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Volume 16, 1883
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Art. XXVI.—A further Contribution towards making known the Botany of New Zealand.

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 12th November, 1883.]

In bringing before you this evening my usual annual basket of “simples,” or botanical contribution, I would beg permission to offer a few brief remarks by way of introduction and explanation. This seems almost necessary, seeing that my basket is bigger, or my paper is much longer than any of my former ones on this subject, owing to the large number of new species I have been enabled to obtain and describe.

Species, too, illustrative of many Orders of all the Botanical Classes, particularly of the Class Cryptogamia, and of the elegant though lowly Order Hepaticæ; having fortunately discovered several new ones, especially of the curious and little-known genus Symphyogyna. Of this, I have determined no less than 11 new species, which, with 2 others, formerly discovered and described by me in my recent Botanical papers read here before you, and also those 5 species described in the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” make no less than 18 distinct species of Symphyogyna, indigenous to this country alone! which may now, I think, be fairly considered as the head-quarters of this genus.

According to the celebrated cryptogamic authors of the Synopsis Hepaticarum, only 25 species of Symphyogyna were known to them at the date of the publication of their work (1847); of those none were European; yet the genus seems to be a widely scattered one, viz.: In N. America 2, in S. America and the West Indies 8, S. Africa, including the neighbouring isles, 6, Asia (Java) 1, Australia 4, Tasmania 2, New Zealand* 2 = 25. I have good reasons for believing that additional species will yet be found in New Zealand; indeed I have at present two others not yet determined, being in an imperfect state.

And here I may also observe that, to the elucidation of this genus in particular I devoted a very large amount of time—labour in seeking and collecting at various seasons, and close microscopical study and examination; having been also cheerfully and zealously aided by some of our members, especially Mr. A. Hamilton, Mr. D. P. Balfour, and Mr. C. P. Winkelmann, to all of whom (as well as to others) my best thanks are due.

[Footnote] * Two of those 5 species found in New Zealand (as given in the “Handbook”) are also found in other countries, and are so classed by the authors of the Syn. Hep.; and one other (S. sub-simplex) was new and not known to them at the time of its publication.

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I should also inform you that several of the plants I have now described in my present paper, and also bring specimens of, to show you this evening, were not first detected by me during this past year. A few have been long known to me; others I first knew of two or three years ago, but wanted time to examine them and work them up. Of others I required better or more complete specimens, while, for a few, I am wholly indebted to my botanical friends.

Still I have been very fortunate during the past year. I have spent a much longer time in patient research in our woods, and deep-secluded glens, and quiet far-off hill-tops and sides, both in winter and in summer, in frost and in heat; and nature has bounteously rewarded her patient plodding disciple and faithful follower, as she always does all such who serve her heartily and simply, and not for pecuniary gain.

Among the principal or first-class prizes with which I have been honoured, and which I wish to bring prominently to your notice, are a handsome white-flowering standard Metrosideros, a curious small-leaved Panax, a large-leaved Tupeia, and a fine Fagus; 4 Orchids (one being a new and rare Bolbophyllum, two others of the beautiful gem-like genus Corysanthes, and one a very fine and handsome Thelymitra); of Liliaceæ, a Dianella, and an Astelia (the male flower—another single specimen—of the one female flower I discovered three years ago); and a few of Cyperaceæ, among them a most peculiar Carex, having slender trailing culms more than two yards long. Of Cryptogams a few ferns, among them a neat little Polypodium and a pretty Lindsæa, which latter will serve to fill up a gap or natural sequence in our known species; several other curious Hepaticæ, besides the Symphyogyna already mentioned, particularly of the genera Petalophyllum, Aneura, Fimbriaria, and Anthoceros; a handsome Lichen, giving another distinct species to a small natural genus; and a few highly curious Fungi.

Specimens of all of them, both dry and in spirits, some of them being also mounted on cardboard, will be severally laid before you; and may you all have as much pleasure in going over and examining them as I have had, over and over, in the finding and gathering, examining and describing them.

Class I. Dicotyledons.
Order IV.*Violarieæ.

Genus I. Viola, Linn.

Viola perexigua, sp. nov.

A very small tufted perennial herb, its crown of leaves and flowers springing from a thick woody root having many fine and long fibres, without branches or stolons. Leaves, 8–12, broadly cordate-orbicular, ¼–½ inch long, glabrous, regularly and deeply crenate, obtuse and rounded at

[Footnote] * The numbers in this paper attached to both Orders and Genera are those of the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora.”

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apex, almost truncate at base, petioles ½–1 inch long, channelled above and closely ciliate on the edges with 2 rows of short white erect hairs, bracts at base diverging, long, linear, very acuminate and acute, with a few (2–4) fine teeth or laciniations that are obtuse and knobbed. Peduncles,½–1½ inches long, quadrangular, succulent, purple-striped, bracts linear-acuminate acute, usually not opposite; flowers small, 3 lines diameter, white, occasionally one having a few narrow faint-blue stripes; the two lateral petals woolly inside in a small circular patch just opposite the anthers; spur short, gibbous; sepals rather large, oblong-ovate, acute, scarious at edges.

Hab. On dry open upland heaths between Matamau and Danneverke, Waipawa county; also, in adjoining “scrub,” among Leptospermum and other shrubs, 1880–1883: W.C.

Obs. I have long known this pretty little plant, but have hitherto delayed describing it, thinking it (without close examination) to be a variety of the well-known and common species V. cunninghamii, and not wishing to add another species to this extensive and cosmopolitan genus. This spring, however, having again visited its habitat, and fully examined it in its fresh and living state, I am satisfied of its distinctness from V. cunninghamii and its other congeners. It is a very lowly plant, and although common there, and bearing a great profusion of flowers, it is scarcely perceptible among the numerous small heath plants and mosses that grow thickly with it.

Order XXVIII. Myrtaceæ.

Genus 2. Metrosideros, Br.

Metrosideros vesiculata, sp. nov.

Plant small, “a bushy shrub 2–3 feet high,” of erect fastigiate growth and very leafy; branches densely tomentose and hairy. Leaves decussate, broadly elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 5 lines long, 3–3½ lines broad, obtuse, pellucid-dotted, glabrous, coriaceous, 3-nerved, sub-revolute, petiolate, petioles short, stout, pubescent, paler green and sub-muricated below with small raised black spots; young leaves very tomentose and sub-strigosely hairy below. Flowers sub-terminal, axillary, white, single or ternate; peduncle 1–1½ lines long, stout, hairy; pedicels jointed, glabrous, very short. Calyx glabrous with a few scattered weak hairs, tube broadly campanulate, vesicular, 5-lobed; lobes elliptic or sub-rotund at top, persistent, margins thin and slightly ciliate. Corolla white, petals small, sessile, broadly oblong or sub-orbicular, sinuate and slightly toothed at edges, concave, crowded at centre with raised orbicular vesicles, 1-nerved, coloured in the centre (dry specimens). Stamens numerous, spreading, 4 lines long. Style very stout, simple, 6 lines long, persistent. Capsule sub-rotund, 1½ lines diameter, glabrous, vesicular, rather thin, 4-loculicidal, girt below the middle.

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Hab. Hills, forests on the east coast between Wainui and Akitio rivers, “900 feet elevation;” January, 1883: Mr. Horace Baker, in lit.

Obs. I.—A species near to M. perforata, A. Richard, as described at length by him;* his specimens were also obtained from Cook Straits, but differing largely in its vesicular capsule calyx and corolla, which plain and constant characters, even in dried specimens, could never, I think, have been overlooked by Richard.

II.—Sir J. D. Hooker has also made but one species of the above-mentioned plant (M. perforata) and A. Cunningham's M. buxifolia: I, however, have ever believed (with A. Cunningham) their being distinct; although I have never seen specimens of Richard's (and Forster's) Southern New Zealand plant, which is, also, not a climber (apud Richard, loc. cit.): this “erect” character, however, does not belong to A. Cunningham's M. buxifolia, which is a climbing species, and is as common in the forests here (Hawke's Bay) as it is at the north.

III.—This species, from its short bushy size, small neat leaves, and very numerous flowers, is likely to become a favourite garden shrub. Although I have never seen it living, I have received several good specimens from Mr. Baker, and they are very uniform.

Order XXXIV. Araliaceæ.

Genus 2. Panax, Linn.

Panax microphylla, sp. nov.

Plant a small hard-wooded shrub of diffuse growth, 4–5 feet high; branches few, long, slender, straggling, and irregular; branchlets brachiate, roughish, sub-muricated with minute tubercles, and occasionally on the younger branchlets a few scattered very small linear-ovate obtuse scales. Leaves small, sub-membranaceous, glabrous, alternate, sometimes in pairs, scattered rather distant, compound and simple, flat, spreading, usually sub-orbicular, 4–5 lines diameter, rounded and very obtuse at apex—sometimes rhombic and apiculate, sometimes lanceolate and very small, sometimes trifoliolate on long slender petiolules, the middle leaflet being the largest, and sometimes a simple leaf having a pair of minute leaflets just below its base—the upper half of the leaf being slightly crenulate, each crenature generally bearing a small incurved sharp tooth,—the lower portion cuneate, decurrent, margins conniving, jointed to petiole with 4–6 minute linear acute stipellæ at junction, and several similar stipules at base of petiole; colour bright green with minute white dots on the upper surface, paler green below; margins coloured purple; veins indistinct; petioles purple-brown, deeply channelled, slender, glabrous, 1–2 lines long. Fruit axillary orbicular, about 1½ lines diameter, sub-compressed, smooth, on

[Footnote] * “Voyage de l'Astrolabe, Botanique,” p. 334.

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short slender bracteolated stalks (peduncles or pedicels), having many small bracts at their bases, white or pinkish-white, with sculptured dark (black) effigurate spots or blotches, having a peculiar sunken or burnt appearance, and bearing a calycine crown of 5 teeth; styles 2 persistent, long, slender, divergent and recurved; sometimes 2 or 3 fruits spring together; carpels lunate, gibbous, flattish, rugulose without longitudinal ridges; seed with plain sides. Flowers not seen.

Hab. In shady open forests near Norsewood (S.), Waipawa County, 1882–3: W.C.

Obs.—A species having pretty close affinity with P. anomalum, Hook., but differing from that species in its smaller and variously shaped leaves with glabrous (not pubescent) and deeply channelled petioles—in its smaller and differently coloured fruit bearing plain-surfaced carpels and seeds—and particularly in its branches not being densely hairy (“setoso-squamulatis”) as in P. anomalum. P. anomalum is also a much larger shrub; and I have never once met with it in these southern parts, nor, indeed, anywhere else besides the forests in the Waikato, where I discovered it, 1842 (“Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science,” vol. ii., p. 277).

Order XXXVI. Loranthaceæ.

Genus 2. Tupeia, Chamisso and Schlechtendal.

Tupeia undulata, sp. nov.

Plant a small diœcious parasitical diffuse shrub; branches long, straight, terete, jointed, 2 feet–2 feet 6 inches long, bark light greenish-grey, somewhat scurfy, not smooth; branchlets opposite, sub-compressed, densely covered with light-brown obtuse patent rigid sub-glandular pubescence; young leaves and flowers enclosed in dark brown scale-like bracts, 2–4 lines long, deltoid and obovate, obtuse with fimbriate margins, 3-nerved, middle nerve long, lateral ones short. Leaves (male plant) few, opposite, distant, sub-rhomboid and rhomboid-obovate, obtuse, 3 inches long, 2 inches broad; (female plant) leaves much smaller, sub-rhomboid and broadly oblong-lanceolate, 1½ inches long, ¾ inch broad, sub-membranaceous, not thick or fleshy, green, smooth, not shining, undulate, decurrent nearly to base of petiole; petioles short, under 2 lines long, and with midrib thickly pubescent, margins sub-sinuate, slightly scaberulous or sub-papillose (of young leaves minutely pubescent-ciliate); veins prominent above, veinlets anastomosing. Flowers terminal on short axillary branchlets, panicled; panicles short, dense, having, in the female plant especially, a sub-umbellate appearance, about 1 inch long, each containing 6–12 flowers, peduncles and pedicels pubescent, sub-panicles and pedicels bracteolate at base, bracteoles linear-ovate, about 1 line long, recurved, caducous; lower sub-panicles bearing 2–3, sometimes (but rarely) 4 flowers each: male flower on much larger

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and more open panicles than the fem., petals 4, spreading, 4 lines diameter, somewhat sub-spathulate or sub-obovate, obsoletely 1-nerved, light yellowish-green, tips sub-cucullate and slightly pubescent-ciliate; filaments spreading, rather longer than the anthers; anthers broadly-oblong, apiculate; pedicels 3 lines long, jointed: female flower glabrous, shining, very small, 1 line diameter, petals 4 (sometimes 3 or 5), linear-lanceolate, acute, obscurely 1-nerved, spreading and reflexed, tips obtuse incurved, margins minutely pubescent; light yellowish-green; style long, exserted; stigma capitate, large, sub-globular, depressed, obscurely lobed, light-yellow. Fruit a drupe, broadly-elliptic, smooth, pink thickly spotted or splashed with dark pink, retaining large discoidal scar from style; pedicels 1½–2 lines long; pulp very viscid; the panicle becoming very much elongated when in fruit.

Hab. Parasitical on Panax arboreum, Petane Valley, near Napier, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton; flowering in September, and bearing the ripe last year's fruit at the same time.

Obs.—It is not without some considerable amount of hesitation that I announce this plant as a sp. nov. of this peculiar and variable genus of (hitherto) only one species; but it differs so much in bark and leaf, in flower and fruit, from T. antarctica, that I cannot but consider it to be truly distinct. In its general appearance also it widely differs, being a much larger plant of more straggling growth, while the constant and great difference in its dark-coloured and more oblong-shaped fruit, and undulated adult leaves (resembling those of Myrsine d'urvillei) is apparent at first sight. I have had plenty of good specimens for examination. The plant emits a peculiarly strong odour in drying (reminding me of that of green figs when peeled), remaining fixed for sometime in the many thicknesses of drying papers.

Order XXXVIII. Rubiaceæ.

Genus 1. Coprosma, Forster.

Coprosma concinna, sp. nov.

A small erect shrub, 2–4 feet high, of irregular growth, thickly branched above, branches slender, spreading; bark smooth, yellowish-brown; branchlets short, opposite and decussate, but distant, spreading at right angles, filiform, arcuate, pubescent; leaves few, scattered, 3–4 lines diameter, sub-membranaceous, orbicular trowel-shaped and broadly elliptic, very obtuse, sometimes sub-apiculate, slightly sub-crenulate, glabrous, light-green dashed with yellowish spots, margined, foveolate beneath in axils of lower veins and midrib, blade abruptly decurrent, petiole 1 line long and (with lower half of midrib) hirsutely pubescent, veins (and margins) red, finely reticulate; stipules acuminate acute, pubescent. Flowers very small, membranaceous,

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glabrous, greenish with purple spots: male, calyx excessively minute, corolla campanulate spreading, tube very short, teeth rather large, obtuse, minutely pubescent at tips; filaments long, scaberulous, anthers oblong-ovate, exserted, sub-apiculate, cordate at base; mostly singly, infra-axillary and below, and lateral: female, flowers excessively small, minute; calyx cup-shaped with 4 short teeth, very hirsutely pubescent, hairs white; corolla much smaller than male, about½ line long, tube slightly funnel-shaped, teeth 4 oblong ovate, revolute, (sometimes only 2) pubescent; styles, 2, very long, spreading, flexuose, stout, densely pubescent. Drupes underneath on lateral branchlets, always under 2 or 4 leaves, globose, shining, 2 lines diameter, dark port-wine colour, often 4–6, sometimes 10–18, together in a dense semi-cluster; fruit-stalks very short, opposite each other on the branchlet. Stipules below the fruit, small spreading irregular, pubescent on both sides and ciliate, usually having a long connate pair, sub-spathulate or oblong rounded at tips and 1-nerved, clasping the fruit, like a little involucel; each berry bearing 2 seeds 1½ lines long, largely convex, sub-ovoid, slightly acute.

Hab. Dry woods between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, where it is plentiful, 1876–1883: W.C.

Obs.—Sometimes a shrub is met with bearing red berries (like small red currants in size and colour); a fully fruited shrub is a pleasing neat-looking object. As a species it will rank naturally near to C. tenuicaulis, rhamnoides, and divaricata.

Genus 2. Nertera, Banks and Solander.

Nertera pusilla, sp. nov.

Plant a very small perennial herb, low and prostrate, of densely compact (almost mosssy) growth, closely intermixed with other small plants, setoselyhispid with long white hairs, much branched below and creeping underground; branches woody, rooting at nodes; stems wiry, 1–2 inches high, erect, tips of branchlets level. Leaves sub-orbicular and broadly ovate, spreading, membranous with muricated white dots on upper surface, 1½–2 lines long, obtuse, slightly decurrent, hispid on both surfaces and coarsely ciliate; hairs flat with raised bases (glands) on upper surface; veins anastomosing; petioles slender, 1 line long, connate at base; Stipules very minute, linear, acute, entire. Flowers lightish-brown or yellowish, longer than the leaves, very few, solitary, scattered, sub-terminal and axillary, fugacious; corolla infundibuliform, 3½ lines long, hispid without and densely echinate at top, tube very slender; hairs white at first, reddish-brown afterwards; teeth rather large, acute; filaments very long, wiry, spreading, and twisting, white at first black afterwards; anthers large, linear-oblong, much apiculate at tip, cordate at base, auricles acute sagittate; styles 2, exserted (but

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not largely), one-third the length of filaments, very pubescent; fruit small, about 1 line long, very hispid, sessile, dry, oval, ribbed, truncate with minute persistent crown of 4–6 calycine teeth, 2 of them being usually much longer and opposite.

Hab. On dry upland heaths between Matamau and Danneverke (with Viola perexigua and Myosotis pygmæa), 1882–83: W.C.

Obs.—A species having close affinity with N. setulosa, Hook. fil.

Genus 3. Galium, Linn.

Galium erythrocaulon, sp. nov.

Plant small, tender, cæspitose, upright, usually 3–5 inches high, simply branched at base; stems below and rootlets bright red and naked, stems above membranaceous, ciliated or hairy, with distant, white, acute, recurved hairs. Leaves very small in whorls of four, sub-rotund-elliptic,½–1½ lines long, 1 line broad or less, mucronate, very membranaceous, light green blotched with yellow, hairy on both sides, largely and distantly ciliate, spreading, sub-sessile, and very shortly petiolate, whorls distant on stalks, veins anastomosing. Flowers few, mostly solitary in axils of upper leaves, sometimes two on long divergent pedicels united together near base on a very short peduncle, very rarely three on one peduncle, and, when so, then bracteolated at junction, and the middle pedicel much the longest, simple peduncles and pedicels much longer than leaves, sometimes twice as long, upright; corolla rather large, 4-parted, pink, somewhat inflated and concave, segments broadly deltoid-ovate, 3-nerved, with three lines of erect minute pubescence within on the nerves, tips sub-acute incurved; ovarium glabrous. Fruit of two globose minute carpels, dark-brown, rugulose and finely muricated with black points.

Hab. Stony declivities, skirts of dry woods between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1879–1882: W.C.

Obs.—When I first detected this plant in 1879, I supposed it to be a small variety of G. umbrosum, although its rather large and pink flowers differed considerably from those of that species, which are minute and white; these characters, however, I thought to be abnormal. Subsequently (in 1882), on again meeting with this plant in another and distant locality, I gathered, examined and compared it, and now I believe it to be a distinct species. It is certainly distinct from A. Cunningham's G. propinquum, as described by him in his “Prodromus” (a New Zealand and northern species, which I also knew at the North), which Sir J. D. Hooker has united with Forster's G. umbrosum, as being identical with that plant. Moreover, Sir J. D. Hooker says (in his “Handbook”), that he doubts if G. umbrosum is really different from his Tasmanian species, G. ciliare;

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however that may be, one thing is certain, that G. ciliare (of which Sir J. D. Hooker has given a drawing and dissections in his Flora Tasmaniæ) is very distant from this species, G. erythrocaulon.

Order XXXIX. Compositæ.

Genus 10. Craspedia, Forster.

Craspedia viscosa, sp. nov.

Plant a simple perennial herb, bearing a single slender unbranched scape; whole plant viscid. Leaves, 4–6 at base, flat, spreading, sub-spathulate, entire, sessile, lamina extending to scape, membranous, glabrous with minute raised viscid dots, very slightly ciliate with white floccose hairs, apiculate, olive-green, trinerved; veinlets anastomosing. Scape erect, 8–16 inches high, bearing 10–12 leaf-like ovate-acuminate sessile bracts, alternate at about equal distances, lowest the largest, 1½ inches long, and gradually decreasing in size upwards. Compound head of flowers broadly sub-conical, with hairs as long as (or longer than) florets,½–¾ inch diameter, upright, greyish; corollas slender, usually 3 in a head, each 3 lines long, tube greenish, dilated at base, petals tinged with red; involucral scales ovate, acute, 1-nerved, scarious at edges, outermost thickly muricated with minute raised dots, and pubescent in the centre; pappus very numerous, main stems of plumose pappus very broad at their bases; achene linear-ovate, shining, strigillose, slightly subangular, with a thickened areole at base having a hollow central depression.

Hab. Open spots, and among Leptospermum shrubs, dry hills near Matamau (S.), Waipawa County, 1881–1883: W.C.

Obs.—This species differs in habit from the two more showy species (N.Z.) already described, in not bearing its compound head of florets globular like a ball; the head is always upright, even after flowering, and confined within its involucral scales.

Genus 14. Gnaphalium, Linn.

Gnaphalium parviflorum, sp. nov.

Plant a slender perennial herb, prostrate, spreading, sub-ascending, much branched, rooting at joints; forming dense little beds or cushions where undisturbed. Ultimate branchlets filiform, 6–9 inches long, very cottony; leaves sub-imbricate above and distant on stems below, 3–4 lines long, oval, apiculate with a short stout coloured mucro, entire, sessile, decurrent, very nearly wholly embracing the stem, alternate, regular, white and densely cottony below, very slightly so above, upper surface bright green, floccosely ciliated with white tomentum, midrib prominent and stout below. Heads of flowers few, solitary, 2½ lines broad on a filiform peduncle 2 inches long, terminal on branchlets, bearing 1–2 small bracts; involucral scales numerous, all green with golden coloured and shining scarious edges and tips, obscurely

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nerved; inner, linear, glabrous, tips lacerate and ciliate with white cottony tomentum; outer, broadly oval, coloured with a carmine border round the green centre, and very cottony; tips of corollas tinged with red; receptacle concave, deeply and minutely punctured; achene very small, linear, finely scaberulous, truncate at base with an acicular central point.

Hab. With the preceding plant (Craspedia viscosa), 1879–1883: W.C.

Obs.—I have long known this plant in its leafing state, and have often sought diligently for its flowers, but failed in securing perfect specimens until this year. In its general appearance at first sight it closely resembles G. filicaule. It grows very thickly and luxuriantly where undisturbed, but only produces very few heads of flowers.

Order L. Boragineæ.

Genus 1. Myosotis, Linn.

Myosotis pygmæa, sp. nov.

A very small strigose-hispid sparingly branched perennial (and annual) herb; stems, 1–3, short, ¾–1¼ inches long, prostrate, spreading from root; leaves few, radical petiolate, cauline sessile, obovate-spathulate,½-inch long, very obtuse, thickish, mostly brownish-liver-coloured, strigose above with large rigid white hairs arising from muricated points, ciliated; the lower surface of radical leaves glabrous, green, midrib very stout; flowers solitary, axillary, sessile, 2–3 only on a branch in the axils of upper leaves; calyx large, inflated, hispid and ciliate with long white hairs, lobes very long, acute, spreading, ciliate; corolla pale yellow, tube cylindric, shorter than calyx, lobes rather large, rounded; stamens included; nut ovoid, convex on the one side and sub-carinated on the other with a slight compressed margin, turgid, obtuse, glabrous, shining, brown-black.

Hab. On dry upland open heaths (with Viola perexigua, supra), between Matamau and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1882–83: W.C.

Obs.—This little plant grows sparingly there, though from its small size and retiring habit it is easily overlooked; besides it is very early dried up and withered. I think I have also found it nearly 40 years ago, but only as an annual, growing on the pebbly beach, a little above high-water mark, between Napier and the mouth of the river Ngaruroro. It seems to be allied to M. antarctica, Hook. fil., but is distinct.

Order LV. Lentibularieæ.

Genus 1. Utricularia, Linn.

Utricularia subsimilis, sp. nov.

A very small slender erect herb. Roots rather short, flat, white, semi-transparent, hair-like, with small scattered globular hyaline bladders, much fimbriated on the one side. Leaves few (2–3), basal, linear-spathulate, obtuse, 1-nerved, entire, 6–8 lines long; lamina short, about 1 line broad,

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green; petioles white, semi-transparent, flat. Scape 2–3½ inches high, simple, filiform; flowers 1 (sometimes, but rarely, 2, only one such specimen seen), pedicels very slender, about½ line long, bracts at top of scape 5, ovate-acuminate; sepals large, inflated, sub-orbicular in outline, the upper one very slightly sinuate, margins entire; corolla purple, strongly-veined, 3–4 lines diameter, upper lip small, cuneate, retuse, the lower one somewhat circular in outline (i.e., presenting the broad segment of a circle), entire.

Hab. “In swampy grounds at Tapuaeharuru,” interior (Taupo district), 1880: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs.—This species seems to have some slight affinity with U. lateriflora, Br., a Tasmanian species. Some allowance will have to be made for my description of the corolla of this plant, as I find it almost an impossibility to dissect it satisfactorily when in a dried state, particularly when the specimens have been closely pressed.

Order LXX. Cupuliferæ.

Genus 1. Fagus, Linn.

Fagus apiculata, sp. nov.

A tall handsome tree, 40 feet (and more) high, erect, of symmetrical shape; trunk 2 feet diameter; bark of trunk pale, smoothish; branches opposite, regular, horizontal, plane, spreading, bark darkish brown, studded with lighter coloured spots; branchlets pubescent. Leaves not crowded, rather distant, regularly disposed, sub-membranaceous, glabrous, broadly oblong-lanceolate, 1 inch long, entire, minutely crenulate, finely reticulated, margined, strongly apiculate, the point hard, obtuse, petiolate, slightly and finely pubescent on petioles and beneath; colour light-green; petioles 1–1½ lines long; bracts, outer glabrous, brown, shining, ovate-acuminate,—inner green, narrower and longer, obtuse, with scarious and ciliate edges. Male flowers lateral, on smaller slender branchlets, single, alternate, 2–4 (or more) near each other; peduncle slender, 2–2½ lines long, red, glabrous, or with a few weak scattered hairs; perianth cup-shaped, inflated, glabrous, whitish with pink margin, semi-pellucid, veined, largely 5-toothed, teeth obtuse; anthers 12–14, linear-oblong, apiculate, loosely exserted on long flat slender filaments, nodding. Female flowers (immature), small, axillary, sessile in axil of leaf above the male flowers, ovate, downy; styles brown, exserted.

Hab. In forests between Matamau and Danneverke, County of Waipawa, 1883: W.C.

Obs.—The discovery of this very distinct species of Fagus has much pleased me, as it supplies a required link between our known New Zealand species with large serrated leaves (F. fusca and F. menziesii) and our small entire leaved species (F. solandri and F. cliffortioides), and also between

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them and the Tasmanian and S. American species, which all have serrated leaves. The growth, habit and general appearance of this species (F. apiculata); with its thin and scattered leaves and flattened spreading branches, is very much like that of the northern variety of F. fusca, from Kaitaia near the North Cape, which I have ever supposed to be distinct from the Fagus of the East Coast (Poverty Bay), as well as from the plant of Whangarei (Bream Bay);* though at present those three (vars.?) are all classed under F. fusca. I have never, however, seen the northernmost plant in flower or fruit.

Class II. Monocotyledons.
Order I. Orchideæ.

Genus 3. Bolbophyllum, Thouars.

Bolbophyllum tuberculatum, sp. nov.

Plant epiphytal, forming irregular patches on upper forks of large trees (Dacrydium cupressinum); roots 2–3 inches long, stout; leaves linear-oblong, 8 lines long, 2 lines broad, acute, sub-apiculate, entire, glabrous, dark-green on upper surface, of a lighter-green below, and there minutely and closely dotted with round greyish dots, flat or slightly involute, thickish but not fleshy, having 8–10 parallel veins which are transversely netted, keeled; stipe stoutish, 1 line long; bulbs ovoid, 3–3½ lines long, turgid, ridged; ovary oblong, 2 lines long, glabrous, greenish-white, tuberculated in rows, tubercles blunt, reddish; scape 6–8 lines long, springing from rhizome below base of bulb, slender, turgid and sub-pyriform at base, reddish, muricated, bearing a short raceme of 2–3 flowers; flowers alternate, rather distant on short pedicels,½ line long, each having a bract at its base; bracts sessile rather more than half-clasping, deltoid-acuminate with a produced stout obtuse tip.

Hab. In forests near Petane, Hawke's Bay, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs.—A species very distinct from our long known and common B. pygmæum, Lindl.; apparently rare, though possibly confounded with that species. It is a much larger plant of similar appearance and habit. I regret that I have not yet seen new and perfect flowers.

Genus 9. Corysanthes, Brown.

Corysanthes hypogæa, sp. nov.

Plant very small, terrestrial, tender, succulent; leaf single, 5–8 lines diameter, membranous, shining, much veined, veins largely anastomosing with longitudinal dots in the interspaces, cordate-reniform, 3-lobed at tip, middle lobe produced, acute acuminate, side margins sinuate with a single notch on both sides near base, auricles large, distant, subhastate, very blunt; light green above, midrib and marginal spots purple; silvery below

[Footnote] * See “Tasmanian Journal of Science,” vol. ii., p. 234.

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and sometimes dashed with a purple hue; petiole½–1½ inches long, white, often pinkish, with a sheathing truncate bract at base; peduncle short, 1–2 lines long, bibracteate close to base of flower, the front bract much smaller linear, the hind one ovate-oblong, both obtuse; flowers 3–4 lines diameter, much veined, dorsal sepal arched, closely clasping, subobovate-spathulate, narrowest at base, rounded and slightly sinuate or subapiculate at apex, green with a purple median line; lateral sepals and petals linear acuminate, very narrow filiform, upper pair ¾ inch long, lower pair hair-like, 4 lines long; lip large, dark blood-red above with darker stripes, greenish below spotted with red, bi-lobed at top, lobes rounded entire, 2–3 deep laciniations or ragged lobes below, with the sides much cut and jagged and incurved, a delicate circular bordered ear-like aperture on both sides immediately behind bases of petals.

Hab. Among mosses, steep cliffy sides of dry hills, Fagus forests near Norsewood, Waipawa County; 1880 (plentifully but barren); 1882 (a few capsules long past flowering); and 1883, September, in flower: W.C.

Obs.—I have known this plant for some years, but never found it in flower until the spring of 1883, mainly owing to its peculiar manner of growth, and its very early flowering; for while its one small leaf is spread flat on its mossy bed, its delicate flower is 1–2 inches below the surface, and never appears above during its flowering, though afterwards (in a few observed instances) its capsule is shown just above the surface, owing to the elongation of the peduncle after flowering, which habit is also common to the genus. It grows pretty thickly scattered in beds, showing its small glistening leaf just above the mosses and débris of fallen Fagus leaves (F. solandri), but flowering specimens are very scarce, not one plant in twenty bearing a flower. A species possessing close affinity with C. triloba, Hook. fil.

Corysanthes papillosa, sp. nov.

Plant small, 2–3½ inches high. Leaf ¾–1¼ inches diameter, membranous, finely and regularly papillose on upper surface, orbicular-cordate; auricles broad and largely rounded overlapping petiole, slightly retuse and apiculate at tip, much veined; veins anastomosing with an intramarginal vein running all round, light-green with (sometimes) a purple midrib and spots near margin; petiole½–2 inches long; peduncle short, 3–4 lines long, variously situated—springing from near base of long petiole—from the middle—and from the top near leaf, purple spotted, bibracteate at base of ovarium; bracts small, unequal, the front one very minute, white, the back one much larger, ovate-acuminate, green. Flower½ inch diameter, upper

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sepal suboblong-lanceolate, 2½ lines broad, acuminate, acute, projecting far beyond the lip (sometimes 2½ lines), recurved at tip, very thin, 5-nerved longitudinally, greenish-white spotted with purple-red; lateral sepals very filiform, 6–9 lines long, acute, whitish; lateral petals about 2 inches long, somewhat filiform but stoutish, obtuse, cylindrical, twisted, minutely spotted and coloured purple-red above for half of their length, white below; lip large orbicular,½ inch (or more) in diameter, deeply bilobed above, spreading, plain, neither recurved nor involute, margins rounded entire above with a single slight notch at top on each lobe, very minutely undulate or finely and slightly toothed, retuse and apiculate below, papillose within, transparent, much veined; colour, dark purple-red above, whitish spotted with purple-red below; ovarium subangular, sulcated, purple striped.

Hab. In various parts of Hawke's Bay, among mosses in ravines, shaded woods in the interior, 1850–1880: W.C. Glenross, near Napier, 1883: Mr. D. P. Balfour.

Obs.—A fine species closely allied to C. macrantha, Hook. fil., but very distinct. Also, having affinity with C. fimbriata, Lindl., an Australian and Tasmanian species.

Thelymitra formosa, sp. nov.

Stem erect, very stout, 12–14 inches high, 3 lines diameter, tinged red with leaf bracts and bracteoles; two sheaths below leaf, scarious, truncate obtuse pointed and 2-nerved; 1–2 foliaceous bracts above leaf, 2½ lines long very acuminate, acute; leaf very thick fleshy, linear-ovate, 10 inches long, reaching to lowest flower on scape, 4-nerved, broadly keeled, deeply channelled, edges incurved, 6–8 lines wide near base, purple-brown densely covered with minute red raised dots. Flowers 5–10, erect on stout pedicels½–¾ inch long; a bracteole at base of each, ovate-acuminate very acute, sub-clasping½–¾ inch long reaching to base of perianth, obscurely 6–8 nerved; perianth 1–1¼ inches diameter. Sepals ovate-acuminate, nerved, a little longer than the petals, brownish-purple with white margins; petals light bluish-purple, broadly oblong-lanceolate, very obtuse, or elliptic with a mucro, obscurely nerved. Column with pointed tip; appendages (staminodia) long, much longer than the column each bifid, anterior arm densely fimbriated with yellow fimbriæ, posterior ditto with long subulate erect points at top, and crenulated fleshy pink edges on back slope running down to a deep notch at the back, exposing top of column. Ovary obovate, 9 lines long, 3 lines wide, broadly ribbed. Tubers 2, large, sub-obovoid, obtuse, 1 inch long,½ inch broad.

Hab. In clayey ground, Fagus woods, high land between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1882; flowering in December: W.C.

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Order V. Typhaceæ.

Genus 2. Sparganium, Linn.

Sparganium angustifolium, R. Brown.

Hab. Hawke's Bay, low watery places, sides of streams, etc.: W.C. Petane, near Napier, 1882: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs.—Agreeing closely with the Australian species; also found in the northern parts of the North Island, and long confounded with S. simplex, Huds.

Order VII. Liliaceæ.

Genus 4. Dianella, Lamarck.

Dianella nigra, sp. nov.

Plant a diffuse herb; leaves drooping, subrigid when old, 3 feet long, 8 lines broad, linear acuminate and very acute, keeled, hooked on margins and keel throughout, glabrous, glossy above, striate below, finely and regularly nerved, margins slightly recurved, light-green, bases pink-red, and so bracts. Scapes, 3 feet 9 inches to 4 feet 3 inches long, stem below dark-green, subterete, 1–2 foliaceous bracts below panicle; panicle proper, 2 feet to 2 feet 8 inches long, narrow oblong, slender and very loose, black-purple; main branchlets few, 4–10 inches long, wiry, filiform, very distant on rhachis, 4–6–10 inches apart, tough, each divided into 2–4 long slender sub-branchlets, all straight and suberect, each sub-branchlet with 4–5 scattered flowers at top on long pedicels; pedicels 1–2 inches long, spreading; ultimate bracts small, linear, obtuse, 1–2 lines long, generally situated 2–4 lines below junction of subpeduncle. Perianth (unfolded) dark-purple almost black, linear-oblong obtuse under 2 lines long, expanded 3½ lines diameter, patent not reflexed, segments with very dark distinct nerves, margins whitish; three outer segments 5-nerved, sublinear-ovate, three inner segments 3-nerved, broader and more obtuse at apex. Anthers linear-oblong obtuse, light-yellow, scarcely 1 line long; strumæ about same length, a little thicker, thickest upwards, dark orange-yellow; filaments below much longer, very slender, bent and crumpled, white; style a little longer than stamens, slightly curved; stigma capitate, papillose. Ovary subtriquetrous, rotund at apex, glabrous, ⅓, or so, inferior.

Hab. Dry hillsides among under shrubs, forests near Matamau (S.), Waipawa County, 1882; flowering in December: W.C.

Obs.—A peculiar looking species from its tall, large, and lax black panicle and very small star-like flowers, widely differing from our other only known N.Z. species, D. intermedia, which species is also said to be generally common in the S. Polynesian Islands, as Fiji, etc. [see Seemann, Bentham, etc.] I only detected two bushy diffuse plants or tussocks that had been browsed on by cattle in the past season; they bore, however, a quantity of new leaves, and a great number of scapes.

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Genus 5. Astelia, Banks and Solander.

Astelia spicata, Col. (male plant).*

Plant much the same as the female one in size, leafing, and general appearance. Scape erect, 3 inches high, including spike; spike 1½ inches long, bearing 12 flowers, the lower ones distant, alternate and pedicelled, each one of these having a long leaf-like broadly-lanceolate-acuminate and ciliate bract, the lowermost being 3½ inches long, acute and pubescent at tips; the upper flowers are sessile, clustered in a dense obtuse spike, each one having a fine long linear silky bracteole; lobes of perianth white, large, hyaline, linear-oblong, obtuse, 1-nerved, at first cohering at tips and covering anthers, etc., in a conical form, afterwards wholly reflexed; filaments white, 1½ inches long, flat, spreading, succulent; anthers linear, light brown; pollen numerous, issuing in large white grains, possessing a sugary appearance.

Hab. Epiphytical on living trees, in forests near Norsewood (same locality as that of the fem. plant), 1883: W.C.

Obs.—It is rather a curious incident that, after two years research (and always seeing scores of barren (?) plants high up on the neighbouring trees around), I found only this one plant in flower, growing in the low fork of a tree, just as in the case of the one fem. plant two years before.

Order XI. Cyperaceæ.

Genus 9. Cladium, Linn.

Cladium (Vincentia) gahnoides, sp. nov.

Plant growing in large bushy tufts; culms 2 feet high, compressed, smooth, leafy; leaves flat vertically without a midrib, 2–3 feet long, 4–7 lines broad, linear-acuminate, acute, margins entire, smooth, not cutting, sub-membranaceous, softish, finely striate, equitant at bases, pale green; panicle 6–8 inches long, much branched, nodding; bracts sheathing glabrous, dark-brown, lower ones very acuminate, minutely scabrid only at tips; branchlets drooping, springing from smaller bracts; peduncles flat, or tetragonous, compressed, striate, glabrous; sub-peduncles and pedicels, flat, ciliate-scaberulous; spikelets small, fascicled, rich dark red-brown; lower glumes and bracts awned, glabrous, very slightly and minutely scaberulous on mid-nerve at back; stamens 3, 1 inch long, flat, colour light-brown, twisted, dilated and truncate at apex, elongated and persistent after flowering; style 1 line long, persistent; stigmas 3, linear, longer than style, densely papillose; nut very small, less than 1 line long, spindle-shaped, turgid, triquetrous throughout and ribbed at margins, beak minutely barbed, base thickened, often hanging by the persistent filaments as in several GahniÆ; colour pale light-brown.

[Footnote] * See “Transactions N,Z. Institute,” vol. xiv., p. 335, for a description of the female plant.

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Hab. Cliffy banks of the upper part of the Petane River, near Napier, on high and dry stony ridges, and on similar spots inland between Hawke's Bay and Taupo, 1846–1852: W.C. Petane Valley, 1881: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs.—A species closely allied to C. sinclairii, Hook. fil., but smaller in all its parts.

Genus 13. Uncinia, Persoon.

Uncinia bractata, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant perennial, erect, growing in large bushy tufts. Culms 12–18 inches high, stout, smooth. Leaves numerous, shorter than the culms, 10–14 inches long, 2 lines broad, flat, membranous, many nerved, keeled, slightly scaberulous, more so at tips which are obtuse. Spikelet 3–4½ inches long, 1/6th of an inch broad, trigonous; upper 6–12 lines male; bracts 2 sometimes 3, very long, longest and lowermost 6–10 inches and more, foliaceous, very narrow, channelled, scaberulous above, slightly so below; glumes closely imbricate, linear, acute, 2 lines long, glabrous, obscurely nerved, keeled, dark-brown; utricle shorter than glume, subrhomboidal, glabrous, nerved, subtriquetrous, compressed, dark-brown at top light-coloured below; bristle slender, as long as the utricle.

Hab. Woods, dry hills, between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1882–3: W.C.

Obs.–A species having affinity with U. australis; from its much softer foliage often browsed on by cattle.

Uncinia obtusata, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant thickly cæspitose in rather small tufts. Culms 12–21 inches high, sub-erect, rigid, smooth, but finely scaberulous at top for about 1 inch below spikelet, triquetrous. Leaves much shorter than culms, 6–9 inches long, linear, 1/9th of an inch wide, flat, membranaceous, grassy, sub-erect, smooth, finely and closely scabrous towards top, obtuse, nerved, slightly keeled. Spikelet 1–1½ inches long, loose, spreading, few-flowered, flowers distant; upper 4–5 lines male, very slender; bract 3–4 inches long, filiform, obtuse, scabrous, and densely so at top; glumes closely imbricating, shorter than utricle, 1½ lines long, deltoid-acuminate; 1-nerved, obtuse, lowest (one or two) trifid and awned, awn long barbed obtuse; utricle longer than glume, 2 lines long, broadly lanceolate, glabrous, produced and tumid at base, triquetrous, turgid, 3-nerved, at first green, afterwards when old dark-brown; bristle slender,½ a line longer than utricle; stigmas long, spreading.

Hab. Open woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa, 1882–3: W.C.

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Obs.–Sometimes the culm is entirely smooth throughout, and without a bract.

Genus 14. Carex, Linn.

Carex flagellifera, sp. nov.

A flaccid diffuse largely tufted species. Culms slender, 7–8 feet long, 1 line diameter below, much less above in middle and long panicle, smooth, subcylindric, hollow in the centre, striate, prostrate, extended, bearing a single leaf about the middle. Leaves drooping and spreading, much shorter than the culms, 2 feet 6 inches long, 1 line wide, stout, smooth, channelled, finely scabrous at edges, and still more slightly so on midrib at back, above but not below, green, regularly striate, with a broad filmy margin at the extreme base. Spikelets 4–6 (usually 5), very distant on panicle, cylindrical 2½ inches long, peduncled, pendulous; peduncles 2–3 inches long, compressed, lowermost pair 1–2 feet apart, sometimes the lowermost one is compound trifid or shortly tripedicelled, the uppermost one is male and very slender, 1½ inches long; bracts very long, narrow and foliaceous, finely scabrid at edges; glume ovate-acuminate, 1½ lines long, stoutly 1-nerved, awned, awn barbed; utricle as long as the glume, broadly lanceolate, bifid, turgid shining, light-brown; stigmas 2.

Hab. On sides of abrupt clayey declivities, woods, between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1881–1883: W.C.

Obs.—A very remarkable species, owing to its very long weak and prostrate culms, which stream away together like long wisps or bands, and so get entangled among the low herbage and common fern—Pteris esculenta. Carex sex-spicata, sp. nov.

Culms 2 feet-2 ft. 3 in. high, erect, stout, trigonous, smooth, more than 1 line in diameter, leafy, culm leaves with a sharply acute triangular hairy ligule; leaves as long as culms, ¼ inch wide, sub-rigid, rather harsh, flat, many nerved, the 2 principal lateral nerves white and strong on the upper surface, very acuminate, expanding below into wide filmy sheaths, keeled, closely and finely scabrid at edges, and slightly so on the two white nerves above and on the midrib below, striated; spikelets 6, approximate, each about 2 inches long, stout, shortly peduncled, erect, light brown, panicle short, ⅔ below of upper spikelet male, and the next two with a very few males below, the other 3 wholly female; bracts wide, foliaceous; glume linear-ovate-acuminate, bifid, sub-awned, less than 2 lines long, shorter and much narrower than the utricle, 1-nerved, longitudinally and numerously marked with fine short red lines, persistent; utricle ovate-acuminate, 1-nerved, turgid, spreading, smooth, bifid, tips acute, long-produced; anthers 1½ lines long, linear, apiculate, twisted, light brown; filaments longer than anthers, flat, much flexuose; stigmas 3.

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Hab. Edges of River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, 1883: W.C.

Order XII. Gramineæ.

Genus 16. Danthonia, DeCandolle.

Danthonia pentaflora, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant tufted, but not in dense tussocks. Culms 2–3 feet high, glabrous, stout. Leaves flat, 3–3½ feet long, 2–3 lines wide, pale green, strongly nerved, glabrous and shining above, pilose below with long scattered white hairs, margins thickened bearing a double row of fine sharp cutting spiny recurved teeth, midrib scabrid above; sheaths 1/3 of an inch broad, subcoriaceous, glabrous and keeled below, pilose above and ciliated with long straggling hairs, margins towards top slightly scabrid, densely and silky pilose with compressed hairs above mouth of sheath, and a transverse line of thickly set shortish white hairs almost disposed in little regular pencilled tufts forming a ligule. Panicle large, erect, broadly obovate, 12–14 inches long, open, diffuse, very thin; branches alternate, distant, 4–8 inches long, 5 springing nearly together from a node, glabrous; branchlets very slender, filiform, few flowered, scaberulous. Spikelets distant,½ inch long, 5-flowered; peduncles ¼–1 inch long, hairy under spikelet; florets sessile on rhachis; rhachis below florets densely hairy; hairs long. Empty glumes margins entire, subacute, lower one much the smaller, strongly 1-nerved, upper one slightly ciliated near base; flowering glume ciliate with long white hairs at margins near base, the 2 lobes much elongated but not awned, very finely and closely villously-ciliate, 1-nerved, awn much longer than glume, acicular, flat at base, 2-nerved, spreading, deflexed; pale nearly as long as the glume, broadest near top, almost subobovate retuse, minutely and closely pilose-ciliate and subpeneilled at apex, largely ciliated with long hairs on the back near base, margins pale-green. Anthers (immature) very long, nearly 2 lines, linear, light-brown, not exserted.

Hab. Slopes of Ruahine mountain range (immature), 1846, etc.: W.C. Near same localities, 1882: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs.—A species very near to D. cunninghamii in its general appearance but smaller, of tufted growth but not largely so, and more restricted as to locality. I have closely examined several specimens, gathered at various seasons and in separate localities, and have invariably found a spikelet to consist of 5 florets, the upper one being often smaller and abortive. Unfortunately all my specimens, though gathered at different times in early summer, were rather immature; and those collected by Mr. Hamilton in December are much the same. This species ripens its seeds late in the autumn. I have hitherto refrained from describing it in the hope of obtaining more complete specimens.

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Class III. Cryptogamia.

Genus 1. Gleichenia, Smith.

Gleichenia littoralis, mihi.

Plant gregarious; rhizome creeping, stoutish, thickly clothed with shining brown laciniate scales; stipes erect, glabrous, 6–8 inches high, sub-cylindrical below, flattish above, deeply channelled on upper surface, olive-green, sometimes light-brown; fronds sub-flabelliform, 2-branched, each main branch once or twice forked, or sometimes with 3 single branchlets; branchlet ovate-acuminate, 4–6 inches long, 1–1 ¼ inches broad near base, pinnate below, deeply pinnatifid quite to midrib above, extending also to apex which is not caudate; colour reddish-green, rhachis and veins red; segments linear, glabrous, sub-membranaceous, opposite and occasionally alternate, plane, patent, sub-erect, broadest at base, decurrent,½–¾ inch long, 1 line wide, pinnate, distant and sub-adnate, not decurrent, (those on branchlets below the upper forkings are generally the longest—there are none below the first or lowest fork), margins entire (slightly recurved in age), sometimes a few segments are irregularly and very finely and distantly serrulate; apices very obtuse incurved and adpressed and finely woolly on both surfaces; midrib and veins woolly below with shining silky spreading hairs; capsules reddish, usually 4 together (sometimes 5 or 3), biserial on upper veinlets of middle of segments, exposed; veins prominent, forked.

Hab. Wooded cliffy shores of Whangaruru Bay S., 1836–41: W.C. Owana, E. coast Great Barrier Islet, Thames, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.

Obs.—This species is allied to our G. fiabellata, Br. (but is very distinct from it, though often, I think, confounded with it), and, possibly, more so to the Cape Horn species, G. acutifolia, Hook., particularly in its being a small pedate, erect, non-proliferous species, and like that species also a seaside plant. It seems to have a narrow range, at least I never met with it anywhere else than in that one habitat at Whangaruru, though there it grew plentifully and thickly in one spot, which I visited year after year from the time of its first detection, but could only find short barren yellowish fronds, which both A. Cunningham and Sir W. J. Hooker supposed to be those of G. flabellata in its young state; this, however, I always doubted. Now, then, after more than 45 years! it has been rediscovered by Mr. Winkelmann as above, from whom I have had for examination several specimens in full fruit, and pretty uniform.

Gleichenia punctulata, mihi.

Fronds erect, slender, 1½–2½ feet high, repeatedly dichotomously branched, very regular; stipe and rhachises slender, brown, densely scaly,

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woolly, and hairy; branches deltoid-acuminate, 5–7 inches long, 2 inches broad at base, pinnate; pinnæ petiolate, alternate, very distant, 1 inch long, 1½ lines broad, deeply pinnatifid to midrib, glabrous and shining and dull dark green above, wholly glabrous below, except towards base of midrib, and there slightly woolly and scaly, but not hairy, whole plant, however, densely woolly and scaly below when young, the lowest pair of lobes (or sometimes two) larger, distinctly free and pinnate, lobules adnate, broadly elliptic, almost sub-quadrangular, very obtuse and slightly recurved at tips, glaucous almost blue beneath, and minutely and regularly punctulate (stippled) with light fawn-coloured shining dots; veins usually 1–3 branched, obscure; capsules 1–2 together, large, white, exposed, submarginal on upper inner corner of lobule; hairs short, rigid, dark red, fascicled in small scattered bundles; scales large, triangular, acuminate, netted and thickly ciliated.

Hab. Near Hot Springs, centre Great Barrier Islet, Thames, 1882: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann. I have also seen barren specimens collected earlier, from the west coast, South Island

Obs.—A species having pretty close natural affinity with G. G. microphylla, Brown; semivestita, Lab.; and hecistophylla, A. Cunn.; but differing from them all, and possessing characters which those species have not—that are better seen than described in words.

Note.—I have ever believed in the specific distinctness of those three ferns I have just mentioned; in which I also wholly agree with Mr. J. Smith (who had so long successfully cultivated them at Kew), in his last two works on ferns, viz., “Historia Filicum,” p. 339, and “Ferns, British and Foreign,” p. 248; as well as with Sir W. J. Hooker in his “Species Filicum.” Those eminent practical botanists, R. Brown and A. Cunningham, who had ample opportunities throughout many years of observing those three ferns they had described in their native habitats, could not possibly have been mistaken about them.

Genus 10. Lindsæa, Dryander.

Lindsæa trilobata, sp. nov.

Rhizome creeping densely scaly; scales ramentaceous, largely reticulated and transversely barred. Plant erect, cæspitose, 7–10 inches high, sublinear-lanceolate acuminate, pinnate, glabrous, dull green, but when young of a graceful delicate light green, sub-membranaceous. Stipes 4–6 inches long, very flexuous and tough below, obscurely triquetrous, compressed at base, deeply channelled and shining (together with rhachis) on the upper surface, slightly and sparsely roughish and muricated with little round knobs; colour light chesnut-brown. Fronds 3–5 inches long, 6–9 lines broad, fertile ones usually the longest and about 20–22-jugate; pinnules

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2–4 lines long,½–3 lines deep, opposite and sometimes alternate, petiolate, obliquely-flabelliform, sub-rhomboidal, and broadly cuneate, spreading, distant, lower very remote, upper approximate; petioles slender; the larger pinnules of the barren fronds and frequently of the fertile ones deeply 2–4 (mostly 8-) lobed on upper convex margin; lobes laciniate and irregularly crenate and toothed, the lower and inner margins of pinnules entire; veins radiate, free, forked, clavate at apices, prominent, dark-coloured, not extending to margin. Involucres, the inner valve green, broad, extending quite to margin of the outer one; margins of both closely and deeply laciniate-toothed; teeth sub-rigid, very obtuse; margins (with petioles and upper rhachis) bright red, and revolute when young. Sori, straw-coloured, but reddish with age.

Hab. In hollows on high land, tops of hills near the north head of Wellington Harbour (but not plentiful), 1846–7: W.C. Whangaparapara, west coast Great Barrier Islet, Thames, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.

Obs.—A species having affinity with L. linearis, Sw., and probably with L. incisa, Prentice, another Australian species (judging from Bentham's description of this latter, as I have not seen any specimens of this plant), and with L. lobbiana, Hook. (also from his description). Differing, however, from L. linearis (a species found plentifully in New Zealand—Bay of Islands, and elsewhere) in size—in its larger and lobed pinnæ, which are also on slender petioles—in form and colour of stipes and rhachis, and in the stout obtuse toothing of its involucres. Here I might very well adopt Sir W. J. Hooker's remark in describing the fern above mentioned, L. lobbiana:—“Without a figure I should despair of making its character intelligible, so difficult is it to define in words the forms of the pinnæ of these plants.”—Sp. Filicum.

Genus 16. Lomaria, Willdenow.

Lomaria oligoneuron, sp. nov.

Plant under a foot high, tufted, 6–12 fronds to a plant, glabrous, suberect and spreading, with a short, stout, woody caudex about 1 inch long. Roots stoutish, long, spreading, densely clothed with light brown, shining, shaggy hairs; stipes short, usually under 1 inch (sometimes of sterile fronds extending to 2 inches or more, and of fertile fronds still longer), slender, dark purple-brown, slightly roughish below, sub-cylindrical, channelled (with rhachis) on the upper surface; scales long at base and for some distance upwards; fronds pinnate; sterile ones sub-lanceolate, broadest near tips, flat, 7–9 inches long, 10–14 lines broad, pinnæ numerous, rather distant, sub-opposite, adnate and decurrent, coarsely and prominently veined, membranaceous and puckered, deeply and coarsely crenate-serrate,

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almost sub-laciniate or pinnatifid-serrate, the most prominent teeth or laciniations usually bearing a minute hard white recurved tooth (sometimes two) on their tips; colour pale greyish-green; upper and largest pinnæ broadly linear-oblong, very obtuse and truncate, 6–8 lines long, 3–4 lines broad, suberect, confluent at top, terminal lobe deltoid very obtuse; lower pinnæ occupying considerably more than half of the frond, much smaller than upper, orbicular and gradually decreasing in size downwards; fertile fronds longer than barren ones, but more slender with fewer and more distant pinnæ; pinnæ opposite and alternate, distant, ligulate, largest½ inch long, 1 line broad, apiculate, upper and larger ones slightly petiolate, terminal one subcaudate, lower ones excessively small; involucre finely reticulated, margins entire; scales on stipes 2 lines long, flat, deltoid-linear acuminate, nerved longitudinally and much dilated at base. Veins conspicuous, simple and forked, extending quite to margin, clavate, very few and distant, usually only 4-jugate in the largest pinnæ, the lowermost one or two pairs not springing from the midrib (this character is also found in the smallest orbicular pinnæ), midrib usually forked at apex.

Hab. Great Barrier Islet, Thames, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.

Obs. I.—A species having close affinity with L. lanceolata and membranacea, particularly the latter, but differing in several important particulars:–e.g., in its large normal sterile pinnæ being fewer in number and decurrent, and much more coarsely serrate, and fewer veined, with veins extending to margins and the lowermost not springing from the midrib; in its small orbicular and deeply crenate-serrate pinnæ occupying nearly two-thirds of the frond; and in all being more distant from each other on the rhachis; and in its upper fertile pinnæ being petiolate, and their involucres finely reticulate with entire margins.

Obs. II.—I have had several fully fronded plants containing together more than fifty specimens of barren and fertile fronds to look over, and their uniformity in habit and character is great; the plants differing only in size.

Genus 22. Polypodium, Linn.

Polypodium rufobarbatum, sp. nov.

Plant terrestrial, sub-erect, wholly covered with long and stout red and shining jointed and moniliform hairs; rhizome creeping, densely hairy; fronds½–1 inch distant on rhizome. Stipes 1–3 inches long, and rhachis, slender, subflexuose, dry, channelled above, red, shining; frond 4–6 inches long, sublinear-ovate, acuminate, bipinnate, membranaceous, light green; pinnæ petiolate, distant and subopposite, deltoid-acuminate, ¾–1 inch long, 3–6 lines broad, spreading; pinnules sessile, distant, pinnate below, pinnatifid above, cut down quite to midrib of pinnæ, decurrent, linear-oblong, obtuse,

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flat, 6–7 lobed, very uniform, ciliated all round with stout red hairs extending far beyond margin; lobes slightly crenate-toothed, never recurved over sori; sori large, round, reddish, bifariously disposed, one on each lobe on middle of veins, within margin, mostly three pairs on a pinnule; veins few, simple, and once forked, extending quite to margin, clavate at tips.

Hab. Skirts of woods, hills, between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1882; W.C.

Obs.—A very graceful little fern of uniform growth and appearance, allied to Polypodium rugulosum and Hypolepis distans, but distinct from both.

Order II. Lycopodiaceæ.

Genus 2. Lycopodium, Linn.

Lycopodium consimilis, sp. nov.

Plant gregarious; rhizome creeping, stout, white, glabrous; stems slender, erect, leafy from the base, 7–10 inches long, simple and branched; branches often again forked from near their bases; leaves nearly 3 lines long, squarrose, flat, linear-acuminate (occasionally forked), broadest at base and coadunato-decurrent, finely striate and shining, obsoletely nerved, margins revolute, slightly lacerate and jagged at tips, tips obtuse; green when young, yellowish-green when mature, often purple-tipped; spikes 5–6 on a branch, lateral and sub-terminal, cylindrical, peduncled, 5–8 lines long, lowermost longest, narrow, acute; bracts large, spreading, finely striate and shining, deltoid-acuminate, sub-awned, slightly keeled towards apex, margins serrate and jagged and sub-revolute, apices jagged (after the manner of the leaves but stronger); yellow-brown; capsules 3-lobed, turgid, with a small linear inner bracteole arising from base of capsule and embracing it.

Hab. Stony ground, White Cliffs, Great Barrier Islet, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.

Obs.—A species having pretty close affinity with L. laterale, Brown.

Order IV. Musci.

Genus 21. Encalypta, Schreber.

C. novæ-zealandiæ, sp. nov.

Stems closely tufted, very short, about½ an inch high. Leaves green, sub-erect, oblong, obtuse, margin entire, midrib very stout below, not excurrent, glabrous; perichætial leaves broadly ovate. Fruit stalk 3–4 lines long, red; capsule linear-ovate, compressed, smooth, shining, reddish; calyptra large, nearly 3 lines long, shining (satiny), finely striated, entire at the base (and, sometimes, finely toothed), tips smooth.

Hab. On ground, dry hills at Pohue, and at Petane, near Napier, 1882: Mr. A. Hamilton.

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Obs.—A species near to our only (hitherto) known New Zealand species E. australis, Mitten); and also, and nearer, to E. vulgaris, Hedw., a British and common European species, found also in Tasmania; but differing from both, and from all others known to me.

Order V. Hepaticæ.

Genus 7. Gottschea, Nees.

Gottschea compacta, sp. nov.

Plant of densely compact dwarf growth under 1 inch high, erect, closely imbricate, forming little patches, whole plant very tender and brittle. Stems rather stout, prostrate, dark claret colour, 1–½ inches long, with many fine dark pink rootlets below, sometimes two-branched near the tops, tops of branches decumbent, spreading, and then 4–6 lines broad, with leaves laxly imbricate. Leaves light green, pink at junction with the stem, very much waved and crisped, smooth, shining, semicircular, broadly elliptic and sub-quadrate in outline, margins entire, decurrent, sometimes very sparingly toothed towards base. Involucral leaves smaller, narrower, entire, conniving; fruit stalk 1 inch long, rather slender; capsule small, globose, black, minutely pitted; stipule O.

Hab. On wet perpendicular clay cuttings among mosses, etc., near bridge of River Mangatawhainui, Norsewood, 1883: W.C.

Genus 30. Symphyogyna, Mont. and Nees.

This, hitherto, small and little-known genus having lately largely increased in additional and new species, I give a classification of them:–

I. Fronds stipitate, erect.
1. Margins serrate.


S. rubricaulis.


S. pellucida.


S. melanoneuron.


S. vulgaris.

2. Margins entire.


S. simplex.


S. megalolepis.


S. fætida.


S. longistipa.

II. Fronds prostrate, creeping.
1. Margins serrate.


S. prolifera.

2. Margins entire.


S. undulata.


S. marchantioides.

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S. rubricaulis, sp. nov.

Plant terrestrial, gregarious, diœcious, each plant simple, suberect, stipitate, the largest from ¾–1 inch long including stipe, roots short succulent and hairy; stipe mostly 3–4 lines long (sometimes 9–10), flexuose, obsoletely angled, rosy-red, 1-nerved from base of frond to root (sometimes 2-nerved above), succulent, semi-transparent; frond (largest and fruit-bearing) broadly deltoid or fan-shaped in outline,½ inch long,½ inch broad at top, mostly 4-parted or sub-digitate, sometimes simply once-forked, 1½–2 lines broad, and very truncate and undulate at base, not decurrent on stipe; segments under 1 line broad, nearly linear but broadest at base and narrowest at tips, margins serrate, serratures few, small, and irregular, none at tips which are obtuse and retuse, glabrous, transparent, minutely reticulated, areolæ oblong-pentangular regular; colour bright light green; fructification on upper surface of frond, single, on one side below forking of veins of forked fronds; involucre a narrow linear-oblong laciniate scale; peduncle 10–11 lines long, slender; calyptra tubular, 2½–3 lines long, whitish, reddish at base, slighly roughish, mouth truncate, laciniate, with rather long fimbriæ; fimbriæ brown; capsule 1–½ lines long, linear, cylindric, finely striate, sub-acute and pointed, shining, black; antheridia on separate and much smaller fronds, closely placed on midrib and veins on the upper surface.

Hab. On shaded clayey banks, Seventy-mile Bush, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa, 1880–3: W.C. Glenross, near Napier, 1883: Mr. D. P. Balfour; fruiting in September.

Obs.—A species having affinity with S. biflora, mihi, and S. hymenophyllum, Hook., but very distinct from both. S. biflora bears its fructification on the lower surface and this species on the upper. This species grows thickly together in little beds or patches, with its fronds always inclining one way, half-nodding and overlapping, with its coloured fructification erect and some distance above them. Some fronds have three segments, others only two, and some a single one, which is then oblong-lanceolate. It is a very pretty neat little species.

2. S. pellucida, sp. nov.

Plant gregarious stipitate erect, usually single, though sometimes two, or even three, are found united by a very short rhizome, 1–1½ inches high, 1½–2½ lines broad, commonly once-forked, sometimes single, and occasionally (though rarely) 3-branched, single fronds and segments generally linear-oblong and broader near tips, pagina of frond broadly decurrent to near base, slightly sinuate and waved, particularly below, transparent, margins very finely serrate, apices rounded, obtuse or slightly emarginate, nerve single, strong, and extending to tips, colour very light green; stipes very

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short, 1–1½ lines long, with small fine rootlets at base; fructification on the upper side, scattered, mostly on nerve near the middle of the frond, sometimes near the base, and sometimes at the forking but above it, and not unfrequently two on a frond; involucre broad, subplicate, deeply and finely laciniate, sometimes three occur on a branchlet; calyptra cylindric, two lines long, whitish, glabrous, slightly rugulose, with delicate small fimbriæ at the mouth; peduncle slender, 8–12 lines long; capsule linear, obtuse, 1 line long, glossy dark brown, valves not cohering at tips; spores circular, presenting a ringed appearance; cellules very minute, chain-like, irregular in shape and size, mostly pentagonal.

Hab. On clay banks, sides of streamlets near Norsewood, 1878–83 (but barren): W.C. Petane, near Napier, September, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton; profusely in fruit.

Obs.–A species having alliance with S. subsimplex, Mitten, and S. prolifera, mihi (infra), but very distinct from both. Occasionally, however, a frond is met with slightly rooting from its centre, below the fruit-point, or from becoming recumbent, and sometimes, though rarely, by throwing out lateral fronds from its base. A few young fronds are also found intermixed, very narrow long and pointed; these, I am inclined to believe, enlarge their pagina afterwards.

3. S. melanoneuron, sp. nov.

Plant small, single (?), stipitate, erect; frond reniform in outline, 7–8 lines broad, 4–5 lines long, forked, once or twice divided, stoutish, wavy, colour dark olive, cellules small, oblong; segments few, sublinear-oblong, short, about 1½ lines or more wide, not divided deeply, not decurrent on stipe, very slightly and distantly serrulated towards bases not above, tips largely emarginate; midrib stout, almost black, not extending to tips, in some segments midrib forked at tips; stipe 6–9 lines long, stoutish, black-brown; involucre small, simply 2–3 times notched, on upper surface at second forkings above, 2–3 on a frond; antheridia on lower surface, under minute ovate leaf-like scales, scattered on both sides of the midrib.

Hab.—On clay banks under ferns, &c., dark forests near Norsewood, 1879–83: W.C.; and at Great Barrier Islet, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.

Obs.—This is another peculiar-looking species, of which I should have liked to have had better fruiting specimens. It is a rather scarce species and generally barren. I have long known it in this state, and I should not care now to describe it had I not been engaged lately in studying and working-up the several species I have described in this paper—besides my well-knowing all the other published N.Z. species of this genus. I have, therefore, no doubt of its being quite distinct as a species from all of them, although I find it hard to describe plainly in a few words its characteristic

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differences. The ultimate segments of the fronds are remarkably wide and short, indeed, on some fronds, might more properly be termed lobes. The few specimens brought away by Mr. Winkelmann this year (1883) from the Great Barrier Islet, were also barren, and very similar.

4. S. vulgaris, sp. nov.

Plant terrestrial, gregarious, diœcious, stipitate, erect, arising from a short stout rhizome, 2–3 springing together, or nearly so, 1½–2 inches high including stipe; fronds variously shaped, but mostly broadly fan-shaped in outline, 6–8 lines long, 9–10 lines broad at top, divided into two main branches, each being dichotomous and sub-imbricate, angles of sinuses very obtuse, spreading; segments 1 line broad, mostly dilated with very large margins above forks, and deeply emarginate at tips, margins finely serrated extending down the decurrent wings of stipe, nerves thick throughout, not percurrent to tips; colour a light reddish- or lurid-green, cellules large oblong; stipe 1–½ inches long, stout, sub-flexuose, broad and compressed and winged above, sub-cylindrical below, stoutly 2-nerved, sometimes 3-nerved above; fructification on upper surface of frond in the main forks; involucre a rather broad trifid or deeply 3-laciniate scale with jagged margins; sometimes 3–4 observed on a frond, but invariably only one bearing a calyptra; calyptra large, tubular, 3–3½ lines long, slightly contracted at base, dilated and fimbriate at mouth, of a similar dirty-reddish hue as the frond; antheridia on separate and narrower fronds, rather loosely scattered in lines on both sides of main nerves under broad acuminate jagged scales.

Hab. Clay banks lower sides of deep water-courses, shaded forests, Seventy-mile Bush, Waipawa County, 1878–1881: W.C.

Obs.—This species is one of the largest and the coarsest-looking of all our known stipitate New Zealand species. I have long known it, but hitherto I have refrained from describing it in hopes of getting better specimens,–i.e., more perfect in fruit. The calyptræ of this plant often seem as if gnawed by some small insect. It appears to be pretty closely allied to S. hymenophyllum, Mont., and also to S. rugulosa, mihi, in its general appearance, but this latter species has entire margins, etc.

5. S. simplex, sp. nov.

Plant diœcious; frond stipitate, erect, with no indication of a rhizome, simple, of varied outline mostly linear and sublinear-ovate, sometimes broadest at base and then deltoid-acuminate and subtruncate, 1–2 ¼ inches long including stipe, 1½–2 lines broad in the broadest part, slightly repand and waved, very thin, pale green, margins entire, emarginate at apices, mostly narrowly and very gradually decurrent half-way down stipe, midrib narrow, very prominent and keeled on both surfaces, light yellow-brown, not continued to tip, but continued downwards as a nerve within to the

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base of the stipe; stipe 3–6 lines long, slender, rosy-red; fructification on midrib upper surface, nearer the apex than the base; involucre small, trifid, laciniate, laciniations acuminate sharp; calyptra substipitate, stout, 1½ lines long, much fimbriated at top, dilated and laciniate at mouth; peduncle slender, short, 3–4 lines long; capsule large, nearly 2 lines long, linear, obtuse, truncate at base, light-brown; cellules pretty regular, suborbicular-pentagonal; antheridia under small deltoid jagged scales, in short linear masses on the midrib near the top of separate fronds, that are usually narrower and longer.

Hab. High and dry woods near Norsewood, 1878–1882: W.C. Pohue, high lands near Petane, Hawke's Bay, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs.—This small and simple species very much resembles some of the linear unbranched fronds of S. subsimplex, to which species it is closely allied; and indeed it was for some time by me taken for it, but on close examination and dissection I found several differences: e.g., this species is never branched or forked, has generally much more attenuated fronds with a keeled and coloured midrib, and longer stipes that are rosy red, its involucral scale is sharply laciniate, and, beyond all, it differs greatly in the form of its cellules, which, in S. subsimplex, are distinctly “hexagonal.”. It has caused me much study to determine its specific difference, for, though I have collected plenty of specimens, there are but few among them in full fruit.

6. S. megalolepis, sp. nov.

Plant terrestrial, gregarious, stipitate, erect, rising from a slender and long rhizome, roots stoutish, white, closely intermixed, each frond about 1 inch apart on rhizome; frond fan-shaped, flat, slightly waved, 6–8 lines long, 4–7 lines broad at top, divided into two main branches that are generally again once or twice divided; segments broadly linear, sub-imbricate, broadly decurrent on upper part of stipe, margins entire, apices sub-rotund and emarginate; stipe 6–9 lines long, slender, sub-flexuose; whole plant very pale green, delicate and highly transparent, cellules orbicular; involucre on under surface, immediately above lowest fork of veins, very large, apparently double (?)—the outer scale being more than 2 lines broad at top, extending quite across lower forkings, orbicular-reniform, loose and slightly waved, margin quite entire, the inner scale, as seen through the outer, small, green, and much laciniate, with a tumid swelling at the base—sometimes two involucral scales on a frond, the upper one smaller and above the upper fork, nerves throughout strong and extending quite to tips, and biserial in the upper part of stipe; antheridia under minute jagged scales, in scattered circular spots and tubercles, at forkings of veins and on both

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sides of the lower rhachis. A peculiar abnormal very narrow stout linear segment (nearly all nerve) arises vertically from forking of nerves in some fronds.

Hab. On rotten logs, forests, between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1880–1882: W.C.; also young and barren, Great Barrier Islet, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.

Obs.—Not yet detected bearing fruit; the supposed “inner scale,” as seen through the clear outer one, may prove to be the laciniate tips of the undeveloped calyptra, but if so it is very large and coloured. I know of no New Zealand species bearing a large and plain outer scale like this; although that of S. longistipa, mihi, (sp. nov., infra) approached it; it is a striking characteristic. Some immature fronds have been noticed more strongly forked, the fronds beginning at 2–3 lines above the branching stipe.

7. Symphyogyna fætida, sp. nov.

Plant (? monœcious) gregarious; rhizome stout, succulent, creeping under soil; fronds stipitate, erect, mostly 2 inches high, and about 1 inch apart on rhizome. Stipe, 1½ inch long, stout, green, succulent, sub-cylindrical, compressed and dilated at top, with sometimes small warted tubercles (? antheridia) beneath on upper part. Frond, orbicular in outline when expanded, symmetrical, generally of a reniform appearance, 4–5 lines broad, 10–12 lines wide, multifid, divided into 2 (sometimes 3) main branches, each subdivided into 3 branchlets, and each branchlet again divided into 2–4 portions; segments numerous, usually 20–40, linear, entire, imbricate, slightly sinuate and waved, obtuse and emarginate; colour (adult) dark green. Fructification on the under surface (sometimes several on a frond), on the main stipe below first forking, and also on the branches above secondary forkings, arising from a gibbous tubercle; involucre a large sub-plicate scale, slightly laciniate; calyptra greenish white, cylindrical, broad, smooth, membranaceous, truncate and dilated at apex; mouth very minutely and regularly toothed—sometimes 3 calyptras on a single frond; capsule (immature within), oblong, blackish.

Hab. In damp spots in dark woods, growing in large patches in rich soil near Matamau, Seventy-mile Bush, Waipawa County, 1883: W.C.

Obs.—A very distinct and fine species, possessing a most disagreeable smell, its strong Algæ-like odour resembling that of Chara fetida; this strong smell is retained by long-dried specimens and emitted on their being soaked, filling the room with its stink. The single fructification on the main stem is surrounded by several largish scales, some longer than the others, reminding of those of Steetzia lyellii. The natural affinities of this species are with S. flabellata, rugulosa, and longistipa (sp. nov., infra), though largely differing from them all.

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8. S. longistipa, sp. nov.

Plant terrestrial, gregarious, stipitate, erect, rising from a slender and long rhizome, roots wiry, fronds generally 3–4 near each other, of irregular shapes and sizes, usually broadly sub-flabellate in outline, 6–9 lines broad, 4–8 lines long, forked, sometimes trifid and almost pinnate-pinnatifid, pinnæ on long slender branchlets or petioles, segments short, flat, broadly sublanceolate-linear, sinuses round, margins entire, rounded at tips and deeply emarginate, not decurrent on stipe nor on branchlets; stipes 1 ¼–1 ¾ inches long, slender, subflexuose; whole plant darkish green; involucre on lower surface immediately above forkings, double—the outer scale being very large, loose and flabellate, margins entire, the inner scale much smaller and laciniate—several fruiting involucres on a frond, often four on a small frond all bearing fructification; calyptra white, cylindrical, transparent, 3 lines long, glabrous, mouth dilated, slightly laciniated or bifid, and finely and regularly toothed; seta 1–1½ inches long, slender; capsule large, cylindrical, linear, abounding after bursting in dark-brown elaters, which often remain hanging in pencilled masses; valves long, linear ovate, bordered; spores green; antheridia scattered beneath on the stipe, midrib and veins, under rather large open jagged scales.

Hab. On soil, margins of water-courses, deep ravines, shady woods, near Norseweod, 1883: W.C.

Obs.—A plant having close natural affinity with the preceding (S. megalolepis), but differing from it in several characters.

9. S. prolifera, sp. nov.

Plant terrestrial, prostrate creeping, cæspitose, imbricated in growth, rooting at middle and tip of fronds, and thence sending forth other fronds; fronds very irregular of various shapes and lengths, but flat, mostly linear and very narrow, 1–3 inches long, 1–3 lines broad, obtuse, sometimes ovate-acuminate, 2–3 leaf-like fronds issuing from near base of the short stipe, fragile, irregularly sinuate and serrate, very thin, transparent and pale green, midrib stout with fine short hair-like rootlets scattered below: fructification arising from midrib on upper surface, 1–2 on a frond, pretty close together or scattered; involucres very small, narrow, jagged, sometimes 2 scales or bifid; calyptra cylindric, 2–3 lines long, whitish, lacerate at mouth and slightly fimbriate; peduncle slender, weak, 1 inch long; capsule linear, cylindric, 1 line long, brown; valves cohering at tips; elaters and spores numerous, rich red-brown; spores circular, plain; cellules very small, oblong and irregular in size.

Hab. In rich black mould, wet shady woods, Seventy-mile Bush, near Norsewood, 1879–1882 (rarely in fruit): W.C.; and at Glenross, 1883 (fruiting plentifully): Mr. D. P. Balfour.

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Obs.—A species pretty closely allied to S. rhizobola, Nees, but differing considerably.

10. S. undulata, sp. nov.

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Plant diœcious, of densely compact growth, procumbent, creeping, rooting from midrib below its whole length, apices free, branches frondose, 1–1½ inches long, 2–3½ lines wide, forked, linear, crisp, translucent, brittle, much undulated and sub-sinuate, margins entire, sub-involute, apices orbicular and emarginate; colour light green, midrib broad, dark, nerve indistinct with long brown hairy rootlets below; fructification from the midrib on the upper surface, 2–3 on a branchlet at a short distance from each other; involucre large, sub-flabellate, trifid and laciniate, sometimes surrounding calyptra, front and sides; calyptra cylindric, 1½–2 lines long, whitish, largely tuberculate and fimbriate, particularly at apex; tubercles at first white, succulent, soon becoming reddish-brown; mouth laciniate; peduncle 1–1½ inches long, rather stout; capsule 1/10th of an inch long, cylindric, linear-oblong, obtuse, sub-apiculate, shining, dark purple-brown; valves cohering at apex; spores minute, orbicular, black and tuberculated; elaters geminal; antheridia in dense brownish linear masses, with minute fimbriated perigonial leaves on the midrib upper surface, running nearly the whole length of their branchlets.

Hab. On shady sides and hollows of decomposing and damp limestone rocks and cliffs, hills, at Petane, near Napier, September, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton; most profusely bearing fruit.

Obs. This plant differs much in appearance from all other known indigenous species of this genus; it often presents a very peculiar appearance from its densely-clustered and regular manner of puckered contracted growth, a patch of it extending a few inches each way without break; at such times its regular form reminds one of the thickly-compacted small involute petals of a double Dahlia—and of the leaves of a small variety of our Dichondra repens closely compacted in growth, sometimes met with in patches on our dry upland heaths. It also grows over and on other frondose and larger Hepaticæ (as Marchantia), while minute Hepaticæ (Jungermannia, sps.) often grow over it. It bears fruit plentifully—some plants, or patches, bristling with capsules, while others alongside are wholly barren. Some of the larger specimens resemble in habit Steetzia lyellii. A smaller and still more densely-compacted variety has also been noticed, which is similar though reduced in all its parts.

11. S. marchantioides, sp. nov.

Plant procumbent, creeping, of irregular shape and growth, but somewhat spreading out into a circular form from a centre, adhering strongly to the soil; fronds pale green with a very broad and dark midrib, 1–1½ inches

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long, 1½–2½ lines broad, simple, and branched once twice forked, linear, much sinuate and waved, brittle, margins entire, densely clothed below with brown rootlets, dilated at apices, which are round emarginate, and sometimes 3-lobed through extension of midrib; fructification on the upper surface; involucre usually trifid and sharply laciniate, sometimes 2–3 involucral scales scattered on a frond; calyptra large 2–2½ lines long, sub-stipitate, tubular, sub-infundibuliform, slightly rugulose with large and stout tuberculated fimbriæ; mouth oblique or bifid, sometimes 1–2–3 on a frond both below and above forks; peduncle 6–12 lines long, stout; capsule 1 line long, cylindric, obtuse, black, bursting in a round mass; valves narrow, slightly cohering at tips; spores black, circular, and muricated; elaters red-brown, geminate, twisted very closely, pointed at tips; cellules large, broadly-oblong, usually sub-quadrangular, but irregular in shape and size.

Hab. On clayey soil, damp shaded sides of watercourses, near Norsewood, 1880: W.C. Also at Petane, near Napier, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton; sometimes creeping over stems of the larger mosses.

Obs.—This is a very peculiar-looking species, and one that, in its barren state, I should scarcely have deemed to belong to this genus, looking more like a Marchantia in habit, or even an Aneura (especially A. imbricata, sp. nov., mihi, infra), in the almost total absence of any central nerve. It serves, however, in its frond and habit as a natural approach towards those two allied genera. It is very distinct from all our other known species of Symphyogyna. When creeping over the stems of mosses it adheres but loosely and at intervals. It is so extremely brittle in texture that it is difficult to preserve or procure a good specimen. It is also a scarce species.

Genus 32. Aneura, Dumort.

1. Aneura alba, sp. nov.

Plant small, erect, densely compact, of dwarf moss- or scale-like growth, much resembling the small horizontal scales of some species of Cladonia; frond whitish or greenish-white, 3–4 lines long, main stems creeping, flattened, thickish, shining, under a lens microscopically bullate, sub-orbicular and cuneate in outline, sub-palmate, digitate and irregularly laciniate, lobes obtuse and retuse, abounding in fruit, sometimes a capsule to each lacinia, margins entire; areolæ rather large, confused not clear; involucre small, subovate, jagged, roughish; calyptra 2 lines long, much tuberculated especially at tip before bursting; tubercles in little lumps or fascicles; mouth nearly entire; peduncle 2–3 lines long, stout, striate; capsule ½ line long, narrow-oblong, purple-black, shining, striate.

Hab. Growing with mosses among grasses and other small herbage, shaded banks, Scinde Island, Napier, 1883: W.C.

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2. A. bipinnatifida, sp. nov.

Plant prostrate and sub-ascending, straight and sub-flexuose, somewhat crisp, very brittle, 1–2 inches long, flat, linear, simple and 2-branched at base, bipinnatifid, main stem 1 line wide, margins entire, lobes or sub-branchlets opposite, sometimes sub-opposite or alternate, 1–3 lines long,½ line wide, linear, pinnatifid sometimes simple, ultimate lobules very obtuse, retuse emarginate or slightly crenulate, tips sub-incurved; colour green; involucre springing from upper part of plant, large, irregular, torn; calyptra 3–4 lines long, cylindrical, white, clavate, papillose and finely pilose; mouth deeply toothed with 4–5 triangular teeth; peduncle 1 inch or more long; capsule cylindrical, oblong, finely striate, purple before bursting, rich chestnut-brown after; valves oblong-lanceolate, acute, 1-nerved; elaters and spores adhering in long pencilled masses at tips.

Hab. Among small herbage, mosses, etc., wet shady grounds, Scinde Island, Napier, August, 1883: W.C.

Obs.—A species near A. palmata, Nees; but still nearer to a Cape Horn species, A. alcicornis, Hook. fil.

A. filicina, sp nov.

Plant terrestrial, gregarious in small compact patches, dark green. Frond stipitate, erect, arising from a dark, creeping, rooting, rhizome, sub-coriaceous, somewhat rigid, brittle, broadly obovate, sub-tripinnate, 1½–2 inches high, ¾–1 inch broad, pinnæ opposite, rather distant, sub-bipinnate, sub-flabellate, much cut, lobes linear, narrow, truncate, laciniate, recurved, main rhachis nearly 1 line wide, apex truncate, branched nearly to base, stipe very short; cellules large, pentangular-orbicular, evidently two series or strata in the middle of lobes; involucres numerous, scattered underneath, mostly below axils of upper laciniæ, and on main rhachis near top, composed of small sub-quadrangular whitish scales, each having a minute spur-like projection at its outer upper corners, truncate at top very minutely incised; calyptra near top of frond, 2–2 ¼ lines long, cylindrical, whitish, minutely pubescent in transverse rings or lines, pubescence brown, a minute contracted brownish pencilled tuft at apex before opening, mouth (open) truncate and bifid; 2–3 calyptræ often very close together; mature fruit not seen, but only within calyptræ, capsule linear-oblong, blackish.

Hab. On wet clayey banks near watercourses, shaded forests, Norsewood, 1879–1883: W.C.

Obs.—A pretty species, evidently allied to A. prehensilis, Mitt.; hitherto only met with in a few detached spots, and there not plentiful, and rarely in fruit. The involucres have a sub-lunate appearance, reminding me of the outline (in miniature) of the cauline leaves of Drosera lunata.

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Aneura orbiculata, sp. nov.

Plant large, spreading, growing flat on rotten logs and over small mosses and Hepaticæ, in irregular oblong patches of 8–10 inches, adhering strongly; thickish, glabrous, light green, branches short effigurate, loosely imbricate, lobes 4–8 lines wide, orbiculate in outline, deeply crenate, hyaline at edges, spongy underneath with numerous short obtuse semi-rootlets. Calyptra½ inch long, stout, cylindric, fleshy, greenish-white, lacerate at top, top and edges disposed in minute tuberculated lumps, sparingly setose, hairs light-brown, more thickly set at top, some 3–5 together subfasciculate but diverging (as in prickly pear). Fruit stalk (seta) 1 ¼ inches long, white, shining, finely striated, striæ twisted. Capsule large, 2 lines long, brown, oblong-lanceolate, splitting crosswise; valves spreading, pencilled at tips; elaters cohering.

Hab. In wet shady woods, between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1876, etc.; in fruit, April, 1883: W.C.

Obs.—A very handsome plant, but rarely found in fruit; without fructification it might well be taken for an Anthoceros.

Aneura imbricata, sp. nov.

Plant spreading, flat, in patches of 4–6 inches, effuse, adhering pretty closely, sub-membranous, brittle, glabrous, green; branchlets or compound sub-foliaceous scales very numerous, irregular, laciniate, semi-convex, imbricated, ultimately much overlapping, lobes 3–4 lines broad, sub-orbicular in outline, margins sinuate, waved, and crisped, largely crenate, translucent, with very many short whitish-brown filiform rootlets issuing in pencils beneath, from middle of scales, and strongly adhering to those below; calyptra whitish-brown, erect, 4–6 lines long, cylindrical, stout, 1 line diameter, glabrous, having a broadly gibbous base; mouth bifid, slightly toothed and tuberculated with a few small scattered tubercles; capsule not seen.

Hab. On soil and on rotten logs, on the immediate low sides of deep water-courses, ravines, dark shaded woods, near Norsewood, October, 1883: W.C.

Obs.—A species having pretty close natural affinity with A. orbiculata, mihi (supra), but very distinct; their differences, however, are better and far easier seen in comparing the two plants while fresh, than can be described in words. Some allowance must be made for description of calyptra, as those seen (several specimens) were more or less slightly damaged through recent heavy rains flooding the channels where they grew.

Genus 37. Fimbriaria, Nees.

Fimbriaria gracilis, sp. nov.

Plant gregarious; frond single, procumbent, 3–7 lines long, 1 ¼ lines wide, linear-oblong or linear-obovate, sinuate, incurved, edges thin and finely

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crenulate, apex obtuse, sometimes (though rarely) emarginate and trifid, when trifid bearing 2 peduncles, light green, minutely and regularly papillose, with a continuous conspicuous purple band-like margin; midrib below stout, turgid, with diverging purple crescent scale-like markings, and a few fine hairy rootlets. Female receptacle sub-conical obtuse, 2–3–4-lobed, purplish-brown dotted with whitish spots, scarcely subpapillose, naked below except a few long white straggling hairs within perianths and immediately around apex of peduncle; perianths white, elliptic-conical, sometimes orbicular in outline and much depressed at tips, 12–14-fid; segments linear, flat and wrinkled, cohering at apex, hyaline and shining, netted, cellules irregular, sub-oblong-quadrangular; peduncle ¾–1½ inches long, subflexuose, finely striated, shining, tetrangular and purple below, cylindrical and white above; spores deltoid- and rhombic-orbicular with netted intra-margins, edges entire.

Hab. On pebbly (conglomerate) and limestone strata, shaded banks, hills, various localities, Hawke's Bay 1870–83: W.C. At Petane, near Napier, September, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs.—An elegant little species, pretty closely allied to the other described N.Z. species of the genus, particularly F. drummondii, from which, however, it is quite distinct.

Fimbriaria pallide-virens, sp. nov.

A very small plant of densely compact growth and habit. Fronds much branched, tender and sub-succulent, undulate, very slightly papillose, light green above, whitish-green below, midrib stout with numerous fine rootlets, cellules appearing (when held between the eye and the light) as if disposed in feathery falcate lines diverging from midrib; branches 1–1½ inches long, dichotomous, sub-imbricate; branchlets½–¾ inches long, 3–4 lines wide, oblong and broadly obovate, bi-tri-fid at tips, margins finely crenulate and hyaline. Female receptacle small, convex, smooth, pale green, with minute and faint white dots, 2–3–4-lobed, lobes broad, spreading, obtuse and retuse, margins entire or slightly sinuate, naked below; perianths globose, 6–9-fid, segments small, distant, deltoid-acuminate, sometimes two are joined together from base slightly diverging at tips, scarious, soon expanding; capsule large, early exserted, brown-black, bursting circumcissilely; spores rather large, orbicular and sub-stelliform, muricated; peduncles 1–1 ¼ inches high, rather stout, purple below, greenish-white above, sub-erect, flexuous.

Hab. Among and creeping over mosses, Hawke's Bay; Glenross, Mr. D. P. Balfour, growing densely: Petane, Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs.—A strikingly pretty little species, nearly allied to F. tenera, Mitt.

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Genus 39. Anthoceros, Micheli.

Anthoceros muscoides, sp. nov.

Plant forming small dense moss-like patches, often circular, 2–3 inches diameter; light-green above, whitish-green below possessing there a blanched appearance; branchlets or fronds all erect, very compact and crisp,½ inch high, narrow below, very much dilated above, much laciniate and jagged at margins, each branchlet usually incurved sub-cyathiform with involucre arising from the central lacinia, sometimes two on a branchlet; involucre cylindric, margin of mouth slightly scarious and slightly erose; capsules numerous, 2–2 ¼ inches long, at first erect acute and coloured green, brown at tips, black flaccid and drooping when mature; valves 1½ inches long, obtuse; columella exceedingly filiform, and, with spores, black; gemmæ circular, scattered, immersed in substance of frond; rootlets numerous, fine light brown.

Hab. On damp shady sides of cuttings in white indurated clay hills, road, Seventy-mile Bush, Waipawa County, 1883: W.C.

Obs.—A well-defined and truly elegant little species.

Order VII. Lichenes.

Genus 5. Sphærophoron, Pers.

Sphærophoron polycarpum, sp. nov.

Thallus foliaceous attached at base, sub-erect, branched, effuse, under 1 inch high, loosely imbricate in growth like large irregular scales, light green above white below, branches and lobes broad dilated or narrow, laciniate and crenately toothed. Apothecia at the edges of laciniæ or teeth, or sub-marginal below, many (8–00) on a frond, circular, light brown at first, with a narrow flat thalline border, afterwards black and hemispherical, becoming oblong and sub-confluent in age, capitulum girt by a narrow entire rim.

Hab. On trunks of aged Fagus trees in large patches, projecting horizontally, sub-alpine forests Ruahine mountain range, 1846–1852; always barren; but near Norsewood, bearing fruit plentifully, 1883: W.C.

Order VIII. Fungi.

Genus 10. Polyporus, Fries.

Polyporus (Mesopus) nivicolor, sp. nov.

Plant glabrous, wholly pure white including stem, shortly pendulous, growing closely together, sometimes 3 or more springing from the same root and subimbricate. Pileus fleshy, thickest in centre thin at edges, sub-orbicular, oblong or reniform, 1–1½ inches diameter, concave and subcupshaped below, convex and obsoletely zoned and veined above, margin distinct, delicately thin, irregularly but neatly crenate and subincised, revolute; stem a continuation of pileus, short, thick, obconical, nearly central; pores rather large, subrotund and angular.

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Hab. On decaying logs, in dense forests between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1883: W.C. Only observed in two spots, yet there plentiful.

Obs.—A beautifully white species, graceful bivalve-shell-like; naturally allied to P. phlebophorus, Berkeley; a plant also discovered in forest 60 miles further south by W.C.

Genus 23. Aseroe, Labill.

Aseroe corrugata, sp. nov.

Stipes sub-cylindrical, stout, 1½ inches long, obconical, 1 inch wide at top,½ inch wide at base, smoothish or slightly rugulose, sub-translucent, nerves reticulated, a rectangular hole at centre of base, 2 lines long and 1 line wide; colour white. Rays of pileus 6, of a brilliant red colour, darker within, conniving, 1 ¾ inches long, 2 lines broad at base, deeply transversely and irregularly rugose and wrinkled on both surfaces, but more so on the upper side, the outer lower margins angled and broad as if ribbed, each ray continuous with stipe on the outside and forked at½ inch from its base, and thence bearing a deep central groove downwards to stipe, very acuminate, subulate towards tips which are twisted, a tolerably large irregularly shaped hole at the base of each bifurcation on the upper side; the large central aperture above in the pileus at the bases of the rays is 6-angled with small papillose portions of the rays projecting into the centre. Volva small, globular or broadly obovate, about an inch in diameter, rugulose, sessile, dark umber-coloured on the outside, white within; roots central, long, white, spreading and much branched.

Hab. In forests, Te Aute, Hawke's Bay, April, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann. Woodville, from settlers there: W.C.

Obs.—Among several good specimens, one has 7 double rays; another has two stipes, united near to the base of the pileus, thence diverging and bearing together 8 double rays, one of them being very broad and divided into 4 single rays. According to the Woodville settlers, this species is fatal to their cats; they say that their cats eat it, being fond of it, and die soon after. This plant is evidently allied to our two other New Zealand species, A. rubra and A. hookeri (as well as to the few known foreign species), but is abundantly distinct from them all.

Genus 27. Geaster, Micheli.

Geaster coronatus, sp. nov.

Outer peridium about two inches diameter, expanded, flattened at base, thickish, divided half-way down into 7 pretty equal broadly triangular obtuse sub-erect segments, semi-papillate and dark brown on the outside, blackish-brown and densely pubescent on the inside, with a continuous raised border at their inner bases; inner peridium ¾ inch diameter, globular

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and smooth, sessile, perfectly free all round, reddish-brown, darker towards the top, and there thickly covered with minute black dots, having a depressed orbicular coronula 2 lines diameter, roughish, slightly rising in the centre with a small plain ostiole.

Hab. On ground, forests near Norsewood, 1883: W.C.

Obs.—A species having some affinity with G. archeri, Berk., a Tasmanian species.

Geaster affinis, sp. nov.

Outer peridium sessile, 3 ¼ inches diameter expanded, flat on the ground, marked with 2–3 concentric rings on outside near base, thin, light brown and smooth outside, divided into 8 narrow deltoid-acuminate acute segments, cut down nearly to the base, segments roughish and darker-brown inside; inner peridium 1 ¼ inches diameter, globular, light tawny, sessile, free to base, with a ridge running round the inside, about 3 lines below bases of segments, at top a small coronula, 3 lines diameter, subplicate, mouth elevated, large, conical, more than 1 line diameter, laciniated.

Hab. On ground, elevated woods, at Glenross, 1883: Mr. D. P. Balfour; and other places near Napier, 1883: W.C.

Obs.—A species near to G. tenuipes, Berk.,—also a Tasmanian species.