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Volume 16, 1883
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Art. XLIV.—On the Lichenographia of New Zealand.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 13th February, 1884.]

Plates XXXIX.–XLI.

1. Pilophoron colensoi (Bab.), Knight.

(Syn. Stereocaulon colensoi (Bab.), Flora N.Z., vol. ii., p. 294; Nylander, Synopsis Lich., p. 232.)

Thallus cæspitosus e podetiis formatus. Podetia intus solida dense granulosa, strato corticali tenuissimo e gonidiis veris constante. Apothecia plura congesta capituliformia intus alba solida lecanorina,* juvenilia crasse marginata; excipulo thallode albo, corticis structura radiatim disposita, gonidiis veris nullis. Sporæ in ascis cylindrico-elongatis octonæ uniseriales oblongo-ellipsoideæ simplices subluteolæ, longit. 0.009 mm., crassit 0.0025 mm. Cephalodia plura in apicibus ramorum brevium cougesta, glaucocœrulescentia, intus e granulis gonimis flavo-viridis, in nodulis 2 ad 4 dispositis, amnino constantia.

Supra saxa.

Obs.—The discovery of the spores, now shown to be simple, distinctly shows that Colenso's lichen belongs to the genus Pilophoron. Th. Mr. Fries, in his “Monogr. Stereocaulorum et Pilophororum,” p. 66, under “Species minus cognitæ,” remarks that Stereocaulon colensoi is perhaps a form of Ster. argus. This view must now be abandoned, as the latter plant has cylindrico-fusiform multiseptate spores (see fig. 1*, pl. xxxix). Babington, on the other hand, considers it allied to Ster. ramulosum, but the same objection exista to any proposal which would place Colenso's plant under the genus Stereocaulon.

2. Myriangium duriæi (Mnt. et Berk.).

Thallus nullus. Apothecium tuberculiformis e matrice erumpens (diam. circiter 3 mm. vel amplius) toro crasso parenchymatico carbonizato marginatum; epithecium carbonizatum; hymenium parenchymaticum luteo-fuscum

[Footnote] * Quia margo est thallinus, lecanorina nominatur.

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Lichens.

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multivesiculare, vesiculis sparsis singulis ascum globosum singulum includentibus, paraphysibus nullis; hypothecium discretum nullum. Sporæ octonæ oblongæ utrinque obtusæ nonnihil incurvæ hyalinæ normaliter 3-septatæ, longit. 0.02 mm., crassit. 0.0075 mm.

Ad cortices arborum.

Obs.—The Rev. Churchill Babington in “Flora of New Zealand,” p. 310, places under the head of Myriangium inconspicuum a lichen which Dr. Nylander has since shown to be an Arthonia allied to Arth. lurida and has named Arth. conspicua (see Nylander's Lich. Novo-Granatense, note, p. 67, 1st ed.). Babington in his remarks does not seem to be aware that there exists in New Zealand a true Myriangium, viz., Myr. duriæi, a perfectly developed species of that very curious genus.

3. Physcia adglutinata, Flk.

Thallus membranaceus cinereo-fuscescens v. livido-fuscus, e laciniis parvis multifidis tenuibus arcte adpressis formatus. Apothecia sessilia nigro-fusca nuda, margine integro. Sporæ ovoideo-ellipsoideæ 2-cellulæ, cellulis normaliter tubulo in axi sporæ disposito junctis, fuscescentes, longit. 0.018 mm., crassit. 0.009 mm.

Ad cortices arborum, socia fere semper Physciæ stellaris.

4. Physcia synthalea, sp. n.

Thallus cinereo- vel glauco-albicans ad matricem arcte adglutinatus, tenuiter membranaceus laciniatus, laciniis fragilibus dilatis rugoso-plicatis confluentibus, apicibus varie crenatis passim pertusis, subtus concoloribus nudis. Apothecia cerino-flava mox sat fusca plana, margine thallode pallido tumido sæpissime integro. Sporæ fuscæ 4–6-loculares, loculis aut discretis aut tubulo conjunctis, nonnihil varie septatæ, longit. 0.02 mm., crassit. 0.013 mm.

Ad cortices arborum.

5. Pannaria brunnea var. pulverulenta, Knight.

Thallus cinereo-fumosus granulato-squamulosus mox in crustam pulverulento-granulosam conglobatus, hypothallo fusco-atro, granulis gonimis viridis parvis. Apothecia rufo-fuscescentia innata conferta interdum symphicarpea plana, madefacta convexa excipulo composito marginata, margine thallode tenui pulverulento-granuloso, excipulo proprio dilute colorato, textura supra radiatim disposita; hymenium hypothecio crasso strato gonimico imposito enatum, paraphysibus adglutinatis. Sporæ in ascis cylindrico-elongatis ellipsoideæ incolores, longit. 0.016 mm., crassit. 0.008 mm.

Supra terram humidam.

6. Lecanora cyrtospora, sp. n.

Thallus albo-cinereus tenuis minute granulosus continuus (linea atra limitatus?) apothecia scutelliformia (diam. 2 mm.) grisea pruinosa plana intus fusca excipulo mere thallode marginata, margine crasso pallido irregulariter

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crenato, ex annulo interiore ornato, persistente, paraphysibus hypothecio tenui enatis, non bene discretis. Sporæ in ascis clavatis persæpe curvatæ oblongæ utrinque obtusæ simplices incolores, longit. 0.027 mm., crassit. 0.009 mm.

Ad cortices.

7. Pertusaria cupularis, sp. n.

Thallus e cinereo glauco-albicans lævigatus areolatus nonnihil appressoleprosus. Apothecia monopyrenia alba sparsa applanato-hemispherica lecanoriformia, amphithecio nullo, margine thallode crasso.—(sæpe e duobus vel pluribus annulis albis constante)—tandem fatiscente, disco depresso albo suffuso nonnihil nudo—(tum vitreo-griseo)—paraphysibus paucis subtilibus ramosis. Asci conferti numerosi cylindrici. Sporæ ellipsoideæ simplices uniseriales octonæ pluries limbatæ, longit. 0.04 mm., crassit. 0.018 mm.

Ad cortices.

Allied to Pertusaria sorediata, Fr.

8. Pertusaria lævis, sp. n.

Thallus tenuis cinereo-albidus continuus v. tenuissime reticulatus. Apotheciorum verrucæ convexæ pleiopyreniæ, circa ostiola minutissima fusconigricantes nunquam depressæ, paraphysibus imperfectis floccoso-reticulatis, amphithecio e matrice enato. Sporæ in ascis cylindrico-elongatis octonæ ellipsoideæ pluries limbatæ nebuloso-incolores, longit. 0.045 mm., crassit. 0.018 mm.

Ad cortices.

9. Lecidea atrolurida, sp. n.

Thallus ochro-albicans squamulosus, squamulis minutissimis appressis, linea atra limitatus, hypothallo nigro-lurido semi-nudo, squamulis ipsis obsito. Apothecia atra minuta (diam. circiter 0.5 mm.) mox convexa vel hemispherica, intus fusco-nigricantia, margine concolore obscuro evanescente, excipulo proprio omnino fusco-atro (lamina tenui visum) e thallo albo oriundo paraphysibus ramosis adglutinatis tandem subpatulis. Sporæ ovideæ incolores, longit. 0.01 mm., crassit. 0.007 mm.

Ad saxa.

Affinis est Lecideæ fusco-rubenti, Nyl., et schistaceæ, Kn., sed apothecii minoribus.

10. Lecidea (Bombyliospora) monospora, sp. n.

Thallus olivaceus minute granuloso-squamulosus v. pulvereus. Apothecia peltata urceolata atra demum plana, intus luteo-fusca, margine asperissimo concolore, excipulo proprio a linea nigra in epithecium producta circumscripto, structura non radiatim disposita; hypothecio fusco, paraphysibus bene discretis incoloribus attamen in pileum atrem oblongum v. conicum terminantibus. Ascus monosporus. Sporæ murali-divisæ (seriebus circiter 20 transversim 7–9 loculares), ellipsoideæ, longit. 0.07 mm., crassit. 0.028 mm.

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Ad cortices arborum.

Obs.—Differs from Lecid. lecanorella, Nyl., in the spores being nearly double the size, and the transverse cells much more numerous. The blast cell at the apex of each paraphysis is remarkable.

11. Lecidea (Sporastatia) desmaspora, sp. n.

Thallus albo-cinereus farinaceus. Apothecia e thallo oriunda parva (diam. 0.5 mm.) convexa, madefacta hemispherica, disco immarginato fusco v. atro-fusco, hymenio tenui hyalino, hypothecio fusco crasso, excipulo proprio (structura radiatim disposita), in laminam proligeram continuato, paraphysibus adglutinatis apice incoloratis. Sporæ in ascis clavatis numerosissimæ minutissimæ globosæ (diam. 0.001 mm.) catenatæ.

Ad cortices arborum.

12. Arthonia phymatodes, sp. n.

Thallus tenuis cinereo-viridulus, matrice rimosa fissa, subtuberculosus, tuberculis fertilibus convexis sparsis. Apothecia minuta (madefacta, diam. 0.3 mm.) e thalli tuberculis formata et marginata; disco plano primitus strato thallino tenui tecto, deinde partito vel omnino nudo vitreo-fuscescenteque; excipulo nullo, hypothecio simplici, paraphysibus paucis grosse clathrato-ramosis. Sporæ in ascis ventricoso-clavatis nymphæformes normaliter 5-cellulæ, cellulo supremo ampliore, incolores, longit. 0.02 mm., crassit. 0.008 mm.

Ad cortices arborum.

13. Opegrapha spodoelœina, sp. n.

Thallus hyepoplodes cinereo-olivaceus tenuissimus continuus, intus gonidiis perspicuis, strato hypothallino cum matrice mutata commisto. Apothecia nigra superficialia linearia (longit. 1.5 mm.) simplicia intus dilute fuscescentia, excipulo nigro, hypothecio fusco; epithecio incolore, paraphysibus ramosis. Sporæ in ascis ovoideis incolores fusiformes 6–7-septatæ, longit. 0.037 mm., crassit. 0.007 mm.

Ad cortices arborum.

Obs.—Quasi inter Opegrapham agelæoidem, Nyl., et spodopolia, Nyl., intermedia, differens ab illa thallo olivaceo, ab hac thallo continuo et hypothecio fusco.

14. Opegrapha stellata, sp. n.

Thallus tenuis pallide ochro-cinereus lævis continuus, linea atra limitatus. Apothecia lirellæformia, lirellis elongatis angustissimis flexuoso-contortis stellatim ramosis, madefactis subinnatis apertis, hymenio incolore, excipulo atro integro, paraphysibus clathrato-ramosis. Sporæ in ascis subpyriformibus minutæ incolores subfusiformes 1–3-septatæ, longit. 0.012 mm., crassit. 0.003 mm.

Ad cortices arborum.

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Quasi inter Opegrapham et Graphidem intermedia.

15. Opegrapha intertexta, sp. n.

Thallus albo-cinereus tenuis lævis continuus. Apothecia madefacta innata, lirellæformia, lirellis simplicibus v. subramosis angustissimis rectis v. flexuoso-contortis ipsis intermixtis, hymenio incolore, perithecio atro integro, paraphysibus clathrato-ramosis. Sporæ in ascis subpyriformibus minutæ incolores subfusiformes 1–3-septatæ, longit. 0.012 mm., crassit. 0.003 mm.

Ad cortices arborum.

Obs.—Quasi inter Opegrapham et Graphidem intermedia.

16. Graphis strigata, sp. n.

Thallus tenuis e albo cinerascens, nitiusculus colliculosus v. verrucosus, fissus, interdum versus ambitum areolatus. Apothecia palmato-divisa, lirellis a thallo niveo subprominente cinctis, apicibus attenuatis, disco lato albopruinoso, a lineis nigris striato, raro nudo, tum atro; excipulo atro-fusco laterali; hymenium dilute fuscum hypothecio concolore tenui enatum, paraphysibus rectis arcte adglutinatis grumosis. Sporæ in ascis cylindricis oblongæ hyalinæ 4-cellulæ, cellulis lentiformibus limbatis, mox fuscæ emortuæ collapsæ, longit. 0.02 mm., crassit. 0.008 mm.

Ad cortices arborum.

Arcte affinis est Graphidi subtricosæ (Knight, Linn. Trans., vol. ii., 1882), sed apotheciis pruinosis strigatis, et thallo passim verrucoso, quare specie differt.

17. Graphis librata, sp. n.

Thallus tenuis pallide fusco-ochraceus continuus linea atra limitatus. Apothecia atra lirellæformia angusta sæpissime simplicia rectiuscula librata clausa, madefacta innata, excipulo atro integro v. subintegro, hymenio incolore, paraphysibus distinctis ramosis. Sporæ oblongæ 4–5-cellulæ, cellulis lenticularibus incolores, longit. 0.017 mm., crassit. 0.006 mm.

Ad cortices arborum.

18. Fissurina rugosa, sp. n.

Thallus cinereo-olivaceus tenuissimus rugoso-verrucosus, verrucis ex apothecio fissus. Apothecia longit. circiter 1 mm. in matrice subinflata dilacerata immersa, flexuosa pervaga simplicia conferta, intus incoloria, marginibus thalloideis tenuibus in latitudinem vix laxatis (in sectione supra fuscescentibus) paraphysibus adglutinatis gracilibus apice haud coloratis. Sporæ in ascis cylindrico-elongatis ovatæ hyalinæ demum fuscescentes, normaliter uniseriales, 4-cellulæ, cellulis lenticularibus, longit. 0.018 mm., crassit. 0.009 mm.

Ad cortices arborum.

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19. Fissurina alba, sp. n.

Thallus tenuis albidus subnitens inæqualis, ex apotheciis fissus, continuus, strato gonidiale viride a corticale albo clare separato. Apothecia flexuosa simplicia (longit. circiter 1.5 mm. vel ultra) in matrice immersa, intus incoloria, marginibus thalloideis tenuibus approximatis (in sectione supra fuscescentibus interdum bicornibus); hymenium incolor hypothecio matrice imposito enatum, paraphysibus adglutinatis apice incoloribus. Sporæ in ascis cylindrico-elongatis ovoideæ 4-cellulæ, cellulis lenticularibus, incolores tandem dilute fuscescentes, longit. 0.02 mm., crassit. 0.01 mm.

Ad nudos arborum radices.

20. Trypethelium bicolor, sp. n.

Thallus tenuissimus atrofuscus tuberculosus, tuberculis fusco-ochraceis nonnihil atro-fuscis, intus ex apotheciis pluribus et matrice degenerata constantibus; excipulum integrum carbonaceum tenue pyriforme v. globoso-deforme, ostiole tandem nigricante; paraphyses laxe clathrato-ramosis. Sporæ in ascis clavatis octonæ oblongæ 4-cellulæ (cellulis limbatis globularibus, septis interpositis inter se separatis) hyalinæ, longit. 0.02 mm., crassit. 0.0075 mm.

Ad cortices arborum vivorum.

Var. pyrenuloides. Thallus e cinereo fuscus subnitans passim tuberculosus, maculis asperis et lineis atris aspersus, tuberculis atris asperis. Apothecia sejuncta interdum syncarpea.

Obs.—Non certum est, anne Tryp. bicolor revera sistat Verrucariam. Ad excipulum pyriforme sporesque 4-cellules rationem similis est Verrucariæ catervariæ, Fée. Facies thalli fere sicut Tryp. scoria, Fée.

21. Stigmatidium prominulum, sp. n.

Thallus albo-ochraceus tenuissimus continuus. Apothecia in verrucis thallinis minutis convexis (latit. circiter 1.5 mm.) omnino immersa, ostiolo pertuso subprominule, amphithecio supra fuscescente sed parte infera incolore vel evanescente, hymenio globoso incolore, paraphysibus floccosis. Sporæ incolores oblongo-ovoideæ 3-septatæ, longit. 0.013 mm., crassit. 0.005 mm.

Ad cortices arborum.

22. Verrucaria mycospora, sp. n.

Thallus albo-cinereus areolato-rimosus haud verrucosus tenuissimus. Apothecia minuta (diam. 0.25 mm.) globosa sessilia, perithecio integro atro e matrice imposito, hymenio subtiliter floccoso dilute fuscescente, paraphysibus nullis. Sporæ fusiformi-dactyloideæ 5–6-septatæ hyalinæ, longit. 0.025 mm., crassit. 0.003 mm. Spermagonia prominentia, spermatiis oblongis, longit. 0.007 mm., crassit. 0.003 mm., sterigmatibus simplicibus infixis.

Ad cortices arborum.

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23. Verrucaria olivaceo-fusca, sp. n.

Thallus olivaceo-fuscus lævis tenuis continuus, apotheciorum verrucis minutis atro-fuscis convexis, ostiolo inconspicuo vix unquam pertuso. Apothecia in matrice subimmersa orbicularia, perithecio atro integro, hymenio pallido-fusco, paraphysibus distinctis. Sporæ hyalinæ mox fuscæ 4-cellulæ, cellulis limbatis, longit. 0.019 mm., crassit. 0.008 mm.

Ad cortices arborum.

24. Odontrema concentricum, Stirton.

Thallus cinereo-ochraceus tenuis continuus. Apothecia matrice imposita a thallo leviter irregulariterque obtecta, primo clausa, perithecio carbonaceo dimidiato ambitu recurvato mox dilaniato-dehiscente, hymenio tandem concavo-discoideo; epithecium perithecio divulso obsitum, paraphysibus sub-tiliter capillaribus apice non dilatis linea fusca tenui enatis. Sporæ in ascis cylindraceis incolores normaliter cylindracæ obtusæ nonnihil elongato-fusiformes, circiter 12-septatæ, cellulis quaternis v. lentiformibus, longit. 0.03 ad .05 mm., crassit. 0.006 ad .009 mm.

Ad cortices arborum.

Explanation of Plates XXXIX–XLI.

Plate XXXIX.

No. 1. Pilophoron colensoi (Bab.), Knight.

(a.)

Section of apothecium x 38 diam.

(b.)

Gonidia x 300 diam.

(c.)

Granules (pseudo-gonidia) of which the medullary substance of the thalline receptacle principally consists x 900 diam.

(d.)

Spores in ascus x 900 diam.

No. * 1. Stereocaulon ramulosum.

  • Ascus and spores x 900 diam.

No. 2. Myriangium duriæi, Mont. et Berk.

  • (a.) Section of carbonized torus and apothecium x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Section of portion of the above x 150 diam.

  • (c.) Section x 900 diam. showing ascus and spores in situ.

No. 3. Physcia synthalea, sp. n.

  • 3 spores x 900 diam.

No. 4. Physcia adglutinata, Flk.

  • Ascus and spores x 900 diam.

No. 5. Pannaria brunnea v. pulverulenta, Knight.

  • (a.) Section of apothecium x 900 diam.

No. 6. Lecanora cyrtospora, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecium x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Ascus and spores x 900.

No. 7. Pertusaria cupularis, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecium x 38 diam.

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Lichens.

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Plate XL.

  • No. 8. Pertusaria lævis, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecium x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Ascus and spores x 260 diam.

  • (c.) Spore x 900 diam.

  • No. 10. Lecidea (Bombyliospora) monospora, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecium x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Spore x 900 diam.

  • (c.) Paraphyses x 900 diam.

  • No. 11. Lecidea (Sporastatia) desmaspora, sp. n.

  • (a.) Ascus and spores x 900 diam.

  • (b.) Section of apothecium x 38 diam.

  • No. 12. Arthonia phymatodes, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecium x 38 diam.

  • (b.) " " x 150 diam.

  • (c.) Ascus and spores with clathrato-ramose paraphyses x 900 diam.

  • No. 13. Opegrapha spodoelæina, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecium x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Paraphyses x 900 diam.

  • (c.) Ascus and spores x 900 diam.

  • No. 14. Opegrapha stellata, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecia x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Asci and spores x 900 diam.

  • No. 15. Opegrapha intertexta, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecium x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Asci and spores x 900 diam.

  • No. 16. Graphis strigata, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecium x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Lichen x 20 diam.

  • (c.) Spore x 900 diam.

  • No. 17. Graphis librata, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecia x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Spores x 900 diam.

Plate XLI.

  • No. 18. Fissurina rugosa, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecium x 38 diam.

  • (b.) " " x 900 diam., showing matrix below; thallus on right side, with paraphyses attached laterally and at base.

  • (c.) Ascus and spores x 900 diam.

  • No. 19. Fissurina alba, sp. n.

  • (a.) Apothecium immersed in matrix x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Section showing corticular and gonidial strata imposed on matrix x 300 diam.

  • (c.) Ascus and spores x 900.

  • No. 20. Trypethelium bicolor, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section showing apothecia immersed in the ruptured and degenerated matrix x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Paraphyses x 900 diam.

  • (c.) Ascus and spores x 900 diam.

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  • No. 21. Stigmatidium prominulum, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecium immersed in matrix x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Lichen x 38 diam.

  • (c.) Spores x 900 diam.

  • No. 22. Verrucaria mycospora, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecium x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Spore x 900 diam.

  • No. 23. Verrucaria olivaceo-fusca, sp. n.

  • (a.) Section of apothecium x 38 diam.

  • (b.) Spore x 900 diam.

  • No. 24. Odontrema concentricum, Stirton.

  • (a.) Section showing the closed parithecium recurved at base.

  • (b.) Section showing parithecium open and epithecium expanded, a. and b. x 38 diam.

  • (c.) Four spores x 900 diam.