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Volume 17, 1884
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– 68 –

Art. XI.—Descriptions of New Zealand Micro-Lepidoptera.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 7th August, 1884.]

IV.—Scopariadæ

This family occupies an unusually prominent position in New Zealand, and the principal genera attain here their maximum of development. The development is however mainly specific, and there is no large number of peculiar genera, as in some other groups. The family is undoubtedly of very ancient type, and the food of the larvæ, which probably consists wholly of mosses, will allow of a possible origin earlier in time than the appearance of flowering plants. It is probably due to this persistence of habit that the type has undergone so little generic modification; specific change being sufficient to allow of all the adaptation required. The distribution of the family seems chiefly limited by the suitability of the climate for the growth of their food-plants; hence they are found principally in cool temperate latitudes, or at considerable elevations.

As I have elsewhere pointed out, the oldest form of the family is probably Nyctarcha, which is a singular synthetic type. Xeroscopa is an early off-shoot from Scoparia, and Tetraprosopus a development of Xeroscopa.

Owing to the small range of colour, and great similarity of markings, which are moreover in most of the species more or less confused and ill-defined, being composed of black, white, and grey scales variously blended, the group is a difficult one either to study or to describe. In order to make this monograph more comprehensive, I have therefore included all the Australian species of Scoparia, Tetraprosopus, and Xeroscopa (which are, however, much less numerous than those from New Zealand), indicating them by an asterisk (*) as not occurring in New Zealand. No species of the family is common to both regions. The Australian species of Nyctarcha and Eclipsiodes, which I have already described elsewhere, and which are moreover very distinct from anything occurring in New Zealand, I have not thought it necessary to include.

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As the descriptions of Walker, Knaggs, and Butler are hardly in any instance sufficiently precise for determination, I may add that the species of Walker and Butler have been identified from the types, and those of Knaggs from types preserved by Mr. R. W. Fereday.

Scopariadæ.

Labial palpi, with hairs of second joint produced in front beneath. Maxillary palpi large, triangularly scaled, porrected, not resting on labial palpi. Forewings with 7 and 10 separate from 9, 8 and 9 stalked. Hindwings with 4 and 5 from a point or stalked (except in Nyctarcha); lower median without basal pectination (except in Eclipsiodes and Nyctarcha). Genital uncus of male generally well developed.

Distinguished from all the other families of the Pyralidina by the character of the maxillary palpi, which are large, porrected, triangularly dilated, and obliquely truncate, standing out apart from the labial palpi; differing also from the Crambidæ (which some species closely approach in type) in the absence of the basal pectination on the lower median vein of the hindwings (with the exceptions noted above), from the Botydidæ in the development of the genital uncus of the male, and from the Pyralididæ by the separation of vein 7 of the forewings from the stalk of 8 and 9.

The following tabulation includes all the five Australian genera, of which only three are represented in New Zealand.

A. Lower median with basal pectination.

1. Vein 1b of hindwings with well-defined pectination Nyctarcha.

2. " " " " without " " Eclipsiodes.

B. Lower median naked.

1. Discal area of hindwings above lower median with long hairs.

a. Antennæ of male moderately ciliated Xeroscopa.

b. " " " hardly perceptibly ciliated Tetraprosopus.

2. Discal area of hindwings without hairs Scoparia.

1. Nyctarcha, Meyr

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Forehead vertical. Ocelli present. Tongue well developed. Antennæ short, less than 2/3 of forewings, in male stout, filiform, evenly ciliated (¼–1/3), above pubescent (N. atra) or rough-scaled. Labial palpi moderate, straight, porrected, second joint with dense projecting scales beneath, terminal joint exposed, thick, somewhat expanded towards apex, and obliquely truncate. Maxillary palpi nearly as long as labial, terminally expanded, truncate. Posterior tibiæ with outer spurs half inner; legs short. Abdomen short, stout. Forewings with vein 11 moderately oblique. Hindwings somewhat broader than forewings; 3, 4, 5 approximated at base; lower median and 1b each with a strong pectination towards base, surface otherwise without hairs.

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Consists at present of two Australian and one New Zealand species, one of the Australian species (N. ophideres, Walk.) extending also into India and Madagascar. The genus presents a singular combination of characters, and probably approximates to the ancestral form of the Scopariadæ, Crambidæ, and Botydidæ. The New Zealand species is characterized by the dark fuscous hindwings, which in the two Australian species are partly orange.

1. Nyct. atra, Butl

(Orosana atra, Butl., Pro. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877.)

Male, female.–-11–12 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax blackish, irrorated with white, basal joint of palpi white. Antennæ blackish. Abdomen blackish, segmental margins white. Legs white, irrorated with black, tibiæ and tarsi banded with black. Forewings oblong, somewhat dilated posteriorly, costa straight, apex rounded, hind margin very obliquely rounded; dark fuscous, sometimes partially irrorated with white; first line black, angulated; orbicular small, black, detached; claviform absent; reniform 8-shaped, outlined with black, separated from second line by a white spot, sometimes obsolete above but always distinct on under surface, suffused into costa; second line black, indented beneath costa, strongly curved inwards beneath reniform, sometimes margined posteriorly on costa with white; subterminal obsolete: cilia grey, with a waved black line, tips white. Hindwings dark fuscous; neural pectinations white; cilia as in forewings. Under surface of forewings with one or two small white spots between reniform and base, besides posterior blotch, and a whitish suffusion towards inner margin: of hindwings with a white discal suffusion, interrupted by a dark fuscous central spot.

The markings of the under surface in this instance doubtless indicate the original type.

Castle Hill and Lake Wakatipu (1,200 to 3,000 feet), in December and January, on dry grassy slopes; difficult to see; six specimens.

2. Scoparia, Hw

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Forehead vertical. Ocelli present. Tongue well developed. Antennæ moderate, 2/3 of forewings, in male filiform, evenly ciliated (¼–1 ½). Labial palpi moderate or long, straight, porrected, second joint beneath with long dense projecting scales, terminal joint moderate, exposed or resting in scales of second. Maxillary palpi rather long, triangularly dilated. Posterior tibiæ with outer spurs half inner. Abdomen moderate. Forewings with vein 11 rather oblique. Hindwings from somewhat broader to nearly twice as broad as forewings; 3 remote from 4, 4 and 5 stalked or from a point; lower median naked; discal area above it without hairs; internal area loosely haired.

– 71 –

Although of universal distribution, this genus is little developed except in temperate latitudes, hardly occurring in the tropics except at a considerable elevation. Over thirty European species are known, and scattered forms are found in most other regions. Australia possesses at present sixteen, which number will be considerably increased, especially from the Tasmanian mountains. In comparison with these the development of the genus in New Zealand is extraordinary, forty-two species being here given, and it is unquestionable that the actual number is much larger, as each mountain seems to possess peculiar species. Scoparia is in fact the largest genus of Lepidoptera in New Zealand.

Notwithstanding the extent of the genus, I can find no structural characters for subdividing it into groups. The palpi vary in length, and the antennæ present some differences, being generally rough above, but sometimes pubescent, or serrate at joints, with the ciliations of variable length, but these points are simply specific. Veins 4 and 5 of the hindwings are either from a point or stalked, but both forms often occur in the same species. Roughly, the first 27 species belong to the same group as the European forms, being always of comparatively small size, with the typical markings well developed, whilst the remainder constitute a more specially New Zealand group, usually of larger size, and more crambideous appearance, with the normal markings often obsolete, the palpi longer and hindwings broader; but there is no definite distinction.

The larvæ, so far as known, feed universally on mosses.

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In the following descriptions the length of the labial palpi is stated in terms of the breadth of the eye, and the length of the antennal ciliations in terms of the breadth of the stalk; the breadth of the hindwings in terms of the breadth of the forewings. Typically, the markings consist of three transverse lines and three discal spots—viz., (1) the first line, at about 2/5, usually oblique and somewhat curved, more or less indented in middle; (2) the orbicular spot, usually round, shortly beyond first line above middle; (3) the claviform spot, usually linear, similarly placed below middle; (4) the reniform spot, usually 8-shaped, in disk beyond and above middle; (5) the second line, at about 4/5, tolerably parallel to hindmargin, usually somewhat curved, generally sinuate inwards below costa and above inner margin; (6) the subterminal line, placed between second line and hindmargin, curved inwards in middle, often interrupted.

Owing to the obscure colouring of all the species, and their great general similarity, it is extremely difficult to construct an accurate tabulation, but the following is an attempt which may be of some practical use:—

1a. Forewings wholly blackish 2.anthracias.
1b. " not blackish.
2a. Basal third of forewings deep reddish-ochreous.
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3a. Space before second line suffused with white 44. epicomia.
3b. " " not white 45. feredayi.
2b. Basal third of forewings not reddish-ochreous.
3a. Orbicular recognizably represented.
4a. Claviform visible.
5a. Zones somewhat yellowish or ochreous.
6a. Claviform detached.
7a. Base of wing spotted with blackish 27. anaplecta.
7b. " not spotted 4. eumeles.
6b. Claviform touching first line.
7a. Lines connected in disc by a yellowish-white streak 29. characta.
7b. " not connected 10. homala.
5b. Lines not yellowish or ochreous.
6a. Lower half of subterminal margined above by an ochreous blotch.
7a. Costal space between reniform and second line white.
8a. Dark fascous costal blotch bounded by submedian fold 18. minualis.
8b. " " continued to inner margin 17. minusculalis.
7b. Costal space between reniform and second line not white 19. chimeria.
6b. Lower half of subterminal not margined with ochreous.
7a. Orbicular and claviform fused into a single blotch 5. aphrodes.
7b. " " separate.
8a. With a small ochreous-yellowish spot near base.
9a. Reniform distinctly 8-shaped 23. microphthalma.
9b. " not 8-shaped 13. gomphota.
8b. Without yellowish spot near base.
9a. With prismatic spots before and beyond reniform 36. diphtheralis.
9b. Without prismatic spots.
10a. Claviform touching first line.
11a. Orbicular touching first line.
12a. Reniform dot-like 54. elaphra.
12b. " 8-shaped.
13a. Forewings ochreous-fuscous 46. acompa.
13b. " grey, mixed with white and black.
14a. Hind-wings rather dark grey 26. critica.
14b. " whitish-grey.
15a. Claviform thick, black, conspicuous 3. chiasta.
15b. " not conspicuous.
16a. First line distinct, indented 49. manganeutis.
16b. " very obscure, not indented 41. chalicodes.
11b. Orbicular detached.
12a. Hindwings grey 11. eremitis.
12b. " pale whitish-grey or whitish.
13a. Hindmargin of hindwings darker.
14a. With well-defined blackish triangular hindmarginal blotch 6. epicryma.
14b. Hindmarginal blotch obscure, not blackish 34. philetaera.
13b. Hindmargin of hindwings not darker 14. oreas.
10b. Claviform detached.
11a. Orbicular confluent with broad margin of first line 22, cymatias.
11b. " detached.
– 73 –
12a. Orbicular wholly dark.
13a. Orbicular suffused, almost obsolete 51. axena.
13b. " tolerably distinct.
14a. With white space before second line 20. dinodes.
14b. Without white space.
15a. Hindwings grey 12. perierga.
15b. " grey-whitish 50. crypsinoa.
12b. Orbicular pale-centred.
13a. Claviform pale-centred.
14a. First line obsolete 39. tetracycla.
14b. " visible.
15a. First line margined on costa by a black spot 21. acharis.
15b. " not followed by a black spot 40. indistinctalis.
13b. Claviform wholly blackish.
14a. Claviform subquadrate.
15a. First line sharply indented 8. syntaracta.
15b. " hardly at all indented 9. synapta.
14b. Claviform round.
15a. Claviform moderately large.
16a. Hindwings ochreous-tinged 37. submarginalis.
16b. " not ochreous tinged 15. philerga.
15b. Claviform dot-like.
16a. Antennæ of male dentate, ciliations 3/3 42. leptalea.
16b. " " filiform " 1 43. psammitis.
4b. Claviform absent.
5a. Lines obsolete 57. sabulosella.
5b. " present.
6a. Forewings light fuscous 47. acropola.
6b. " dark bluish-grey 38. cataxesta.
3b. Orbicular not recognizable.
4a. Claviform visible.
5a. With triangular blackish costal blotch 31. pongalis.
5b. Without blackish costal blotch 53. exilis.
4b. Claviform obsolete.
5a. Lines pale yellow 28. spelæa.
5b. " not yellow.
6a. Basal half of forewings blackish, except small ochreous spot 16. chlamydota.
6b. " " " not wholly blackish.
7a. With large dark fuscous costal blotch beyond first line.
8a. Blotch not passing middle of wing 33. trapezophora.
8b. " reaching to near inner margin 32. melanægis.
7b. Without large dark fuscous costal blotch.
8a. First line indicated or distinct.
9a. Reniform 8-shaped 48. cleodoralis.
9b. " not 8-shaped.
10a. Reniform and orbicular absorbed in a blackish streak.
11a. Hindwings fuscous-grey 24. hemicycla.
11b. " pale whitish-grey 30. ustimacula.
– 74 –
10b. Without blackish discal streak.
11a. First line straight 35. periphanes.
11b. " curved 25. ergatis.
8b. First line absent.
9a. Thorax with sharp blackish-fuscous lateral stripe.
10a. Basal dark streak in a line with discal 59. trivirgata.
10b. " " parallel with discal 58. panopla.
9b. Thorax without lateral stripe.
10a. Dorsal half of wing white 52. steropæa.
10b. " " not white.
11a. Reniform represented by a whitish dot 55. paltomacha.
11b. " " by a black dot 56. deltophora.

*2. Scop. anthracias, n. sp

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Male, female.—15–16 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax dark fuscous mixed with black; palpi 2 ½; antennal ciliations ½. Abdomen grey. Legs black, apex of joints white. Forewings elongate, triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; dark slaty-fuscous; markings black, ill-defined; a short interrupted streak from base; first line somewhat curved; orbicular and claviform irregular, somewhat linear, touching first line; reniform represented by a trifurcate mark; second line almost rectangularly bent in disc, followed on costa by some white scales; veins partially marked with black posteriorly: cilia dark slaty-fuscous, with a black line, tips pale. Hindwings 1 1/3 pale whitish-grey, towards hindmargin grey; cilia grey-whitish, with two faint grey lines.

Doubtless protectively coloured to resemble charred tree-trunks, like Bondia.

Launceston and Mount Wellington, Tasmania, in January; three specimens.

*8. Scop, chiasta, n. sp

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Male.—14–17 mm. Head white. Palpi 1 2/3, dark fuscous, basal and terminal joints white. Antennæ white, annulated with dark fuscous, ciliations ½. Thorax white, irrorated with dark fuscous. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs dark fuscous, banded with white. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; white, irregularly irrogated with fuscous and dark fuscous; a short dark fuscous streak from base of costa parallel to inner margin; first line white, oblique, rather indented, posteriorly margined with dark fuscous, which forms a triangular spot on costa; orbicular elongate, touching first line, dark fuscous; claviform strong, elongate, touching first line, dark fuscous; reniform represented by a quadrifurcate dark fuscous mark, upper fork sometimes filled with fuscous; a small dark fuscous spot on costa somewhat beyond middle; second line white, tolerably distinctly margined with

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dark fuscous; subterminal line white, somewhat broader and more ill-defined, leaving a dark fuscous triangular blotch on hindmargin: cilia white, with a basal row of dark fuscous spots, and posterior row of grey spots. Hindwings 1 1/3, pale whitish-grey, greyer on hindmargin and towards apex; cilia whitish, with a grey line.

Not closely resembling any other, and recognizable by the character of the spots, which are conspicuous though not sharply defined.

Sydney, New South Wales, from May to August, so that it is a winter species; five specimens.

*4. Scop. eumeles, n. sp

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Male.—14–16 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and abdomen whitish-ochreous, slightly mixed with ochreous; palpi 2, basal joint white; antennal ciliations ½. Legs white, anterior and middle tibiæ and tarsi banded with blackish. Forewings somewhat elongate, triangular, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; very pale whitish-ochreous, finely irrorated with fuscous on basal third, with blackish on remainder; a faint blackish triangle on base of costa; first line slender, tolerably clear, somewhat curved, slightly indented, posteriorly finely blackish margined, forming a small black triangular spot on costa; orbicular and claviform both small, round, black, detached; a small black triangular spot on costa beyond middle, separated from second line by a subquadrate light yellow-ochreous spot; reniform irregularly 8-shaped, light yellow-ochreous, only black-margined in middle of posterior side; second line tolerably clear, anteriorly finely blackish-margined, more strongly on inner margin; terminal space suffused with pale grey, except broad cloudy subterminal line, which is interrupted above middle, apex of lower portion touching second line; a terminal row of light yellow-ochreous semi-oval spots, anteriorly blackish-margined: cilia pale whitish-ochreous, faintly barred with grey, with two interrupted lines, first dark fuscous, second grey. Hindwings 1 1/5, pale whitish-ochreous, faintly greyish; cilia ochreous-whitish, becoming pale yellow-ochreous towards base round apex.

A very distinct and elegant species, known by the whitish-ochreous colour and small round detached orbicular and claviform; the hindwings are narrower than usual.

Sydney, New South Wales, in April, on sandstone rock-faces, to which its colouring is adapted; two specimens.

*5. Scop. aphrodes, n. sp

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Female.—15–17 mm. Head white, back of crown, a spot beneath each antenna, and a dot in middle of face black. Palpi 1 2/3, black, basal and terminal joints white. Antennæ dark grey. Thorax white, anterior margin irregularly black. Abdomen ochreous-white, apex more ochreous. Legs

– 76 –

white, anterior and middle tibiæ and tarsi banded with black. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin oblique, slightly rounded; clear ochreous-white; markings fuscous suffused with black, sharply defined; a fascia from base of costa to inner margin before first line, narrow on upper half, irregularly dilated on lower; a small spot on costa at ⅕, and a sinuate erect mark on inner margin at ⅖, indicating margins of first line; orbicular and claviform represented by a large irregularly trilobate spot, connected anteriorly with a small spot on costa at ⅛; a small spot on costa slightly beyond middle; a small spot on inner margin beyond middle; reniform represented by an obtusely angulated linear mark, angle directed towards base; anterior margin of second line indicated on costa by a small mark; space between second line and hindmargin wholly blackish, except the irregular white subterminal line, which is broadly interrupted above middle; cilia white, with a basal row of dark fuscous spots. Hindwings 1 ¼, grey-whitish, hindmargin suffused with grey; cilia ochreous-whitish, with a grey line.

Immediately known by the strongly contrasted and sharply defined markings, and the fusion of orbicular and claviform into a single blotch.

Sydney, New South Wales, in October, on tree-trunks; three specimens.

∗6. Scop. epicryma, n. sp

Male.—15 mm. Head and thorax white mixed with dark fuscous. Palpi 2, dark fuscous, basal joint and apex of other two joints white. Antennæ whitish, annulated with grey; ciliations ½. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Legs white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings rather elongate, triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin oblique, slightly rounded; white, thinly sprinkled with blackish; markings composed of blackish scales, which become yellowish towards base; a small irregularly diffused basal patch; a small cloudy spot on costa before first line, and a larger subquadrate spot on inner margin; first line white, tolerably well defined, posteriorly dark-margined, slightly curved, somewhat indented, hardly oblique; orbicular small, round, blackish, not touching first line, claviform strong, linear, touching first line, both enclosed in a cloudy suffusion which extends to costa but not to inner margin; a small triangular blackish spot on costa immediately following first line, and another slightly beyond middle; reniform represented by a trifurcate mark; second line white, narrow, strongly dark-margined anteriorly; terminal space wholly dark, except the strongly dentate sub-terminal line, which is attenuated in middle, not touching second line: cilia ochreous-white, with two interrupted dark fuscous lines. Hindwings 1 ¼, very pale grey, hindmargin darker; a faint darker lunule and postmedian line; cilia ochreous-whitish, with an interrupted grey line.

– 77 –

Nearly allied to S. exhibitalis, but smaller, with the markings less sharply contrasted, and without the defined white and black markings of head and thorax.

Mount Gambier, South Australia, in November; one specimen on a tree-trunk.

∗7. Scop. exhibitalis, Walk

(Scoparia exhibitalis, Walk., Suppl., 1500.)

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Male, female.—17–19 mm. Head ochreous-white, back of crown and two confluent spots beneath antennæ black. Palpi 2, black, basal joint of labial and apex of maxillary palpi white. Antennæ blackish; ciliations 1/3. Thorax ochreous-white, anterior third and a central quadrate spot black. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, segments suffused with grey towards base. Legs white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with black. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; ochreous-white, with a few scattered black scales; markings fuscous suffused with black; an irregular trifurcate mark from base of costa, touching a small spot on inner margin; a small spot on costa and a larger one on inner margin before first line; first line somewhat oblique, slightly curved, indented, posteriorly strongly dark-margined; a cloudy suffusion along costa from first line to a small triangular spot slightly beyond middle, and a stronger suffusion along inner margin from first to second line; orbicular round, black, light-centred; claviform dot-like, black, detached; both sometimes confluent; reniform represented by a linear trifurcate mark; second line strong, anteriorly dark-margined; terminal space wholly dark, except interrupted subterminal line, apex of lower portion touching second line: cilia white, with an interrupted blackish line, and posterior row of grey spots. Hindwings 1 1/3, grey-whitish, ochreous-tinged; a distinct central lunule, postmedian line, and cloudy suffusion towards apex and upper part of hindmargin grey; cilia ochreous-whitish, with an interrupted grey line.

Resembles S. aphrodes in the defined markings of the head, but larger, with the markings of the wings less clearly contrasted, and immediately separated by the dark suffusion of the inner margin between first and second lines.

Sydney, New South Wales, from August to October; five specimens, mostly at light.

∗8. Scop. syntaracta, n. sp

Male, female.—20–21 mm. Head and thorax whitish, densely mixed with dark fuscous. Palpi 2 ¾, white, second and terminal joints with blackish basal bands. Antennæ grey, obscurely annulated with paler; ciliations ½. Abdomen grey, segmental margins ochreous-white. Legs

– 78 –

white, tarsi and tibiæ banded with blackish. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; white, densely irrorated with black, sometimes partially suffused with light fuscous; several small black spots towards base; first line well-defined, somewhat curved, sharply indented, posteriorly strongly black-margined; orbicular moderate, circular, black, whitish-centred, almost touching first line; claviform quadrate, black, detached; reniform indistinct, irregularly 8-shaped, lower half elongate, whitish, partially black-margined, posteriorly strongly, touching a small blackish spot on costa beyond middle; second line well-defined, anteriorly black-margined; terminal space wholly dark, except rather broad distinct subterminal line, entire or shortly interrupted, not touching second line: cilia white, sharply barred with dark grey, bars partially obsolete on terminal half. Hindwings 1 ¼, whitish-grey, becoming fuscous-grey posteriorly, postmedian line faintly darker; cilia white, with a well-defined grey line.

This and the following species are characterized by the intensity of the irroration and markings, and especially by the subquadrate detached claviform.

Sydney, New South Wales, in September; Mount Wellington (1,000 feet), Tasmania, from December to February; four specimens.

∗9. Scop. synapta, n. sp

Female.—16 mm. Head whitish, mixed with ochreous-brown and black. Palpi 2 ½, whitish, second and terminal joints with blackish basal bands. Antennæ black. Thorax white, suffused on sides with ochreous-brown, with a small posterior, and large quadrate concave-sided central black spot. Abdomen dark-grey, segmental margins narrowly white. Legs white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with black. Forewings elongate-oblong, hardly dilated, costa almost straight, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; white, sprinkled with ochreous-brown and black; basal space ochreous-brown irregularly suffused with black, cut by a narrow white transverse line midway between base and first line; first line narrow, hardly curved, slightly oblique, hardly indented, posteriorly broadly black-margined except in middle; orbicular moderate, round, black, white-centred, detached; claviform quadrate, black, detached; both enclosed in an ochreous-brown patch which is extended to inner margin and dilated beneath; an irregular black spot on costa slightly beyond middle; reniform 8-shaped, black, each half including a minute white dot; second line narrow, anteriorly black-margined, forming a small black spot on inner margin; terminal space black, except the rather broad cloudy white subterminal line, which is narrowly interrupted above middle, apex of lower portion touching second line: cilia obscurely barred with grey and whitish, with a dark fuscous basal line. Hindwings 1 ¼, grey, apex and hindmargin suffusedly darker; cilia grey-whitish, with a dark-grey basal and lighter median line.

– 79 –

Nearly allied to S. syntaracta, but distinguished by the much narrower wings, smaller size, greater concentration of the black colouring, and darker margin of hindwings.

Mount Wellington (3,200 feet), Tasmania, in December; one specimen.

∗10. Scop. homala, n. sp

Male, female.—15–18 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax pale ochreous mixed with dark fuscous; palpi 2 ⅔, externally suffused with dark fuscous, basal joint white. Antennæ dark fuscous, obscurely annulated with ochreous; ciliations ½. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, sometimes irrorated with fuscous. Legs pale ochreous, irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; whitish-ochreous, more or less densely and irregularly irrorated with black; black scales tending to form longitudinal streaks at base; first line whitish-ochreous, anteriorly broadly suffused, obscurely double, moderately curved, hardly indented, posteriorly black-margined; orbicular dot-like, blackish, detached; claviform small, suboblong, blackish, touching first line; reniform represented by an x-shaped black mark, separated from orbicular by a small oval clear whitish-ochreous spot; a small triangular blackish spot on costa beyond middle; second line well-defined, whitish-ochreous, anteriorly blackish-margined; terminal space wholly suffused with blackish, except well-defined rather broad whitish-ochreous subterminal line, not interrupted, touching second line in middle: cilia whitish-ochreous, barred with fuscous, with a blackish interrupted line. Hindwings 1 ¼, ochreous-grey-whitish, postmedian line and hindmarginal suffusion faintly greyer; cilia ochreous-whitish, with a grey line.

Immediately separated from the allied species by the whitish-ochreous ground colour.

Adelaide, South Australia, on fences in October; six specimens.

∗11. Scop. eremitis, n. sp

Male, female.—18–21 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish, densely mixed with dark fuscous; palpi 3. Antennæ grey; ciliations ½. Abdomen grey, segmental margins whitish. Legs dark fuscous irrorated with white, apex of joints white. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin almost straight, oblique; fuscous-grey, irregularly sprinkled with white, veins obscurely lined with blackish; several small cloudy blackish spots towards base; first line narrow, whitish, ill-defined, posteriorly obscurely blackish-margined, moderately curved, somewhat indented; orbicular moderate, circular, outlined with black, detached; claviform smaller, round, almost wholly blackish, touching first line; reniform obscure, tolerably 8-shaped, obscurely blackish-margined;

– 80 –

second line white, tolerably well-defined, obscurely dark-margined; subterminal very ill-defined, cloudy, whitish, interrupted above middle, not touching second line: cilia ochreous-whitish, obscurely barred with grey, and with two grey lines. Hindwings 1 ¼, light grey, darker posteriorly; cilia whitish, with a well-defined grey line.

Compared with the neighbouring species a rather large and dull-coloured insect, with the lines more abruptly bent and angular than usual.

Wirrabara Forest, South Australia, in October; five specimens.

∗12. Scop. perierga, n. sp

Male, female.—14–15 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax white, densely mixed with fuscous and black; palpi 3. Antennæ dark fuscous; ciliations ⅗. Abdomen dark grey, segmental margins white. Legs white, irrorated with dark fuscous; tibiæ and tarsi clear white, sharply banded with black. Forewings triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; white, more or less wholly suffused with light greyish-fuscous or yellowish-fuscous, and irregularly irrorated with black; a short thick interrupted cloudy blackish streak from base of costa; first line indistinct, whitish, somewhat oblique, slightly curved, distinctly indented, margined posteriorly on costa and inner margin by triangular black spots; orbicular small, dot-like, blackish; claviform moderate, round, wholly black, detached; reniform x-shaped, blackish, upper fork generally filled obscurely with whitish, lower with ochreous, and connected with costa by a cloudy dark spot; second line tolerably distinct, white, anteriorly dark-margined; terminal space wholly dark, except moderate cloudy white subterminal line, interrupted above middle, apex of lower portion almost touching second line: cilia white, mixed and obscurely barred with grey, lower half spotted with dark fuscous. Hindwings 1 ¼, whitish-grey suffused with darker, apex and upper part of hindmargin suffused with dark fuscous, central lunule and postmedian line tolerably distinct; cilia grey-whitish, with a broad grey basal line.

A comparatively short-winged species, allied to S. eremitis, but much smaller and more distinctly marked, the dark markings much blacker.

Mount Wellington, Tasmania, from 3,000 to 3,800 feet, in December; rather common, sitting on the rocks and readily disturbed.

∗13. Scop. gomphota, n. sp

Male.—15 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax grey, mixed with reddish-ochreous and black; palpi 2 ¼. Antennæ grey; ciliations ½. Abdomen grey. Legs white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark grey. Forewings triangular, costa hardly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin straight, rather strongly oblique; fuscous-grey, with a few black and bluish-white scales; a small reddish-ochreous spot near base; first line not paler, curved,

– 81 –

obscurely blackish-margined posteriorly; orbicular and claviform irregular, reddish-ochreous, partially black-margined, touching first line; reniform subquadrate, reddish-ochreous, anteriorly and posteriorly blackish-margined; second line not paler, anteriorly blackish-margined; terminal area rather densely irrorated with black, except subterminal line, touching second line in middle: cilia whitish-grey, with a broad interrupted dark grey line. Hindwings 1 ¼, grey, becoming darker on hindmargin; cilia grey-whitish, with a grey line.

A peculiar and distinct species, with hindmargin of forewings more oblique than usual.

Mount Wellington, Tasmania, (probably about 2,000 feet), in February; one specimen.

14. Scop. oreas, n. sp

Male.—22 mm. Head and thorax whitish, strongly mixed with dark fuscous. Palpi 3 ¼, dark fuscous, apex and basal joint white. Antennæ pubescent, dark grey, ciliations 1. Abdomen whitish-grey, segmental margins whitish. Legs white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with blackish. Forewings very elongate, tolerably triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; white, somewhat mixed with pale grey, and rather thinly irrorated with dark fuscous; some obscure dark fuscous spots near base; first line white, very indistinct, somewhat curved, tolerably indented, posteriorly obscurely margined with dark fuscous; orbicular moderate, roundish, dark fuscous, detached; claviform moderate, broadly linear, dark fuscous, touching first line; reniform 8-shaped, whitish, margined with dark fuscous, upper and lower margins incomplete; second line white, indistinct, dilated to form spots on costa and inner margin, obscurely margined with dark fuscous; subterminal broad, white, ill-defined, narrowly interrupted above middle, apex of lower portion almost coalescing with second line; hindmargin dark fuscous, with a row of white dots: cilia white, with a sharply-defined dark fuscous line. Hindwings 1 ⅓, grey-whitish, apex hardly darker; cilia whitish.

Nearly allied to S. philerga, but readily distinguished by the longer and narrower forewings, and whitish hindwings, as well as the pubescence and longer ciliations of antennæ.

Lake Wakatipu, at 5,000 feet, in December; one specimen.

15. Scop. philerga, n. sp

Male, female.—17–21 mm. Head and thorax whitish, mixed with fuscous, and irrorated with black. Palpi 2 ⅓, dark fuscous, somewhat mixed with white, basal joint white. Antennæ dark fuscous; ciliations ⅔. Abdomen light fuscous-grey, segmental margins ochreous-whitish. Legs ochreous-whitish, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings moderately

– 82 –

elongate, triangular, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin oblique, faintly sinuate; white, mixed with grey, and coarsely irrorated with black; a thick interrupted obscure blackish streak from base of costa; first line white, obscure, somewhat curved, sharply indented, posteriorly blackish-margined; orbicular round, whitish, blackish-margined; claviform roundish, moderate or large, blackish, often suffused, tolerably detached; reniform 8-shaped, white, blackish-margined, connected with a small blackish triangular spot on costa; second line white, tolerably distinct, anteriorly dark-margined; terminal space wholly dark, except moderate tolerably defined subterminal line, entire or interrupted, touching second line in middle; a hindmarginal row of white dots: cilia whitish, obscurely barred with grey, with an interrupted blackish and posterior grey line. Hindwings 1 ¼, pale whitish-grey, slightly ochreous-tinged, in female rather greyer, postmedian line and hindmargin obscurely darker grey; cilia whitish, with a grey line spotted with darker.

A dull, obscure-looking species, but with the reniform very clearly defined.

Auckland, Hamilton, Christchurch, Nelson, Otira River, Dunedin, and Lake Wakatipu; common in forest, in December, January, March, and April. Near Lake Wakatipu I took one specimen at an elevation of 4,000 feet.

16. Scop. chlamydota, n. sp

Male, female.—13–14 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-ochreous suffused with black; palpi 2. Antennæ greyish-ochreous; ciliations ½. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs ochreous-white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin straight, oblique; ochreous-whitish; basal half, bounded by a line parallel to hindmargin, suffused with blackish, except on an oval ochreous spot near middle of base; a moderately broad fascia-like reddish-ochreous suffusion rather beyond and parallel to posterior edge of blackish patch; an irregular reddish-ochreous suffusion towards middle of hindmargin; a rather small triangular blackish spot on costa before apex, and some blackish scales on anal angle: cilia ochreous-whitish, mixed with reddish ochreous beneath and blackish above apex. Hindwings 1 ¼, whitish; postmedian line and apical suffusion faintly grey; cilia whitish.

A peculiar and very distinct species.

Arthur's Pass (3,000 feet), in January; three specimens.

17. Scop. minusculalis, Walk

(Scoparia minusculalis, Walk., Suppl., 1503.)

Male, female.—17–19 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ochreous-fuscous, mixed with whitish-ochreous and dark fuscous; palpi 2 ½, basal joint white.

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Antennæ fuscous; ciliations ⅔. Abdomen ochreous-whitish, more ochreous near base. Legs white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings rather elongate, triangular, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin rather oblique, distinctly sinuate; white; basal half wholly purplish-fuscous, mixed with reddish-ochreous and irrorated with black, bounded by an inwards-curved line from ⅗ of costa to ⅗ of inner margin; indications of a blackish streak from base of costa; first line indicated only by thick black posterior margin, rather strongly indented; orbicular round, black, sometimes centred with ochreous or ochreous-whitish; claviform triangular, black, detached; reniform almost obsolete, pale whitish-ochreous, faintly grey-margined; second line distinct, white, anteriorly margined with dark grey; terminal space wholly fuscous-grey or dark grey, except broad tolerably defined white subterminal line, broadly interrupted, apex of lower portion confluent with second line and margined above by a yellow-ochreous blotch; a hindmarginal row of cloudy white dots: cilia white, obscurely barred with grey, with a dark grey often interrupted line, and lighter posterior line. Hindwings 1 ¼, very pale whitish-grey, slightly ochreoustinged, postmedian line and hindmargin somewhat darker; cilia whitish, with a grey somewhat interrupted line.

This and the two following species are easily recognized by the yellow-ochreous blotch above lower portion of subterminal line; S. minusculalis differs from the other two by its larger size, well-defined white postmedian band, and uniform dark suffusion of the whole anterior half of wing.

Larva rather stout, cylindrical, wrinkled, somewhat attenuated towards extremities; light whitish-brown; spots large, round, brassy-fuscous,-each containing a black dot; head ochreous-brown; second segment dark fuscous. Feeds in moss on tree-trunks; pupa in same position; taken in January, almost full-grown.

Akaroa, Bealey River (2,100 feet), and Dunedin; tolerably common in forest in January and February.

18. Scop. minualis, Walk

(Scoparia minualis, Walk., Suppl., 1504.)

Male, female.—15 ½–17 mm. Head and thorax clear pale whitish-ochreous, with a few fuscous scales, shoulders with a small dark fuscous spot. Palpi 2 ½–3, ochreous-whitish, somewhat mixed with dark fuscous, base white. Antennæ whitish, annulated with dark fuscous; ciliations ⅔. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs whitish, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings somewhat elongate, triangular, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin rather oblique, distinctly sinuate; whitish-ochreous, mixed with pale yellowish, and thinly irrorated with dark fuscous; basal area mixed with black, with a suffused black streak from

– 84 –

base of costa, interrupted by a white mark; first line white, tolerably distinct, hardly indented, near inner margin bent more obliquely outwards, posteriorly narrowly black-margined; a large quadrilateral blotch on costa suffused with dark fuscous, bounded anteriorly by first line, beneath by submedian fold, posteriorly by a straight line passing through anterior edge of reniform parallel to hindmargin; orbicular small, round, black, claviform elongate-oval, black, both tolerably detached but obscured by dark suffusion; reniform 8-shaped, clear white, black-margined, incompletely beneath; a cloudy white subquadrate costal spot before second line, touching reniform, and space between reniform and second line generally white mixed with grey; second line white, distinct, anteriorly blackish-margined; terminal space suffused with dark fuscous except towards anal angle; subterminal line broad, interrupted, lower portion white, edged with pale ochreous above, almost touching second line, upper portion clear whitish-ochreous; an irregular white hindmarginal line: cilia pale whitish-ochreous, with a dark fuscous interrupted and posterior grey line. Hind-wings 1 ¼, very pale whitish-grey, postmedian line and hindmargin obscurely darker; cilia whitish, with basal row of cloudy grey spots.

Characterized by the concentration of the dark suffusion into a costal blotch; differing from S. minusculalis by the distinct white first line, from S. chimeria by the white costal spot before second line.

Christchurch, Bealey River (2,100 feet), and Otira Gorge (1,600 feet), amongst forest in January; eight specimens.

19. Scop. chimeria, n. sp

Male, female.—14–16 ½ mm. Head and thorax grey-whitish, mixed with ochreous, dark fuscous and black. Palpi 2 ½, dark fuscous mixed with whitish, basal joint white. Antennæ dark fuscous; ciliations ⅓. Abdomen grey. Legs ochreous white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with black. Forewings triangular, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin distinctly sinuate, oblique; whitish, irregularly suffused with grey, and irrorated with black; a short interrupted black streak from base of costa, and a spot on inner margin near base; first line whitish, ill-defined, curved, hardly indented, posteriorly broadly black-margined, except in middle; orbicular somewhat wedge-shaped, black, touching first line; claviform similar, but often obscured by dark suffusion; veins in disc obscurely lined with yellow-ochreous; reniform 8-shaped, whitish, blackish-margined, connected with costa by a small triangular blackish spot; second line whitish, slender, indistinct, almost straight, anteriorly black-margined; terminal space wholly dark, except well-defined subterminal line, which is reduced to a double white subapical spot, and a curved white bar from middle of second line to hindmargin above anal angle, broadly margined above with

– 85 –

ochreous-yellow; a terminal row of white semioval spots: cilia whitish, obscurely barred with grey, with a dark grey interrupted line. Hindwings 1 ¼, whitish-grey, postmedian line and hindmargin obscurely darker grey; cilia grey-whitish, with a dark grey line.

A dull-looking species, yet very easily recognized.

Taranaki, Palmerston, Masterton, Christchurch, Akaroa, Dunedin, and Lake Wakatipu, not met with above 1,000 feet; common in forest from December to March.

20. Scop. dinodes, n. sp

Male.—17 mm. Head and thorax rather dark fuscous, somewhat mixed with whitish. Palpi 2, dark grey, basal joint white. Antennæ dark fuscous; ciliations ¼. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with black. Forewings triangular, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin nearly straight, oblique; white, densely irrorated with dark fuscous; basal area suffusedly spotted with black; first line hardly whitish, very obscure, posteriorly black-margined, curved, hardly indented; orbicular and claviform small, roundish, obscure, black, detached; a rather broad clear white transverse space before, second line, of even width except on inner margin, where it is contracted; reniform included in this, 8-shaped, white, black-margined; second line slender, obscure, white, anteriorly dark-margined, somewhat curved, hardly sinuate; subterminal line narrow, white, distinct, interrupted above middle, not touching second line; a hindmarginal row of white dots: cilia grey, with a dark grey line. Hindwings 1 ¼, whitish-grey, lunule and postmedian line obscurely indicated, hindmargin darker grey; cilia whitish, with a dark grey line.

Allied to the three preceding, but without the ochreous blotch, and specially characterized by the remarkably short antennal ciliations.

Christchurch and Dunedin, in January; two specimens.

21. Scop. acharis, n. sp

Male.—17 ½ mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, shoulders dark fuscous mixed with black. Palpi 2 ¼, ochreous-whitish, second and terminal joints with dark fuscous basal bands, basal joint white. Antennæ whitish-ochreous, ringed with dark fuscous; joints short, subdentate, ciliations 1. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, irrorated with fuscous. Legs ochreous-whitish, irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings triangular, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin rather obliquely rounded; whitish-ochreous, scantily irrorated with fuscous and dark fuscous; a sharply defined oblique black spot from base of costa, inner edge straight, outer irregular; first line indicated only by obscure dark posterior margin, slightly curved, somewhat indented, followed on

– 86 –

costa by a sharply-defined moderate triangular black spot; orbicular round, pale, broadly black-margined, touching apex of costal spot; claviform round, upper half margined with black, lower half obsolete, detached; a very small dark fuscous spot on costa beyond middle, between which and first line the costa is narrowly suffused with fuscous; reniform large, double, shaped like two adjacent figures of 8, both irregularly black-margined, adjacent margins confluent; second line pale, anteriorly dark-margined, forming a very small blackish spot on costa; terminal space suffused with brownish-ochreous; subterminal line cloudy, ochreous-whitish, somewhat interrupted, not touching second line; hindmargin suffusedly blackish, with a row of ochreous-whitish marks: cilia pale whitish-ochreous, with a well-defined dark grey line and very faint grey posterior line. Hindwings 1 ¼, very pale whitish grey, central lunule obscurely indicated, postmedian line and a narrow hindmarginal suffusion distinct, darker grey; cilia ochreous-whitish, with a distinct grey line.

A distinct species, characterized by the sharply defined black costal markings, double reniform, and relatively long antennal ciliations.

Akaroa and Dunedin, amongst forest, in January; two specimens.

22. Scop. cymatias, n. sp

Male, female.—21–22 mm. Head and thorax fuscous-grey, irrorated with white. Palpi 2 ¼, dark fuscous, somewhat mixed with white, basal joint white. Antennæ grey; ciliations ⅔. Abdomen light grey, segmental margins whitish. Legs whitish, irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings rather elongate, triangular, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin oblique, distinctly sinuate; fuscous grey, densely mixed with white and irrorated with black; some very obscure small dark spots towards base; first line very obscure, white, somewhat curved and indented, posteriorly slightly dark-margined beneath, on costal third margined by an oblique oblong blackish streak which conceals orbicular; claviform small, roundish, blackish, detached; reniform 8-shaped, whitish, obscurely black-margined, connected with a small dark suffusion on costa; second line whitish, ill-defined, finely dentate throughout, hardly sinuate, anteriorly slightly dark-margined, forming a small blackish spot on costa; subterminal cloudy, whitish, finely dentate, interrupted above middle, apex of lower portion touching second line; an obscure hindmarginal row of whitish marks: cilia whitish, with a dark fuscous interrupted subbasal, and grey posterior line. Hindwings 1 ⅓, very pale whitish-grey, slightly ochreous-tinged, central lunule indistinct, postmedian line and a slender hindmarginal suffusion distinctly darker grey; cilia whitish, with a dark grey line, slightly interrupted.

A very obscure species, best indicated by the fine dentation of the second and subterminal lines.

– 87 –

Arthur's Pass (2,500 feet) and Mount Hutt, in January; three specimens.

23. Scop. microphthalma, n. sp

Male.—15–16 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax blackish-grey, irrorated with white; palpi 2 ¼, basal joint white; thorax with a small posterior ochreous-yellow spot. Antennæ dark grey; ciliations ½. Abdomen fuscous-grey. Legs dark fuscous, irrorated with white, apex of joints white. Forewings triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hind-margin slightly rounded, rather oblique; blackish, finely irrorated with white; a small ochreous-yellow spot near base, followed by a faint whitish transverse line; first line whitish, slender, ill-defined, slightly curved, posteriorly indistinctly dark-margined; orbicular and claviform both circular, ochreous-yellow, dark-margined, touching first line; reniform 8-shaped, ochreous-yellow, black-margined, each half containing a white dot, the lower one larger; a small ill-defined whitish costal spot above reniform; second line whitish, ill-defined, obscurely dark-margined, touching similar subterminal line in middle: cilia whitish, with two cloudy dark grey lines, and obscurely barred with grey. Hindwings 1 ⅓ fuscous-grey, becoming darker posteriorly; cilia grey, with a darker line, tips whitish.

Easily recognized by the ochreous-yellow spots, and white dots in reniform.

Christchurch in March, and Lake Wakatipu (1,000 feet) in December, amongst bush; two specimens.

24. Scop. hemicycla, n. sp

Female.—17 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-fuscous. Palpi 2 ¾, dark fuscous mixed with white, basal joint white. Antennæ dark fuscous. Abdomen grey, terminal segment very elongate, ovipositor long. Legs grey irrorated with whitish. Forewings elongate-oblong, slightly dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin rather oblique, slightly rounded; fuscous, with scattered pale ochreous-yellowish scales; a cloudy blackish spot on inner margin near base, above which is a line of whitish scales; a longitudinal median black streak from base to ⅓ a strong semicircular black streak from costa at ⅓, passing through middle of disc and returning to costa at ⅔, obscurely margined beneath with whitish, the included space also irrorated with whitish; subterminal line indicated by a few whitish scales: cilia whitish-fuscous with two cloudy darker lines, tips whitish. Hindwings 1 ½, fuscous-grey, becoming-dark fuscous towards hindmargin; cilia as in forewings.

Conspicuously distinct by the semicircular black streak excluding central third of costa.

Arthur's Pass (3,000 feet) in January; one specimen.

– 88 –

25. Scop, ergatis, n. sp

Female.—13–17 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous or fuscous-grey, slightly mixed with grey-whitish; palpi 2 ½, basal joint white. Antennæ dark fuscous. Abdomen light grey. Legs whitish, irrorated with fuscous. Forewings elongate, tolerably oblong, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin straight, rather oblique; light fuscous, thinly and irregularly irrorated with whitish and darker fuscous; first line obscurely whitish, posteriorly rather broadly and suffusedly dark-margined, strongly curved; orbicular and claviform obsolete; reniform subquadrate, cloudy, dark fuscous; second line whitish, anteriorly dark-margined, rectilinear, obtusely angulated above middle; subterminal line obsolete: cilia light fuscous mixed with whitish. Hindwings 1 ½, light grey or fuscous-grey, rather darker posteriorly; cilia fuscous-whitish, with a fuscous basal line.

Allied to S. hemicycla, which it resembles in form, but quite differently marked.

Castle Hill (3,000 feet), on grassy slopes in January; two specimens.

26. Scop. critica, n. sp

Male, female.—13–15 ½ mm. Head and thorax black, irregularly mixed with white, and with a few yellow scales. Palpi 2 ½, black, apex and basal joint white. Antennæ blackish, in male pubescent; ciliations 1. Abdomen dark fuscous-grey. Legs white, irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, somewhat triangular, costa hardly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; fuscous-grey, mixed with blackish, median space irregularly irrorated with white; main veins and some posterior branches streaked with ochreous-yellow; a white streak from first line near costa to near inner margin at ⅙, connected with middle of base by a white line; first line rather strong, white, scarcely indented but angulated below middle, posteriorly blackish-margined, forming an oblique suboblong black spot on costa, which includes orbicular; claviform broadly linear, black, touching first line; reniform 8-shaped, black-margined but incompletely beneath, upper half clear white, lower obscure, ochreous-yellow, connected with costa by a dark spot; second line distinct, white, anteriorly dark-margined; terminal space wholly dark, except cloudy white subterminal line, which is interrupted above middle, not touching second line: cilia fuscous-grey, with a dark fuscous line, tips spotted with white. Hindwings 1 ⅓, rather dark fuscous-grey, becoming darker posteriorly; cilia grey, with a dark grey line, tips whitish.

Readily recognized by the intensity of marking, yellowish streaks on veins, reniform half white and half yellow, angulated first line, and pubescent antennæ of male.

Arthur's Pass (3,000 feet, and one specimen at 1,500), in January; common.

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∗ 27. Scop. anaplecta, n. sp

Male, female.—14 ½–15 ½ mm. Head dark fuscous, with a longitudinal whitish-ochreous streak on crown. Palpi 2 ⅔, dark fuscous, apex of maxillary white, basal joint of labial ochreous-white. Antennæ dark fuscous, in male pubescent; ciliations ⅔. Thorax fuscous, irrorated with black, slightly mixed with whitish-ochreous. Abdomen fuscous-grey, segmental margins whitish-ochreous. Legs yellowish-white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hind-margin rounded, rather strongly oblique; purplish-grey, densely irrorated with black; an elongate pale whitish-ochreous spot on inner margin, extending from near base to first line; first line well-defined, ochreous-whitish, rather curved, moderately indented; orbicular small, round, black, touching first line; claviform somewhat larger, roundish, black, tolerably detached; reniform represented by a cloudy black wedge-shaped mark, margined above with some yellow-whitish scales; an ochreous-white suffusion towards middle of inner margin; second line well-defined, ochreous-whitish, near inner margin rather sharply angulated inwards; subterminal line ochreous-whitish, in female broad, hardly interrupted, almost touching second line, in male reduced to several small spots: cilia ochreous-whitish, with a dark grey interrupted basal and faint posterior line. Hindwings 1 ⅙, ochreous-whitish, with a few grey scales, lunule and postmedian line obscurely indicated, a rather broad hindmarginal band suffusedly dark fuscous; cilia as in forewings.

This and the following species have the hindwings proportionately narrower than in any other of the genus, and are characterized by the yellowish tint of their pale markings; S. anaplecta especially also by the pale dorsal spots, and the ochreous-whitish dark-margined hindwings.

Mount Wellington, Tasmania, at 3,200 feet, in December; two specimens.

∗ 28. Scop. spelæa, n. sp

Male, female.—9–12 mm. Head pale yellow, with a dark fuscous streak across crown. Palpi 2 ½, dark fuscous, apex and basal joint whitish-yellow. Antennæ whitish-yellow, annulated with dark fuscous; ciliations ⅔. Thorax whitish-yellow, a central spot and one on each shoulder blackish. Abdomen dark fuscous-grey. Legs whitish-yellow, banded with dark fuscous. Forewings triangular, costa almost straight, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; rather dark fuscous, irrorated with blackish; a pale yellow streak from middle of base to ¼ of inner margin; a pale yellow dot on costa near base; first line sharply defined, pale yellow, regularly curved, not indented; orbicular and claviform absent; a cloudy pale yellow spot above middle of inner margin; reniform narrow, pale yellow, sometimes touching second

– 90 –

line beneath; second line strong, pale yellow, almost straight, somewhat sinuate inwards below middle; subterminal line narrow, indistinct, pale yellow, hardly interrupted, not touching second line: cilia with basal third dark grey, remainder whitish-yellowish, with a grey posterior line. Hindwings hardly over 1, fuscous-grey, becoming dark fuscous towards hindmargin; cilia grey-whitish, with two cloudy grey lines.

The smallest species of the genus known to me, not to be confused with any other.

Sydney, New South Wales; Fernshaw, Victoria; Hobart, Evandale, and Deloraine, Tasmania; Wirrabara Forest and Mount Gambier, South Australia; from August to December, and in March, common in damp sheltered places, especially under wet and overhanging rock-faces.

29. Scop. characta, n. sp

Male, female.—14–17 mm. Head light ochreous-yellow. Palpi 2 ½, dark fuscous, mixed with yellowish above, basal joint yellowish-white. Antennæ pale yellowish; ciliations ½. Thorax whitish-ochreous mixed with dark fuscous, with a blackish spot on shoulder. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, sometimes irrorated with grey. Legs yellowish-white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings triangular, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin oblique, distinctly sinuate; light fuscous, densely irrorated with dark fuscous; inner margin whitish-ochreous towards base, margined above with black; an obscure ochreous-whitish transverse line between first line and base; first line yellow-whitish, slender, tolerably distinct, somewhat curved, slightly indented, posteriorly blackish-margined, followed on costa by a small triangular blackish spot; orbicular suboval, cloudy, black, almost touching first line; claviform represented by a triangular cloudy black spot extending from first to second lines, margined above with yellow-whitish, posteriorly confluent with apex of a rather broad yellow-whitish inwardly oblique straight streak from costa at ⅗ which is separated from second line by a blackish shade; a straight light yellow-ochreous streak in disc between orbicular and claviform, extending from first to second lines, terminating in a yellow-whitish dot which represents lower half of reniform; second line almost wholly obsolete, faintly indicated on costa; subterminal line very ill-defined, narrow, yellow-whitish, hardly interrupted, remote from second line; cilia ochreous-whitish, barred with fuscous, with two dark fuscous lines. Hindwings 1 ¼, very pale whitish-grey, slightly ochreous-tinged; central lunule, postmedian line, and hindmargin darker grey, distinct; cilia whitish, with two grey lines.

A distinct species, easily recognized by the peculiar discal markings.

Palmerston, Makatoku, Christchurch, Akaroa, and Dunedin, amongst forest, in February and March; eight specimens.

– 91 –

30. Scop. ustimacula, Feld

(Scoparia ustimacula, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cxxxv., 17; Scoparia conifera, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., 493.)

Male.—21 mm. Head and thorax ochreous, mixed with white, reddish-fuscous, and black; patagia margined with white. Palpi 2 ½, ochreous-fuscous, basal joint white. Antennæ fuscous; ciliations 1 ½. Abdomen light grey. Legs ochreous-white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with black. Forewings rather elongate, triangular, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin somewhat sinuate, oblique; rather bright ochreous; costa and inner margin irrorated with black and white; base suffused with dark fuscous; a slender obscure whitish line near before first line; first line slender, white, posteriorly irregularly black-margined, not curved, rather oblique, thrice sinuate; a broad fascia-like oblique blackish streak from costa immediately beyond first line, white-margined, reaching submedian fold, apex rounded; a similar inwardly oblique broad streak from costa beyond middle, reaching middle of disc, broadly bifurcate at apex, anterior branch almost coalescing with first streak; second line slender, white, margined anteriorly on costa, submedian fold, and inner margin by three small blackish spots; terminal space somewhat suffused with dark fuscous, tending to form streaks on veins; subterminal line cloudy, whitish, almost marginal throughout; a terminal row of white dots: cilia grey-whitish, with dark grey anterior and lighter posterior lines. Hindwings 1 ⅓, whitish-grey; central lunule, postmedian line, and hindmargin darker grey; cilia as in forewings.

Also a very distinct and handsome species, characterized by the two conspicuous black fasciæ from costa to disc, and unusually long antennal ciliations, the longest in the genus. Butler's description is hardly recognizable, but is intended for this species, as I have seen his type in the British Museum.

Castle Hill (Mr. J. D. Enys) and Dunedin (Mr. A. Purdie), probably amongst bush; I have not met with the species myself; three specimens.

31. Scop. pongalis, Feld

(Scoparia pongalis, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cxxxvii., 33.)

Male, female.—15–19 mm. Head, antennæ, and thorax whitish-grey, slightly ochreous-tinged, shoulders narrowly black; antennal ciliations, ½. Palpi 3, dark fuscous, apex and basal joint whitish. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs grey-whitish, tibiæ and tarsi somewhat suffused with darker grey. Forewings somewhat elongate, triangular, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin rather oblique, faintly sinuate; pale whitish-grey, slightly ochreous-tinged, with a few scattered grey and black scales; first line only indicated by a short cloudy blackish oblique streak from inner

– 92 –

margin; costa black from base to beyond middle, at first very narrowly, but shortly dilating to form a triangular sharply-defined patch, of which apex is in middle of disc; claviform dot-like, black, or sometimes obsolete; reniform 8-shaped, obscurely outlined with blackish; second line not paler, but distinctly dark-margined, somewhat bent but hardly sinuate; a row of black dots immediately before hindmargin; cilia grey-whitish, with a grey basal line. Hindwings 1 ¼, in male whitish, in female very pale whitish-grey; postmedian line and hindmargin very faintly greyer; cilia whitish, with a faint grey line.

Very distinct by the peculiar black costal marking. Felder's figure is very coarse, but indicates this correctly.

Makatoku and Dunedin, amongst forest, in March; five specimens.

32. Scop. melanægis, n. sp

Male, female.—22–23 mm. Head and thorax ochreous mixed with whitish, shoulders suffused with dark fuscous. Palpi 2 ¼, dark fuscous, apex whitish, basal joint white. Antennæ grey. Abdomen ochreous-grey-whitish. Legs white irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin slightly sinuate, oblique; pale fuscous, very densely irrorated with black; a whitish streak from base to inner margin at ⅕, beneath which the black suffusion is obsolete; an obscure dentate irregular whitish transverse line a little before first line, between which and first line the ground colour is mixed with pale yellow; first line slender, white, almost straight, oblique, not reaching inner margin, but continued near and parallel to it to meet second line, which is also narrow, sharply defined, and does not reach inner margin; reniform somewhat 8-shaped, narrow, clear white; space included between a straight line passing through anterior edge of reniform and blackish margin of second line suffused with white; inner margin from before first line to anal angle suffused with pale yellow; veins in terminal space more or less indicated with yellowish; subterminal line cloudy whitish, rather broad, obscurely interrupted, hardly touching second line; a waved white hindmarginal line: cilia whitish, basal third barred with dark grey, with a grey posterior line. Hindwings 1 ⅓ very pale whitish-grey, faintly ochreous-tinged; postmedian line and hindmargin obscurely darker grey; cilia white, with a grey line.

The blackish suffusion appears to form a very large blotch on costa beyond first line, nearly reaching to inner margin; this distinguishes the species from all others.

Arthur's Pass (1,700 to 2,600 feet) and Lake Wakatipu (4,200 feet), frequenting rocks in sheltered situations or amongst bush, in December and January; rather common.

– 93 –

33. Scop. trapezophora, n. sp

Female.—21 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, mixed with whitish. Palpi 2 ¼, whitish-ochreous mixed with fuscous, basal joint white. Antennæ whitish. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs ochreous-whitish, unicolorous. Forewings elongate, narrow, somewhat triangular, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin very faintly sinuate, oblique; pale whitish-ochreous; an oblong very oblique blackish spot from base of costa, reaching more than half across wing; a large sharply defined quadrilateral blackish blotch, extending along costa from ⅕ to ⅗, reaching only half across wing, anterior edge parallel to oblique spot, lower edge parallel to inner margin, posterior edge forming a right angle with lower edge; inner margin broadly suffused with whitish from ¼ to anal angle; reniform white, anteriorly touching costal blotch, posteriorly ill-defined; space between costal blotch and second line suffused with whitish; second line distinct, white, dark-margined, obsolete below costal blotch; terminal space irrorated with dark fuscous, especially towards costa; subterminal line cloudy whitish, obscure, not touching second line: cilia whitish, with a dark fuscous line. Hindwings 1 ⅔, grey-whitish; postmedian line and hindmargin faintly darker; cilia whitish.

Allied to S. melanægis, but much narrower-winged (though the male may probably not differ so much in this respect); immediately separated by the very different form of the black costal blotch, which does not pass downwards beyond middle of wing, and therefore appears very much more compressed longitudinally.

Castle Hill (3,000 feet), in January; one specimen.

34. Scop. philetaera, n. sp

Male.—19 mm. Head white, somewhat mixed with fuscous. Palpi 3, dark fuscous mixed with whitish, basal joint white. Antennæ white, annulated with grey; ciliations ½. Thorax white, mixed with black on back and suffusedly spotted with black on shoulders. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs whitish, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings triangular, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin oblique, slightly sinuate; white, irregularly mixed with light grey, with a few fine scattered black scales; a suffused blackish spot on costa at base; first line strong, white, blackish-margined, somewhat curved, hardly indented, bent more obliquely outwards on inner margin, followed by a cloudy blackish triangular spot on costa; costa dark fuscous from first line to ⅗, a rather darker grey suffusion extending from this to reniform and claviform; orbicular small, round, obscure, black-margined; claviform elongate, cloudy, black, touching first line; reniform 8-shaped, black-margined, upper half grey, lower clear white; second line strong, whitish, anteriorly dark-

– 94 –

margined, forming a small blackish spot on costa; terminal space grey, veins suffused with black; subterminal line cloudy, whitish, somewhat interrupted, not touching second line: cilia whitish, with two dark grey lines. Hindwings 1 ¼, very pale whitish-grey, lunule, postmedian line, and hindmargin hardly darker; cilia whitish, with two grey lines.

Of somewhat doubtful affinity; recognizable by the rather broad distinct lines, dark suffusion towards costa, and clear white lower half of reniform.

Bealey River, amongst forest (2,100 feet), in January; one specimen.

35. Scop. periphanes, n. sp

Male.—20 mm. Head and thorax whitish mixed with ochreous-grey, shoulders narrowly blackish. Palpi 3, dark fuscous mixed with whitish, basal joint white. Antennæ grey-whitish; ciliations ½. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs whitish, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings somewhat elongate, triangular, costa hardly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin sinuate, rather oblique; grey, slightly brownish-tinged; a thick black very oblique streak from base of costa, not reaching inner margin, irregularly bifurcate, upper branch touching first line; first line distinct, rather strong, almost straight, oblique, white, posteriorly strongly and evenly black-margined; spots all obsolete; second line sharply defined, white, finely blackish-margined, preceded by a rather broad whitish space; subterminal line distinct, white, interrupted above middle, apex of lower portion touching second line, the two triangular blotches enclosed between second and subterminal lines suffused with black, apex of upper blotch connected with middle of hindmargin by a blackish streak; a hindmarginal row of cloudy confluent black dots: cilia whitish, with two dark grey lines. Hindwings 1 ⅓, very pale whitish-grey, postmedian line and hindmargin suffusedly darker grey; cilia as in forewings.

A sharply marked species, conspicuously distinct by the straight first line, and absence of all the discal spots.

Lake Wakatipu, in January (Mr. R. W. Fereday); two specimens.

36. Scop. diphtheralis, Walk

(Scoparia diphtheralis, Walk., Suppl., 1501.)

Male, female.—23–26 mm. Head pale ochreous, face black. Palpi 2 ¼, black, mixed with white, basal joint white. Antennæ black, beneath ochreous-whitish. Thorax white, anterior half, a square central spot, and posterior extremity suffused with black. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, slightly irrorated with grey, segmental margins more ochreous towards base. Legs white, thinly sprinkled with black, tibiæ and tarsi banded with black. Forewings elongate, triangular, costa hardly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin sinuate, slightly oblique; white, irregularly irrorated with black scales which are ochreous at their base; a triangular blackish spot on costa

– 95 –

at base, apex extended to form a smaller spot, but not quite reaching inner margin; inner margin beneath this whitish-ochreous; a broad cloudy white line near first line, more or less confluent with it above; first line broad, cloudy, white, oblique, hardly curved, rather irregular, posteriorly blackish-margined, forming a cloudy triangular blackish spot towards costa; a pale ochreous-yellowish streak along submedian fold from basal spot to anal blotch; orbicular roundish, whitish-ochreous, broadly b ack-margined, detached; claviform small, oblique, black, sometimes pale-centred, detached; reniform 8-shaped, whitish-ochreous, black-margined, connected with costa by a small blackish spot, between which and second line is a whitish suffusion; space between orbicular and reniform, and between reniform and second line, clothed with peculiarly appressed brassy prismatic scales, appearing as though transparent; second line broad, white, blackish-margined; terminal space wholly suffused with black; subterminal line broad, white, more or less pale ochreous-yellowish on veins, generally interrupted above middle, apex of lower portion touching second line; a hindmarginal row of white dots: cilia grey, with two darker lines, basal third slightly barred with whitish, tips whitish. Hindwings 1 ½, whitish-ochreous, partially irrorated with grey; lunule, postmedian line, and a tolerably defined hindmarginal band rather dark grey; cilia ochreous-whitish, with two dark grey lines.

A fine species, differing from all others by the peculiar prismatic spots preceding and following reniform.

Hamilton, Palmerston, Napier, Wellington, Christchurch, and Otira Gorge, from. December to March, usually near forest; common where it occurs, but I have never taken it except at lamps, and always females only; I have seen one male, taken by Mr. R. W. Fereday, and perhaps sixty females.

37. Scop. submarginalis, Walk

(Hypochalcia submarginalis, Walk., 48; Nephopteryx maoriella, ib., Suppl., 1720.)

Male, female.—21–25 mm. Head and thorax whitish, mixed with pale ochreous, densely irrorated with grey or dark fuscous. Palpi 3, dark fuscous mixed with whitish, basal joint white. Antennæ grey; ciliations ½. Abdomen ochreous-whitish suffused with grey, more ochreous towards base. Legs whitish irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, triangular, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin very faintly sinuate, rather oblique; ochreous or ochreous-brown, more or less densely irrorated with black, and sprinkled irregularly with whitish; a short obscure blackish line from base of costa; a cloudy whitish line near before and partially confluent with first line, sometimes obsolete; first line white, cloudy, posteriorly black-margined, somewhat

– 96 –

curved, irregular, bent outwards on inner margin; orbicular roundish, not pale, finely black-margined, separated from reniform by a round black-margined spot, somewhat paler and more whitish than ground colour; claviform roundish, cloudy, black, detached; reniform 8-shaped, not pale, black-margined; often a clear whitish or ochreous streak from claviform along submedian fold to second line; sometimes a rather broad dark fuscous streak above submedian fold from first to second lines; second line rather narrow, white, dark-margined, generally suffused with ochreous towards submedian fold, rather abruptly bent above middle; subterminal line broad, very cloudy and indistinct, whitish, interrupted, generally touching second line; a waved whitish hindmarginal line: cilia pale greyish, with a dark fuscous interrupted line, basal and terminal thirds obscurely barred with whitish. Hindwings 1 ½, whitish-ochreous irrorated with grey; lunule and postmedian line very indistinctly darker; a tolerably well-defined dark fuscous hindmarginal band; cilia whitish, with a dark grey line.

A variable species, but generally distinguishable from its nearest allies by the irregular dark suffusion of the forewings, and the ochreous tinge and dark marginal band of the hindwings.

Cambridge, Palmerston, Wellington, Christchurch, Castle Hill, Mount Hutt, and Lake Wakatipu, probably universally distributed at low levels, from November to March, on rock-faces, fences, etc.; generally abundant.

38. Scop. cataxesta, n. sp

Male, female.—23–27 mm. Head and thorax dark slaty-grey, somewhat mixed with grey-whitish. Palpi 2 ⅓, dark fuscous, slightly mixed with whitish, basal joint white. Antennæ dark grey, ciliations ⅔. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs white, irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate, triangular, costa hardly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin almost straight, slightly oblique; rather dark slaty-grey, with an indigo-bluish tinge (strong in very fresh specimens), with fine scattered grey-whitish scales, the coalescence of which forms obscure first and second lines; first line hardly curved, moderately indented; second line tolerably distinct on costa and inner margin; orbicular faintly perceptible as a slightly darker suffusion; reniform 8-shaped, slightly darker, lower or sometimes both halves centred with whitish; subterminal line obscurely indicated, interrupted, not touching second line: cilia slaty-grey, tips paler. Hindwings 1 ⅗, whitish-grey; postmedian line faintly indicated; a narrow hindmarginal band suffusedly darker grey; cilia white, with a grey line.

Very obsoletely marked; distinguished from all by the peculiar dark bluish-grey colouring, adapted for concealment on the bare slaty rocks of the mountain-range, which it exactly resembles. The same tint recurs with the same habits in several species of other groups.

– 97 –

Otira Gorge, Castle Hill, Lake Guyon, and Lake Wakatipu, in January and February, from 1,500 to 3,000 feet; always on bare shingle, usually in the bed of a mountain stream, but sometimes also in a road-way, flying a short distance close to the ground and quickly settling again; common where it occurs.

39. Scop. tetracycla, n. sp

Female.—25 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax grey, densely irrorated with white; palpi 3, basal joint white. Antennæ grey. Abdomen pale grey, suffused with pale ochreous towards base. Legs white irrorated with fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate, somewhat triangular, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin straight, slightly oblique; ochreous-grey, densely irrorated with whitish; lines obsolete; orbicular and claviform both round, whitish, black-margined; reniform 8-shaped, unusually oblique, whitish, obscurely black-margined: cilia ochreous-grey mixed with whitish, with an obscure darker line. Hind-wings 1 ⅗, pale fuscous-grey, hindmargin suffusedly darker; cilia whitish, with a fuscous line.

Characterized by the obsolescence of the usual lines, whilst the spots are all distinctly indicated, round, dark-margined.

Christchurch and Lake Coleridge, in March; two specimens.

40. Scop. indistinctalis, Walk

(Hypochalcia indistinctalis, Walk., 48; Scoparia rakaiensis, Knaggs, Ent. Mo. Mag., iv., 80.)

Male, female.—23–25 mm. Head and thorax white, densely irrorated with dark grey. Palpi 3, dark grey mixed with white, basal joint white. Antennæ dark grey, obscurely annulated with white; ciliations ⅓. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, suffused with grey. Legs white, irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate, tolerably triangular, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin slightly sinuate, rather oblique; white, very finely irrorated with blackish or dark fuscous; indications of a white line before first line; first line indistinct, white, posteriorly blackish-margined, rectangularly bent above middle, near inner margin turned more obliquely outwards; orbicular obliquely oval, hardly indicated except by two or three blackish marginal dots; claviform small, oval, blackish-margined; reniform 8-shaped, oblique, obscurely blackish-margined; second line white, tolerably distinct, obscurely dark-margined; terminal space suffused with blackish towards anal angle; subterminal line broad, cloudy, whitish, interrupted, both portions touching second line; a row of blackish dots on veins before hindmargin: cilia whitish, with two blackish-grey lines. Hindwings 1 ⅔, pale whitish-ochreous, suffused with light greyish; lunule and postmedian line obscurely darker; a moderately broad suffused dark fuscous hindmarginal band; cilia white, with a dark grey line.

– 98 –

Allied to S. submarginalis, but much lighter and greyer, with the dark suffusion confined to the anal angle, and always separable by the quite different form of the rather sharply angulated first line.

Wellington, Christchurch, and Lake Wakatipu (1,000 feet), from December to February, on rocks and fences; rather common.

41. Scop. chalicodes, n. sp

Male, female.—15 ½–16 ½ mm. Head and thorax whitish irrorated with grey, with a short black stripe on each side of thorax from anterior margin. Palpi 2 ⅔, dark fuscous, apex and basal joint white. Antennæ whitish-grey, ciliations ⅔. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate-triangular, narrow, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; light ochreous-grey, densely irrorated with white; veins irregularly and partially lined with blackish; first line faintly perceptible, curved; orbicular moderate, pale greyish-ochreous, obscurely dark-margined, touching first line; claviform small, cloudy, dark fuscous, touching first line; reniform obscurely 8-shaped, pale greyish-ochreous, partially dark-margined; all spots sometimes very obscure; a small blackish spot on costa beyond middle; second line very obscure, indented beneath costa, angulated above middle; terminal space darker, subterminal line cloudy, whitish, touching second line, very obscure beneath: cilia whitish, with dark fuscous anterior and grey posterior line. Hindwings 1 ½, grey-whitish, apex hardly darker; cilia white, with a faint grey line.

Characterized by the comparatively small size, narrow pale forewings, dark veins, and wholly whitish hindwings.

Wanganui, Napier, Christchurch, and Mount Hutt, from January to March; six specimens.

42. Scop. leptalea, n. sp

Male, female.—16–19 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax greyish-ochreous or grey, mixed with whitish; palpi 3, basal joint white. Antennæ grey, in male stout, dentate, ciliations ⅔. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, suffused with pale grey. Legs white, irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate, narrow but variable, somewhat triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; whitish-ochreous or ochreous-grey, suffusedly irrorated with dark fuscous or black, and densely irrorated with whitish; markings variable in distinctness, sometimes almost wholly obsolete; first line white, very oblique, almost-straight, indented above middle, posteriorly dark-margined; orbicular somewhat annular, almost wholly obsolete; claviform dot-like, blackish, usually distinct; reniform 8-shaped, oblique, obscurely dark-margined, indistinct; second line white, dark-margined; terminal space

– 99 –

generally darker, especially towards anal angle; subterminal line very obscure, whitish, touching second line, not interrupted: cilia whitish, with a grey line. Hindwings 1 ¾, whitish-grey, postmedian line obscurely darker, hindmargin suffused with darker grey; cilia as in forewings.

Easily known by the narrow forewings, very oblique first line, and usually distinct blackish dot-like claviform.

Hamilton, Napier, Masterton, and Christchurch, in sandy grassy places or at lamps, from January to March, tolerably common.

43. Scop. psammitis, n. sp

Male, female.—21–27 mm. Quite similar to S. leptalea, but antennæ of male slender, filiform, ciliations 1; orbicular tolerably distinct, partially outlined with blackish.

This species so closely resembles S. leptalea, except in the considerably larger size, that it would probably pass for a local variety, but the structural difference in the antennæ of the male must be taken to warrant specific separation. The forewings are perhaps even somewhat narrower proportionately, and the claviform usually more conspicuous.

Arthur's Pass, on grassy slopes at 4,500 feet, in January; three specimens (2 male, 1 female). A more ochreous-tinged female from near Dunedin is probably also referable to this species.

44. Scop. epicomia, n. sp

Male, female.—18–19 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax reddish-ochreous-brown; palpi 4, towards base white beneath. Antennal ciliations ½. Abdomen ochreous-whitish, tinged with grey. Legs white, tarsi and anterior tibiæ banded with dark fuscous. Forewings triangular, narrow at base, costa almost straight, posteriorly moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin slightly sinuate, oblique; light ochreous-grey; basal third reddish-ochreous-brown, terminated by first line; first line straight, slender, white, not oblique, followed by a narrow dark reddish-brown fascia edged with black posteriorly and suffused with black on inner margin; median space irrorated with white, wholly suffused with white posteriorly; reniform small, linear, transverse, reddish-ochreous; a small triangular reddish-ochreous black-margined spot on costa beyond middle; second line slender, whitish, anteriorly dark-margined; terminal space greyish-ochreous, irrorated with blackish, subterminal line obscure, whitish, suffused into hindmargin: cilia ochreous-whitish, with an interrupted dark fuscous line. Hindwings 1 ¼, pale whitish-grey; lunule, postmedian line, and hindmarginal band light grey; cilia grey-whitish, with dark grey dots on veins.

Conspicuously distinct, and of doubtful affinity, but perhaps allied to S. feredayi; the straight perpendicular dark reddish-brown fascia beyond first line is a peculiar feature.

– 100 –

Arthur's Pass (2,600 feet), and Dunedin, amongst bush in January; four specimens.

45. Scop. feredayi, Knaggs

(Scoparia feredayi, Knaggs, Ent. Mo. Mag., iv., 80; Scoparia moanalis, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cxxxvii., 34.)

Male, female.—18–21 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax reddish-ochreous-brown: palpi 2 ¾, basal joint white. Antennæ grey; ciliations ⅔. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Legs white, banded with ochreous-brown. Forewings triangular, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin almost straight, oblique; reddish-ochreous, densely irrorated with dark reddish-brown; first line very obscurely whitish, posteriorly suffusedly dark-margined, not oblique, angulated above middle; orbicular and claviform small, roundish, very obscurely darker, touching first line; reniform very obscure, somewhat 8-shaped, suffusedly darker; second line white, distinct, anteriorly suffusedly dark-margined, upper sinuation slight, lower angular; terminal space wholly irrorated with white, except sometimes towards costa and narrowly along hindmargin: cilia grey-whitish, base white, with a reddish-fuscous anterior and grey posterior line. Hindwings 1 ⅓, very pale whitish-grey, ochreoustinged, postmedian line and hindmarginal band very suffusedly darker grey; cilia white, with a faint grey line.

Also a very distinct species, immediately known by the reddish-ochreous colour, with whitish lines and posterior irroration. As Butler has quoted the name as a synonym of S. submarginalis, it may be worth while stating that there is not the least resemblance between the two species.

Eketahuna, Wellington, Bealey River (2,100 feet), Castle Hill (2,500 feet), Lake Guyon, and Lake Wakatipu, amongst bush from January to March, not common; eight specimens.

46. Scop. acompa, n. sp

Male.—17 ½—19 mm. Head, antennæ, and thorax ochreous-fuscous, shoulders suffusedly dark fuscous; antennæ deeply dentate, ciliations ⅔. Palpi 3, ochreous-fuscous irrorated with blackish, internally and on basal joint white. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Legs whitish-ochreous, irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings triangular, costa gently arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin almost straight, oblique; ochreous-fuscous; base irrorated with dark fuscous; first line very slender, obscure, whitish, posteriorly finely blackish-margined, not oblique, somewhat curved, sinuate inwards above inner margin; space between first and second lines fuscous, irrorated with dark fuscous, with a few pale scales; orbicular and claviform both round, ochreous-brown, obscurely blackish-margined, touching first line; reniform 8-shaped, white,

– 101 –

suffusedly blackish-margined; second line very slender, obscure, whitish, anteriorly finely blackish-margined, rather abruptly curved above middle; subterminal obsolete; a slender interrupted white hindmarginal line: cilia ochreous-whitish, with two dark grey lines. Hindwings 1 ⅓, whitish-grey; lunule, postmedian line and a hindmarginal line darker grey, distinct; cilia whitish, with a dark grey interrupted line.

Apparently allied to S. feredayi, but very distinct by the ochreous-fuscous ground colour, fine black margins of lines, and well-defined white reniform.

Lake Wakatipu, at 1,200 feet, in December; two specimens.

∗ 47. Scop. acropola, n sp

Male.—25–28 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax ochreous-fuscous; palpi 4, white towards base beneath. Antennal ciliations 1. Abdomen very pale whitish ochreous. Legs white irrorated with fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi suffused with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, triangular, moderately broad, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin straight, oblique; light ochreous-fuscous, finely irrorated with dark reddish-fuscous, with a few whitish scales; first line not pale, indicated only by suffused dark posterior margin, somewhat curved, oblique; orbicular rather large, oval, somewhat whitish, obscurely dark-margined, touching first line; claviform obsolete; reniform 8-shaped, somewhat whitish or not pale, obscurely dark-margined; orbicular and reniform connected by a very elongate, hardly pale, obscurely dark-margined spot; second line hardly pale, anteriorly suffusedly dark-margined, almost rectilinear, sharply angulated above middle; subterminal obsolete; a hindmarginal row of cloudy dark fuscous dots: cilia ochreous-whitish, with two fuscous-grey lines. Hindwings 1 ½, ochreous-grey-whitish; postmedian line very faintly indicated; cilia white, base ochreous-tinged.

Allied to S. cleodoralis, but much larger, and differing in the longer palpi, much longer ciliations of antennæ, defined orbicular, sharp angulation of second line, and other characters.

Mount Wellington, Tasmania, amongst rocky scrub at 3,000 feet in December; apparently very local, being confined to a small patch of ground in which it was common, and readily disturbed from the herbage.

∗ 48. Scop. cleodoralis, Walk

(Scopula cleodoralis, Walk., Pyr., 793.)

Male, female.—18–21 mm. Head and thorax light ochreous-brownish, slightly mixed with whitish. Palpi 3 ¼, dark fuscous, slightly mixed with whitish, apex of maxillary and basal joint of labial white. Antennæ grey, ciliations ½. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs whitish, anterior and middle pair suffused with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate-triangular,

– 102 –

costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin obliquely rounded; light ochreous-brownish, with a few irregularly-scattered white scales, veins more or less suffused with dark fuscous; first line slender, whitish, posteriorly obscurely dark-margined, somewhat curved, not oblique; orbicular and claviform obsolete; reniform 8-shaped, indistinct, somewhat whitish, obscurely dark-margined; second line slender, whitish, obscurely dark-margined, sinuations very slight; subterminal very indistinct, cloudy, whitish; a row of cloudy dark fuscous dots before hindmargin: cilia ochreous-whitish, with two dark grey lines. Hindwings 1 ½, very pale whitish-grey; postmedian line and hindmargin hardly darker; cilia whitish, with a grey line.

An indistinct-looking species, yet hardly to be confused with any other.

Blackheath (3,500 feet), New South Wales; Mount Macedon and Fernshaw, Victoria; Deloraine and Mount Wellington (to 3,100 feet), Tasmania; amongst forest, from November to February, tolerably common.

49. Scop. manganeutis, n. sp

Male.—17–18 mm. Head and thorax white, mixed with grey and irrorated with black. Palpi 2 ½, dark fuscous, mixed with white, basal joint white. Antennæ grey, sharply serrate, ciliations 1. Abdomen pale grey. Liegs whitish, tibiæ and tarsi banded with black. Forewings elongate, somewhat triangular, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin rather strongly oblique, slightly indented above middle, rounded beneath; light grey, irregularly mixed with white and irrorated with black; first line strong, distinct, white, rather curved, moderately indented in middle and again above inner margin, posteriorly suffusedly dark-margined; orbicular dot-like, faint, whitish, claviform small, cloudy, blackish, both obscured by suffusion; reniform 8-shaped, whitish, dark-margined, tolerably distinct; second line whitish, tolerably distinct, dark-margined; subterminal cloudy, whitish, dentate, interrupted above middle, apex of lower portion confluent with second line; a hindmarginal row of obscure whitish dots: cilia whitish, basal third barred with dark fuscous, with a posterior grey line. Hindwings 1 ½, whitish-grey; postmedian line faintly indicated, hindmargin narrowly grey; cilia whitish, with an interrupted grey line.

Characterized by the relatively small size, elongate forewings, strong white dentate first line, and the peculiarly serrate and strongly ciliated antennæ.

Otira Gorge, 1,600 to 2,600 feet, in January; two specimens.

50. Scop. crypsinoa, n. sp

Male.—23–24 mm. Head white. Palpi 2 ½, dark fuscous, apex of maxillary and basal joint of labial white. Antennæ grey; ciliations ½. Thorax fuscous-grey irrorated with whitish, with a white anterior spot.

– 103 –

Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs whitish, anterior and middle pair suffused with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate, narrow, triangular, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin very faintly sinuate, oblique; light ochreous-grey, irrorated with white, veins slenderly but irregularly marked with blackish; first line obscure, whitish, posteriorly suffusedly dark-margined, moderately curved, not oblique, somewhat indented; orbicular very small, linear, blackish, detached; claviform moderate, linear, black, detached; reniform represented by a black x-shaped mark, lower fork filled with white; second line broad, cloudy, whitish, anteriorly suffusedly dark-margined, somewhat angulated above middle; subterminal very indistinct, whitish, not touching second line; a hindmarginal row of cloudy blackish dots: cilia grey-whitish, with two fuscous-grey lines. Hindwings 1 ½, grey-whitish; cilia whitish, with a faint grey line.

Allied to S. axena, but readily recognized by the narrower forewings and distinct lines.

Lake Wakatipu (3,000 feet), and Castle Hill (3,000 feet), in December and January; two specimens.

51. Scop. axena, n. sp

Male.—24–26 mm. Head and thorax greyish-fuscous, slightly mixed with whitish. Palpi 3, dark fuscous, apex of maxillary and basal joint of labial white. Antennæ dark grey; ciliations ½. Abdomen whitish-grey, somewhat suffused with ochreous. Legs pale grey, tarsi darker, posterior pair whitish. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin slightly rounded, oblique; dull fuscous-grey, irrorated with whitish towards costa and hindmargin; lines hardly perceptible, slightly whitish, faintly dark-margined internally, first line curved, rather irregular, second line preceded by a row of short linear obscure dark fuscous marks on veins; orbicular and claviform represented by small obscure dark fuscous suffusions, detached; reniform by an obscure dark fuscous x-shaped mark, lower fork sometimes filled with whitish: cilia whitish, with two grey lines. Hindwings 1 ⅓, grey-whitish; cilia white.

Closely allied to S. paltomacha, but separable by the larger size; broader forewings, and absence of the distinct blackish lines on veins.

Arthur's Pass, on grassy slopes at 4,500 feet, in January; three specimens.

52. Scop. steropæa, n. sp

Male, female.—13–16 mm. Head white. Palpi 3, fuscous, apex and basal joint white. Antennæ dark grey, ciliations ⅔. Thorax fuscous, with a blackish central and white anterior spot. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs whitish, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa very slightly arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin

– 104 –

sinuate, very oblique; pale fuscous, irrorated with darker; a small blackish spot at base of inner margin; a straight rather irregular black streak from base to somewhat before middle of disc, almost meeting a triangular blackish blotch, of which the apex is directed downwards, placed in disc beyond middle, its posterior side bounded by second line; dorsal half of wing below these black markings wholly white, sharply defined above, slightly suffused with greyish beneath; first line faintly indicated by angulated darker posterior margin; two short oblique cloudy dark fuscous streaks in disc, terminating in triangular blotch; second line white, indistinct towards costa, obsolete in dorsal suffusion, rectilinear, very obtusely angulated above middle, very slightly sinuate near costa; upper half of subterminal line forming a whitish triangular blotch, suffusedly margined beneath with black, apex touching angle of second line, lower half merged in dorsal suffusion; a hindmarginal row of black dots: cilia whitish, with two grey lines. Hindwings 1 ½, grey-whitish, hindmargin faintly suffused with darker; cilia white, with a grey line.

Nearly allied to S. exilis, but easily distinguished by the smaller size, well-defined white dorsal suffusion, strong black streak from base, black triangular blotch beyond middle, straighter second line, and black triangular spot on middle of hindmargin.

Castle Hill, amongst grass in a swampy place at 2,500 feet, flying freely towards dusk, in January; common.

58. Scop. exilis, Knaggs

(Scoparia exilis, Knaggs, Ent. Mo. Mag., iv., 81.)

Male.—18–20 mm.; female.—16 mm. Head white. Palpi 3–3 ¼, dark fuscous, apex and basal joint white. Antennæ grey; ciliations ¾. Thorax fuscous, with a white anterior spot. Abdomen whitish-grey, segmental margins white. Legs white irrorated with fuscous, anterior and middle pair suffused with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate, narrow, triangular, costa straight, apex rounded, hindmargin almost straight, very oblique; pale greyish-ochreous, irregularly irrorated with white; veins obscurely lined with blackish; costal edge narrowly suffused with blackish; first line very obscure, whitish, posteriorly slightly dark-margined, angulated in middle, not oblique; orbicular obsolete; claviform moderately large, elongate, black, conspicuous; reniform obsolete on upper half, lower half round, white, partially finely black-margined; second line tolerably distinct, white, anteriorly irregularly blackish-margined except towards inner margin, angularly indented beneath costa, very shortly angulated above middle, slightly indented near inner margin; subterminal broad, cloudy, white, not interrupted, almost touching second line; a hindmarginal row of cloudy almost confluent blackish dots; cilia white, with two dark

– 105 –

grey lines. Hindwings 1 ⅔, very pale whitish-grey, slightly ochreous-tinged; postmedian line and hindmargin suffusedly darker; cilia white, with a faint grey line.

Especially recognizable by the conspicuous dark claviform, and termination of dark margin of second line before inner margin, but the inner margin is not white as in S. steropæa.

Christchurch and Lake Wakatipu (1,200 feet), on dry grassy hill slopes, in October, December, and April; six specimens.

54. Scop. elaphra, n. sp

Male, female.—12–14 mm. Head and thorax pale ochreous mixed with whitish, shoulders narrowly suffused with dark fuscous. Palpi 4 ½, dark fuscous, white above and beneath. Antennæ whitish-ochreous; in male joints serrate with apical teeth only, ciliations 1. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs white, anterior pair suffused with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate, narrow, triangular, costa straight, apex round-pointed, hindmargin slightly sinuate, very oblique; pale brownish-ochreous, irregularly irrorated with white on veins, and generally with scattered dark fuscous scales; base of costa rather suffused with dark fuscous; some blackish scales on submedian fold before first line; first line hardly whitish, posteriorly margined with dark fuscous, rather strongly curved; orbicular small, linear, black, touching first line; claviform smaller, similar, generally indistinct; reniform dot-like, blackish; second line obscurely whitish, anteriorly dark-margined, somewhat curved above middle, otherwise straight; a row of blackish dots on hindmargin; cilia whitish, with two fuscous-grey lines. Hindwings 1 ⅓, grey-whitish; lunule, postmedian line and hindmargin grey; cilia white.

Distinguished by its small size, sharply triangular wings, and fragile appearance, with very simple markings; the palpi here attain their greatest length.

Palmerston (Wanganui), and Christchurch, chiefly at lamps, in March; seven specimens.

55. Scop. paltomacha, n. sp

Male.—22–24 mm.; female.—17 mm. Head whitish, sometimes mixed with greyish-ochreous. Palpi 3, dark grey, apex of maxillary and basal joint of labial white. Antennæ grey; ciliations ⅔. Thorax fuscous-grey, slightly mixed with whitish, with a whitish anterior spot. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs whitish, tibiæ and tarsi suffused with grey. Forewings very elongate, triangular, costa almost straight, apex round-pointed, hindmargin straight, oblique; light fuscous, irregularly irrorated with whitish; veins distinctly lined with blackish; a whitish dot in disc beyond middle, margined above with blackish: cilia whitish, with two fuscous-grey lines. Hindwings 1 ⅖, grey-whitish; cilia white, with a light grey line.

– 106 –

Easily recognized by the dark veins and white discal dot, without other marking.

Mount Hutt and Castle Hill (2,500 feet), on grassy slopes, in January; six specimens.

56. Scop. deltophora, n. sp

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Male.—21–23 mm.; female.—16 mm. Head and thorax light ochreous-grey, sides of head whitish. Palpi 3 ¼, ochreous-grey, white above and on basal joint. Antennæ grey; ciliations 1. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs grey-whitish, anterior pair grey. Forewings elongate, triangular; costa almost straight, apex round-pointed, hindmargin somewhat sinuate, oblique; light greyish-ochreous, suffusedly irrorated with whitish, especially towards costa; sometimes a few scattered black scales; first line obsolete; reniform represented by a minutely trifurcate black dot, connected with a short black longitudinal line in middle of disc; second line obscurely whitish, not dark-margined, somewhat bowed; veins posteriorly obscurely darker; a hindmarginal row of black dots: cilia whitish, with two light ochreous-grey lines. Hindwings 1 2/5, grey-whitish; cilia white.

Allied to S. paltomacha; characterized by the short black discal line, and posterior black dot.

Arthur's Pass, on grassy slopes at from 3,000 to 4,200 feet, in January; common.

57. Scop. sabulosella, Walk

(Crambus sabulosellus, Walk., 178.)

Male, female.—20–22 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax ochreous-fuscous, thorax sometimes mixed with dark fuscous; palpi 3 ½, basal joint white; antennal ciliations ⅔. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs whitish-ochreous, anterior and middle pair somewhat darker. Forewings very elongate, triangular, costa almost straight, apex round-pointed, hindmargin sinuate, oblique; pale greyish-ochreous, irrorated with white along costa and on dorsal half, sometimes with scattered black scales; veins sometimes obscurely lined with blackish, in female sometimes strongly and suffusedly; a suffused blackish streak from base along submedian fold to middle; orbicular dot-like, black, reniform also very small, subquadrate, black, often connected together by a cloudy dark fuscous streak; a row of distinct black dots before hindmargin: cilia ochreous-whitish, with two light-grey lines. Hindwings 1 ½, grey-whitish, ochreous-tinged, in female becoming greyer posteriorly; cilia white.

Somewhat variable in respect of the dark suffusion, but always distinguishable by the pale ochreous ground-colour, two black discal dots, and suffused indistinct basal streak.

– 107 –

Hamilton, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu, and Invercargill, probably generally distributed, on dry grassy slopes in December and January; very common. Butler has identified a Chilian species with this; I cannot vouch for the identification.

58. Scop. panopla, n. sp

Male.—31 mm.; female.—25 mm. Head and thorax pale ochreous, mixed with whitish-ochreous, with a dark ochreous-fuscous stripe from eye along inner edge of patagia to extremity. Palpi 2 ½–3, ochreous-fuscous, mixed with dark fuscous, above and on basal joint white. Antennæ whitish-ochreous; ciliations ½. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Legs light ochreous. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa straight, apex rounded, hindmargin oblique, somewhat sinuate; brownish-ochreous, suffusedly irrorated with white on a broad streak along costa, a broad sinuate streak from middle of disc to hindmargin beneath apex, and less distinctly along inner margin; a narrow black streak from base along submedian fold to middle; a blackish slightly curved linear streak from above extremity of this to reniform, which is represented by a short oblique blackish mark; veins between apex and anal angle posteriorly marked with blackish streaks, except on white suffusion, not reaching hindmargin except at apex; a hindmarginal row of blackish dots: cilia whitish, with two fuscous lines. Hindwings 1 ⅔, grey-whitish, with a rather narrow hindmarginal band somewhat darker; cilia white.

Separated from its allies by its large size, and somewhat curved irregular discal streak, which is not placed to form a continuation of the basal streak; the female is more strongly and sharply marked than the male.

Mount Hutt, in January; several specimens taken by Mr. R. W. Fereday.

59. Scop. trivirgata, Feld

(Crambus trivirgatus, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. exxxvii., 29.)

Male, female.—16–23 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, often becoming white above, with a blackish-fuscous stripe from eye along inner edge of patagia to extremity. Palpi 4, whitish-ochreous, mixed with dark fuscous, apex of maxillary and basal joint of labial white. Antennæ dark grey; ciliations ¾. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Legs ochreous-whitish. Forewings very elongate, triangular, in female sometimes very narrow, costa straight, apex round-pointed, hindmargin sinuate, oblique or very oblique; whitish-ochreous, veins obscurely lined with white; a moderate straight blackish-fuscous median streak from base to apex, interrupted by a very oblique narrow bar before middle, and more or less attenuated at ¾; a blackish-fuscous longitudinal wedge-shaped mark above anal angle, not

– 108 –

quite touching hindmargin; above this are sometimes one or two very short blackish-fuscous lines on veins; generally a hindmarginal row of cloudy blackish dots: cilia ochreous-whitish, mixed with white, with two pale grey lines. Hindwings 1 ½, in male grey-whitish, with a grey lunule; in female whitish-grey, becoming darker grey posteriorly, with a darker lunule; cilia white, in female with a grey line.

Conspicuously characterized by the sharply-defined interrupted blackish streak from base to apex.

Christchurch and Lake Wakatipu, on dry grassy hill-slopes, in December, February and March; tolerably common.

∗ 3. Tetraprosopus, Butl

Forehead vertical. Ocelli present. Tongue well-developed. Antennæ moderate, ⅔ of forewings, in male filiform, hardly perceptibly ciliated (⅙). Labial palpi rather long, straight, porrected, second joint beneath with dense projecting tuft, terminal joint moderately long, exposed. Maxillary palpi rather long, triangularly dilated. Posterior tibiæ with outer spurs half inner. Abdomen moderate. Forewings with vein 11 rather oblique. Hindwings almost twice as broad as forewings; 3 remote from 4, 4 and 5 stalked; lower median naked; discal area above it furnished with long hairs, continued almost to hindmargin; internal area loosely haired.

Differs from Xeroscopa only by the approximate obsolescence of the antennal ciliations. But the extension of the discal hairs of the hindwings almost to the hindmargin is only found also in X. philonephes, of which the male is unknown, and it is possible that that species should be referred to this genus, in which case there would be an additional point of distinction.

Butler's characters for this genus do not suffice to separate it from Scoparia.

∗ 60. Tetr. meyrickii, Butl

(Tetraprosopus meyrickii, Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1882, 97.)

Male, female.—24–25 mm. Head and thorax greyish-fuscous, or reddish-ochreous-brown, often mixed with whitish, sometimes with a blackish-fuscous lateral stripe from eye to extremity of patagia. Palpi 2 ½, dark fuscous, mixed with white above, basal joint white. Antennæ dark fuscous. Abdomen light ochreous-grey. Legs whitish, anterior and middle pair suffused with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate-oblong, narrow, hardly dilated, narrow, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin straight, rather oblique; greyish-fuscous or ochreous-fuscous, irrorated irregularly with whitish and darker fuscous; first line very obsoletely indicated, strongly angulated above middle; sometimes an irregular blackish streak from base along submedian fold to first line, often obsolete; a dark fuscous

– 109 –

or blackish streak, variable in intensity, from angle of first line to position of reniform, interrupted in middle except on lower margin by an oblique oblong pale or whitish spot; claviform small, linear, blackish, often indistinct; second line whitish, generally distinct, interrupting veins which are more or less distinctly lined with blackish posteriorly, rectilinear, sharply indented below costa and sharply angulated above middle; subterminal line cloudy, whitish, suffused into hindmargin, interrupted above middle; a hindmarginal row of blackish dots: cilia grey-whitish, with two dark fuscous lines. Hindwings pale ochreous-grey, with a narrow hindmarginal dark grey suffusion, broader at apex; cilia grey-whitish, with a dark grey line.

Variable both in colour and intensity of marking; imitating the bark on which it sits.

Blackheath (3,500 feet), New South Wales; Mount Macedon, Victoria; Mount Gambier, South Australia; locally very abundant on trunks of fibrous-barked species of Eucalyptus, in November and December, taking flight with great activity when approached. It is exceedingly probable that the larva feeds in the bark of these trees.

4. Xeroscopa, Meyr

Forehead vertical. Ocelli present. Tongue well-developed. Antennæ moderate, ⅔ of forewings, in male filiform, evenly ciliated (⅓–1). Labial palpi rather long or long, straight, porrected, second joint beneath with long dense projecting scales, terminal joint moderate, exposed or resting in scales of second. Maxillary palpi rather long, triangularly dilated. Posterior tibiæ with outer spurs half inner. Abdomen moderate. Forewings with vein 11 rather oblique. Hindwings from ⅓–¾ broader than forewings; 3 remote from 4, 4 and 5 stalked or from a point; lower median naked; discal area above it furnished with long hairs, not continued beyond transverse vein (except in X. philonephes); internal area loosely haired.

Distinguished from Scoparia only by the long hairs of the discal area; the genus is undoubtedly natural, and its separation materially assists the study of the group. The species resemble those of the second group of Scoparia, and almost all of large size and decidedly crambideous facies. The larvæ are yet unknown, but probably of similar habits.

The genus is especially characteristic of New Zealand, whence fifteen species are described; there is one Tasmanian species, and also one Australian, if the latter is correctly separated from Tetraprosopus. None are yet known elsewhere, but perhaps only because they have not been recognized.

– 110 –

The following is a tabulation of the seventeen species :—

1a. Forewings dark fuscous, with two fine white lines 77. leucogramma.
1b. " not dark fuscous.
2a. With blackish median band 71. aspidota.
2b. Without blackish band.
3a. With a black streak from middle of base.
4a. Costa moderately arched 62. encausta.
4b. " almost straight 68. ejuncida.
3b. Without streak from middle of base.
4a. Orbicular and reniform connected by a black streak 66. rotuella.
4b. " " not connected.
5a. First line very indistinct or obsolete.
6a. Forewings brownish-ochreous 70. apheles.
6b. " not brownish-ochreous.
7a. Costal edge dark fuscous 69. niphospora.
7b. " " not dark fuscous 67. harpalea.
5b. First line distinct.
6a. With conspicuous black streak from base of eosta.
7a. Reniform containing a linear black mark 64. cyameuta.
7b. " " a subquadrate black spot 65. astragalota.
6b. Without black streak from base of costa.
7a. Second line nearly straight.
8a. Hindwings ochreous-whitish 74. legnota.
8b. " dark grey 73. epicremna.
7b. Second line not straight.
8a. Forewings very elongate.
9a. Outer edge of reniform very deeply indented 61. philonephes.
9b. " " " slightly indented 68. petrina.
8b. Forewings not very elongate.
9a. Hindwings dark grey 72. nomeutis.
9b. " grey-whitish.
10a. Lower half of reniform ochreous-white 75. octophora.
10b. " " " not ochreous-white 76. asterisca.

∗ 61. Xer. philonephes, n. sp

Female.—81 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous-grey, irrorated with white; palpi 2 ½, basal joint white. Antennæ grey. Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous. Legs ochreous-white, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate, narrow, somewhat triangular, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin rounded, somewhat oblique; rather dark fuscous-grey, densely irrorated with white, with a few black scales; first line whitish, indistinct, posteriorly obscurely dark-margined, rather oblique, slightly curved, somewhat indented; orbicular and claviform both elongate-oval, blackish-margined, ill-defined, touching first line; reniform large, 8-shaped, blackish-margined; second line white, tolerably distinct, obscurely dark-margined; subterminal broad, cloudy, very obscure; a

– 111 –

white interrupted hindmarginal line: cilia whitish, barred with dark grey, with a grey line. Hindwings 1 ¾, very pale whitish-ochreous, greyishtinged; apex and upper part of hindmargin rather narrowly grey; cilia white, base whitish-ochreous, with an interrupted grey line.

This species may perhaps be transferred to Tetraprosopus when the male is known, since it agrees with that genus and differs from the other species of Xeroscopa in the extension of the discal hairs of hindwings almost to hindmargin; but it so closely resembles X. petrina that it seems better left here until then.

Mount Macedon, Victoria, in December (Mr. G. H. Raynor); Mount Lofty, South Australia (Mr. E. Guest); two specimens.

∗ 62. Xer. encausta, n. sp

Male.—27 mm. Head and thorax fuscous-grey, irrorated with white, with a dark fuscous lateral stripe from eye to beyond middle of thorax. Palpi 2 ¾, dark fuscous, apex and basal joint white. Antennæ grey, ciliations ½. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Legs white, irrorated with fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with fuscous. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa moderately and evenly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; fuscous-grey, densely irrorated with white; a black median streak, margined with fuscous, from base to near middle of disc; first line obsolete; a fine black streak, acutely attenuated anteriorly, in disc above middle from ⅓–⅔, posteriorly coalescing with a fuscous longitudinal bar which extends from beyond middle of disc to middle of hindmargin; from upper margin of discal streak beyond middle proceeds a short irregular strigula, representing reniform; veins posteriorly more or less distinctly marked with black, on fuscous bar strongly lined; second line very obscure, white, posteriorly suffusedly dark-margined towards costa: cilia whitish, basal third broadly barred with dark grey, and with a grey posterior line. Hindwings 1 ½, very pale whitish-ochreous, greyish-tinged, apex and upper part of hindmargin rather narrowly fuscous-grey; cilia whitish, with a grey line.

Differs from all by the more arched costa of the forewings, and black basal, median, and posterior streaks, appearing to form parts of a single broken streak.

Mount Wellington, Tasmania, at 1,200 feet, on a tree-trunk in December; one specimen.

63. Xer. petrina, n. sp

Male.—30–31 mm.; female.—24 mm. Head and thorax dark grey, irrorated with white. Palpi 3, dark fuscous, apex and basal joint white. Antennæ grey; ciliations ½. Abdomen pale whitish-ochreous. Legs white, irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate, triangular, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin

– 112 –

straight, rather oblique; fuscous-grey or dark grey, densely irrorated with white, especially in disc; a very small dark fuscous triangular spot at base of costa; first line whitish, distinct, posteriorly suffusedly margined with dark fuscous, rather strongly oblique, slightly curved, somewhat indented; orbicular small, oval, whitish, dark-margined, detached; claviform represented only by a small dark spot very obliquely beyond orbicular; reniform large, irregularly 8-shaped, grey, margined first with whitish and then incompletely with dark fuscous, dark margin strongest on anterior indentation; second line whitish, distinct, anteriorly dark-margined and with blackish dots on veins: terminal space hardly irrorated with white, except broad suffused subterminal line, not interrupted; veins posteriorly obscurely blackish: cilia white, basal third barred with grey, and with a grey posterior line. Hindwings 1 ¾, very pale whitish-ochreous; apex in female greyish; cilia ochreous-white.

Characterized by the absence of black markings.

Bealey River (2,100 feet), Castle Hill (2,400 feet), Lake Guyon, and Mount Hutt, in January and February; not common.

64. Xer. cyameuta, n. sp

Male, female.—25–28 mm. Head and thorax grey, irrorated with white, with a short blackish or dark fuscous lateral stripe from eye, not reaching middle of thorax. Palpi 2 ¾, dark fuscous, apex and basal joint white. Antennæ grey; ciliations ½. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Legs white, irrorated with fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate, triangular, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin straight, somewhat oblique; fuscous, densely irrorated with white, especially in disc; a black median streak from base of costa to first line; first line white, tolerably distinct, moderately oblique, somewhat curved, rather indented, posteriorly strongly black-margined on upper half; orbicular oval, whitish, outlined with fuscous above and black beneath, touching first line; claviform similar, margined with two or three blackish spots; reniform 8-shaped, obscure, fuscous, partially dark-margined, cut by a strong black longitudinal streak from near orbicular; second line white, distinct, anteriorly dark-margined; terminal space hardly irrorated with white, except suffused broad subterminal line, interrupted above middle; veins posteriorly obscurely blackish: cilia white, basal third barred with dark fuscous, with a fuscous posterior line. Hindwings 1 ⅔, pale whitish-ochreous; postmedian line obscurely indicated; apex and upper part of hindmargin very narrowly grey; cilia ochreous-white.

Very closely allied to X. petrina, but distinguished readily by the various sharply defined black markings.

– 113 –

Wellington, Arthur's Pass (1,600 to 2,600 feet), Bealey River (2,100 feet), Mount Hutt, Dunedin, and Lake Wakatipu (1,000 feet), from December to February, frequenting rocks; common.

65. Xer. astragalota, n. sp

Male, female.—27 mm. Head and antennæ ochreous white. Palpi 2 ½, dark fuscous, apex broadly and basal joint white. Thorax ochreous-white, somewhat irrorated with fuscous on sides, with a short irregular black lateral mark from anterior margin. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs white, irrorated with fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate, triangular, costa hardly arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin somewhat sinuate, hardly oblique; light ochreous, almost wholly suffused with white; markings black, somewhat suffused with reddish fuscous; a short very oblique streak from base of costa, reaching ⅙; posterior margin of first line indicated by an oblique narrow triangular spot from costa, uniting with orbicular, which is elongate, linear; reniform quadrate, concave-sided, connected by a fuscous spot with a small spot on costa; second line obscurely pale, anteriorily somewhat dark-margined, with a few black scales on veins, and a small black spot on costa; a light fuscous triangular spot on middle of hindmargin; a hindmarginal row of very ill-defined blackish dots: cilia white, basal third barred with grey, and with a posterior grey line. Hindwings 1 ⅔, pale whitish-grey, ochreous-tinged; lunule, postmedian line, and apex greyer; cilia whitish.

Immediately known by the pale colouring, and the conspicuous black subquadrate spot which represents the reniform.

Mount Hutt, in December and January (Mr. R. W. Fereday); several specimens.

66. Xer. rotuella

(Crambus rotuellus, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cxxxvii., 30.)

Female.—28–29 mm. Head and thorax light greyish-ochreous, somewhat mixed with whitish, with a narrow black lateral stripe from eye to middle of thorax. Palpi 3 ¼, light greyish-ochreous, irrorated with dark fuscous, apex and basal joint white. Antennæ, abdomen, and legs pale greyish-ochreous. Forewings very elongate, triangular, costa slightly arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin sinuate, rather oblique; light greyish-ochreous, beneath costa irrorated with white; a sharply-defined black median streak from base of costa to disc at about ⅓, margined with clear yellowish-ochreous, acutely attenuated; first line obsolete; a sharply-defined black streak, margined with clear yellowish-ochreous, in disc above middle, extending from ⅓—⅔, upper margin somewhat protuberant near anterior extremity, and terminating posteriorly in an acutely trifurcate

– 114 –

dilation which represents reniform; anterior margin of second line represented by a row of black dots; a terminal row of black dots: cilia whitish-ochreous, with two grey lines. Hindwings 1 ¾, very pale ochreous-grey; lunule and postmedian line faintly darker; cilia ochreous whitish, with a grey line.

Easily recognized by the two very conspicuous black streaks.

Mount Hutt, in January (Mr. R. W. Fereday); several specimens.

67. Xer. harpalea, n. sp

Male.—24 mm. Head and thorax white irrorated with grey. Palpi 2 ½, dark fuscous, apex and basal joint white. Antennæ grey; ciliations ½. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs white irrorated with fuscous-grey, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate, triangular, narrow at base, costa slightly arched, apex almost acutely pointed, hindmargin strongly sinuate, oblique; white, irrorated with ochreous-grey; veins obscurely marked with blackish; first line obsolete; orbicular roundish, claviform elongate-oval, reniform irregular, all very obscure, slightly ochreous-tinged, partially dark-margined; second line whitish, obscure, interrupting streaks on veins; subterminal obscurely whitish, confluent with second line in middle; a hindmarginal row of blackish dots: cilia whitish, with a fuscous-grey line. Hindwings 1 ½, very pale greyish-ochreous; postmedian line and apex grey; cilia white, base ochreous, with a grey line round apex.

A rather obscurely-marked species, but distinguished from all by the more pointed apex and strongly sinuate hindmargin of forewings.

Otira Gorge, on a rock-face at 1,600 feet, in January; one specimen.

68. Xer. ejuncida, Knaggs

(Scoparia ejuncida, Knaggs, Ent. Mo. Mag., iv., 81.)

Male, female.—19–24 mm. Head grey, suffused with white. Palpi 3, dark fuscous, apex and basal joint white. Antennæ grey; ciliations ½. Thorax grey, sides irrorated with white, with a narrow black stripe on each side of back. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs dark fuscous, irrorated with whitish. Forewings very elongate, triangular, narrow at base, costa almost straight, apex rounded, hindmargin straight, oblique; grey, irrorated with white, very densely towards costa except on edge; a fine black median line from base to first line; first line very obscure, curved, moderately indented, rather oblique; orbicular represented by a fine black longitudinal line; elaviform obsolete; reniform subquadrate, grey, cut by a fine black discal line which does not reach orbicular; second line tolerably distinct, sharply angulated above middle, sharply indented beneath costa, sinuate near inner margin; veins posteriorly obscurely marked with blackish; subterminal line cloudy, hardly irregular, almost on hindmargin throughout; a hindmarginal

– 115 –

row of black dots: cilia whitish, with two grey lines. Hindwings 1 ⅔, very pale whitish-grey, somewhat ochreous-tinged, apéx somewhat darker; cilia white, with a grey line.

A rather elegant and sufficiently distinct species.

Bealey River (2,100 feet), Castle Hill (2,500 to 3,000 feet), Lake Coleridge, Mount Hutt, and Lake Wakatipu (3,000 feet), from December to March, generally on the skirts of the beech-forests; common.

69. Xer. niphospora, n. sp

Male, female.—26–29 mm. Head and antennæ white; ciliations ⅔. Thorax white, irrorated with fuscous on sides. Palpi 3–3 ½, fuscous, apex and basal joint white. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs whitish, anterior and middle pair suffused with dark fuscous. Forewings very elongate, narrow, somewhat triangular, costa almost straight, apex round-pointed, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; light greyish-ochreous, densely and suffusedly irrorated with white except along costa; costa narrowly dark fuscous, posteriorly somewhat suffused; a few scattered dark fuscous scales, and veins posteriorly somewhat marked with dark fuscous; orbicular and reniform dot-like, black; margins of second line obscurely indicated by dark marks on veins; a hindmarginal row of black dots: cilia white, with two light grey lines. Hindwings 1 ¾, very pale whitish-ochreous; cilia white.

Immediately known by the whitish suffusion and dark costal streak.

Arthur's Pass (4,500 feet), Castle Hill (2,500 to 3,000 feet), and Lake Wakatipu, frequenting dry grassy slopes, in January; five specimens.

70. Xer. apheles, n. sp

Male.—31 mm. Head and thorax brownish-ochreous, somewhat mixed with ochreous-whitish. Palpi 3, ochreous-fuscous, apex and basal joint white. Antennæ light ochreous, ciliations ½. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs ochreous-brown, posterior tarsi whitish. Forewings very elongate, triangular, costa slightly arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin straight, oblique; rather light brownish-ochreous; lines wholly obsolete; reniform indicated by a faint darker mark; veins posteriorly somewhat whitish; a hindmarginal row of black dots: cilia whitish, suffused with light brownish-ochreous towards base. Hindwings 1 ⅔, ochreous-whitish; cilia white.

Recognizable by the large size and brownish-ochreous forewings, with almost wholly obsolete markings.

Arthur's Pass, on a grassy slope at 4,500 feet, in January; one specimen.

71. Xer. aspidota, n. sp

Male, female.—22–26 mm. Head, antennæ, and thorax clear light ochreous, margins of eyes white; antennal ciliations ½. Palpi 2, black, apex of maxillary and basal joint of labial white. Abdomen whitish-grey, somewhat suffused with pale ochreous. Legs white, irrorated with fuscous,

– 116 –

tibiæ and tarsi banded with black. Forewings elongate, triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin slightly sinuate, somewhat oblique; light ochreous, sometimes mixed with reddish-ochreous; a black white-margined triangular spot on costa at base; first line slender, white, very oblique, almost straight, somewhat indented; a broad black median band, narrowing gradually downwards, bounded anteriorly by first line, and posteriorly by a nearly straight line from beyond middle of costa to ⅔ of inner margin, triangularly indented below middle; space between this band and second line white; reniform pale ochreous, surrounded by a few grey scales; second line white, anteriorly suffused, margined with a few black scales in curve and a small black mark on costa; subterminal obsolete or somewhat whitish, anteriorly suffusedly margined with grey; a small black triangular spot on middle of hindmargin; a row of black dots before hindmargin: cilia shining grey. Hindwings 1 ⅓, pale grey, postmedian line and hindmargin suffusedly darker grey; cilia white or whitish, with two grey lines.

Conspicuously distinct from any other.

Wellington, Castle Hill, Mount Hutt, Dunedin, and Lake Wakatipu (1,000 feet), amongst bush in December and January; several specimens.

72. Xer. nomeutis, n. sp

Male, female.—17–21 mm. Head and thorax dark grey, mixed with white and black. Palpi 2 ¾, blackish mixed with white, basal joint white. Antennæ dark grey, in male strongly pubescent, ciliations 1. Abdomen grey or dark grey, irrorated with white. Legs white irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with black. Forewings somewhat elongate, triangular, in female more oblong, costa hardly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin rounded, rather oblique; greyish-ochreous or fuscous, densely irrorated with white, and with a few black scales; a suffused blackish spot in middle of base, and one on inner margin near base; first line whitish, obscure, posteriorly blackish-margined, oblique, hardly curved, slightly indented; orbicular very small, round, black, sometimes pale-centred, detached; claviform very small, black, detached; reniform 8-shaped, black-margined except above and beneath, touching a blackish suffusion on middle of costa; second line whitish, anteriorly blackish-margined, rather abruptly angulated above middle, indented beneath costa; subterminal whitish, very obscure, touching second line in middle: cilia grey, basal third barred with dark grey and white, tips whitish. Hindwings 1 ¼, fuscous-grey, hindmargin suffusedly darker; cilia whitish, with two suffused grey lines.

A peculiar species, in markings approaching more the typical forms of Scoparia; differs also from the other species, in which the male is known, by the structure of the antennæ.

– 117 –

Lake Wakatipu, amongst rocky ground at from 3,500 to 5,000 feet elevation, in December; seven specimens.

73. Xer. epicremna, n. sp

Male.—14–15 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous mixed with yellow-ochreous, with a few white scales; palpi 3, apex of maxillary and base of lábial white. Antennæ blackish, in male pubescent, ciliations ⅓. Abdomen fuscous-grey, irrorated with ochreous-whitish. Legs whitish irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings rather elongate, somewhat triangular, costa almost straight, apex rounded, hindmargin rather oblique, distinctly sinuate; fuscous, irregularly mixed with yellow-ochreous, and median third much mixed with white; a small white basal spot, and another on costa near base; a cloudy blackish streak indicated along fold from base to anal angle, obsolete in middle, posteriorly distinct and somewhat dilated; first line white, tolerably distinct, somewhat curved, slightly indented, posteriorly obscurely dark-margined; orbicular dot-like, black, obscure; claviform small, round, black, touching first line; reniform 8-shaped, obscurely ochreous, indistinctly black-margined; second line white, distinct, almost straight, hardly sinuate, anteriorly dark-margined; subterminal cloudy, white, tolerably entire, widely remote from second line; a few white scales on hindmargin: cilia pale-greyish, with a cloudy darker grey line. Hindwings 1 ⅓, fuscous-grey, hindmargin broadly suffused with dark fuscous; cilia whitish, with a dark grey basal and faint posterior line.

Allied to X. nomeutis, but very distinct by the smaller size and almost straight second line.

Castle Hill (2,500 feet), in January; two specimens.

74. Xer. legnota, n. sp

Male, female.—18–23 mm. Head and thorax ochreous, somewhat mixed with whitish. Palpi 3, ochreous-fuscous, basal joint white. Antennæ ochreous; ciliations ⅓. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Legs whitish, irrorated with fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, triangular, costa hardly arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin almost straight, oblique; pale brownish-ochreous, more or less irrorated irregularly on veins with dark fuscous or blackish; first line white, angulated in middle, anteriorly broadly suffused with whitish, posteriorly dark-margined, forming a small dark spot on costa; orbicular strong, linear, blackish, touching first line; claviform obsolete or indicated by a few black scales; reniform rather small, x-shaped, white, irregularly blackish-margined; a rather broad space before second line densely irrorated with white, towards inner margin almost suffused into first line; second line white, almost straight, slightly curved in middle; subterminal white,

– 118 –

tolerably distinct, remote from second line; a hindmarginal row of black dots, resting on a terminal whitish line: cilia ochreous-whitish, with two fuscous lines. Hindwings 1 ⅓, ochreous-grey-whitish; cilia white.

Resembles the preceding in the form of the straight second line, but widely differing in the very light colouring.

Mount Hutt and Lake Wakatipu (1,000 feet), amongst bush, in December and January; six specimens.

75. Xer. octophora, n. sp

Male, female.—22–24 mm. Head and thorax brownish-ochreous, shoulders irrorated with dark fuscous. Palpi 3 ½, dark fuscous, mixed with white above, basal joint white. Antennæ fuscous; ciliations ½. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs whitish-ochreous, anterior pair suffused with dark fuscous. Forewings rather elongate, triangular, costa slightly arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin slightly sinuate, rather oblique; brownish-ochreous, more or less irrorated with dark fuscous, generally forming dark lines on veins, and with a few white scales; first line obscurely pale, posteriorly indistinctly dark-margined, curved, indented, hardly oblique; orbicular and claviform suffused, dark fuscous, generally obscure; reniform 8-shaped, somewhat blackish-margined, upper half ochreous, lower half white; second line whitish, distinct, dark-margined, moderately curved in middle; a hindmarginal row of black dots: cilia ochreous-whitish, with two dark grey lines. Hindwings 1 ⅖ ochreous-grey-whitish, postmedian line and apex obscurely greyer; cilia ochreous-white, with a faint grey line.

Recognizable by the brownish-ochreous ground-colour and well-defined reniform, with the lower half white.

Christchurch, Akaroa, Castle Hill (2,500 to 3,000 feet), Bealey River (2,100 feet), Mount Hutt, and Invercargill (sea-level), in dry grassy places, in December, January, and March; tolerably common.

76. Xer. asterisca, n. sp

Male, female.—21–23 mm. Head and thorax fuscous, suffused with dark fuscous. Palpi 2 ¼, dark fuscous, basal joint white. Antennæ fuscous; ciliations ½. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs whitish irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with black. Forewings rather elongate, triangular, costa hardly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin almost straight, rather oblique; dull ochreous-fuscous, basal and terminal areas suffused with dark greyish-fuscous; first line, orbicular, and claviform all obsolete, merged in the basal suffusion; reniform x-shaped, suffused, dark fuscous; second line slender, whitish, dark-margined, moderately curved; subterminal slender, whitish, not touching second line; cilia whitish, basal third and a posterior line dark greyish-fuscous. Hindwings 1 ⅖, ochreous-grey-whitish; lunule distinct, dark grey; hindmargin narrowly suffused with dark grey; cilia white, with a dark grey line.

– 119 –

Allied to X. octophora, but distinguished by the partial dark suffusion, the incomplete reniform, without white centre, and the dark lunule and margin of hindwings.

Arthur's Pass (4,500 feet), Mount Hutt, and Lake Wakatipu, in January; four specimens.

77. Xer. leucogramma, n. sp

Male, female.—21 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and abdomen blackish-fuscous; palpi 2 ½, basal joint white. Legs ochreous-whitish, irrorated with dark fuscous, tibiæ and tarsi banded with blackish. Forewings somewhat elongate, triangular, costa gently arched, apex rounded, hindmargin rather oblique, slightly rounded; blackish-fuscous, with a few white scales; first line white, sharply defined, slightly curved, not oblique, not indented; orbicular and claviform very obsoletely darker; reniform almost obsolete, 8-shaped, obscurely pale-centred; second line slender, white, sharply defined, terminating hardly before anal angle, and therefore much less inwardly oblique than usual, curved in middle; subterminal indicated by a few white scales: cilia dark fuscous, with a blackish basal line, tips whitish. Hindwings 1 ⅓, in male light grey, lunule, postmedian line and hindmargin darker; in female dark fuscous-grey, lunule and apex darker; cilia grey with two dark grey lines, tips whitish.

Extremely distinct from all other species by the blackish ground-colour, slender white lines, and peculiar position of second line.

Mount Hutt, in January (Mr. R. W. Fereday); two specimens.

78. Appendix

The following specific names are not quoted above; viz.:—

(1.)

Scoparia linealis, Walk. Suppl., 1503. The specimen which I suppose to be Walker's type I did not determine, and it is perhaps not recognizable; with it was placed a small specimen of Scoparia submarginalis, Walk.

(2.)

Nephopteryæ favilliferella, Walk. Suppl., 1719. The type is unset, and therefore not generically recognizable; it is certainly either a Scoparia or a Xeroscopa, but it seems hardly possible to assert anything more.

(3.)

Scoparia objurgalis, Gn., 425, pl. x., 10, and Scoparia australialis, Gn., 426, appear to me unidentifiable at present; the latter is, if correctly described, probably new to me, the former might possibly be S. exhibitalis, Walk.

In the following indices the numbers refer to those prefixed to the names:—

Index of Genera
Nyctarcha, Meyr. 1. Tetraprosopus, Butl. 3.
Scoparia, Hw. 2. Xeroscopa, Meyr. 4.
– 120 –
Names italicized are synonyms.
acharis, n. sp. 21. hemicycla, n. sp. 24.
acompa, n. sp. 46. homala, n. sp. 10.
acropola, n. sp. 47. indistinctalis, Walk. 40.
anaplecta, n. sp. 27. legnota, n. sp. 74.
anthracias, n. sp. 2. leptalea, n. sp. 42.
apheles, n. sp. 70. leucogramma, n. sp. 77.
aphrodes, n. sp. 5. linealis, Walk. 78(1).
aspidota, n. sp. 71. manganeutis, n. sp. 49.
asterisca, n. sp. 76. maoriella, Walk. 37.
astragalota, n. sp. 65. melanægis, n. sp. 32.
atra, Butl. 1. meyrickii, Butl. 60.
australialis, Gn. 78(3) microphthalma, n. sp. 23.
axena, n. sp. 51. minualis, Walk. 18.
cataxesta, n. sp. 38. minusculalis, Walk. 17.
chalicodes, n. sp. 41. moanalis, Feld. 43.
characta, n. sp. 29. niphospora, n. sp. 69.
chiasta, n. sp. 3. nomeutis, n. sp. 72.
chimeria, n. sp. 19. objurgalis, Gn. 78(3).
chlamydota, n. sp. 16. octophora, n. sp. 75.
cleodoralis, Walk. 48. oreas, n. sp. 14.
conifera, Butl. 30. paltomacha, n. sp. 55.
critica, n. sp. 26. panopla, n. sp. 58.
crypsinoa, n. sp. 50. perierga, n. sp. 12.
cyameuta, n. sp. 64. periphanes, n. sp. 35.
cymatias, n. sp. 22. petrina, n. sp. 63.
deltophora, n. sp. 56. philerga, n. sp. 15.
dinodes, n. sp. 20. philetaera, n. sp. 34.
diphtheralis, Walk. 36. philonephes, n. sp. 61.
ejuncida, Knaggs 68. pongalis, Feld. 31.
elaphra, n. sp. 54. psammitis, n. sp. 43.
encausta, n. sp. 62. rakaiensis, Knaggs 40.
epicomia, n. sp. 44. rotuella, Feld. 66.
epicremna, n. sp. 73. sabulosella, Walk. 57.
epicryma, n. sp. 6. spelæa, n. sp. 28.
eremitis, n. sp. 11. steropæa, n. sp. 52.
ergatis, n. sp. 25. submarginalis, Walk. 37.
eumeles, n. sp. 4. synapta, n. sp. 9.
exhibitalis, Walk 7. syntaracta, n. sp. 8.
exilis, Knaggs 53. tetracycla, n. sp. 39.
favilliferella, Walk. 78(2) trapezophora, n. sp. 33.
feredayi, Knaggs 45. trivirgata, Feld. 59.
gomphota, n. sp. 13. ustimacula, Feld. 30.
harpalea, n. sp. 67.