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Volume 16, 1883
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Art. XLVI.—Additions to the New Zealand Flora.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 17th September, 1883.]

1. Celmisia rupestris, n. sp.

Stems long, copiously branched, stout and woody, procumbent or prostrate, scrambling over rocks or bank-sides; branchlets ascending at the tips, very densely clothed with closely imbricating leaves. Leaves very

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numerous, ½–1 inch long, very narrow linear-spathulate or linear-obovate, obtuse, gradually narrowed below and then suddenly expanded into broad membranous sheathing bases, hoary or silky above, beneath covered with soft white tomentum, suberect when young, patent or deflexed when old; margins strongly revolute. Peduncles 1 ½–3 inches long, solitary and axillary, usually one or two near the tips of the branchlets, densely covered with a fulvous somewhat glandular tomentum; bracts 3–4, linear or linear-oblong. Heads ¾–1 inch in diameter. Involucral scales very numerous, linear, erect, pubescent and glandular. Ray florets rather numerous, not seen fully expanded. Ripe achenia not seen.

Hab. Ravines on Mount Peel, Nelson, alt. 5,000 feet.

A curious and remarkable species, distinct from all others, although allied to C. walkeri and C. ramulosa. From the former it is distinguished by its smaller size, smaller, narrower, and more woolly leaves with revolute margins, and by the smaller flower-heads. It is at once separated from the latter by its larger size, more copiously branched habit, and by the much larger and very differently shaped leaves.

2. Senecio pachyphyllus, n. sp.

A small, robust, densely branched shrub, 3–5 feet high; young branches, leaves, and inflorescence extremely viscid. Leaves 1–1 ¾ inch long, shortly petioled, oblong or oblong-obovate, entire, obtuse, extremely thick and coriaceous, glabrous above, below covered, except the midrib, with dense white or pale buff closely appressed tomentum; margins revolute. Flower-heads rather broad, ¾ inch in diameter, few (6–20), arranged in terminal laxly branched racemes or panicles. Bracts numerous, varying from linear-spathulate to oblong. Peduncles slender, nearly glabrous, but excessively viscid. Scales of the involucre few, obtuse, rather membranous, nearly glabrous, but with a tuft of woolly hairs at the apex. Ray florets yellow, ¼ inch long, spreading. Pappus hairs white, slender, scabrid. Achenes glabrate.

Hab. Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, Nelson, not uncommon from 3,500 to 5,500 feet alt., T.F.C.

Allied to S. robustus, Buchanan, but distinguished by its very viscid and coriaceous leaves, narrow few-flowered racemes or panicles, and nearly glabrous peduncles and scales of the involucre.

3. Potamogeton cheesemanii, A. Bennett.
(“Journal of Botany,” March, 1883, p. 66.)

“Stem simple (?)” (branched, T.F.C.), “striated, internodes strongly marked by an irregular annulus. Lower leaves alternate, strap-shaped, gradually attenuated into the petiole, less so at the apex, not denticulate, 5–7 veined, connected with few cross veins, semi-translucent; upper leaves

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(opposite where the peduncles are given off) varying from lanceolate to oval, the uppermost coriaceous, 11–15 veined, with very numerous cross veins, and close areolation all over the leaf when held against the light. Stipules broad, subacute, very translucent and soon decaying. Peduncles rather slender, slightly thickened towards the middle; spikes dense-flowered, oblong-cylindrical, sepals (perianth leaves) transversely rhombic-orbicular. Fruit small, roundish ovate, slightly compressed, carinated on the back, with a short terminal beak. Embryo curved to one-half its base. Lower leaves 2 ½–4 inches long, ¼–⅜ inch broad; lamina of the upper leaves 1–1 ¾ inches long. Peduncles 2 inches long. Fruiting spikes ¾ inch long.”—Bennett, l.c.

Hab. North and South Islands; common in streams, ponds, and lakes. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 3,000 feet.

This plant, which has long been confounded with small forms of P. natans, L., has been described by Mr. A. Bennett in a recent issue of the “Journal of Botany” from specimens collected by me in the vicinity of Auckland, and I reproduce his description here. It is a familiar plant to New Zealand botanists, being by far the most common of our species. The description of P. natans in the “Handbook” partly applies to it; and the supposed P. heterophyllus, Schreb.? of the same work is probably based on young plants possessing the lower submerged leaves only. The true P. heterophyllus has not, to my knowledge, been found in New Zealand.

4. Carex muricata, L.

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Stems tufted, 12–18 inches high, slender, trigonous, slightly scabrid above. Leaves longer or shorter than the stems, nearly smooth, flat, grassy, striate, 1/12–1/10 inch broad. Spikelets small, few (4–6), androgynous, pale brown, collected into a spike-like head ½–1 ¼ inch long, male flowers at the top of the spikelets. Bracts ovate at the base, produced into setaceous points usually longer than the spikelets, the lowest sometimes 1 ½ inch long. Glumes ovate, acuminate or awned, pale chestnut or brown, with a green midrib and hyaline margins. Perigynia only seen in a very young state, then ovate with an acute base, gradually narrowed into a rather long rough and serrate 2-toothed beak. Stigmas 2. (In European specimens the mature perigynia are spreading, ovoid or elliptic-ovoid, smooth, gradually narrowed into a broad serrulate beak.)

Hab. Mount Owen, Nelson; altitude 4,000 feet.

This plant so closely resembles the European C. muricata in habit and inflorescence that I can have little doubt that it is a form of that species. At the same time my specimens are all immature, and consequently the

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identification cannot be considered quite certain. C. muricata has a wide range in Europe, Asia, North Africa, and North America, but has not been previously recorded from the southern hemisphere.

5. Carex cryptocarpa, n. sp.

Small, densely tufted, glaucous-green. Culms short, 1–3 inches high. Leaves longer than the culms, 2–6 inches, concealing the flowers and fruit, flat, coriaceous, deeply-grooved, margins scabrid, tips incurved when dry. Bracts long, leafy. Spikelets 3–5, very closely approximate, ovoid or oblong, terminal one male, remainder all female, all sessile except the lowest, which is shortly pedunculate and sheathed. Glumes very broadly ovate or rounded, often as broad as long, reddish-brown or chestnut, acute, entire, margins thin and membranous, central portion 3-nerved, produced into an awn of variable length. Perigynia rather larger than the glumes, broadly ovoid or elliptic, unequally biconvex, swoollen on the back, nerved; margins thick, serrate above; beak short, stout, 2-toothed. Stigmas 3. Nut trigonous.

Hab. Lake Tekapo, Canterbury; altitude 2,500 feet.

This is closely allied to C. cirrhosa, Berggren, but appears to differ sufficiently in its larger size and stouter habit, broader glumes, larger and more turgid perigynia with a shorter beak and serrate margins, and in having 3 stigmas. The nut is trigonous while it is lenticular in all the fruiting specimens of C. cirrhosa that I have examined. Old tussocks often present a very peculiar appearance. The centre dies out, leaving a hollow ring which grows on vigorously and often attains a considerable size.

6. Carex uncifolia, n. sp.

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Small, tufted, usually of a dingy red colour. Stems very short, 1–2 inches high, rarely more, smooth, erect or spreading. Leaves two or three times longer than the culms, narrow, 1/30–1/40 inch broad, convex on the back, concave in front, rarely plano-convex or quite flat, hooked or twisted at the apex when dry. Bracts long and leafy. Spikelets 2 or 3, rarely 4, very small, seldom more than ¼ inch long and often much less, from the shortness of the culms packed away at the base of the leaves and concealed by them, close together, sessile, terminal one male, slender, erect, remainder all female, spreading. Glumes reddish-brown with a green centre; those of the male spikelet the largest, lanceolate, acute or obtuse; those of the female much shorter and broader, ovate, obtuse, acute or shortly cuspidate, entire at the tip. Perigynia rather larger than the glumes, dark red-purple, elliptic-oblong, trigonous or almost fusiform, smooth and even, acute at the base, narrowed upwards into a short 2-toothed beak, margins not serrate. Stigmas 3.

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Hab. Mountains flanking the Wairau Valley, Nelson; alt. 3,000–4,000 feet.

The habit of this species is that of small and fine leaved specimens of C. breviculmis, from which, however, it differs widely in other respects. From the preceding species, and from C. cirrhosa, it differs in the much more slender culms and leaves, smaller spikelets, and in the perigynia being trigonous and almost fusiform; or, to take a familiar example, very near to those of C. lucida in shape.

7. Carex petriei, n. sp.

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Culms slender or rather stout, tufted, leafy, 6–18 inches high, quite smooth, usually of a reddish colour. Leaves generally longer than the culms, with broad sheathing bases, blade usually narrow, but variable in width, 1/30–1/10 inch, plano-convex or nearly flat, in stout specimens strict and coriaceous, in slender ones more flaccid, narrowed into slender points that are usually curled and twisted when dry; margins slightly scabrid. Bracts long, upper setaceous. Spikelets 3–5, oblong, 1/3–2/3 inch long, all pedunculate and sheathed, the upper ones on very short stalks, the lower ones on longer filiform ones; terminal one male, remainder all female, moderately close together, or rarely the lower one remote. Glumes ovate, thin and membranous, pale, often nearly white, midrib produced into a moderately long hispid awn; margins often lacerate. Perigynia longer than the glumes, elliptic-oblong or ovoid, turgid, biconvex, smooth and nerveless, shining, dark purplish-brown or nearly black, beak short, 2-toothed. Stigmas 3.

Hab. Mountains of Canterbury, apparently not uncommon between 2,500 and 4,500 feet: T.F.C. Dunstan Mountains, Lake Wanaka, and near Naseby, Otago: D. Petrie.

Apparently a very distinct species, which, when once recognized, can hardly be confounded with any other. The leaves are remarkable for their fine curled and twisted points, and very broad sheathing bases. The spikelets have a somewhat curious appearance from the combination of pale coloured glumes with dark, almost black, perigynia. The species is named after Mr. D. Petrie, of Dunedin, who has collected it in several localities in Otago, and to whom I am indebted for many specimens and much valuable information respecting the Carices of the district.