Genus 30. Symphyogyna, Mont. and Nees.
This, hitherto, small and little-known genus having lately largely increased in additional and new species, I give a classification of them:–
I. Fronds stipitate, erect.
1. Margins serrate.
2. Margins entire.
II. Fronds prostrate, creeping.
1. Margins serrate.
2. Margins entire.
S. rubricaulis, sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, gregarious, diœcious, each plant simple, suberect, stipitate, the largest from ¾–1 inch long including stipe, roots short succulent and hairy; stipe mostly 3–4 lines long (sometimes 9–10), flexuose, obsoletely angled, rosy-red, 1-nerved from base of frond to root (sometimes 2-nerved above), succulent, semi-transparent; frond (largest and fruit-bearing) broadly deltoid or fan-shaped in outline,½ inch long,½ inch broad at top, mostly 4-parted or sub-digitate, sometimes simply once-forked, 1½–2 lines broad, and very truncate and undulate at base, not decurrent on stipe; segments under 1 line broad, nearly linear but broadest at base and narrowest at tips, margins serrate, serratures few, small, and irregular, none at tips which are obtuse and retuse, glabrous, transparent, minutely reticulated, areolæ oblong-pentangular regular; colour bright light green; fructification on upper surface of frond, single, on one side below forking of veins of forked fronds; involucre a narrow linear-oblong laciniate scale; peduncle 10–11 lines long, slender; calyptra tubular, 2½–3 lines long, whitish, reddish at base, slighly roughish, mouth truncate, laciniate, with rather long fimbriæ; fimbriæ brown; capsule 1–½ lines long, linear, cylindric, finely striate, sub-acute and pointed, shining, black; antheridia on separate and much smaller fronds, closely placed on midrib and veins on the upper surface.
Hab. On shaded clayey banks, Seventy-mile Bush, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa, 1880–3: W.C. Glenross, near Napier, 1883: Mr. D. P. Balfour; fruiting in September.
Obs.—A species having affinity with S. biflora, mihi, and S. hymenophyllum, Hook., but very distinct from both. S. biflora bears its fructification on the lower surface and this species on the upper. This species grows thickly together in little beds or patches, with its fronds always inclining one way, half-nodding and overlapping, with its coloured fructification erect and some distance above them. Some fronds have three segments, others only two, and some a single one, which is then oblong-lanceolate. It is a very pretty neat little species.
2. S. pellucida, sp. nov.
Plant gregarious stipitate erect, usually single, though sometimes two, or even three, are found united by a very short rhizome, 1–1½ inches high, 1½–2½ lines broad, commonly once-forked, sometimes single, and occasionally (though rarely) 3-branched, single fronds and segments generally linear-oblong and broader near tips, pagina of frond broadly decurrent to near base, slightly sinuate and waved, particularly below, transparent, margins very finely serrate, apices rounded, obtuse or slightly emarginate, nerve single, strong, and extending to tips, colour very light green; stipes very
short, 1–1½ lines long, with small fine rootlets at base; fructification on the upper side, scattered, mostly on nerve near the middle of the frond, sometimes near the base, and sometimes at the forking but above it, and not unfrequently two on a frond; involucre broad, subplicate, deeply and finely laciniate, sometimes three occur on a branchlet; calyptra cylindric, two lines long, whitish, glabrous, slightly rugulose, with delicate small fimbriæ at the mouth; peduncle slender, 8–12 lines long; capsule linear, obtuse, 1 line long, glossy dark brown, valves not cohering at tips; spores circular, presenting a ringed appearance; cellules very minute, chain-like, irregular in shape and size, mostly pentagonal.
Hab. On clay banks, sides of streamlets near Norsewood, 1878–83 (but barren): W.C. Petane, near Napier, September, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton; profusely in fruit.
Obs.–A species having alliance with S. subsimplex, Mitten, and S. prolifera, mihi (infra), but very distinct from both. Occasionally, however, a frond is met with slightly rooting from its centre, below the fruit-point, or from becoming recumbent, and sometimes, though rarely, by throwing out lateral fronds from its base. A few young fronds are also found intermixed, very narrow long and pointed; these, I am inclined to believe, enlarge their pagina afterwards.
3. S. melanoneuron, sp. nov.
Plant small, single (?), stipitate, erect; frond reniform in outline, 7–8 lines broad, 4–5 lines long, forked, once or twice divided, stoutish, wavy, colour dark olive, cellules small, oblong; segments few, sublinear-oblong, short, about 1½ lines or more wide, not divided deeply, not decurrent on stipe, very slightly and distantly serrulated towards bases not above, tips largely emarginate; midrib stout, almost black, not extending to tips, in some segments midrib forked at tips; stipe 6–9 lines long, stoutish, black-brown; involucre small, simply 2–3 times notched, on upper surface at second forkings above, 2–3 on a frond; antheridia on lower surface, under minute ovate leaf-like scales, scattered on both sides of the midrib.
Hab.—On clay banks under ferns, &c., dark forests near Norsewood, 1879–83: W.C.; and at Great Barrier Islet, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.
Obs.—This is another peculiar-looking species, of which I should have liked to have had better fruiting specimens. It is a rather scarce species and generally barren. I have long known it in this state, and I should not care now to describe it had I not been engaged lately in studying and working-up the several species I have described in this paper—besides my well-knowing all the other published N.Z. species of this genus. I have, therefore, no doubt of its being quite distinct as a species from all of them, although I find it hard to describe plainly in a few words its characteristic
differences. The ultimate segments of the fronds are remarkably wide and short, indeed, on some fronds, might more properly be termed lobes. The few specimens brought away by Mr. Winkelmann this year (1883) from the Great Barrier Islet, were also barren, and very similar.
4. S. vulgaris, sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, gregarious, diœcious, stipitate, erect, arising from a short stout rhizome, 2–3 springing together, or nearly so, 1½–2 inches high including stipe; fronds variously shaped, but mostly broadly fan-shaped in outline, 6–8 lines long, 9–10 lines broad at top, divided into two main branches, each being dichotomous and sub-imbricate, angles of sinuses very obtuse, spreading; segments 1 line broad, mostly dilated with very large margins above forks, and deeply emarginate at tips, margins finely serrated extending down the decurrent wings of stipe, nerves thick throughout, not percurrent to tips; colour a light reddish- or lurid-green, cellules large oblong; stipe 1–½ inches long, stout, sub-flexuose, broad and compressed and winged above, sub-cylindrical below, stoutly 2-nerved, sometimes 3-nerved above; fructification on upper surface of frond in the main forks; involucre a rather broad trifid or deeply 3-laciniate scale with jagged margins; sometimes 3–4 observed on a frond, but invariably only one bearing a calyptra; calyptra large, tubular, 3–3½ lines long, slightly contracted at base, dilated and fimbriate at mouth, of a similar dirty-reddish hue as the frond; antheridia on separate and narrower fronds, rather loosely scattered in lines on both sides of main nerves under broad acuminate jagged scales.
Hab. Clay banks lower sides of deep water-courses, shaded forests, Seventy-mile Bush, Waipawa County, 1878–1881: W.C.
Obs.—This species is one of the largest and the coarsest-looking of all our known stipitate New Zealand species. I have long known it, but hitherto I have refrained from describing it in hopes of getting better specimens,–i.e., more perfect in fruit. The calyptræ of this plant often seem as if gnawed by some small insect. It appears to be pretty closely allied to S. hymenophyllum, Mont., and also to S. rugulosa, mihi, in its general appearance, but this latter species has entire margins, etc.
5. S. simplex, sp. nov.
Plant diœcious; frond stipitate, erect, with no indication of a rhizome, simple, of varied outline mostly linear and sublinear-ovate, sometimes broadest at base and then deltoid-acuminate and subtruncate, 1–2 ¼ inches long including stipe, 1½–2 lines broad in the broadest part, slightly repand and waved, very thin, pale green, margins entire, emarginate at apices, mostly narrowly and very gradually decurrent half-way down stipe, midrib narrow, very prominent and keeled on both surfaces, light yellow-brown, not continued to tip, but continued downwards as a nerve within to the
base of the stipe; stipe 3–6 lines long, slender, rosy-red; fructification on midrib upper surface, nearer the apex than the base; involucre small, trifid, laciniate, laciniations acuminate sharp; calyptra substipitate, stout, 1½ lines long, much fimbriated at top, dilated and laciniate at mouth; peduncle slender, short, 3–4 lines long; capsule large, nearly 2 lines long, linear, obtuse, truncate at base, light-brown; cellules pretty regular, suborbicular-pentagonal; antheridia under small deltoid jagged scales, in short linear masses on the midrib near the top of separate fronds, that are usually narrower and longer.
Hab. High and dry woods near Norsewood, 1878–1882: W.C. Pohue, high lands near Petane, Hawke's Bay, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs.—This small and simple species very much resembles some of the linear unbranched fronds of S. subsimplex, to which species it is closely allied; and indeed it was for some time by me taken for it, but on close examination and dissection I found several differences: e.g., this species is never branched or forked, has generally much more attenuated fronds with a keeled and coloured midrib, and longer stipes that are rosy red, its involucral scale is sharply laciniate, and, beyond all, it differs greatly in the form of its cellules, which, in S. subsimplex, are distinctly “hexagonal.”. It has caused me much study to determine its specific difference, for, though I have collected plenty of specimens, there are but few among them in full fruit.
6. S. megalolepis, sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, gregarious, stipitate, erect, rising from a slender and long rhizome, roots stoutish, white, closely intermixed, each frond about 1 inch apart on rhizome; frond fan-shaped, flat, slightly waved, 6–8 lines long, 4–7 lines broad at top, divided into two main branches that are generally again once or twice divided; segments broadly linear, sub-imbricate, broadly decurrent on upper part of stipe, margins entire, apices sub-rotund and emarginate; stipe 6–9 lines long, slender, sub-flexuose; whole plant very pale green, delicate and highly transparent, cellules orbicular; involucre on under surface, immediately above lowest fork of veins, very large, apparently double (?)—the outer scale being more than 2 lines broad at top, extending quite across lower forkings, orbicular-reniform, loose and slightly waved, margin quite entire, the inner scale, as seen through the outer, small, green, and much laciniate, with a tumid swelling at the base—sometimes two involucral scales on a frond, the upper one smaller and above the upper fork, nerves throughout strong and extending quite to tips, and biserial in the upper part of stipe; antheridia under minute jagged scales, in scattered circular spots and tubercles, at forkings of veins and on both
sides of the lower rhachis. A peculiar abnormal very narrow stout linear segment (nearly all nerve) arises vertically from forking of nerves in some fronds.
Hab. On rotten logs, forests, between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1880–1882: W.C.; also young and barren, Great Barrier Islet, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.
Obs.—Not yet detected bearing fruit; the supposed “inner scale,” as seen through the clear outer one, may prove to be the laciniate tips of the undeveloped calyptra, but if so it is very large and coloured. I know of no New Zealand species bearing a large and plain outer scale like this; although that of S. longistipa, mihi, (sp. nov., infra) approached it; it is a striking characteristic. Some immature fronds have been noticed more strongly forked, the fronds beginning at 2–3 lines above the branching stipe.
7. Symphyogyna fætida, sp. nov.
Plant (? monœcious) gregarious; rhizome stout, succulent, creeping under soil; fronds stipitate, erect, mostly 2 inches high, and about 1 inch apart on rhizome. Stipe, 1½ inch long, stout, green, succulent, sub-cylindrical, compressed and dilated at top, with sometimes small warted tubercles (? antheridia) beneath on upper part. Frond, orbicular in outline when expanded, symmetrical, generally of a reniform appearance, 4–5 lines broad, 10–12 lines wide, multifid, divided into 2 (sometimes 3) main branches, each subdivided into 3 branchlets, and each branchlet again divided into 2–4 portions; segments numerous, usually 20–40, linear, entire, imbricate, slightly sinuate and waved, obtuse and emarginate; colour (adult) dark green. Fructification on the under surface (sometimes several on a frond), on the main stipe below first forking, and also on the branches above secondary forkings, arising from a gibbous tubercle; involucre a large sub-plicate scale, slightly laciniate; calyptra greenish white, cylindrical, broad, smooth, membranaceous, truncate and dilated at apex; mouth very minutely and regularly toothed—sometimes 3 calyptras on a single frond; capsule (immature within), oblong, blackish.
Hab. In damp spots in dark woods, growing in large patches in rich soil near Matamau, Seventy-mile Bush, Waipawa County, 1883: W.C.
Obs.—A very distinct and fine species, possessing a most disagreeable smell, its strong Algæ-like odour resembling that of Chara fetida; this strong smell is retained by long-dried specimens and emitted on their being soaked, filling the room with its stink. The single fructification on the main stem is surrounded by several largish scales, some longer than the others, reminding of those of Steetzia lyellii. The natural affinities of this species are with S. flabellata, rugulosa, and longistipa (sp. nov., infra), though largely differing from them all.
8. S. longistipa, sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, gregarious, stipitate, erect, rising from a slender and long rhizome, roots wiry, fronds generally 3–4 near each other, of irregular shapes and sizes, usually broadly sub-flabellate in outline, 6–9 lines broad, 4–8 lines long, forked, sometimes trifid and almost pinnate-pinnatifid, pinnæ on long slender branchlets or petioles, segments short, flat, broadly sublanceolate-linear, sinuses round, margins entire, rounded at tips and deeply emarginate, not decurrent on stipe nor on branchlets; stipes 1 ¼–1 ¾ inches long, slender, subflexuose; whole plant darkish green; involucre on lower surface immediately above forkings, double—the outer scale being very large, loose and flabellate, margins entire, the inner scale much smaller and laciniate—several fruiting involucres on a frond, often four on a small frond all bearing fructification; calyptra white, cylindrical, transparent, 3 lines long, glabrous, mouth dilated, slightly laciniated or bifid, and finely and regularly toothed; seta 1–1½ inches long, slender; capsule large, cylindrical, linear, abounding after bursting in dark-brown elaters, which often remain hanging in pencilled masses; valves long, linear ovate, bordered; spores green; antheridia scattered beneath on the stipe, midrib and veins, under rather large open jagged scales.
Hab. On soil, margins of water-courses, deep ravines, shady woods, near Norseweod, 1883: W.C.
Obs.—A plant having close natural affinity with the preceding (S. megalolepis), but differing from it in several characters.
9. S. prolifera, sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, prostrate creeping, cæspitose, imbricated in growth, rooting at middle and tip of fronds, and thence sending forth other fronds; fronds very irregular of various shapes and lengths, but flat, mostly linear and very narrow, 1–3 inches long, 1–3 lines broad, obtuse, sometimes ovate-acuminate, 2–3 leaf-like fronds issuing from near base of the short stipe, fragile, irregularly sinuate and serrate, very thin, transparent and pale green, midrib stout with fine short hair-like rootlets scattered below: fructification arising from midrib on upper surface, 1–2 on a frond, pretty close together or scattered; involucres very small, narrow, jagged, sometimes 2 scales or bifid; calyptra cylindric, 2–3 lines long, whitish, lacerate at mouth and slightly fimbriate; peduncle slender, weak, 1 inch long; capsule linear, cylindric, 1 line long, brown; valves cohering at tips; elaters and spores numerous, rich red-brown; spores circular, plain; cellules very small, oblong and irregular in size.
Hab. In rich black mould, wet shady woods, Seventy-mile Bush, near Norsewood, 1879–1882 (rarely in fruit): W.C.; and at Glenross, 1883 (fruiting plentifully): Mr. D. P. Balfour.
Obs.—A species pretty closely allied to S. rhizobola, Nees, but differing considerably.
10. S. undulata, sp. nov.
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Plant diœcious, of densely compact growth, procumbent, creeping, rooting from midrib below its whole length, apices free, branches frondose, 1–1½ inches long, 2–3½ lines wide, forked, linear, crisp, translucent, brittle, much undulated and sub-sinuate, margins entire, sub-involute, apices orbicular and emarginate; colour light green, midrib broad, dark, nerve indistinct with long brown hairy rootlets below; fructification from the midrib on the upper surface, 2–3 on a branchlet at a short distance from each other; involucre large, sub-flabellate, trifid and laciniate, sometimes surrounding calyptra, front and sides; calyptra cylindric, 1½–2 lines long, whitish, largely tuberculate and fimbriate, particularly at apex; tubercles at first white, succulent, soon becoming reddish-brown; mouth laciniate; peduncle 1–1½ inches long, rather stout; capsule 1/10th of an inch long, cylindric, linear-oblong, obtuse, sub-apiculate, shining, dark purple-brown; valves cohering at apex; spores minute, orbicular, black and tuberculated; elaters geminal; antheridia in dense brownish linear masses, with minute fimbriated perigonial leaves on the midrib upper surface, running nearly the whole length of their branchlets.
Hab. On shady sides and hollows of decomposing and damp limestone rocks and cliffs, hills, at Petane, near Napier, September, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton; most profusely bearing fruit.
Obs. This plant differs much in appearance from all other known indigenous species of this genus; it often presents a very peculiar appearance from its densely-clustered and regular manner of puckered contracted growth, a patch of it extending a few inches each way without break; at such times its regular form reminds one of the thickly-compacted small involute petals of a double Dahlia—and of the leaves of a small variety of our Dichondra repens closely compacted in growth, sometimes met with in patches on our dry upland heaths. It also grows over and on other frondose and larger Hepaticæ (as Marchantia), while minute Hepaticæ (Jungermannia, sps.) often grow over it. It bears fruit plentifully—some plants, or patches, bristling with capsules, while others alongside are wholly barren. Some of the larger specimens resemble in habit Steetzia lyellii. A smaller and still more densely-compacted variety has also been noticed, which is similar though reduced in all its parts.
11. S. marchantioides, sp. nov.
Plant procumbent, creeping, of irregular shape and growth, but somewhat spreading out into a circular form from a centre, adhering strongly to the soil; fronds pale green with a very broad and dark midrib, 1–1½ inches
long, 1½–2½ lines broad, simple, and branched once twice forked, linear, much sinuate and waved, brittle, margins entire, densely clothed below with brown rootlets, dilated at apices, which are round emarginate, and sometimes 3-lobed through extension of midrib; fructification on the upper surface; involucre usually trifid and sharply laciniate, sometimes 2–3 involucral scales scattered on a frond; calyptra large 2–2½ lines long, sub-stipitate, tubular, sub-infundibuliform, slightly rugulose with large and stout tuberculated fimbriæ; mouth oblique or bifid, sometimes 1–2–3 on a frond both below and above forks; peduncle 6–12 lines long, stout; capsule 1 line long, cylindric, obtuse, black, bursting in a round mass; valves narrow, slightly cohering at tips; spores black, circular, and muricated; elaters red-brown, geminate, twisted very closely, pointed at tips; cellules large, broadly-oblong, usually sub-quadrangular, but irregular in shape and size.
Hab. On clayey soil, damp shaded sides of watercourses, near Norsewood, 1880: W.C. Also at Petane, near Napier, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton; sometimes creeping over stems of the larger mosses.
Obs.—This is a very peculiar-looking species, and one that, in its barren state, I should scarcely have deemed to belong to this genus, looking more like a Marchantia in habit, or even an Aneura (especially A. imbricata, sp. nov., mihi, infra), in the almost total absence of any central nerve. It serves, however, in its frond and habit as a natural approach towards those two allied genera. It is very distinct from all our other known species of Symphyogyna. When creeping over the stems of mosses it adheres but loosely and at intervals. It is so extremely brittle in texture that it is difficult to preserve or procure a good specimen. It is also a scarce species.