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Volume 16, 1883
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Art X.—Revision of the recent Rhachiglossate Mollusca of New Zealand.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 6th September, 1883.]

In the Catalogue of the Marine Mollusca,* and in the Manual of the Mollusca, published by the Colonial Museum and Geological Survey Department, no attempt is made to trace out the synonymy of the species, and but very little to expunge those names which have no right to appear in our fauna. These things were not attempted, partly for want of books of

[Footnote] * “Catalogue of the Marine Mollusca of New Zealand, with Diagnoses of the Species.” By Frederick Wollaston Hutton, F.G.S., C.M.Z.S., Assistant-Geologist (Wellington, 1873).

[Footnote] † “Manual of the New Zealand Mollusca. A Systematic and Descriptive Catalogue of the Marine and Land Shells, and of the Soft Mollusks and Polyzoa of New Zealand and the adjacent Seas.” By F. W. Hutton, F.G.S., C.M.Z.S, Professor of Biology, Canterbury College, New Zealand University. Late Curator of the Otago Museum (Wellington, 1880).

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reference, and partly because it was thought desirable that the original descriptions should be reproduced in a form that was easily attainable throughout the colony. The present paper is an attempt, for a portion of the Mollusca, to clear the list of the names of species not found in New Zealand, and to settle, to some extent, the true nomenclature of those that remain.

The number of shells erroneously put down to New Zealand is surprising. Thus the present list contains 45 true New Zealand species, while 37 have been rejected as spurious. Mr. Tenison-Woods is inclined to think that this is in large part owing to the late Mr. L. Reeve regarding Van Diemen's Land as a part of New Zealand. This is probably true, but I suspect that most of the mistakes must be attributed to the carelessness of Mr. Cuming, who appears to have attached localities to his shells pretty well at random.

The classification followed is that of Professor Theodore Gill, of Washington, which I regard as, on the whole, the most natural yet proposed. Many conchologists object to it as founded too much on lingual dentition, which they say is inconvenient; is not found in the whole of the Mollusca; fails to separate even the phytophagous from the zoophagous animals; is as yet known only in a comparatively few species; and cannot be applied to fossils. But the odontophore is the most complicated organ possessed by the Gastropoda, and therefore is, of all others, best adapted for tracing out genealogies; for it is impossible to believe that two similar complicated dentitions could have arisen independently. On the other hand the shell is simple in structure; and very similar shells have certainly arisen independently in several cases. The objection that an examination of the dentition is “inconvenient” is of no value; conchologists must learn to use the microscope like other naturalists. To object to the Gastropoda being classified by the odontophore because it is absent in a few genera is ridiculous. That it fails to separate the phytophagous and zoophagous species is only partly true; but, so far as it goes, shows that such a division has but little value. That the dentition is as yet only known in comparatively few species is because conchologists will not take the trouble to examine it, and merely proves how much yet remains to be done in the classification of the Mollusca. The last objection, that the test cannot be applied to fossil species, is hardly worth answering. It is as if palæontologists were to insist upon botanists classifying plants by their leaves because flowers were rarely found fossil. To object to an attempt to find a true classification of living Mollusca because, if found, it might upset our ideas of the value of shells in palæontology is, I suppose, one of the weakest arguments ever uttered by naturalists.

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As there is great difference among conchologists in the spelling of the specific name intended to represent that the species comes from New Zealand, I shall spell it uniformly neozelanicus, as I have already done in my Revision of the Land Shells, believing that this is the most correct and the shortest form.

Order Rhachiglossata.

Dentition, 1–1–1, or 0–1–0.

Sub-order Hamiglossa.

Dentition, 1–1–1; the lateral teeth versatile, with an elongated base of attachment, and only one cusp.

Fam. Muricidæ.

Animal with the mantle enclosed, and the foot simple; eyes on the sides of the tentacles. Shell fusiform or ovate, not porcellanous; columella smooth.*

Sub-fam. Muricinæ.

Shell with the spire usually longer than the aperture; the canal long or moderate; the whorls crossed by varices; the columella rounded; no posterior canal. Operculum ovate, with the nucleus subapical.

Genus Murex, Linné.

Whorls with three or more varices; the canal partly closed.

Sub-genus Phyllonotus, Swainson.

Varices numerous; canal rather short, wide, curved.

Murex neozelanicus, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. ii., p. 529, pl. 36, f. 5–7 (1832); Gray, Figures of Molluscous Animals, i., pl. 7, f. 3; Tryon, Manual of Conchology, ii., p. 108, pl. 29, f. 268.

Hab. Cook Straits.

Varices with five or six slightly curved spines on each whorl, the posterior much longer than the others.

The operculum is figured by Quoy, the dentition is unknown.

Murex octogonus, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolábe, Zool. ii., p. 531, pl. 36, f. 8–9 (1832); Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., i., pl. 7, f. 4; Tryon,

[Footnote] * The following species are omitted as not really inhabiting New Zealand:—

Murex ramosus, Linn. Inhabits the Indo-Pacific Province.
Typhis cleryi, Sowb. Inhabits New South Wales.
Trophon coronatum, Adams. Inhabits Japan.
Fusus vulpicolor, Sowb. Inhabits Falkland Islands.
Fusus incisus, Gould. Inhabits California.
Adamsia typica, Dunker. Inhabits Australia.
Purpura patens, Homb. and Jacq. Inhabits St. Paul's Island.
Purpura tesselliata, Lesson. Not again recognized.
Ricinula iodostoma, Lesson. Inhabits Tahiti.
Ricinula ricinus, Linn. Inhabits Indo-Pacific Province.

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Man. Conch., ii., p. 110, pl. 30, f. 134 [not M. octogonus, Sowb., Pro. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 428]; M. dipsacus, Broderip, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 194; M. peruvianus, Sowb., Pro. Zool. Soc., 1840, Conch. Icon., f. 103.

Hab. Bay of Islands; Hauraki Gulf; Cook Straits. Found also in Japan and Peru.

Varices eight or nine, each with seven to thirteen strongly recurved spines, which however are sometimes obsolete.

The operculum and dentition are figured in the Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xv., pl. xiii., f. c.

Sub-genus Pteronotus, Swainson.

Varices three, fin-shaped; canal moderate, somewhat recurved.

Murex angasi, Crosse (Typhis), Jour, de Conch., xi., p. 86, pl. 1, f. r. (1863); Tryon, Man. Conch., ii., p. 88, pl. 40, f. 522 [not ib., p. 109]. M. eos, Hutton, Cat. Marine Moll. of N.Z., p. 8 (1873).

Hab. Dead specimens only have been found at the Bay of Islands and Wellington (T. W. Kirk). It is not uncommon in Australia and Tasmania.

The colour is yellowish pink.

Genus Trophon, Montfort.

Shell white; whorls with numerous lamelliform varices; canal open, usually bent to the left.

A. Shell thin, canal produced.

Trophon ambiguus, Philippi, Abbild., Fusus, pl. 1, f. 2 (1844); Tryon, Man. Conch., ii., pl. 33, f. 365; Homb. and Jacq., Voy. Pôle Sud, Zool., v., p. 109, pl. 25, f. 13, 14. Fusus cretaceus, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 48 (1847). Murex candida, H. and A. Adams, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1863, p. 430. Fusus varius et lyratus, Cat. Marine Moll. of N.Z. (1873), [not of Lamarck].

Hab. Cook Straits to Foveaux Straits.

Whorls angled, and with numerous, unequal, spiral ribs; varices about 12 or 14, often produced at the angles, distant, sometimes obsolete on the body-whorl.

A very variable species. The operculum and dentition are unknown.

B. Shell thick; canal short.

Trophon stangeri, Gray (Fusus) in Dieffenbach's New Zealand, ii., p. 230 (1843). Purpura rugosa, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool., ii., p. 569, pl. 38, f. 19–21 (1833) [not of Lamarck]; Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., ii., pl. 96, f. 7; Tryon, Man. Conch., ii., pl. 51, f. 112 and 122; Purpura quoyi, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f, 71 (1846) [not P quoyi, Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., iv., pl. 70]. M. spiratus, Adams, P.Z.S., 1863, p. 429; Kuster, Conch. Cab., t. 73, f. 8; Tryon, Man. Conch., ii., pl. 33, f. 354. Purpura retiaria, Hutton, Jour, de Conch., 1878, p. 20.

Hab. Auckland.

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Whorls angled, with six or seven distant spiral ribs; varices very numerous and close; occasionally larger ones at regular intervals (retiaria).

A smaller and thicker shell than the last. The dentition and operculum are figured in the Trans. N.Z. Institute, xv., pl. xiii., f. Q. The operculum is also figured by Quoy.

Trophon cheesemani, Hutton, New Zealand Journal of Science, 1882, p. 69; Trans. N.Z. Institute, vol. xv., p. 131 (Purpura).

Hab. Port Waikato.

Whorls rounded, with five narrow spiral grooves, crossed by growth lines; right lip strongly toothed inside; columella rounded.

As the operculum and dentition of this species are unknown, it is doubtful whether it should be placed here or in Polytropa.

Genus Kalydon, Hutton (1883).

Shell purplish or yellowish brown, shortly fusiform, longitudinally ribbed or undulated, and spirally striated. Operculum ovate, with the nucleus subapical. Dentition as in Trophon.

Differs from Trophon in wanting varices and from Urosalpinx in the operculum.

Kalydon duodecimus, Gray (Fusus) in Dieffenbach's New Zealand, ii., p. 230 (1843). Fusus corticatus, Hutton, Cat. Marine Moll. of N.Z., p. 9 (1873).

Hab. Auckland to Banks Peninsula.

Shell with about twelve broad, rounded, rather close, longitudinal ribs; crossed on the body-whorl by about twelve narrow spiral ribs, of which the anterior six are distant, the posterior five or six crowded. Canal moderate, nearly straight.

The operculum and dentition are figured in Trans. N.Z. Institute, xv., pl. xiii., f. D. (paivæ).

This species appears to be allied to Fusus plumbeus, Gould, from Tierra del Fuego. Trophon paivæ, Crosse, belongs to the genus, but has only eight or nine narrow longitudinal ribs, and the spiral ribs are closer.

Dr. Gray's description is a compound of this species and Pisania vittata.

Kalydon plebeius, Hutton, Cat. Marine Moll. of N.Z., p. 9 (1873).

Hab. Auckland to Stewart Island.

Shell with numerous narrow longitudinal ribs (sharp in the young) crossed by ten to fifteen strong spiral ribs, giving rise to a latticed or subnodulose appearance; canal short, sharply bent.

Dr. von Martens refers this to Fusus corrugatus, Reeve, but our shell is much smaller and differently marked, if Reeve's figure is correct.

The operculum and dentition are not known.

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Kalydon inferus, Hutton, Cat. Marine Moll. of N.Z., p. 9 (1873).

Hab. Stewart Island and Chatham Islands.

Perhaps a variety of the last species, but broader, the longitudinal ribs more irregular or obsolete, and the aperture strongly angled and shorter than the spire. The dentition and operculum are unknown.

In the Manual of the Mollusca of New Zealand, 1880, there is a mistake in the description of this species, all the words after “bent to the left,” including the dimensions, should be omitted, as they have got in from the description of Siphonalia dilatata. The real dimensions are, length 1.1 inch; breadth .7 inch.

Sub-fam. Purpurinæ.

Shell with the spire usually short; the canal short or reduced to a notch; the columella more or less flattened. Operculum with the nucleus lateral or sub-lateral.

Genus Purpura, Bruguière.

Spire short; aperture patulous with an oblique notch at the anterior end, and a less distinct posterior canal. Operculum semi-cordate with the nucleus lateral.

Purpura succincta, Martyn, Univ. Conch., pl. 45 (Buccinum) (1784); Reeve, Conch. Icon., Purpura, f. 23; Tryon, Man. Conch., ii., p. 51, f. 118.

Hab. Auckland to Nelson. Found also in New South Wales.

Deeply grooved, the ribs and grooves smooth, without any smaller raised ridges.

The operculum and dentition are not known.

Purpura textiliosa, Lamarck, Anim. sans Vert. (1820); Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. ii., p. 552, pl. 37, f. 1–3; Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., i., pl. 14, f. 6; Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 66; Tryon, Man. Conch., ii., pl. 51, f. 119 and 125.

Hab. Auckland to Cook Straits. Found also in S. Australia (?).

Ribs and grooves with smaller ridges; or if uniform in size, they are shallow and close. The dentition and operculum are figured in the Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xv., pl. 13, f. P. The operculum has also been figured by Quoy.

Genus Polytropa, Swainson.

Shell with the spire acuminate; the aperture narrowed anteriorly; the canal small and oblique; no posterior canal. Operculum oval, with the nucleus sub-lateral.

Polytropa striata, Martyn (Buccinum), Univ. Conch., pl. 7 (1784) [not Purpura striata, Q. and G.]; P. rugosa, Lamarck, Anim. sans Vert. (1820) [not P. rugosa, Q. and G.]; P. rupestris, Valenciennes, Voy. Pôle Sud, Zool.

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v., p. 89, pl. 22, f. 23 (1854); Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., iii., pl. 266, f. 4 (named wrong); Tryon, Man. Conch., ii., pl. 51, f. 107; P. squamata, Hutton, Jour. de Conch., 1878, p. 9 (jaw).

Hab. Cook Straits to Stewart Island, Chatham Islands, Auckland Islands. Found also in Tasmania, New South Wales, and Kerguelen's Land.

White, with eight or nine narrow spiral grooves, which are crossed by thin varices. In the young the varices cross the ribs as well as the grooves.

The operculum and dentition are figured in the Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., pl. xiii., f. R.

Polytropa scobina, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. iii., p. 567, pl. 38, f. 12, 13 (1835); Tryon, Man. Conch., ii., pl. 51, f. 123 [not Purpura scobina, Reeve.]

Hab. Bay of Islands to Auckland and Port Waikato.

Distinguished by having three prominent scabrous ribs on the body whorl.

The dentition and operculum are figured in the Trans. N.Z. Institute, xv., pl. xiii., f. s.

Polytropa albomarginata, Deshayes, in Guerin's Mag. de Zool., 1841, pl. 44; Tryon, Man. Conch., ii., pl. 51, f. 121. P. scobina, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 72 (1846) [not of Q. and G.]. P. tristis, Dunker, Verhandl. Zool-bot. Verein zu Wien, 1866, p. 910; and Reise der Novara, Moll., p. 6, pl. 1, f. 4 (1868). P. biconica, Hutton, Jour. de Conch., 1878, p. 20.

Hab. Abundant throughout the South Island, and extending as far north as Auckland.

This is a very variable species, and at Auckland passes into the last. Usually it is rough, but at Lyttelton it is sometimes quite smooth, even polished, and of a yellowish-white colour, with ten or twelve low, spiral, dark purple ribs.

The dentition and operculum are figured in the Trans. N.Z. Institute, xv., pl. xiii., f. T.

Sub-Genus Lepsia, Hutton.

Aperture ovate, rounded posteriorly, canal nearly obsolete, not recurved; columella excavated. Operculum as in the typical species of Polytropa.

Polytropa haustrum, Martyn (Buccinum), Univ. Conch., pl. 9 (1784); Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. iii., p. 554, pl. 37, f. 4–5; Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., i., pl. 13, f. 2 and 6; Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 6; Tryon, Man. Conch., ii., p. 160, pl. 43, f. 25.

Hab. Throughout New Zealand and at the Chatham Islands.

Usually the interior is white, with a purple band round the mouth; but a variety occurs at Dunedin, in which the whole of the interior is yellow.

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The dentition and operculum are figured in the Trans. N.Z. Institute, xv., pl. 13, f. o. Quoy has also figured the operculum, and Troschel the dentition, in Das Gebiss der Schnecken, ii., taf. xiii., f. 20.

Fam. Olividæ.

Animal with a voluminous foot, the lobes usually reflected over the sides of the shell; eyes none, or on the sides of the tentacles. Operculum small or absent. Shell porcellanous, without epidermis; columella, suture, and spire more or less callous; aperture obliquely notched below; outer lip simple.*

Sub-fam. Ancillinæ.

Eyes none. Shell polished, the columella grooved and twisted in front. Operculum small, ovate.

Genus Ancillaria, Lamarck.

Shell oblong or sub-cylindrical, thick; columella with a few anterior oblique plaits.

Ancillaria australis, Sowerby, Sp. Conch., 1830, pl. 7, f. 44–46; A. australis and A. albisulcata, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. iii., p. 19, 20, pl. 49, f. 5–17 (1834); Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., i., pl. 19, f. 1, 2, 3, and 5 [not A. albisulcata, Sowb.]. A. pyramidalis, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 11 (1864); A. australis, Tryon, Man. Conch., v., p. 94, pl. 38, f. 28, 29.

Hab. Auckland to Cook Straits; Chalky Inlet.

The dentition is figured in the Trans. N.Z, Institute, xv., pl. xiii., f. v.

Fam. Columbellidæ.

Animal with the foot produced anteriorly; the eyes near the outer bases of the tentacles. Shell small, ovate or oblong, anteriorly notched or produced into a short open canal; inner lip tubercled, outer lip incurved in the middle and usually thickened. Central tooth a simple plate, the laterals notched at the outer end.

Genus Columbella, Lamarck.

Shell with the inner lip usually excavated in the middle and crenulated or denticulated in front; outer lip inflected and crenulated in the middle.

Sub-genus Mitrella, Risso.

Shell mitriform, smooth, spire elevated; columella smooth or with a few anterior rugosities; outer lip smooth or crenulated within.

Columella choava, Reeve, Conch. Iconica, f. 239 (1858); Tryon, Man. Conch., v., p. 137, pl. 51, f. 51. Pyrene flexuosa, Hutton, Jour. de Conch., 1878, p. 23.

[Footnote] * The following species are omitted as not really inhabiting New Zealand:—

Oliva duclosi, Reeve. Inhabits Australia and Polynesia.
Oliva erythrostroma, Lam. Inhabits Indo-Pacific Province.
Ancillaria novæ-zealandiæ, Sowb. Inhabits China and Australia.

[Footnote] † The following species is omitted as not really inhabiting New Zealand:— Columbella zebra, Gray. Inhabits Japan and Polynesia.

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Hab. Auckland to Banks Peninsula.

Small, olive brown with obscure chestnut-brown markings; sometimes altogether dark brown. There is no operculum. The animal and dentition are figured in Trans. N.Z. Inst., xiv., pl. vii., f. O and P.

Sub-order Rhachiglossa.

Dentition, 0–1–0.

Fam. Marginellidæ.

Animal with the side-lobes of the mantle expanded over the shell; tentacles approximated; foot large, truncate in front, produced behind. Operculum usually absent. Shell polished, the spire short or immersed; columella plaited; outer lip with a thickened margin.*

Genus Marginella, Lamarck.

Spire short or concealed; outer lip with a thick marginal varix, its inner margin smooth or crenulated. Teeth with several cusps.

Marginella muscaria, Lamarck, Anim. sans Vert. (1820); Tryon, Man. Conch., v., pl. 6, f. 3; Erato lactea, Hutton, Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 63.

Hab. Auckland and Cook Straits. Found also in S. Australia and Tasmania.

White or tinted with yellowish.

The dentition is not known.

Sub-genus Volvaria, Lamarck.

Shell subcylindrical, outer lip not thickened.

Marginella infans, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 150 (1865); M. albescens, Hutton, Cat. Marine Moll. of N.Z., p. 19 (1873); Erato pellucida, Tenison-Woods, Pro. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1878, p. 34.

Hab. Foveaux Straits, Chatham Islands. Found also in Tasmania, and at Singapore.

Translucent, white, occasionally with indications of two yellow spiral bands; columella with four plaits.

The dentition is unknown.

Our specimens are much smaller than the type and usually white.

Fam. Volutidæ.

Animal with the mantle largely developed, covering the sides of the shell; tentacles far apart, united by a broad veil over the head. Shell not porcellanous; columella with distinct plaits, the anterior of which are larger. Operculum usually absent.

[Footnote] * The following species is omitted as not really inhabiting New Zealand:— Marginella vittata, Hutton (= M. de burghiæ, Adams). Inhabits Australia.

[Footnote] † The following species are omitted as not really inhabiting New Zealand:— Voluta kirki, Hutton (= flavicans). Inhabits N. Australia. Voluta kaupii, Dunker. Habitat unknown.

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Genus Voluta, Linné.

Shell ovate, the aperture narrow. Operculum none. Teeth tricuspid.

Sub-genus Alcithoe, H. and A. Adams.

Shell thick, the spire elongated, with a papilliform apex; outer lip expanded and more or less reflexed.

Voluta pacifica, Solander, Cat. Portland Museum, No. 4039 (1783); Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. ii., p. 625, pl. 44, f. 6; Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., i. pl. 27, f. 3; Sowerby, Thes. Conch., i., pl. 48, f. 26; Tryon, Man. Conch., iv., pl. 28, f. 97; Homb. and Jacq., Voy. au Pôle Sud, Zool. v., p. 72, pl. 19, f. 7; Gray, 1. c., iii., pl. 263, f. 1. Buccinum arabicum, Martyn, Univ. Conch., pl. 52 (1784).

Hab. Throughout the N. Island; Cook Straits; Banks Peninsula; Foveaux Straits.

Fulvous, with dark brown anastomosing markings, forming three or four spiral bands. Whorls with a row of tubercles; columella with four to six plaits.

Var. Elongata, Swainson.

Fulvous, and without tubercles.

The dentition is figured in Trans. N.Z. Institute, vol xv., pl. xiii., f. U.

Voluta gracilis, Swainson, Exotic Conchology, pl. 42 (1821); Griffith in Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, vol. xii., pl. 40, f. 4; Sowerby, Thes. Conch., i., pl. 55, f. 117; Tryon, Man. Conch., iv., pl. 28, f. 99. Voluta fusus, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. ii., p. 627, pl. 44, f. 7–8 (1833); Tryon, 1.c. iv., pl. 28, f. 98.

Hab. Auckland.

Fulvous with anastomosing flexuous markings which do not form bands. The nodules elongated: columella with four plaits.

Smaller and narrower than the last species. The dentition is not known.

Sub-genus Cymbiola, Swainson.

Shell thin, the spire elongated, with a papilliform apex; outer lip sharp, occasionally slightly expanded.

Voluta lutea, Watson, Jour. Lin. Soc., Zool. xvi, p. 331 (1882); N.Z. Journal of Science, i., p. 441.

Hab. 200 miles west of Cape Campbell in 275 fathoms.

Pale buff with a high blunt spire, largish mouth, slightly reflexed outer lip, and four plaits on the columella.

I have not seen this species, which was obtained by the Challenger Expedition. The dentition is unknown.

Sub-order Odontoglossa.

Dentition, 1–1–1; the laterals not versatile, broad, many-cuspid (Turricula is said to differ from this.)

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Fam. Mitridæ.

Shell fusiform, thick, the spire well developed; columella obliquely plaited, the posterior plaits larger. Operculum small or absent.*

Genus Turricula, Klein.

Shell longitudinally plicately ribbed; spire acuminate; aperture narrow; columella with numerous plaits.

The lateral teeth are said by Dr. Gray to be versatile, with a single cusp, in which case the genus should be referred to the Olividæ.

Sub-genus Pusia, Swainson.

Shell small, ovate; spire usually short, convex, with an obtuse apex; outer lip sometimes thickened.

Turricula rubiginosa, Hutton, Cat. Marine Moll. of N.Z., p. 20 (1873), [not Mitra rubiginosa, Reeve].

Hab. Auckland to Stewart Island; Chatham Islands.

Smooth, longitudinal plications sometimes obsolete on the body-whorl. Purplish brown, with a dark purple spiral band in the centre of the body whorl; columella orange red.

Allied to T. rubra, Swainson, from the Paumotu Islands, but, I think, quite distinct.

The dark band is sometimes absent, and the shell may be brown or purple, but the columella is always red. Dead rubbed shells are often rosy or purplish.

Specimens from Auckland may be a distinct species as they appear to be spirally grooved; but I have only seen dead and discoloured shells.

The operculum and dentition are unknown.

Fam. Fasciolaridæ.

Shell more or less fusiform, without varices; outer lip not thickened. Eyes usually at the outer bases of the tentacles. Operculum always present.

Sub-fam. Fusinæ.

Columella not plicate nor tortuose.

[Footnote] * Species omitted as not really inhabiting New Zealand.

Mitra aurantia, Gmelin. Inhabits the Indo-Pacific Province.
Mitra abbreviata, Sowerby. Habitat unknown.
Mitra chrysalis, Reeve. Inhabits Polynesia.
Mitra obscura, Hutton. Inhabits Polynesia (?).
Turricula rubra, Swainson. Inhabits Paumotu Islands.
Cylindra nucea, Gronovius. Inhabits Polynesia.

[Footnote] † The following species are omitted as not really inhabiting New Zealand:—

Fasciolaria trapezium, Linné. Inhabits Indian Ocean.
Peristernia zealandica, Adams. Inhabits Indian Ocean.
Peristernia decorata, Adams. Inhabits Andaman Islands.

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Genus Fusus, Klein.

Shell with a long and straight canal. Operculum with the nucleus apical.

Fusus spiralis, Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1855, p. 221 [not of Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 85, f. 593]; F. pensum, Hutton, Cat. Marine Moll. of N.Z., p. 8 (1873).

Hab. Cook Straits, rare.

Whorls sub-carinated, spirally grooved; the keel sub-nodulose; suture very deep.

The operculum and dentition are unknown.

Adams' description answers very well to our shell, which is not uncommon as a fossil at Wanganui, but apparently very rare living. Tryon's figure, however, does not at all agree with our shell, and if he has drawn the type, F. spiralis must be struck off our list.

Fusus australis, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. ii., p. 495, pl. 34, f. 9–14 (1833); Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., i., pl. 9, f. 3; Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 34, f. 113. Fusus caudatus, Q. and G., l.c., ii., p. 503, pl. 34, f. 20, 21; Tryon, l.c., iii., pl. 34, f. 119.

Hab. North Island and Nelson.

Found also in Australia, Japan, and the Red Sea.

Whorls rounded, with spiral ribs and striæ, and longitudinal plications.

The operculum and teeth are figured by Quoy, but the latter are not in sufficient detail.

This species somewhat resembles Siphonalia mandarinus, but is distinguished by its longer and straighter canal.

Genus Taron, Hutton (1882).

Shell fusiform; canal short, slightly retroverted; columella smooth; aperture oval, the outer lip simple: no posterior canal, operculum oval, the nucleus sub-central. Dentition as in Leucozonia.

Taron dubius, Hutton, Jour. de Conchyliologie, 1878, p. 13 (Trophon) [not Leucozonia dubia, Petit].

Hab. Auckland.

The body-whorl with twelve spiral ridges and usually nine or ten obsolete longitudinal ribs at the posterior end; aperture more than half the length of the shell.

The operculum and dentition are figured in the Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., pl. xiii., f. E.

This species seems near Fusus coreanícus, Smith (P.Z.S., 1879, pl. 20, f. 36), from Japan, but differs from it in its shorter canal and longer aperture, as well as in its colours, and in the spiral ribs not being alternately smaller.

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Sub-order Duplohamata.

Dentition, 1–1–1; the laterals versatile, with two or more cusps on a long base.

Fam. Buccinidæ.

Animal with a recurved siphon; shell ovate or fusiform; canal moderate, short, or reduced to a notch; columella smooth. Operculum ovate with the nucleus apical or lateral.

Sub-fam. Neptuniinæ.

Foot simple; eyes on the sides of the tentacles. Shell with the canal moderate and twisted.*

Genus Siphonalia, Adams.

Animal with a long siphon. Lateral teeth with three cusps, the central with four. Shell fusiform; canal moderate or rather short, last whorl ventricose. Operculum ovate, the nucleus apical.

Siphonalia mandarina, Duclos, Mag. Zool., viii. (1831); Reeve, Conch. Icon., Fusus, f. 8; Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., p. 138, pl. 57, f. 385. Fusus zealandicus, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. ii., p. 500, pl. 34, f. 4–5 (1833). Fusus reevianus, Sowb., Thes. Conch., 1880; Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 86, f. 600 [not of Petit].

Hab. Auckland to Cook Straits. Found also in S. Africa.

Whorls rounded, spirally grooved, each groove with one or two raised lines. Body-whorl with or without longitudinal ribs.

The dentition and operculum are unknown.

Siphonalia dilatata, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. ii., p. 498, pl. 34, f. 15, 16 (1833); Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., i., pl. 9, f. 5; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Fusus, f. 49; Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., p. 135, pl. 54, f. 356–358. Fusus adustus, Philippi (1844); Tryon, l.c., iii., pl. 54, f. 359.

Hab. Auckland to Cook Straits. Found also in Tasmania, Australia, and Japan.

[Footnote] * The following species are omitted as not really inhabiting New Zealand:—

Buccinum triton, Lesson. Inhabits Peru.
Buccinum zealandicum, Reeve. Not recognized.
Buccinum glandiforme, Reeve. Not recognized.
Buccinum gradatum, Deshayes. Not recognized.
Buccinum porcata, Gmelin. Inhabits Cape of Good Hope.
Buccinum lactea, Reeve. Inhabits Australia.
Buccinum quoyi, Kiener. Habitat unknown.
Nassa subspinosa, Lamarck. Inhabits Polynesia.
Nassa rutilans, Reeve. Inhabits N. Australia.
Nassa novæ-zealandiæ, Reeve. Inhabits Philippines.
Nassa nígella, Reeve. Habitat unknown.
Nassa corticata, Adams. Inhabits Australia.
Nassa sculpta, Marrat. Inhabits Polynesia.

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Whorls angled and spirally striated, with seven or eight longitudinal ribs in front of the angle, and tuberculated on the angle.

The dentition and operculum are figured in the Trans. N.Z. Institute, xv., pl. xiii., f. F. The operculum is also figured by Quoy, and the dentition by Troschel, but he makes it different; probably he has mistaken the species.

Siphonalia nodosa, Martyn, Univ. Conch., Buccinum, pl. 5 (1784); Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 56, f. 377. Fusus raphanus, Lamarck, Anim. sans Vert. (1820); Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 61. Buccinum raphanus, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. ii., p. 428, pl. 31, f. 5, 6; Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 56, f. 376, 377.

Hab. Auckland to Cook Straits.

Whorls angled, with a row of fifteen or sixteen nodules on the angle, and often another row in front; canal short.

The dentition and operculum are figured in the Trans. N.Z. Institute, xv., pl. xiii., f. G.

Sub-fam. Pisaniinæ.

Shell heavy; canal short and wide; the outer lip thickened. Animal with the foot simple and eyes on the sides of the tentacles.

Genus Pisania, Bivona.

Animal with the siphon short. Lateral teeth with three cusps; central with three. Shell oblong or fusiform, smooth, or spirally striated. Operculum ovate, the nucleus apical.

Pisania lineata, Martyn, Univ. Conch., Buccinum, pl. 48 (1784); Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. ii., p. 501, pl. 34, f. 6–8; Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., i., pl. 5, f. 5; Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 72, f. 229, 230; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Fusus, f. 31 [not Buccinum lineatum, Gml., nor Cantharus lineatus, Menke].

Hab. Auckland to Banks Peninsula. Auckland Islands.

White, with distant narrow purple spiral bands. Whorls 8, of which 3 to 5 only are plicate. Lateral teeth with three nearly equal cusps. The dentition is figured in the Trans. N.Z. Institute, xv., pl. xiii., f. H. The operculum is also figured by Quoy.

Var. Pertinax, Martens, Sitzb. Berlin, 23 (1878).

Hab. Auckland, Banks Peninsula, and the Auckland Islands.

Longitudinal ribs extending over the fifth and sixth whorls.

The dentition is not known.

Var. Traversi, Hutton, Cat. Marine Moll. of N.Z., p. 9 (1873). Euthria lineata var. B., Man. N.Z. Mollusca.

Hab. Cook Straits, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands.

Longitudinal ribs extending over all the whorls.

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Perhaps this is a distinct species. It is something like Buccinum spadiceum, Reeve, from Japan. The operculum and dentition are not known.

Pisania striata, Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Institute, vii. (1875), p. 458, pl. 21 (Cominella).

Hab. Lyttelton.

Shell, pale yellow-brown, the surface spirally striated. Lateral teeth with three nearly equal cusps.

The dentition is figured on pl. xi., fig. 3, of this volume.

Pisania flavescens, Hutton (1883); Euthria lineata var. D., Man. of N.Z. Mollusca.

Hab. Dunedin.

Shell spirally striated; colourless or orange with darker spiral bands; interior more or less banded with yellow. Lateral teeth with the middle cusp smaller than the others.

The dentition is figured on pl. xi., fig. 4, of this volume.

Pisania vittata, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. ii., p. 504, pl. 34, f. 18, 19 (1833); Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., i., pl. 5, f. 4 (B. fasciata); Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 72, f. 235; [not Buccinum vittatum, Linn]. Buccinum trilineatum, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 98 (1846); Fusus bicinctus, Hutton, Cat. Marine Moll. of N.Z., p. 10 (1873); Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 72, f. 234.

Hab. Bay of Islands to Auckland; Banks Peninsula. Chatham Islands and Auckland Islands.

Shell spirally striated; greyish or yellowish; the interior with two or three purple or brownish bands, which sometimes extend through to the exterior. Lateral teeth with the two inside cusps equal and smaller than the outside one.

The operculum and dentition are figured in the Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., pl. xiii., f. I.

Pisania littorinoides, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Buccinum, f. 94 (1846); Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 72, f. 231; Euthria lineata var. C., Man. N.Z. Mollusca.

Hab. Lyttelton and Dunedin. Chatham Islands.

Shell spirally striated; purple with darker spiral lines. Lateral teeth with the two inside cusps equal and smaller than the outside cusp.

The dentition is figured in the Trans. N.Z. Institute, xiv., pl. vi., f. D (E. lineata), and by Troschel, pl. 7, f. 12.

Pisania martensiana, Hutton, Jour. de Conch., 1878, p. 16.

Hab. Wellington (T. W. Kirk).

Shell spirally striated; brown. Much narrower than the last species.

The operculum and dentition are not known. These last five species of Pisania are closely allied.

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Pisania antarctica, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Buccinum, f. 30 (1845); Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 72, f. 228 [not Buccinum antarcticum, Philippi, 1868]. Buccinum campbelli, Filhol, Comptes Rendus, xci. (1880), p. 1094.

Hab. Banks Peninsula. Auckland Islands and Campbell Island. Found also at the Falkland Islands.

Interior purplish brown; columella and outer lip white.

The operculum and dentition are unknown. This species is perhaps the same as Fusus rufa, Homb. and Jacq. Reeve's figure is very bad.

Sub-fam. Buccininæ.

Foot simple; eyes variously placed. Shell ovate, the lip thin; aperture with a short oblique notch.

Genus Cominella, Gray.

Animal with a long siphon and eyes on the sides of the tentacles. Lateral teeth with two cusps; central with three. Operculum ovate, with the nucleus apical. Shell with a groove at the suture, and a posterior canal.

Cominella maculata, Martyn, Univ. Conch., Buccinum, pl. 49 (1784); Reeve, Conch. Icon., Buccinum, f. 16; Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 81, f. 421. Buccinum turgidum, Gmelin (after Solander). B. testudineum, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool., pl. 30, f. 12; Tryon, l.c., iii., pl. 81, f. 422. Buccinum melo, Lesson, Ann. des Sci. Nat., 1840.

Hab. Auckland. Chatham Islands, Auckland Islands.

Shell turgid; yellowish gray with spiral rows of brown spots; columella yellow.

The operculum and dentition are figured in the Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., pl. xiii., f. L. The operculum is also figured by Adams in the Gen. of Moll.; and the dentition by Troschel, ii., taf. viii., f. 3.

Cominella maculosa, Martyn, Univ. Conch., Buccinum, pl. 8 (1784); Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 81, f. 423 [not P. maculosa, Lamarck]. Buccinum testudinea, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. ii., pl. 30, f. 8 to 11; Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., i., pl. 14, f. 1 and 3 [not of Chemnitz].

Hab. Bay of Islands to Banks Peninsula.

Ash-grey with twelve or thirteen spiral or interrupted dark bands; columella brownish purple. Much narrower than the last species.

The operculum is figured by Quoy; the dentition in the Trans. N.Z. Inst., xv., pl. xiii., f. M.; and by Hogg in the Trans. Roy. Micro. Soc., 1868 (species doubtful).

Cominella testudinea, Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., Buccinum, x., f. 1454 (1788); Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 66; Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 80, f. 414. B. cataracta, Chemnitz, l.c., x., f. 1455; Tryon, l.c., iii., pl. 80, f. 415.

Hab. Auckland. Chatham Islands.

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Ash-grey with irregular dark markings; columella orange-yellow at the anterior end.

The operculum is similar to that of the last species. The dentition is figured in the Trans. N.Z. Institute, xv., pl. xiii., f. N.

Cominella virgata, Adams, Genera of Moll., pl. 16, f. 6a (1858). Buccinum quoyi, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 36 (lineolatum) (1846); Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 80, f. 417 [not of Kiener]. Buccinum lineolatum, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. ii., p. 419, pl. 30, f. 14–16 [not of Lamarck]; Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., i., pl. 5, f. 1; Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 81, f. 425. B. lævigatum, Hutton, Cat. N.Z. Moll., p. 14 (1878).

Hab. Bay of Islands to Auckland.

Ash-grey with five to eight distant narrow black spiral lines, which are never interrupted; anterior end of the columella bright orange.

The operculum is figured by Quoy, and the dentition in the Trans. N.Z. Institute, xv., pl. 13, f. K.

Cominella nassoides, Reeve, Conch. Icon., Buccinum, f. 12 (1845); Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 81, f. 442 [not Nassaria nassoides, Gray]. B. zealandicum, Cat. Marine Moll. of N.Z., p. 14 (1873), [not of Reeve]. C. nodicincta, Martens, Sitzb. Berlin, 23, (1878); Tryon, l.c., iii., pl. 81, f. 443.

Hab. Foveaux Straits. Chatham Islands; Auckland Islands.

Shell nodulose at the suture; spirally ridged. Yellow-brown, the grooves orange brown; interior pale yellow. The operculum and dentition are unknown. A very variable species.

Cominella veneris, Filhol, Comptes Rendus, xci. (1880), p. 1094 (Buccinum).

Hab. Campbell Island.

Epidermis greyish; columella and margin of the mouth the same colour. Longitudinal ribs beginning at the apex, and becoming more and more marked; transverse ribs on the last and penultimate whorls. Length 1.6, breadth .6 inch.

I have not seen this species.

Cominella huttoni, Kobelt, Cat. d. Gattung, Cominella, p. 233 (1878). Buccinum costatum, Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. iii., pl. 30, f. 19, 20 [not of Lamarck]; Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 81, f. 431. C. quoyana, Adams, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1854, p. 313 [not of Kiener, nor of Reeve]. C. lurida, Cat. Marine Moll. of N.Z., p. 14 (1873) [not of Philippi].

Hab. Bay of Islands.

Pale brown marbled with reddish brown, and with thin distant dark spiral lines. There are twelve longitudinal plications on a whorl, the two next the aperture often obsolete. The aperture is less than half the length of the shell. The operculum is of the ordinary form; the dentition is unknown.

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This species has been very well figured by Quoy. It is distinguished from C. costata not only by its form and colour, but also by the tentacles being slender, with the eyes near the middle; whereas in C. costata, according to Quoy, the tentacles are “short, thick, and rounded at the tip, close to which the eyes are placed.”

Cominella lurida, Philippi, Zeitschrift f. Malak., 1848, p. 137; Icon. iii., p. 46, pl. 1, f. 10; Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., pl. 81, f. 439. Buccinum funereum, Gould, Pro. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., iii. (1850), p. 152; U.S. Exploring Expedition, Shells, Atlas, f. 320; Tryon, l.c., iii., pl. 81, f. 438. Buc. zealandicum, Hombron and Jacquinot, Voy. Pôle Sud, Zool. v., p. 74, pl. 21, f. 5, 6 (1854); Tryon, l.c., iii., pl. 81, f. 437 [not of Reeve].

Hab. Throughout New Zealand on mud flats, and in slightly brackish water.

Yellowish-gray to brown-purple, the lighter varieties occasionally showing faint spiral lines of darker, the aperture is about half the length of the shell, and is dark purple, usually mottled with yellow. There are about twelve plications on a whorl. The operculum is normal. The dentition is figured in Trans. N.Z. Institute, xiv., pl. vi., f. C.

This species is quite distinct from C. acutinodosa, Reeve, from S. Australia.

Sub-fam. Nassinæ.

Animal with the foot large, and carrying at its posterior extremity two small processes. Central tooth pectinated; laterals with two cusps, and sometimes intermediate serrations. Shell with the inner lip usually callous; the canal short and recurved, or a notch. Operculum ovate, the nucleus apical.

Genus Nassa, Lamarck.

Shell ventricose; inner lip with a posterior callosity, or blunt, dentiform, plait; outer lip dentated, internally crenulated.

Nassa ephamilla, Watson, Jour. Linn. Soc., Zool. xvi., p. 370 (1882); N.Z. Journal of Science, i., p. 442.

Hab. N.E. of New Zealand in 700 fathoms.

Rather small, thin, chalkily porcellanous; ovate, with a shortish scalar spire, a rounded apex, a marginated suture, and a tumid base with very short pillar. Whorls rounded and beset with small prickles.

I have not seen this species, which was obtained by the Challenger expedition.