed, and probably one of the oldest and most extensive. It is well represented in Europe, North America, and Australia, and there is every likelihood that it will be found to be nearly cosmopolitan; but its limits have been so ill understood by many writers, that no reliable authority can be quoted at present for its occurrence elsewhere. The larvæ are little

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known, but appear to feed mostly on dead wood, bark, and seeds; the habits of none of the New Zealand species are known, and it is of considerable importance to discover them. The imagos generally frequent bush.

Nineteen species are here described, which may be thus tabulated:—

1a. Forewings strongly dilated posteriorly.
2a. Forewings grey or whitish-ochreous 42. griseata.
2b. " reddish-ochreous-brown 43. phegophylla.
1b. Forewings not noticeably dilated.
2a. Forewings narrow.
3a. With sharply defined fasciæ.
4a. Head dark fuscous 53. chrysogramma
4b. " yellow 52. hoplodesma.
3b. With fasciæ obscure or obsolete 51. siderodeta.
2b. Forewings moderate.
3a. Forewings yellow or whitish-ochreous.
4a. Head suffused with dark fuscous 48. anæma.
4b. " yellow or whitish-ochreous.
5a. Thorax wholly yellow 44. oporæa.
5b. " partially dark fuscous.
6a. Forewings with a dark anterior fascia 38. chloritis.
6b. " without anterior fascia.
7a. Anterior half of thorax wholly dark fuscous.
8a. Forewings ochreous 45. horæa.
8b. " pale yellow 49. macarella.
7b. Anterior half of thorax not wholly dark fuscous.
8a. Forewings yellow 46. armigerella.
8b. " pale whitish-ochreous 47. apanthes.
3b. Forewings brownish-ochreous 35. pseudospretella.
3c. Forewings whitish or grey.
4a. Without definite markings 50. homodoxa.
4b. With distinct darker markings.
5a. Forewings coarsely irrorated with reddish fuscous 36. scholæa.
5b. " without reddish fuscous scales.
6a. Costa with cloudy darker spots.
7a. Head ochreous-white 40. contextella.
7b. " more or less grey.
8a. Discal dots well defined 37. letharga.
8b. " obscure or obsolete 39. epimylia.
6b. Costa not spotted 41. hemimochla.

35. œc. pseudospretella, Stt.

Media, alis ant. ochreis, saturate fusco conspersis, maculis disci tribus parvis serieque postica subcostali ac marginis postici saturate fuscis; post. dilute griseis.

Male, female.—17–21 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax light brownish-ochreous, strongly suffused with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; light

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brownish-ochreous, densely mixed with dark fuscous; a small round dark fuscous spot in disc before middle, a second beyond middle, and a third directly beneath first on fold; a row of cloudy dark fuscous spots from beyond middle of costa to hindmargin beneath apex, thence along hindmargin to anal angle: cilia light brownish-ochreous, mixed with dark fuscous. Hindwings whitish-grey, posteriorly darker; cilia whitish-grey.

Specifically remote from any native species.

The larva feeds on seeds, skins, dried insects, etc., and is capable of doing great damage in a museum.

This well known species has been introduced from England, and is very common in houses, probably throughout New Zealand. I have observed it at Hamilton, Napier, Wanganui, Wellington, Christchurch, Castle Hill, and Dunedin, from December to March.

36. œc. scholæa, n. sp.

Media, alis ant. dilute griseis, rufescenti-conspersis, maculis costæ tribus anticis, punctis disci duobus, tertio plicæ post primum disci posito, lineaque postica transversa angulata saturate fuscis; post. griseis.

Male, female.—19–21 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax greyish-ochreous mixed with fuscous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, anterior and middle tibiæ with central ring, hairs of posterior tibiæ and apex of all joints whitish-ochreous. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin extremely obliquely rounded; pale greyish, coarsely irrorated with reddish-fuscous and dark fuscous, especially towards costa and hindmargin; a cloudy dark fuscous spot on base of costa, another on costa at ¼, and a third in middle; a dark fuscous dot in disc at ⅓, a second at ⅔, and a third obliquely beyond first on fold; a very obscure interrupted dark fuscous transverse line from ¾ of costa to anal angle, angulated outwards in middle, somewhat dentate beneath costa: cilia greyish-ochreous, obscurely mixed with dark fuscous at base. Hindwings light grey, towards apex dark grey: cilia grey-whitish, with a grey line.

A dull-coloured species, not nearly allied to any but œ. letharga; from this it differs by the larger size, reddish-fuscous irroration, and position of the third discal dot obliquely beyond the first.

Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, Invercargill, from December to February; common.

37. œc. letharga, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. albido-griseis, fusco-conspersis, maculis costæ tribus anticis nebulosis, punctis disci duobus, tertio plicæ ante primum disci posito, lineaque postica transversa angulata saturate fuscis; post. griseis.

– 36 –

Male.—16–16 ½ mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax ochreous-whitish, mixed with fuscous-grey. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Anterior and middle legs fuscous-grey, central ring of tibiæ and apex of all joints ochreous-whitish; posterior legs ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin extremely obliquely rounded; pale whitish-grey, slightly ochreous-tinged, and irrorated with dark fuscous; a cloudy fuscous spot on costa at base, another at ¼, and a third in middle; a small cloudy dark fuscous spot in disc near base; a dark fuscous dot in disc before middle, a second beyond middle, and a third rather obliquely before first on fold; a cloudy fuscous outwards-bent transverse line from ¾ of costa to anal angle, indented inwards beneath costa: cilia pale whitish-ochreous, sprinkled with dark fuscous. Hindwings light grey, apex darker; cilia grey-whitish, with a distinct grey line near base.

Smaller and paler than the preceding, without reddish tinge, and with the third discal dot placed obliquely before the first.

Dunedin, in January; three specimens.

38. œc. chloritis, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. albido-flavidis, costæ basi ac puncto sub plica posito nigris, fascia antica angusta plicam non superante, linea anguli analis obliqua, lineaque transversa postica obsoleta griseis; post. griseis.

Male. — 15 ½ mm. Head whitish-ochreous yellow. Palpi whitish-ochreous, second joint externally mixed with dark fuscous. Antennæ ochreous-whitish, obscurely annulated with dark fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous, posterior margin whitish-yellowish. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs dark fuscous, posterior tibiæ and apex of all joints whitish-yellowish. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex pointed, hindmargin very oblique, slightly rounded; pale dull whitish-yellowish; base of costa suffusedly dark fuscous; a very oblique indistinct grey streak from near costa at ¼ to middle of fold; a blackish dot below fold a little before extremity of this streak; a cloudy dark grey transverse mark on anal angle; a faint greyish posterior suffusion, obscurely indicating a transverse line very near handmargin: cilia pale dull whitish-yellowish, with several rows of dark grey points, most distinct towards tips. Hindwings grey; cilia whitish, with a cloudy grey line near base.

Of somewhat doubtful specific affinity; differing from all the other yellow species in the more elongate forewings, and the transverse anterior and submarginal grey lines.

Lake Wakatipu (1,000 feet), in December; one specimen.

39. œc. epimylia, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. dilute griseis, maculis costæ tribus, quarta plicæ, punctisque disci duobus obscuris saturatioribus; post. griseis; capite griseo.

– 37 –

Male, female.—11 ½–13 mm. Head and thorax pale grey mixed with darker. Palpi whitish-grey, second joint externally densely irrorated with blackish, terminal joint with two or three slender blackish rings below middle. Antennæ dark grey. Abdomen grey. Legs dark fuscous, central and apical ring of middle tibiæ, hairs of posterior tibiæ, and apex of all tarsal joints whitish. Forewings elongate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; whitish-grey, densely and irregularly irrorated with dark grey, tending to form cloudy very indistinct patches on costa at ¼, middle, and ¾, leaving interspaces somewhat paler; an indistinct cloudy dark fuscous spot on fold at ⅓, a cloudy spot on anal angle, sometimes preceded and followed by a smaller spot, a dot in disc before middle and beyond that on fold, and another in disc beyond middle, all very indistinct and sometimes obsolete: cilia whitish-grey, with several rows of dark grey points. Hindwings light grey; cilia whitish-grey.

Nearly allied to œ. contextella, and having a similar mottled appearance, but readily known by its smaller size, slightly narrower wings, general grey tints, and especially the grey head.

Castle Hill (2,500 feet), in January; beaten in great abundance from Fagus solandri.

40. œc. contextella, Walk.

(Gelechia contextella, Walk., Brit. Mus. Cat., 656.)

Minor, alis ant. canis, griseo-sparsis, fascia ad basim, altera post medium, maculis costæ duabus, lineaque postica sinuata saturate griseis, striga obliqua sub plica posita signoque disci arcuato nigris; post. dilute griseis; capite ochreo-albo.

Male, female.—13–15 mm. Head ochreous-white. Palpi white, second joint irrorated with dark fuscous except at apex, terminal joint with a cloudy dark fuscous submedian ring. Antennæ grey. Thorax whitish or ochreous-white, anterior margin suffused with dark fuscous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, middle tibiæ with central and apical rings, hairs of posterior tibiæ, and apex of all tarsal joints ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; white, irregularly irrorated with fuscous-grey; a cloudy dark grey fascia from base of costa, and a second from costa at ¼, confluent, in middle and extending almost to inner margin at ⅓, mixed with ochreous at apex, and margined posteriorly by an oblique blackish streak below middle, sometimes connected with a blackish dot in disc before middle; a cloudy dark grey fascia from rather beyond middle of costa to anal angle, containing an ochreous partially blackish-circled spot in disc, and mixed with ochreous beneath; a small blackish mark on inner margin before this fascia, separated from it by a white line; a cloudy dark grey

– 38 –

spot on costa at ⅗, giving rise to a curved cloudy blackish-grey transverse line to anal angle; all these grey markings are sometimes partially suffused and confluent; a cloudy dark grey apical spot: cilia white, irregularly mixed with dark grey, forming a cloudy spot at apex and anal angle. Hindwings pale grey; cilia grey-whitish.

Separable from œ. epimylia by the larger size, ochreous-white head, and white ground-colour of forewings; from œ. hemimochla by the distinct grey costal spots and transverse fasciæ, and always well-defined oblique streak beneath fold.

Christchurch, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu, and Invercargill, in December and January; rather common.

41. œc. hemimochla, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. albidis, griseo-conspersis, striga sub plica posita obliqua, punctis disci duobus, striga anguli analis obliqua, maculaque subapicali nigricantibus; post. albido-griseis; capite ochreo-albo.

Male, female.—14 ½–16 mm. Head ochreous-whitish. Palpi ochreous-whitish, basal ⅔ of second joint, and base and apex of terminal joint suffused with dark fuscous. Antennæ grey. Thorax ochreous-whitish, more or less mixed with grey. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Anterior and middle legs dark fuscous, central ring of middle tibiæ, and apex of all joints ochreous-whitish; posterior legs ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; white, irregularly suffused with whitish-ochreous, and sprinkled with grey and a few blackish scales; costal edge dark fuscous at base; an oblique dark fuscous streak from fold before middle to near inner margin before ⅓, generally distinct on fold only; a blackish dot in disc before middle, and a larger one beyond middle, sometimes connected with apex of oblique streak by a cloudy dark fuscous line; a cloudy dark fuscous bar extending from anal angle almost or quite to second discal dot; a cloudy dark fuscous apical spot, suffusedly produced along hindmargin; sometimes a curved transverse cloudy dark fuscous line near hindmargin, indented inwards beneath costa, often obsolete: cilia whitish, with rows of dark fuscous points, forming a cloudy spot at apex and anal angle. Hindwings whitish-grey or light grey; cilia grey-whitish.

Closely allied to œ. contextella, and best separated by the absence of the distinct lighter and darker spots of the costa; also somewhat larger and duller, less variegated, without entire fasciæ, the oblique streak beneath the fold not generally distinct, and the hindwings lighter.

Hamilton, Wellington, and Napier, in January and March; rather common. Probably this species may be confined to the North Island, and œ. contextella to the South.

– 39 –

42. œc. griseata, Butl.

(œcophora griseata, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 405.)

Media, alis ant. dilatatis, albido-ochreis griseisve, punctis disci duobus, signo sub plica posito obliquo, maculæ costæ media nebulosa alteraque anguli analis saturate fuscis; post. griseo-albidis griseisve.

Male, female.—15–19 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax whitish-ochreous, often suffused with grey; terminal joint of palpi with sub-basal and subapical dark fuscous rings. Abdomen ochreous-whitish or grey. Legs dark fuscous-grey, central and apical rings of middle tibiæ, hairs of posterior tibiæ, and apex of all tarsal joints ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderate, posteriorly strongly dilated, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; varying from pale whitish-ochreous to dull grey; the paler specimens sometimes partially suffused with grey, or mixed with reddish-ochreous in disc, and on fold towards base; a slender oblique dark fuscous streak almost from inner margin at ⅓ to disc before middle, often partially obsolete; a dark fuscous dot in disc above apex of this streak, and a second in disc beyond middle; a cloudy dark fuscous spot on anal angle, often almost obsolete, anteriorly edged with a darker dot on margin; a transverse outwards-curved, often partially obsolete, fine dark fuscous line from ¾ of costa to before anal angle, irregularly sinuate towards costa, where it is generally more distinct: cilia pale whitish-ochreous, generally suffused with numerous rows of dark grey points, tips clear pale ochreous. Hindwings whitish-grey or grey; cilia ochreous-whitish, often suffused with grey.

This and the next species are distinguished from all the rest by the posterior dilation of the forewings; œ. griseata varies a good deal in colour, but can hardly be mistaken.

Christchurch, Castle Hill, Dunedin, and Invercargill, from December to March; common.

43. œc. phegophylla, n. sp.

Media, alis ant. dilatatis, ochreo-rufis, puncto disci strigaque dorsi indentata ochreo-albidis, partim flavo-suffusis; post. saturate griseis.

Male.—21–22 mm. Head ochreous-yellow. Palpi ochreous-yellow, externally mixed with dark fuscous. Antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax ochreous-yellow, suffused with fuscous except on posterior margin. Abdomen grey. Legs dark fuscous, hairs of posterior tibiæ and apex of all joints ochreous-yellow, beneath wholly ochreous-yellow. Forewings moderate, posteriorly strongly dilated, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin oblique, hardly rounded; reddish-ochreous-brown, becoming deeper towards inner margin; a minute ochreous-whitish dot in disc beyond middle; an ochreous-whitish streak along inner margin from base to ¾,

– 40 –

towards extremities suffused with bright ochreous-orange, its upper margin rather deeply indented at ⅓, thence somewhat dilated, and again attenuated to apex: cilia reddish-ochreous brown, beneath anal angle ochreous-whitish suffused with orange. Hindwings dark grey; cilia grey, extreme base pale.

A very distinct and handsome species, in form of wing very closely approaching the preceding; in colour it is approached by the much smaller and narrower-winged Cremnogenes oxyina, but the resemblance is analogous merely, and due in each case to protective imitation of the colouring of a dead beech-leaf.

At the head of Lake Wakatipu, in December; two specimens from Fagus solandri.

44. œc. oporæa, n. sp.

Media, alis ant. saturate flavis, linea costæ basali nigrescenti, interdum punctis disci tribus rufis; post. griseis; thorace flavo.

Male, female.—18–20 mm. Head and thorax deep ochreous-yellow. Palpi ochreous-yellow, lower ⅔ of second joint externally suffused with dark fuscous. Antennæ grey. Abdomen grey. Anterior legs dark fuscous; middle and posterior legs ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin oblique, slightly rounded; deep yellow, sometimes suffused with reddish-ochreous towards middle of inner margin, anal angle, and apex; a short slender blackish streak along base of costa; sometimes a reddish-fuscous dot in disc before middle, a second beyond middle, and a third on fold directly beneath first, but these are usually quite obsolete, especially the first: cilia yellow, sometimes mixed with reddish-ochreous. Hindwings grey, darker posteriorly; cilia grey.

Larger and deeper yellow than any of the other yellow species, from all of which it is at once separated by the wholly yellow thorax.

Castle Hill (2,500 feet), in January; common amongst Fagus solandri.

45. œc. horæa, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. albido-ochreis, flavido-suffusis, striga costæ basali nigrescenti, signo plicæ, altero anguli analis, punctisque costæ duobus obscuris saturate fuscis; post. griseis; thorace antice saturate fusco, postice flavido.

Male, female.—13 ½–15 mm. Head light yellowish-ochreous. Palpi light yellowish-ochreous, basal half of both joints finely irrorated externally with dark fuscous. Antennæ in male dark fuscous, in female whitish-ochreous annulated with dark fuscous. Thorax light yellowish-ochreous, anterior half suffused with dark fuscous. Abdomen grey, apex whitish-ochreous. Anterior legs dark fuscous; middle legs whitish-ochreous irrorated with dark fuscous, except in middle of tibiæ and at apex of joints;

– 41 –

posterior legs whitish-ochreous. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; whitish-ochreous, rather suffused with yellowish-ochreous, costal margin yellowish-ochreous; costa suffusedly blackish towards base; a few blackish scales on fold at ⅓, on costa in middle and at ¾, and above anal angle; posterior half of wing more or less irrorated very finely with fuscous: cilia pale yellowish-ochreous, irrorated with fuscous points, especially on tips round apex, and on a spot at anal angle. Hindwings grey; cilia whitish-grey.

Differs from all the other yellow species in its distinct ochreous tint, especially on costa and cilia; not very close to any other.

Hamilton and the Bealey River, in January; four specimens.

46. œc. armigerella, Walk.

(œcophora armigerella, Walk., Brit. Mus. Cat., 698.)

Minor, alis ant. flavis, striga costæ basali nigrescenti, interdum punctis disci duobus lineaque anguli analis obliqua saturate fuscis; post. griseis; thorace flavo, humeris anguste nigrescentibus.

Male.—14 ½–17 mm. Head yellow. Palpi pale ochreous-yellow, second joint with basal ⅔ suffused with dark fuscous externally. Antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax yellow, anterior margin of shoulders narrowly dark fuscous. Abdomen grey. Anterior and middle legs dark fuscous, apex of tarsal joints obscurely whitish; posterior legs ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin rounded, rather strongly oblique; rather deep yellow; basal fourth of costa rather broadly blackish; a dark fuscous ill-defined dot on fold before middle, and another in disc beyond middle, often both absent; sometimes a few fine scattered dark fuscous scales, forming a bar from second dot to anal angle, a curved transverse line near hindmargin, and an apical spot, but these are usually obsolete: cilia yellow, with a fuscous-grey spot at apex and another at anal angle. Hindwings grey, darker posteriorly; cilia light grey.

This and the two following species are closely allied, and have considerable superficial likeness; œ. armigerella differs from both the others by its bright yellow colour, and by the narrow dark fuscous spot along the anterior margin of shoulders.

Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu, and Invercargill, from December to February; common.

The British Museum type of this species is lost, but Walker's description can hardly refer to any other.

47. œc. apanthes, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. dilute albido-ochreis, vix flavido-suffusis, striga costæ basali nigrescenti, macula apicis parva, interdum punctis disci tribus lineaque anguli analis obliqua saturate fuscis; post. albido-griseis; thorace dilute albido-ochreo, macula humeri interiori saturate fusco.

– 42 –

Male.—14 ½ mm. Head pale whitish-ochreous. Palpi pale whitish-ochreous, basal ⅔ of second joint and lower half of terminal joint externally irrorated with dark fuscous. Antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax pale whitish-ochreous, with an oblong dark fuscous spot on each shoulder not touching lateral margin. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Anterior legs dark fuscous; middle legs ochreous-whitish irrorated with dark fuscous except at apex of joints; posterior legs ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin rounded, rather strongly oblique; pale whitish-ochreous, slightly suffused with pale yellowish; basal third of costa broadly dark fuscous; a dark fuscous dot in disc before middle, a second beyond middle, and a third on fold directly beneath first, first and third sometimes obsolete; sometimes a bar of scattered dark fuscous scales between second dot and anal angle; some scattered dark fuscous scales at apex and towards hindmargin: cilia ochreous-whitish, sometimes with scattered grey points, and with a cloudy dark fuscous spot at apex, and a grey spot at anal angle. Hindwings whitish-grey; cilia whitish.

Closely allied to œ. anæma, but slightly brighter, the hindwings lighter, the head and thorax wholly whitish-ochreous except an internal spot on shoulders.

Hamilton and Cambridge, in January; two specimens.

48. œc. anæma, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. albido-ochreis, levissime griseo-irroratis, striga costæ basali, strigula anguli analis obliqua, interdum etiam signo plicæ saturate fuscis; post. griseis; thorace saturate fusco, macula lateris parva pallida.

Male.—13 ½–14 ½ mm. Head whitish-ochreous, finely and closely irrorated with dark fuscous. Palpi pale whitish-ochreous, externally irrorated with dark fuscous except at apex of joints. Antennæ whitish-ochreous, obscurely annulated with dark fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous, with a small whitish-ochreous lateral spot. Abdomen grey. Anterior and middle legs dark fuscous, with ochreous-whitish rings at apex of joints; posterior legs ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex blunt-pointed, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; very pale whitish-ochreous, with fine scattered light fuscous scales; basal third of costa broadly dark fuscous; a short inwardly oblique dark fuscous mark on fold at ⅓, sometimes obsolete; a cloudy oblique dark fuscous bar from disc beyond middle to anal angle: cilia very pale whitish-ochreous, with lines of grey points, forming a broader dark grey shade before tips. Hindwings grey, darker posteriorly; cilia light grey.

Separable from all its immediate allies by the dark fuscous suffusion of the head, as well as of the entire thorax except a small lateral spot; the forewings have a peculiar dull appearance, due to the fine fuscous irroration, which is only perceptible under a lens.

Lake Wakatipu, in December; four specimens.

– 43 –

49. œc. macarella, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. dilute flavis, costæ basi nigrescenti, interdum signo plicæ lineaque anguli analis obliqua obscuris saturate fuscis; post. albidogriseis; thorace saturate fusco, margine postico anguste flavido.

Male, female.—12 ½–14 mm. Head pale yellow. Palpi whitish-yellow, basal half of both joints externally irrorated with dark fuscous. Antennæ ochreous-whitish, basal joint dark fuscous except at apex. Thorax dark fuscous, with small lateral and posterior pale yellowish spots. Abdomen grey-whitish. Anterior legs dark fuscous; middle legs ochreous-whitish irrorated with dark fuscous, except at apex of joints; posterior legs ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex blunt-pointed, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; pale yellow, somewhat suffused with deeper yellow; costa dark fuscous towards base; sometimes a few dark fuscous scales on fold at ⅓, and on a bar from disc to anal angle: cilia pale yellow, with several rows of grey points, and a darker grey shade before tips. Hindwings whitish-grey; cilia grey-whitish.

Readily known by the pale yellow colouring, the less defined basal mark on the costa, and the almost wholly dark fuscous thorax.

Christchurch, in January; four specimens.

50. œc. homodoxa, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. albido-griseis, saturatiori irroratis, signo plicæ ante medium alteroque anguli analis vix saturatioribus; post. griseis.

Male, female.—15 ½–17 ½ mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and legs light grey finely irrorated with dark fuscous. Antennæ dark fuscous. Abdomen light grey. Forewings elongate, costa moderately arched, apex pointed, hindmargin very oblique, hardly rounded; pale whitish-grey, very finely and closely irrorated with dark fuscous-grey; indications of an inwardly oblique dark fuscous mark beneath fold about ⅓, and a perpendicular mark on anal angle, both almost obsolete: cilia grey-whitish, with several rows of dark fuscous-grey points. Hindwings grey, in female rather darker; cilia light grey, with a cloudy darker basal line.

An obscure-looking species, differing from the other grey species in the more elongate forewings, the uniform darker irroration, and the absence of distinct darker markings.

Lake Wakatipu, in December; two specimens.

51. œc. siderodeta, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. angustis, ochreis, saturate fusco-suffusis, interdum fasciis tribus obliquis obscuris, dorso sæpius basim versus pallidiori; post. saturate griseis.

Male, female.—12–14 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ochreous, densely mixed with dark fuscous. Antennæ dark fuscous. Abdomen grey. Legs dark fuscous, central ring of tibiæ, hairs of posterior tibiæ, and apex of all joints

– 44 –

whitish. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, more strongly near base, apex pointed, hindmargin extremely obliquely rounded; brownish-ochreous, densely irrorated with dark fuscous, which tends to form three broad oblique cloudy fasciæ, but these are often wholly suffused and confluent; generally there is a more or less distinctly clear brownish-ochreous space towards base of inner margin: cilia ochreous-whitish, with numerous irregular rows of dark fuscous points, tips clear whitish. Hindwings dark fuscous; cilia grey, towards base dark fuscous.

An inconspicuous species, but readily known by the peculiar form of the forewings, ochreous suffused ground-colour, and tendency to form three cloudy fasciæ.

Christchurch, Dunedin, and Lake Wakitipu, from December to February; common, especially at rest on fences.

52. œc. hoplodesma, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. angustis, dilute flavis, costæ dimidio antico, fasciis tribus obliquis quartaque marginis postici griseis; post. griseis.

Male.—12 ½ mm. Head and palpi light yellow. Antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax light yellow, mixed with fuscous grey. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs dark grey, hairs of posterior tibiæ and apex of all tarsal joints whitish. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa moderately arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin extremely obliquely rounded; light yellow, somewhat deeper in disc; markings very pale whitish-grey, closely irrorated with dark grey scales; a streak along anterior half of costa; a cloudy spot on inner margin near base; a narrow oblique transverse fascia from ¼ of costa to before middle of inner margin, and a second from middle of costa to ¾ of inner margin, both slightly interrupted below middle; a third, less oblique, from ¾ of costa to anal angle, obscurely connected with second near inner margin; an irregular streak along hindmargin: cilia light yellow, with numerous lines of grey points. Hindwings grey; cilia whitish-grey, base slightly darker.

A distinct and pretty species.

South Rakaia, in March; one specimen received from Dr. W. H. Gaze.

53. œc. chrysogramma, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. angustis, saturate flavis, basi, fasciis duabus obliquis, macula costæ postica transversa, strigaque marginis postici saturate purpureo-fuscis; post. saturate fuscis.

Female.—12 ½ mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs dark purplish-fuscous, apex of tarsal joints ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; deep golden-yellow; extreme base dark fuscous; anterior half of costal edge dark fuscous; markings dark purple-grey, edged with blackish-

– 45 –

fuscous; a rather broad slightly curved oblique transverse fascia from ¼ of costa to ⅓ of inner margin, and a second from middle of costa to ⅔ of inner margin; a transverse somewhat narrower perpendicular spot from costa at ¾, reaching more than half across wing, narrowed beneath, almost touching second fascia; a streak along hindmargin: cilia dark purple-grey. Hindwings and cilia dark fuscous.

Allied to the preceding, but very distinct; it is a striking and handsome species.

Wellington, in December; one specimen at rest on a fence.

14. Cremnogenes, n. g.

Head smooth, sidetufts small, loosely spreading. Antennæ in male moderate or rather stout, with whorls of cilia at joints or closely set over whole surface (1–2), basal joint rather elongate, with pecten. Palpi moderately long, second joint somewhat exceeding base of antennæ, with dense appressed scales, slightly rough beneath towards apex, terminal joint shorter than second, slender, curved. Thorax smooth. Forewings moderate, apex pointed, hindmargin oblique. Hindwings somewhat narrower than forewings, elongate-ovate, hindmargin rounded, cilia ⅗. Abdomen rather elongate, stout. Posterior tibiæ clothed with long fine hairs. Forewings with vein 7 to costa, 2 from near angle of cell. Hindwings normal.

Closely allied to œcophora, from which it differs in the ciliations of the antennæ in male; these are not arranged in a single series, but either in whorls at the joints (C. oxyina), when they are also proportionately longer, or closely set over the entire surface (C. aphrontis). I think these two forms may be justly included in the same genus, at least for the present; besides these I have probably two other species of the genus, which I cannot venture yet to describe.

54. Cremn. oxyina, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. M. saturate fuscis, ferrugineo-mixtis, F. rufo-ochreis, fusco-mixtis, interdum striga dorsi indentata pallida, signo sub plica posito punctoque disci nigricantibus; post. saturate fuscis.

Male, female.—13–15 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and abdomen dark fuscous, slightly ochreous-tinged; thorax with a small sharply-defined ochreous-whitish lateral spot. Legs dark fuscous-grey. Forewings in male elongate, in female rather shorter, costa moderately arched, apex pointed, hindmargin slightly sinuate, extremely oblique; dark fuscous, mixed and suffused with reddish-ochreous or ferruginous, in female almost wholly reddish-ochreous, becoming deeper along fold; an ochreous-whitish, often indistinct or obsolete, streak along inner margin from base to ¾, attenuated posteriorly, upper margin deeply dentate before middle, indentation filled with a small black spot; a dark fuscous dot in disc beyond

– 46 –

middle, in male obscure; a curved transverse dark fuscous line near hindmargin, often obsolete: cilia in male ferruginous mixed with dark fuscous, in female reddish-ochreous, lighter towards tips. Hindwings dark fuscous-grey; with a dark fuscous line near base.

Easily known by its ferruginous or reddish-ochreous colouring, which in the female closely approaches that of the much larger œcophora phegophylla.

Lake Wakatipu, in December; very common amongst Fagus solandri, from 1,000 to 3,000 feet.

55. Cremn. aphrontis, n. sp.

Minor, alis ant. ochreo-flavis, partim griseo-suffusis, puncto disci nigro; post. saturate griseis, basim versus dilutioribus.

Male, female.—12–14 ½ mm. Head and palpi ochreous-yellow, anterior edge of palpi suffusedly dark fuscous. Antennæ blackish. Thorax dark fuscous, with yellowish lateral and posterior spots. Abdomen dark grey, posteriorly becoming whitish-ochreous. Legs dark grey, apex of joints obscurely ochreous-whitish, posterior tibiæ with very dense ochreous-whitish hairs. Forewings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; grey, more or less wholly suffused irregularly with ochreous yellow; a blackish dot in disc beyond middle: cilia pale ochreous-yellow, somewhat mixed with grey. Hindwings grey, darker towards apex: cilia ochreous-whitish, suffused with dark grey towards base.

The irregular grey suffusion causes this insect to look like a yellow species in bad condition.

Arthur's Pass, in January; common amongst the grass and rough herbage, at about 5,000 feet.