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Volume 16, 1883
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Art. VIII.—Revision of the Land Mollusca of New Zealand.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 2nd August, 1883.]

In the following pages I have attempted to arrange the New Zealand Land Mollusca into something like natural groups. Of course any classification must at present be very imperfect as the animals of a large number of the species are as yet unknown, but I hope that the present will be found a useful contribution towards a monograph.

I have to tender my best thanks to several friends, especially Mr. R. Helms, Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, and Mr. Adams of the Thames, for sending me specimens either alive or in spirit. I have also to thank Dr. von Haast for allowing me to examine the collection in the Canterbury Museum; Professor T. J. Parker for allowing me to examine the collection in the Otago University Museum; Dr. Hector for having with great liberality lent me the whole of the collection in the Colonial Museum, at Wellington; and Mr. Justice Gillies for sending me from Auckland his private collection for examination. If it had not been for the assistance I have thus received I should have found it impossible to identify many of the described species; but the ample collections that have passed through my hands from nearly all parts of New Zealand, have enabled me to determine satisfactorily all but a very few, as well as to indicate fairly their distribution in the islands.

I have not thought it advisable to dismiss from our list any of the species ascribed to New Zealand. H. reinga, H. taranaki, and H. rapida are very probably New Zealand species, although no specimens exist in any of our collections. Gerontia cordelia, mihi, has, I think, been mistaken for H. tiara. Hyalina corneo-fulva, Pfeiffer, is certainly H. cellaria. I am not satisfied with my identification of H. guttula, Pfr., as the shell in the Wellington Museum exceeds the dimensions given by Pfeiffer, and it can hardly be called thin, but in other respects it corresponds well with the description, and with Reeve's figure. Succinea tomentosa is omitted because an examination of the animal proves it to be a fresh-water species belonging to Amphipeplea. Patula varicosa is the only shell I feel very doubtful about. Pfeiffer says that it was collected by Strange, in which case it probably belongs to

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New Zealand, as I have identified nearly all the other of Strange's shells; but Reeve says that it was collected by Cuming, in which case the locality is pretty sure to be incorrect.

I have adopted Professor von Martens’ suggestion, that all the specific names meaning of, or from, New Zealand should be spelt uniformly, and have taken neozelanicus as the most correct. I have also followed him in retaining Reeve's names for those species which Dr. Pfeiffer named after letters of the Greek alphabet, as these letters are usually employed for varieties, and not used for species.

I have retained the usual classification, although I think that the Goniognatha do not form a natural section, but that the genera should be distributed among the Aulocognatha. I incline to the opinion that Phrixgnathus, mihi, is near to Punctum, Morse, although the jaws are different; and I expect that Carthæa, mihi, is allied to Charopa, Albers, although I do not know the animal.

I am not aware that the dentition of Endodonta, Charopa, and Amphidoxa have been previously described. With regard to Endodonta, the only species whose radula I have examined, E. pœcilosticta, is not typical, and may be wrongly placed. Charopa ida I take to be typical of that genus; while Amphidoxa was made to include some species belonging to the Aulocognatha, and others belonging to the Agnatha; and I have chosen to associate it with the more numerous group belonging to the first section. I have seen no description of the dentition of Thalassia, and refer our species to it provisionally.

The present list comprises 116 species, of which 13 are unknown to me. There are also 7 species introduced from England. Of the native species, the dentition of 60 has been described by me either in the present volume, or in vol. xiv. of the Transactions of the N.Z. Institute; and the animals of 26 species are described either in this volume or in vol. xv. of the same journal.

As regards distribution, our knowledge is imperfect; but, so far as is at present known, about one half the species are confined to the North Island, one quarter to the South Island, and one quarter are common to both. Two of the three species from Stewart Island have been found nowhere else; and the single species from Campbell Island is also endemic: but the four species said to be found in the Auckland Islands are all natives of New Zealand; as also appear to be both the species recorded from the Chatham Islands. The Auckland Islands however possess a peculiar variety.

Outside the New Zealand Islands Vitrina kermadecensis is found in the Kermadec Islands. Therasia ophelia is found in Northern Australia, and Paryphanta milligani is Tasmanian. In neither of the two last cases however have shells from each locality been compared, and the dentition of all

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three is unknown. Amphidoxa rapida, said to come from New Zealand, occurs in North Australia (with a variety at the Solomon Islands); while Rhagada rienga, and Streptaxis taranaki, both doubtfully New Zealand, are closely allied to species from the same place. Our closest connection thus appears to be N. Australia, but there is a considerable generic affinity with the faunas of New Caledonia, Polynesia, and S. America.

Synopsis of the Families.

Sec. Goniognatha.

Jaw of several transverse plates.

Sec. Holognatha.

Jaw of a single piece.

Sub-sec. Aulocognatha.

Marginal teeth quadrate.

Fam. Helicidæ.

Animal heliciform (except Otoconcha), the tail without a mucous gland.

Fam. Charopidæ.

Animal heliciform, the tail with a mucous gland.

Sub-sec. Oxygnatha.

Marginal teeth aculeate.

Fam. Vitrinidæ.

Animal heliciform, no caudal mucous gland.

Fam. Limacidæ.

Animal limaciform, no caudal mucous gland.

Fam. Zonitidæ.

Animal heliciform, a caudal mucous gland.

Sec. Elasmognatha.

Jaw with a posterior accessory plate.

Sec. Agnatha.

No jaw; teeth all aculeate.

Fam. Streptaxidæ.

Animal heliciform, no mucous gland.

Fam. Testacellidæ.

Animal limaciform, no mucous gland.

As Pulmonate Mollusca are now always classified principally by the structure of the animal and its dentition, it is not easy to make an analytical key leaving out these important points; but the following remarks may assist collectors in naming their shells.

  • 1.Species with a few rapidly increasing whorls belong to Otoconcha, Amphidoxa, Vitrina, Paryphanta, Elæa, Rhytida, or Daudebardia.

  • 2.Species with plaits inside the aperture belong to Tornatellina, Strobila, Endodonta, Paxillus, or Diplommatina.

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  • 3.Hairy species. Charopa, Thera, and Thalassia portia.

  • 4.Ribbed species in Pupa, Patula, Thera, Fruticicola, Strobila, Amphidoxa, Charopa, Psyra, and Phacussa.

  • 5.Smooth or striated species in Microphysa, Endodonta, Phrixgnathus, Omphidoxa, Pyrrha, Gerontia, Therasia, Thalassia, Paryphanta, and Elæa.

  • 6.Surface malleated in Rhytida.

  • 7.Trochiform species in Thera, Endodonta, Phrixgnathus, Leptopoma, Omphalotropis.

  • 8.Shell turreted in Realia, Pupa.

  • 9.Shell depressed but keeled in Endodonta, Phrixgnathus, Amphidoxa, Therasia, Thalassia.

  • 10.Discoidal or very depressed species, with rounded periphery in Patula, Microphysa, Fruticicola, Phrixgnathus, Amphidoxa, Gerontia, Charopa, Psyra, Phacussa, Paryphanta, Elæa.

  • 11.Species with very wide umbilicus in Patula, Phrixgnathus, Gerontia, Amphidoxa, Charopa, Paryphanta, Elæa, Cyclotus.

  • 12.Species with narrow umbilicus in Fruticicola, Stobila, Phrixgnathus, Amphidoxa, Therasia, Thalassia, Phacussa, Paryphanta, Rhytida.

  • 13.Imperforate or subperforate species in Carthæa, Fruticicola, Endodonta, Phrixgnathus, Amphidoxa, Psyra, Therasia, Pyrrha, Phacussa, Vitrina, Trochomorpha, Paryphanta.

  • 14.Species with spiral sculpture in Patula egesta, Charopa ida, Thalassia obnuhila, Cyclotus, Cyclophorus, and Omphalotropis.

  • 15.Sinistral species in Paxillus and Diplommatina.

Sec. Goniognatha.

Jaw in separate pieces, the median one often triangular: marginal teeth quadrate, usually broader than long, with several points.

Genus Carthæa, Hutton.

Animal heliciform. Jaw formed by many quadrate, overlapping plates, each higher than broad. Shell conoidly globose, the whorls slowly increasing; imperforate or narrowly perforate; aperture lunate; peristome straight, acute, the columellar margin rather reflexed.

C. Kiwi, Gray (1843). H. irradiata, Gould (1846).

Closely striated, periphery rounded. White with irregular radiating purplish streaks. Diameter 4. Dentition, 28–1–28.

The animal is unknown.

North Island.—Hokianga; Bay of Islands (Gould); Omaha (T. Kirk); Titirangi (Cheeseman); Napier; Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

Allied to Helix radiaria from the Solomon Islands.

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Sec. Holognatha.

Jaw in one piece; teeth arranged in nearly straight transverse rows on the radula; central tooth quadrate.

Sub-sec. Aulocognatha.

Marginal teeth quadrate, usually broader than long, and with several small points.

Fam. Helicidæ.

Animal heliciform, with an external shell; tail without any mucous gland.

Sub-fam. Buliminæ.

Shell ovoid, conoidal or turreted; the aperture longer than wide.

Genus Placostylus, Beck.

Shell large, imperforate, rugosely striate; the peristome thick and expanded, the margins united by a callus.

P. Bovinus, Bruguière (1785) [not B. auris-bovina, Reeve, f. 185, which is B. lessoni, Petit, from New Caledonia]; B. shongii, Lesson (1830); B. fibratus, Gray in Dieffenbach's New Zealand, ii., p. 263 [not of Martyn].

Shell solid, oblong conical; fulvous brown, occasionally streaked with chestnut, the suture of the lower whorls with a white band; interior reddish or yellowish-white; peristome thickened; apical whorls finely undulately ribbed. Length 3.5 inches. Dentition, 55–1–55.

Var. α.—Neozelanicus, Pfeiffer (1861)

Shell ovately oblong; peristome thinner.

Var. β.—Candidus, Crosse (1864).

Columella sub-vertical; peristome very thick, white.

North Island.—Cape Maria and North Cape (Dieffenbach, Gillies); Bay of Islands (Captain Cook, Lesson, Colenso, Gillies, etc.)

The animal has been described by Gould in the Zoology of the United States Exploring Expedition.

There has been some confusion in the name of this species. It appears that Captain Cook brought specimens of Placostylus from New Caledonia and New Zealand, and these were described by Bruguière as B. bovinus, from New Caledonia and New Holland. Martyn, about the same time, or a year before, had described the New Caledonian species as B. fibratus; and Ferussac, Lesson, Petit, and Crosse have all decided that our shell should be called bovinus.

P. Antipodarum, Gray (1843).

Peristome thin. Shell pale fuscous variegated with dark lines, principally at the suture, where traces of a white band may also be often seen; apical whorls finely ribbed. Length 1 inch.

The animal and dentition are unknown.

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North Island.—North Cape (Wellington Museum); Bream Head and Manawatu (Gillies); North Shore, Auckland (T. W. Kirk).

I am of opinion that this shell is the young of the last, although P. bovinus has never been found so far south. But, in deference to the opinion of Mr. Justice Gillies, I admit it as a distinct species until an examination of the animal settles the point.

Genus Tornatellina, Beck.

Shell minute, pellucid, columella truncated; a spiral ridge on the inner lip.

T. Neozelanica, Pfeiffer (1851).

Shell fulvous horny; variable in shape. Axis .13 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Greenwood, Kirk, Gillies).

The animal and dentition are unknown.

Sub-fam. Pupinæ.

Shell cylindrical or fusiform; aperture small.

Genus Pupa, Draparnaud.

Shell rimate, closely ribbed: whorls 9–12, not increasing; aperture sub-circular. Animal with tentacles as well as peduncles.

P. Neozelanica, Pfeiffer (1851).

Shell deep fuscous, with yellowish spots; apex rounded. Length .18 inch.

North Island.—Napier (Meinertzhagen); Waimarama (Gillies); Horokiwi, Wellington.

Adams considers that this species is a Vertigo, belonging to the sub-genus Isthmia of Gray. The animal and dentition are unknown.

Sub-fam. Heliciæ.

Shell globular, turbinate, trochiform, or discoidal.

Genus Patula, Held.

Shell depressed or discoidal, widely umbilicated, ribbed; whorls 4–6, slowly increasing; periphery rounded; aperture rotundly lunate; peristome simple, acute. Mantle included. Jaw striated or smooth.

A. Ribs on upper surface straight.

P. Coma, Gray (1843); H. tau, Pfeiffer (1861) [not H. coma of Pfeiffer, nor of Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiv., p. 150].

Ribs distant, about 9 in the tenth of an inch. Pale brown, with bands of reddish brown. Diameter .23 inch. Dentition, 13–1–13.

North Island.—Auckland (Sinclair, Greenwood, Cheeseman); Hawke's Bay; Wellington; Horokiwi, Wellington.

South Island.—Lake Guyon (F.W.H.); Greymouth (Helms); Bealey (Haast).

Allied to P. consimilis, Pease, from the Society Islands.

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Its reported occurrence in Tasmania is incorrect.

P. Lucetta, Hutton (1883); H. coma, Pfeiffer [not of Gray].

Ribs rather distant, about 15 in the tenth of an inch; spire convex; periphery obscurely angled. Pale brown, obscurely spotted. Diameter .28 inch. Dentition, 14–1–14.

North Island.—Hawke's Bay (Colenso); Wellington (F.W.H.).

P. Varicosa, Pfeiffer (1854).

Umbilicus moderate; spire slightly elevated, finely striated and “varicosely angled with distant ribs.” Fuscous. Diameter .14 inch.

New Zealand (Strange or Cuming).

I have not been able to make this species out.

P. Buccinella, Reeve (1852); P. gamma, Pfeiffer (1851).

Ribs close, about 30 in the tenth of an inch; spire flat. Pale brown, banded or clouded with dark brown. Diameter .14 inch. Dentition, 10–1–10.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman, Gillies); Petane, near Napier.

South Island.—Dunedin (F.W.H.).

P. Corniculum, Reeve (1852); H. eta, Pfeiffer (1851); not H. corniculum, Hombron and Jacquinot (1854).

Ribs very close, about 40 in the tenth of an inch. White, silky. Diameter .14 inch. Dentition, 14–1–14.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman, Gillies); Petane, near Napier.

South Island.—Oxford and Christchurch (Chilton).

P. Bianca, Hutton (1883).

Minute. Ribs very close, about 55 in the tenth of an inch. Horny brown, banded with darker. Diameter .1 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman); Horokiwi, Wellington.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms); Bealey (Haast).

P. Anguicula, Reeve (1852); H. theta, Pfeiffer.

Ribs close, about 33 in the tenth of an inch; aperture subcircular. Dark brownish with rufous streaks. Diameter .10 inch. Dentition, 11–1–11.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman).

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms); Oxford (Chilton).

Auckland Islands (H. Krone).

B. Ribs on upper surface sinuated.

P. Timandra, Hutton (1883).

Ribs distant, about 13 in the tenth of an inch. Brown, obscurely banded with paler. Diameter .12 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman, Gillies); Horokiwi, Wellington.

P. Jessica, Hutton (1883).

Ribs close, about 35 in the tenth of an inch. Dark reddish brown, marked with horny. Diameter .17 inch.

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South Island.—Bealey (Haast).

C. Ribs on upper surface arcuated.

P. Tapirina, Hutton (1882); P. coma, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiv., p. 150; not of Gray.

Ribs about 18 in the tenth of an inch. Horny brown, obscurely banded with reddish. Diameter .19 inch. Dentition, 13–1–13. Spire usually convex, but sometimes concave.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman, Gillies); Hawke's Bay (Meinertzhagen); Masterton and Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms); Temuka (Chilton); Dunedin and Queenstown (F.W.H.).

P. Sylvia, Hutton (1883).

Ribs distant, about 18 in the tenth of an inch; pale horny with thin bands of chestnut on the upper suface. Diameter .12. inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Gillies); Horokiwi, Wellington.

South Island.—Bealey (Haast).

Smaller, paler, and with narrower whorls than the last species.

P. Infecta, Reeve (1852); H. zeta, Pfeiffer (1851).

Ribs about 23 in the tenth of an inch. Pale horny, banded and tessellated with rufous. Diameter .14 inch. Dentition, 15–1–15.

North Island.—Petane, near Napier.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms); Oxford (Chilton); Bealey (Haast).

P. Biconcava, Pfeiffer (1851).

Spire deeply concave; aperture higher than broad; ribs about 32 in the tenth of an inch. Diameter .17 inch. Animal and dentition unknown.

North Island.—Thames, Auckland (Adams), a single specimen.

D. With spiral grooves.

P. Egesta, Gray (1849).

Strongly spirally grooved, and with distant, irregular ribs. Reddish brown, sometimes mottled with yellowish. Diameter .17 inch.

The animal and dentition are unknown.

North Island.—Auckland (Greenwood, Cheeseman, Gillies).

Genus Thera, Hutton.

Animal and jaw as in Patula. Shell conical, high, perforate, hairy; periphery angled.

T. Stipulata, Reeve (1852); H. alpha, Pfeiffer (1851); H. barbatula, Reeve (1852); H. beta, Pfeiffer (1851).

Ribs distant, about 14 in the tenth of an inch, and striated between; apex obtuse; umbilicus moderate. Yellowish brown, often marked with darker. Diameter .14; height .16 inch. Dentition, 12–1–12.

North Island.—Petane, near Napier.

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South Island.—Greymouth (Helms); Temuka (Chilton); Dunedin and Queenstown (F.W.H.).

Genus Rhagada, Albers.

Shell imperforate, or sub-perforate, globose, striated; whorls 4½–5½, the last slightly descending in front; aperture very oblique; peristome lipped within, somewhat expanded.

R. Rienga, Gray (1843).

Shell perforated, the perforation covered. Whitish, with a chestnut band, and many orange-coloured lines. Diameter .59 inch.

North Island.—North Cape (Dr. Dieffenbach?).

I have not seen this species: it is closely related to H. dringi from N. Australia.

Genus Fruticicola, Held.

Animal like Patula. Jaw with broad flat ribs. Shell narrowly umbilicated, depressly globose; periphery rounded; whorls 5–7, rather convex, ribbed; aperture broadly lunate; peristome acute, its columellar margin reflected.

F. Pilula, Reeve (1852); H. iota, Pfeiffer (1851).

Spire convex; closely ribbed, ribs about 17 in the tenth of an inch; umbilicus open. Pale horny variegated with reddish-brown. Diameter .29. Dentition, 27–1–27.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman, Gillies); Napier (Meinertzhagen); Wanganui and Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

Var. Granum, Pfeiffer (1857).

Spire conoidal, the ribs finer and closer, and the umbilicus narrower.

South Island.—Eyreton, N. Canterbury (Chilton).

The shell is very like that of Phacussa; but it is greyer, slightly thicker, and with stouter ribbing.

F. Chordata, Pfeiffer (1861).

Spire conoidal, closely ribbed; umbilicus covered. Diameter .15 inch.

New Zealand (Hochstetter).

I have not seen this species, unless it is the same as F. granum.

Genus Microphysa, Albers.

Animal as in Patula. Jaw with numerous broad flat ribs. Shell umbilicated, depressed, thin, delicately striate, scarcely shining; whorls 4–5, gradually increasing; aperture roundly lunate; peristome thin, simple.

M. Caput-Spinulæ, Reeve (1852); H. epsilon, Pfeiffer (1851).

Pale horny; umbilicus rather narrow; whorls 3½, membranous ribs about 30 in the tenth of an inch. Diameter .07 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman); Horokiwi, Wellington.

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M. Pumila, Hutton (1882).

Brownish horny; umbilicus moderate; whorls 4, membranous ribs about 25 in the tenth of an inch. Diameter .07 inch. Dentition, 13–1–13.

South Island.—Christchurch (J. F. Armstrong); Eyreton, N. Canterbury (Chilton).

M. Campbellica, Filhol (1880).

Shell minutely perforated, sub-globose, depressed, uniformly horny; above with crisped ribs, below finely striated. Whorls 4½, rather convex, regularly increasing; suture deeply impressed; aperture rounded; peristome simple, acute, straight; columellar margin slightly reflected. Diameter .12; height .08 inch.

Campbell Island.—(Dr. H. Filhol).

I have not seen this species.

Genus Strobila, Morse.

Animal as in Patula. Jaw with flat ribs. Shell umbilicated, depressed, striated or ribbed; periphery rounded; whorls 5–6, very slowly increasing; aperture lunately rounded; interior with spiral laminæ on the parietal wall and on the base of the last whorl.

S. Leioda, Hutton (1882).

Spire flat; ribs about 30 in the tenth of an inch; seven laminæ on the penultimate whorl, one on the columella, and ten on the parietal wall. Horny with pale rufous bands; umbilicus brown, narrow. Diameter .08 inch. Dentition, 12–1–12.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

Doubtfully included in Strobila as the jaw is not known.

Genus Endodonta, Albers.

Shell sub-perforate, conical or conoidal; the periphery angled; whorls narrow, the suture usually margined; aperture angularly lunate; inner lip and generally the columella and parietal wall with spiral laminæ; peristome straight acute. Jaw imbricately folded; or of many imbricating plates; papillate.

E. Leimonias, Gray (1849).

Conical high; no columellar plait; three parietal plaits, one on the penultimate whorl, and two on the outer lip, one above the other below the keel. Pale horny. Diameter .09; height .1 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Greenwood, Cheeseman).

E. Pœcilosticta, Pfeiffer (1851).

Spire conical; acute, finely ribbed, ribs about 22 in the tenth of an inch; a columellar plait only. Pale yellowish horny, with obscure chestnut spots. Diameter .17 inch. Dentition, 23–1–23.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman, Gillies); Napier; Wellington.

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E. Marina, Hutton (1883).

Spire conoidal rather obtuse; striated; a columellar plait, and two parietal plaits, none on the basal margin. Pale yellow faintly marked with chestnut. Diameter .13 inch.

North Island.—Remuera, near Auckland (Cheeseman).

E. Nerissa, Hutton (1883).

Spire conoidal, obtuse, striated; a columellar plait and six parietal plaits, three of which are on the basal margin. Pale horny with indistinct bands of chestnut. Diameter .11 inch.

North Island.—Remuera, near Auckland (Cheeseman).

Genus Phrixgnathus, Hutton.

Animal heliciform, the body elongated; mantle sub-central, slightly reflected over the peristome of the shell; no locomotive disc, nor mucous gland. Jaw imbricately folded, the surface covered with small papillæ. Shell trochiform, turbinate, or depressed, umbilicate or sub-perforate, smooth, rather shining, striated; aperture edentulous.

Perhaps this genus and the last should be placed in the Goniognatha. The transverse rows of teeth form an obtuse angle, salient posteriorly.

A. Subperforate.

P. Maria, Gray (1843); H. umbraculum, Pfeiffer (1851).

Spire conoidal, obtuse; periphery sharply angled; suture margined. Pale horny, with numerous undulating bands of reddish brown on both surfaces. Diameter .28 inch. Dentition, 47–1–47.

North Island.—Auckland (Sinclair, Greenwood, Cheeseman, Gillies); Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

Allied to H. insculpta (Pfr.), from Norfolk Island (Martens).

P. Conella, Pfeiffer (1861).

Spire conoidal, slightly acute, smooth; periphery slightly angled; suture slightly margined. Pale horny, with reddish brown spots and bands on both surfaces. Diameter .13 inch. Dentition, 38–1–38.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman, Gillies); Kakepuku (Hochstetter); Horokiwi, Wellington.

P. Ariel, Hutton (1883).

Spire conoidal, depressed; finely ribbed, ribs about 46 in the tenth of an inch; sub-carinate; suture impressed. Diameter .13 inch. Dentition, 32–1–32.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman); Wanganui (T. W. Kirk).

B. Narrowly umbilicated.

a. Spire conical.

P. Marginatus, Hutton (1882).

Spire acute; periphery sharply angled; suture margined. Pale horny, with broad radiating reddish-brown bands on the upper surface only. Diameter .17 inch. Dentition, 35–1–35.

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South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

P. Regularis, Pfeiffer (1854).

As high as broad; very finely striated; periphery acutely angled; suture impressed; umbilicus partly covered. Horny, covered with a thin epidermis, which is produced into ragged processes at the periphery. Diameter .15 inch. Dentition, 27–1–27.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

P. Erigone, Gray (1849); H. heldiana, Pfeiffer (1851).

As high as broad; apex obtuse; periphery obtusely angled; suture impressed. Pale horny, obscurely marked with reddish-brown. Diameter .08 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Greenwood, Cheeseman, Gillies).

b. Spire conoidal.

P. Celia, Hutton (1883); H. fatua, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiv., p. 153 [not of Pfeiffer].

Spire acute; periphery obtusely angled. Pale horny, with reddish-brown bands. Diameter .15 inch. Dentition, 20–1–20.

North Island.—Wanganui and Wellington (T. W. Kirk); Horokiwi, Wellington.

South Island.—Dunedin and Milford Sound (F.W.H.); Greymouth (Helms); Temuka (Chilton).

P. Phrynia, Hutton (1883).

Spire acute; periphery obtusely angled. Pale horny, radiately streaked with rufous; covered by a thin epidermis which is rather distantly wrinkled. Diameter .1 inch.

North Island.—Wanganui (T. W. Kirk).

P. Fatua, Pfeiffer (1857).

Spire rather acute; periphery sub-carinated; finely striated. Yellow horn colour. Diameter .2 inch.

North Island.—Taupiri (Hochstetter); Auckland (Cheeseman).

P. Glabriuscula, Pfeiffer (1851).

Semi-globose; periphery rounded; smooth. Pale yellow, angularly lined with rufous. Diameter .14 inch.

New Zealand (Strange).

I have not seen this species.

C. Broadly umbilicated.

P. Siadium, Pfeiffer (1875).

Spire conoidal, obtuse; suture margined; periphery acutely angled. Pale horny obscurely variegated with reddish-brown. Diameter .45 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Gillies); Seventy-mile Bush, Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

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P. Titania, Hutton (1883).

Spire conoidal, rather obtuse; suture margined; periphery obtusely angled. Pale horny irregularly banded with chestnut. Diameter .14 inch.

South Island.—Dunedin (F.W.H.).

P. Haasti, Hutton (1883).

Spire conoidal, depressed; suture impressed; periphery sub-carinated. Horny with irregular bands of reddish-brown and white. Diameter .12 inch.

South Island.—Mount Somers (Haast).

Genus Amphidoxa, Albers.

Shell depressed, thin, pellucid; periphery usually rounded; whorls 3 to 4, rapidly increasing; aperture very oblique. Mantle reflected over the peristome of the shell, with an even margin: tail depressed.

A. Smooth, polished.

A. Compressivoluta, Reeve (1852); H. omega, Pfeiffer (1851).

Imperforate, depressed. Horny, without markings. Diameter .3 inch. Dentition, 35–1–35.

North Island.—Petane, near Napier; Wellington (F.W.H.).

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

A. Cornea, Hutton (1882).

Smaller than the last, the whorls more convex. Diameter .25 inch. Dentition, 22–1–22.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman, Gillies).

A. Zebra, Guillon (1842); H. phlogophora, Pfeiffer (1849); H. flammigera, Pfeiffer (1852); H. multilimbata, Hombron and Jacquinot (1854).

Umbilicus very narrow or covered. Pale yellow horny with dark reddish brown undulating bands. Diameter .25 inch. Dentition, 21–1–21.

North Island.—Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms); Oxford (Chilton); Banks Peninsula (R. Brown).

Auckland Islands (British Museum).

A. Jacquenetta, Hutton (1883).

Umbilicus very narrow. Periphery sharply angled. Horny brown, without markings. Diameter .2 inch. Dentition, 28–1–28.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

A. Perdita, Hutton (1883).

Umbilicus narrow; spire convex, smooth. Horny without markings. Diameter .23 inch. Dentition, 20–1–20.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman, Gillies); Wanganui and Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

– 199 –

A. Chiron, Gray (1849).

Umbilicus moderate; spire convex, with distant membranous plaits. Horny without markings. Diameter .24 inch. Dentition, 21–1–21.

North Island.—Auckland (Greenwood, Cheeseman); Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

A. Rapida, Pfeiffer (1853).

Umbilicus moderate; spire flat, sub-immersed; whorls spirally striatulated. Chestnut with luteous streaks and dots. Diameter .3 inch.

New Zealand.—Locality doubtful. I have not seen this species; it is found in N. Australia, and a variety at the Solomon Islands.

A. Crebrieflammis, Pfeiffer (1851).

Umbilicus broad; spire convex, finely striated. Pale horny, with reddish undulating bands. Diameter .28 inch. Dentition, 18–1–18.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

B. Whorls ribbed.

Sub-genus Calymna, Hutton.

A. Costulata, Hutton (1882).

Umbilicus moderate; spire convex, closely ribbed; ribs about 45 in the tenth of an inch. Horny banded with reddish. Diameter .14 inch. Dentition, 14–1–14.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman).

A. Lavinia, Hutton (1883).

Umbilicus broad; spire flat, closely ribbed, ribs about 18 in the tenth of an inch; lower surface smooth. Yellow horny, mottled with rufous on the upper side. Diameter .5 inch.

North Island.—Palmerston North (T. W. Kirk).

Genus Otoconcha, Hutton.

Shell external, of very few rapidly increasing whorls, all of which are open underneath. Animal limaciform, much too large to withdraw into the shell; mantle rather anterior, covering the shell; no locomotive disc, nor mucous caudal gland. Jaw with distant ribs.

This genus appears to be allied to Peltella from Brazil and the West Indies.

O. Dimidiata, Pfeiffer (1851) Vitrina.

Shell pale horny, translucent, of two and a half whorls; striated. Diameter .2 inch. Animal entirely black, or pale coloured on the foot. Dentition, 26–1–26.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman); Thames (Adams); Hawke's Bay (Colenso); Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

Fam. Charopidæ.

Animal heliciform, with an external shell; tail with a mucous gland.

– 200 –

Genus Gerontia, Hutton.

Shell depressed, widely umbilicated, striated; periphery rounded; whorls about five, slowly increasing; aperture oblique. Mantle included. Jaw smooth, striated.

G. Pantherina, Hutton (1882).

Shell striated with membranous plaits. Horny brown. Diameter .37 inch. Dentition, 24–1–24.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

G. Cordelia, Hutton (1883).

Shell striated but not plaited. Pale horny marbled with reddish brown. Diameter .32 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman, Gillies). Apparently allied to Helix tiara, Mighels, from the Sandwich Islands.

Genus Pyrrha, Hutton.

Animal heliciform, mantle sub-central, reflected over the peristome with an even margin: tail truncate, with a large papilla and mucous gland. Jaw with flat ribs. Marginal teeth broad, with several points. Shell thin, translucent, of 4½–5½ regularly increasing whorls, subperforate.

P. Cressida, Hutton (1883).

Shell olive horny, striated; suture deep, spire convex. Dentition about 35–1–35.

North Island.—Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

South Island.—Preservation Inlet (F.W.H.); Haast River (Haast); Southland (G. M. Thomson); Greymouth (Helms).

Stewart Island (T. Kirk).

P. Guttula, Pfeiffer (1853).

Shell rather solid, subperforate, smooth, spire convex, suture inconsiderable, columella thickened. Pale yellowish horny. Diameter .7 inch.

North Island.—Mountains near Masterton (T. W. Kirk).

The animal and dentition are unknown, consequently it is referred here with doubt.

Genus Charopa, Albers.

Shell umbilicated, depressed, ribbed, usually with hairs; periphery rounded. Jaw with flat ribs. Marginal teeth broad, usually with many points.

O. Ida, Gray (1849); H. zic-zac, Gould (1848) (?).

Spire flat; umbilicus perspective; whorls with distant hairy ribs, about 12 in the tenth of an inch, and distant slight spiral membranous ridges, especially on the lower surface. Diameter .33 inch. Dentition, 22–1–22.

North Island.—Auckland (Greenwood, Cheeseman, Gillies); Napier; Wellington.

– 201 –

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

Apparently allied to H. hystrix, Mighels, from the Sandwich Islands. As the locality of H. zic-zac is uncertain, Gould first referring it to Australia and then to New Zealand, it will be better to omit it altogether.

Genus Psyra, Hutton.

Shell imperforate or narrowly umbilicated, ribbed, periphery rounded, not hairy. Jaw and teeth as in Charopa.

P. dimorpha, Pfeiffer (1851).

Spire nearly flat; umbilicus almost covered; columella callous; whorls with distant smooth ribs, about 9 in the tenth of an inch. Pale horny variegated with reddish-brown. Diameter 38 inch. Dentition about 30–1–30.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman, Gillies); Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

P. cassandra, Hutton (1883).

Spire flatly conoidal; umbilicus very narrow; columella slightly thickened; whorls finely ribbed; ribs about 20 in the tenth of an inch. Pale horny with longitudinal angulated bands of chestnut. Diameter .5 inch.

North Island.—Napier.

P. venulata, Pfeiffer (1857).

Spire slightly convex; imperforate, the columella callous; whorls closely ribbed, about 23 ribs to the tenth of an inch. Horny brown, sometimes variegated with reddish. Diameter .22 inch. Dentition, 17–1–17.

South Island.—Western slopes of Mount Cook (Filhol); Greymouth (Helms).

P. tullia, Gray (1849).

Spire slightly convex; narrowly umbilicated, the umbilicus covered; whorls closely ribbed, ribs about 30 in the tenth of an inch. Horny, or horny-brown obscurely marked with reddish, sometimes tessellated below. Diameter .14 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Greenwood); Wellington.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

P. adriana, Hutton (1883).

Spire flat, closely ribbed; ribs about 40 in the tenth of an inch; umbilicus narrow but open. Pale horny with spots and angular streaks of chestnut. Diameter .16 inch.

North Island.—Napier.

South Island.—Banks Peninsula (R. Brown).

– 202 –

P. planulata, Hutton (1883).

Spire slightly elevated; narrowly umbilicated, the umbilicus covered; whorls closely ribbed; ribs about 40 in the tenth of an inch. Horny brown sometimes clouded with rufous. Diameter .15 inch. Dentition, 11–1–11.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman).

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

P. miranda, Hutton (1883).

Spire convex; very finely ribbed, ribs about 50 in the tenth of an inch; imperforate or very narrowly umbilicated. Pale horny banded with chestnut on the upper surface and tessellated with the same colour below. Diameter .16 inch. Dentition, 17–1–17.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

Genus Therasia, Hutton.

Shell conoidal, depressed, periphery sub-carinated; sub-perforate or narrowly perforate; whorls smooth, striated, or with membranous plaits. Jaw with flat ribs. Marginal teeth broad, usually with several points.

A. Sub-perforate.

T. celinda, Gray (1849).

Whorls with distant membranous plaits, about 10 in the tenth of an inch. Pale brown. Diameter .14 inch. Dentition, 18–1–18.

North Island.—Auckland (Greenwood, Cheeseman).

T. valeria, Hutton (1883).

Whorls strongly striated. Yellowish horny, obscurely marked with reddish. Diameter .25 inch. Dentition, 26–1–26.

South Island.—Dunedin (F.W.H.).

T. ophelia, Pfeiffer (1854).

Umbilicus very narrow. Whorls delicately striated; periphery angulated. Horny with obscure reddish streaks. Diameter .40 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman).

South Island.—Dunedin (F.W.H.).

B. Narrowly umbilicated.

T. tamora, Hutton (1883).

Conical; irregularly plaited. Brownish horny. Diameter .17 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman).

T. thaisa, Hutton (1883).

Irregularly coarsely striated. Pale horny, variously streaked with brown. Diameter .35 inch. Dentition, 27–1–27.

North Island.—Auckland (Gillies); Napier; Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

South Island.—Waipara (Haast, Chilton); Waitaki, Queenstown, Dunedin and Lake Guyon (F.W.H.); Waiau, Southland (G. M. Thomson).

– 203 –

T. decidua, Pfeiffer (1857).

Delicately striated, and with fine membranous plaits; periphery subcarinated. Yellowish horny, obscurely marked with reddish. Diameter .3 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman); Wangaruru.

Genus Thalassia, Albers.

Shell conoidal, depressed; periphery rounded, or carinated; umbilicus narrow or moderate; whorls smooth, often with membranous plaits, especially in the young. Jaw with flat ribs. Marginal teeth longer than broad with one point very much longer than the others.

T. portia, Gray (1849); H. kappa, Pfeiffer (1851); H. collyrula, Reeve (1852).

Periphery rounded; umbilicus moderate; whorls with distant membranous hairy ribs; ribs about 12 in the tenth of an inch. Pale brown, obscurely variegated with rufous. Diameter .33 inch. Dentition, 24–1–24.

North Island.—Auckland (Sinclair, Greenwood, Gillies, Cheeseman).

When deprived of hairs this shell somewhat resembles Patula lucetta, but it may be distinguished by the narrower umbilicus, and more distant ribs.

T. obnubila, Reeve (1852); H. sigma and H. lambda, Pfeiffer (1851); H. igniflua, Reeve (1852).

Periphery sub-carinated; umbilicus moderate; whorls finely striated and with distant spiral shallow grooves; sometimes with membranous plaits. Brownish horny, often banded with reddish brown. Diameter .58 inch. Dentition, 36–1–36.

North Island.—Napier.

South Island.—Dunedin (F.W.H.); Oxford (Chilton).

T. propinqua, Hutton (1882).

Periphery obtusely angled; umbilicus very narrow; whorls striated, smooth. Pale horny with narrow undulating bands of reddish brown. Diameter .25 inch. Dentition, 31–1–31.

North Island.—Auckland (Gillies); Hawke's Bay (Colenso).

South Island.—Weka Pass (Chilton); Southland (G. M. Thomson).

T. neozelanica, Gray (1843).

Periphery acutely angled; umbilicus narrow; whorls striated, smooth, or with membranous plaits in the young. Horny brown, with undulating bands and spots of reddish brown. Diameter .42 inch. Dentition, 35–1–35.

North Island.—Auckland (Sinclair, Greenwood, Cheeseman, Gillies); Wellington (F.W.H.); Wanganui (T. W. Kirk); Napier (Colenso).

Chatham Islands.

– 204 –

Var. α.—antipoda, Hombron and Jacquinot (1854). Pale horny banded on both surfaces with brownish chestnut.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

Auckland Islands (H. and J., H. Krone).

Var. β.—aucklandica, Guillon (1842). Yellowish brown with red spots on the upper surface only.

Auckland Islands.

Allied to H. excavata, H. and J., from Tahiti. The Chatham Island specimens are too much rubbed to say to which variety they belong.

Sub-sec. Oxygnatha.

Marginal teeth aculeate, the base longer than broad with a single long curved point.

Fam. Vitrinidæ.

Animal heliciform; the mantle more or less reflected over the shell; no caudal mucous gland.

Genus Trochomorpha, Albers.

Shell umbilicated or imperforate, conical; the apex obtuse; whorls 5–8, the last carinated.

T. hermia, Hutton (1883).

Imperforate; closely plicated above, polished below. Horny brown, paler above than below; columella callous, white. Diameter .7 inch.

North Island.—Manawatu.

The animal and dentition are unknown, and the generic position is doubtful.

Genus Vitrina, Draparnaud.

Shell imperforate, thin, pellucid, shining, depressed; whorls 2–3, rapidly increasing. Jaw smooth with a median projection.

V. kermadecensis, Pfeiffer.

Shell polished, slightly undulated with growth-lines; spire flat; whorls 3. Pale yellow olive. Diameter .34 inch.

North Island.—Hobson's Glen, Auckland (T. W. Kirk).

Found also at the Kermadec Islands.

The animal and dentition are unknown and the generic position is doubtful.

Fam. Limacidæ.

Animal elongated; mantle small, shield-like, enclosing the shell. No caudal mucous gland.

Genus Limax, Linné.

Mantle anterior, the front edge free. Foot with a locomotive disc.

Sub-genus Milax, Gray.

Back keeled to the mantle.

– 205 –

L. antipodum, Pfeiffer (1855).

Greyish or brownish; mantle rounded behind. Length 1 inch. Dentition, 40–1–40.

North Island.—Wellington (F.W.H.)

South Island.—Dunedin and Banks Peninsula (F.W.H.)

L. emarginatus, Hutton (1879).

Dark grey or olive; mantle emarginate behind. Length 1 inch. Dentition, 46–1–46.

South Island.—Dunedin (F.W.H.)

L. fuliginosus, Gould (1846).

Sooty black, tentacles reddish at the tip. Length 2.5 inch.

North Island.—Bay of Islands (Dr. Pickering).

I have not seen this species.

Fam. Zonitidæ.

Animal heliciform. A caudal mucous gland.

Genus Hyalina, Ferussac.

Shell umbilicated, depressed or discoidal, shining and vitreous; whorls 5–6, gradually increasing. Jaw smooth or striated.

H. novaræ, Pfeiffer (1861).

Spire flat: whorls 4, finely striated at the suture; suture scarcely impressed; umbilicus somewhat narrow. Pale yellowish horny. Diameter .23 inch.

North Island.—Bay of Islands (Hochstetter).

I have not seen this species. According to Pfeiffer it is allied to H. remota, Benson, from St. Helena. Perhaps it is the young of Zonites cellarius.

Genus Phacussa, Hutton.

Shell depressed; periphery rounded; whorls 5–6, gradually increasing. Mantle included. Jaw with flat ribs.

P. hypopolia, Pfeiffer (1851).

Spire almost flat; closely ribbed; ribs about 23 in the tenth of an inch; narrowly umbilicated. Horny, silky, sometimes obscurely marked with brown. Diameter .26 inch.

North Island.—Hawke's Bay (Colenso); Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

The dentition is unknown.

P. helmsi, Hutton (1882).

Spire convex; rather distantly ribbed; ribs about 16 in the tenth of an inch; narrowly umbilicated. Horny brown. Diameter .35 inch. Dentition, 28–1–28.

Var. α.—maculata. Shell spotted and banded with reddish.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

– 206 –

P. fulminata, Hutton (1882).

Spire convex, finely striated; very narrowly umbilicated; columella sub-callous. Pale horny with reddish-brown undulating bands. Diameter .34 inch. Dentition, 38–1–38.

Stewart Island (T. Kirk).

Sec. Elasmognatha.

Jaw in a single piece, with a more or less quadrate projecting plate above.

Fam. Janellidæ.

Animal limaciform, without tentacles; mantle rudimentary or absent. Respiratory orifice near the median line on the back.

Genus Janella, Gray.

Mantle absent; shell rudimentary; a mucous pore in front of the respiratory opening. Back with a longitudinal groove giving off oblique branches on each side.

J. bitentaculata, Quoy and Gaimard (1832); Athoracophorus bitentaculatus, Gould (1852); J. antipodarum, Gray (1853).

Yellowish, marked with pale brown; tail depressed, acute. Dentition, 250–1–250.

Var. papillata, Hutton (1879).

Back with small papillæ.

North Island.—Wellington (F.W.H.).

South Island.—Tasman Bay (Quoy); Christchurch (Fereday); Greymouth (Helms); Dunedin (F.W.H.).

Auckland Islands (H. Krone).

Chatham Islands (H. Travers).

J. marmorea, Hutton (1879).

Blackish marbled with pale brown; tail rounded, obtuse. Dentition, 258–1–258.

South Island.—Dunedin (Bourne); Greymouth (Helms).

Sec. Agnatha.

Jaw absent; all the teeth aculeate; the transverse rows forming an angle salient posteriorly.

Fam. Streptaxidæ.

Animal heliciform. Shell globose or depressed.

Genus Streptaxis, Gray.

Shell umbilicated, globosely depressed; the base polished; convex; striated above; the last whorl enlarged and descending; peristome expanded, reflected.

S. taranaki, Gray (1843).

Umbilicus moderate; peristome thin, expanded; whorls 5. Pale horny, shining and white within. Diameter .64 inch.

– 207 –

North Island.—Taranaki (Dr. Dieffenbach?); Possession Island, Torres Straits (Ince).

I have not seen this species; it is closely allied to H. delessertiana, from N. Australia.

Genus Paryphanta, Albers.

Shell large umbilicated or imperforate; depressed, of few whorls, the last rapidly increasing; covered with a thick shining epidermis involving the peristome.

P. busbyi, Gray (1841).

Blackish green; whorls 4 ½; umbilicus broad, perspective. Diameter 3 inches. Dentition, 50–0–50.

North Island.—Hokianga and Bay of Islands.

Allied to H. atramentaria from Victoria.

P. hochstetteri, Pfeiffer (1861).

Greenish fulvous with undulating chestnut lines; whorls 5½; umbilicus moderate, not pervious. Diameter 2.75 inches.

North Island.—Manawatu (Travers, Gillies).

South Island.—Collingwood (Hochstetter); Picton (Seymour).

P. gilliesii, Smith (1880).

Dark chestnut with yellowish spiral lines; shell pliable; whorls 5–6, the last separated from the previous one for some distance from the aperture: umbilicated. Diameter 1.4 inch.

South Island.—Collingwood (Travers); Nelson (Gillies).

The animal and dentition are unknown.

P. milligani, Pfeiffer (1852).

Dark olive brown; imperforate; whorls 3, polished, uneven with growth lines. Diameter .86 inch.

North Island.—Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

I have not been able to compare this shell with Tasmanian specimens so I retain the name given to it by Mr. Kirk. The animal and dentition are unknown.

Genus Elæa, Hutton.

Shell small; epidermis thin, not involving the peristome; umbilicus wide; whorls few, rapidly increasing.

E. coresia, Gray (1849).

Yellow horny without markings or with fuscous streaks; spire nearly flat; whorls 3, striated; umbilicus very broad, showing all the whorls. Diameter .27 inch. Dentition, 9–0–9.

North Island.—Auckland (Greenwood, Cheeseman); Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

– 208 –

E. jeffreysiana, Pfeiffer (1851).

Horny with chestnut streaks; spire flat; whorls 4; striated; umbilicus very broad, perspective. Diameter .28 inch. Dentition, 9–0–9.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman, Gillies).

The shell of this species closely resembles that of Amphidoxa crebriflammis, but the spire is flatter and the umbilicus wider.

Genus Rhytida, Albers.

Shell umbilicated, thin, wrinkled and malleated, of few rapidly increasing whorls; aperture oblique.

R. dunniæ, Gray (1841).

Brown; umbilicus moderate; periphery sharply keeled. Diameter .95 inch.

North Island.—Bay of Islands (Colenso); Auckland (Gillies).

R. greenwoodi, Gray (1849).

Olive-brown; umbilicus moderate, often obtusely keeled; periphery rounded. Diameter .92 inch. Dentition, 10–0–10.

North Island.—Auckland (Greenwood, Cheeseman); Hawke's Bay (Colenso).

R. patula, Hutton (1882). Horny brown; umbilicus rather narrow, not keeled; aperture very oblique. Diameter .9 inch. Dentition, 14–0–14 to 18–0–18. Outer tooth but one with an angular ridge.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms); Balclutha (F.W.H.).

R. citrina, Hutton (1882).

Yellowish olive, pellucid; umbilicus narrow. Diameter .8 inch. Dentition, 17–0–17. Teeth smooth, the outer tooth much smaller.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms); Buller River (Haast).

R. australis, Hutton (1882).

Olive brown; umbilicus narrow. Diameter .44 inch. Dentition, 16–0–16. Teeth smooth, the two outer ones much smaller.

Stewart Island (T. Kirk).

Perhaps a variety of the last species.

R. urnula, Pfeiffer (1854).

Greenish brown; umbilicus very narrow, covered. Diameter .63 inch.

North Island.—Wellington (F.W.H., T. W. Kirk); Pohui.

Fam. Testacellidæ.

Animal limaciform, with a small shell on the posterior part of the back.

Genus Daudebardia, Hartmann.

Shell depressed, paucispiral. Teeth not barbed.

D. neozelanica, Pfeiffer (1862).

Shell of 2½ whorls, fulvous brown, distinctly striated; columella thickly callous above. Diameter .6 inch.

– 209 –

North Island.—Waikato (Hochstetter, F.W.H.); Wainuiomata (T. W. Kirk).

Genus Testacella, Cuvier.

Mantle divided into numerous lobes. Teeth barbed at the point. Shell auriform, sub-spiral.

T. vagans, Hutton (1882).

Slate grey above, passing into yellowish white on the sides. Dentition, 15–0–15.

North Island.—Waiuku (T. Kirk); Auckland (Cheeseman).

Sec. Tænioglossa.

Animal with a rostrum, the respiratory chamber open in front; eyes at the base of the tentacles. Foot with an operculum. Dentition, 3–1–3.

Fam. Cyclophoridœ.

Operculum horny or calcareous, spiral, the nucleus central.

Sub-fam. Cyclotinœ.

Operculum of two laminæ, the inner horny, the outer calcareous.

Genus Cyclotus, Guilding.

Shell discoidal, or turbinately depressed, widely umbilicated; aperture entire, circular; peristome simple or double, straight, expanded, or reflexed.

C. charmian, Hutton (1883).

Shell with spiral raised striæ; periphery with an undulating keel; umbilicus wide, perspective. Diameter .4 inch. Operculum circular, of many whorls, the calcareous lamina thickened round the margin, and with a raised centre.

North Island.—Horokiwi, Wellington.

Sub-fam. Cyclophorinœ.

Operculum horny.

Genus Leptopoma, Pfeiffer.

Shell globosely turbinate or conical, narrowly umbilicated; peristome simple, reflexed, the margins wide apart, sometimes united by a very thin callus. Operculum circular, horny membranous, narrowly whorled, flat.

L. pannosa, Hutton (1882).

Conical, brown, covered with a dark fuscous, ragged epidermis; peristome single. Diameter .11 inch; height .13 inch.

South Island.—Greymouth (R. Helms).

L. calva, Hutton (1882).

Conical, reddish-brown, smooth; peristome single. Diameter .08; height .13 inch.

South Island.—Greymouth (Helms).

– 210 –

L. pallida, Hutton (1883).

Conical, pale brown, with a pale plicated epidermis; peristome single. Diameter .13; height .2 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Cheeseman).

Genus Cyclophorus, Montford.

Shell globosely turbinated or depressed; umbilicated; aperture circular; peristome continuous. Operculum circular.

C. lignarius, Pfeiffer (1857).

Shell turbinated, rather thin, covered with an opaque epidermis; aperture ovately rotund; peristome double. Operculum unknown.

Axis .16; breadth .2 inch.

New Zealand.

I have not seen this species.

C. cytora, Gray (1849).

Minute, trochiform, spirally striated; periphery rounded; brown. Operculum horny, of a few rapidly-enlarging whorls (?).

Axis .08; breadth .1 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Greenwood).

I have not seen this species.

Genus Paxillus, Adams.

Shell pupiform, spire acuminate; aperture semiovate, ascending on the body-whorl; umbilical region with a spiral ridge; inner lip with a spiral fold; peristome double.

P. peregrina, Gould (1848).

Shell sinistral, solid, perforated; whorls 8, flattened. Rufous. Axis .37 inch.

New Zealand (Gould).

I have not seen this species.

Genus Diplommatina, Benson.

Shell subovate, whorls convex, the last subascendent; inner lip with a spiral fold; aperture subcircular; peristome double.

D. chordata, Pfeiffer (1855).

Shell sinistral, thin, distantly ribbed; diaphanous, white. Axis .16 inch.

New Zealand (Strange).

I have not seen this species. A variety occurs at Lord Howe's Island.

Fam. Cyclostomidæ.

Operculum ovate, of a few more or less rapidly-enlarging whorls, the nucleus eccentric.

Genus Omphalotropis, Pfeiffer.

Shell sub-conical, imperforate or umbilicated; simple or keeled round the perforation; aperture oval; peristome simple, the margins disjoined.

– 211 –

O. vestita, Pfeiffer (1855).

Perforated, striated, and spirally ridged, covered with a fuscous epidermis; last whorl with an acute keel below the middle, and another round the umbilicus. Axis .2; diameter .12 inch.

New Zealand.

I have not seen this species.

Genus Realia, Gray.

Shell perforate or sub-perforate, turreted, rather smooth; aperture ovate; peristome continuous, double.

A. Suture impressed.

R. egea, Gray (1849).

Pale brown, variegated with yellowish, with a deep brown band round the axis; the umbilical region often keeled. Axis .29; breadth .13 inch.

North Island.—Auckland (Greenwood, Cheeseman); Wanganui (T. W. Kirk).

R. turriculata, Pfeiffer (1854).

Blackish brown, variegated with chestnut or yellowish, sometimes a pale band near the base. Axis .36; breadth .14 inch.

North Island.—Papakura (Cheeseman); Whangarei (Gillies).

A more acute spire than the last species.

B. Suture margined.

R. carinella, Pfeiffer (1861).

Pale brown, faintly marbled with darker. Axis .27; diameter .13 inch.

North Island.—Drury and Taupiri (Hochstetter); Auckland (Cheeseman).

R. hochstetteri, Pfeiffer (1861).

Fuscous. Axis .36; diameter .16 inch.

North Island.—Bay of Islands (Hochstetter); Auckland (Gillies).

The spire is more acute than in the last species.

Introduced Species.

Helix aspersa, Müller.

Shell imperforate, subglobose, the surface finely wrinkled and indented; yellowish or greyish with variable bands of chestnut crossed by narrow undulating flamules of yellowish. Greatest diameter 1.25 inch. Dentition, 50–1–50.

Hab. Auckland; Nelson; Greymouth.

Helix hortensis, Müller.

Shell imperforate, subglobose, shining, smooth; olivaceous yellow, often variously ornamented with spiral bands or lines of rufous. Greatest diameter .8 inch. Dentition, 32–1–32.

Hab. Auckland.

– 212 –

Arion fuscus, Müller; A. incommodus, Hutton.

Dark grey with a lateral stripe on the mantle and a longitudinal band on each side black; sole of foot yellow. Dentition, 32–1–32.

Hab. Dunedin.

Zonites cellarius, Müller; Hyalina corneo-fulva, Pfeiffer.

Shell sub-discoidal, pellucid, smooth, polished; light greenish horn; whorls 5; umbilicus moderate. Greatest diameter .5 inch. Dentition, 14–1–14.

Hab. Bay of Islands; Auckland; Napier.

H. corneo-fulva is described as “sub-orbicular,” but the dimensions given do not agree.

Limax maximus, Linné.

Light brown, usually with spots and stripes of black on the back and sides. Length sometimes 4 inches. Dentition, 76–1–76.

Hab. Dunedin.

Limax flavus, Linné.

Yellowish or ashy brown with pale spots; head and eye-peduncles bluish, tentacles white; the tail keeled. Length sometimes 3 inches. Dentition, 60–1–60.

Hab. Dunedin; Greymouth.

Limax agrestis, Linné, L. molestus, Hutton.

Whitish, greyish, black, or yellowish, sometimes spotted; eye-peduncles and tentacles darker; tail shortly keeled. Length about 1 inch. Dentition, 45–1–45.

Hab. Auckland, Wellington, Nelson, Greymouth, Christchurch, Dunedin, etc.