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Volume 17, 1884
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Art. XII.—Descriptions of New Zealand Micro-Lepidoptera.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 2nd October, 1884.]

VI.—Pyralidina

Seven families of Pyralidina are represented in New Zealand, of which the two most important here, the Crambidæ and Scopariadæ, have been discussed in former papers. Three others—the Pyralididæ, Pterophoridæ, and Hydrocampidæ—are given here, as well as some considerable additions to the Crambidæ. The remaining two, which are the Botydidæ and Musotimidæ, I have recently given a list of in the Transactions of the Entomological Society of London for 1884, with descriptions of the new species, in connection with a paper on Australian species of the group; these will also be given here in a subsequent paper.

The Pyralididæ and Hydrocampidæ are each represented only by a single species, and neither is indigenous in the strict sense. The species of Pyralididæ is a common domestic insect introduced from Europe, and now established throughout most of the world; that of Hydrocampidæ, is an Australian species, and must be considered to have found its way over in recent times. The Pterophoridæ contain eleven species, of which one is also Australian, and belongs to a genus not otherwise represented in New Zealand; one is closely allied to a European form, and may even prove identical with it; the remaining nine are all endemic. These appear to be all of cosmopolitan genera; an unexpected result, and rather suggesting the inference that the generic limitation is not yet sufficiently precise, but I do not at present see tangible points of difference. Australia is relatively poor in Pterophoridæ, having as yet only furnished me with the same number as New Zealand; the character of the fauna shows little resemblance. The tendency to partial obsolescence in the neuration of this family makes their study a difficult one.

I give a table showing the comparative numbers of all the families of Pyralidina in New Zealand and in the European region, to show the great irregularity of their representation here: in Australia their relative numbers are very much as in Europe:—

Europe. New Zealand.
Pyralidid 40 ∗1*
Musotimidæ 0 2
Botydidæ 204 11
Pterophoridæ 104 11
Hydrocampidæ 18 ∗1*
Scoparidæ 36 58
Crambidæ 108 44
Phycididæ 250 0
Galleriadæ 7 0

[Footnote] *Not indigenous.

[Footnote] *Not indigenous.

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The Epipaschiadæ do not occur in either region.

The Pyralidina may be recognized by the close approximation or partial anastomosis of veins 7 and 8 of the hindwings for a short distance beyond the cell. Normally the forewings have 12 veins, veins 8 and 9 being stalked, and the hindwings 8 veins, but the number of veins is sometimes reduced. The hindwings have 3 free inner-marginal veins (1a, 1b, 1c), reckoned as one; the group is thus distinguished from the Noctuina, in which there are only two.

The following tabulation will serve to distinguish the families of the group as represented in New Zealand:—

1a. Wings cleft into plumes Pterophoridæ.
1b. " not cleft.
2a. Forewings with 11 veins Musotimidæ.
2b. " with 12 veins.
3a. Lower median vein of hindwings pectinated.
4a. Maxillary palpi resting on labial Crambidæ.
4b. " " separately porrected Scopariadæ (part).
3b. Lower median vein of hindwings naked.
4a. Vein 7 of forewings stalked with 9 Pyralididæ.
4b. " " separate.
5a. Genital uncus of male absent Botydidæ.
5b. " " " developed.
6a. Maxillary palpi resting on labial Hydrocampidæ.
6b. " " triangular, separately porrected Scopariadæ (part).

Pyralididæ

Forewings with 12 veins, vein 7 stalked with 8 and 9, 10 separate. Hindwings with lower median naked; vein 7 from angle of cell.

1. Asopia, Tr

Ocelli absent. Antennæ in male ciliated. Labial palpi moderate, curved, ascending. Maxillary palpi slender or rudimentary. Forewings with veins 4 and 5 stalked. Hindwings with veins 4 and 5 stalked, 8 free.

1. Asop. farrinalis, L

Male, female.—18–25 mm. Forewings moderate, triangular; ochreous, basal and terminal areas reddish-fuscous; lines whitish, first curved, second with median third strongly curved outwards. Hindwings grey or grey-whitish; two whitish lines as in forewings, but much nearer together.

A well-known cosmopolitan and domestic species, introduced from Europe.

Christchurch; although I have not obtained it elsewhere, it probably occurs generally.

Pterophoridæ

No ocelli or maxillary palpi. Wings cleft into two or three feathers. Forewings with vein 7 separate from 9; venation often much degraded and simplified. Hindwings with lower median naked.

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This group, usually separated as a main division, offers in my opinion no characters sufficient to admit of its separation from the Pyralidina, with the other families of which it is closely allied. The wings are unusually narrow, and the abdomen and legs very long and slender.

Oxyptilus vigens, Feld., said (perhaps erroneously) to be from New Zealand, I have not been able absolutely to identify. Felder would probably (loose as he is) have hardly classed it as an Oxyptilus unless he had observed the characteristic tuft on the third plume of the hindwings.

The four genera may be thus tabulated:—

1a. No veins to costa from cell of forewings 2. Aciptilia.
1b. Two or more veins to costa from cell.
2a. Face smooth 3. Lioptilus.
2b. " with a cone of scales.
3a. Hindwings 5-veined 4. Mimæseoptilus.
3b. " 6-veined 5. Platyptilia.

2. Aciptilia, Hb

Face smooth. Antennæ moderately ciliated. Palpi moderate or short, very slender, ascending. Posterior tibiæ with spurs very long, inner longer than outer. Forewings cleft more than ⅓, segments linear-acute; with 6 veins (3, 3); 2 and 3 from a point, 4 from transverse vein, 5 to apex, 6 free. Hindwings with segments linear-acute, third dilated anteriorly; with 5 veins (1, 2, 2); 1b. distinct, 2 and 3 from a point (rarely 2 obsolete), 4 apparently coalescing wholly with 5 beyond cell.

Stands isolated by the entire obsolescence of all the veins usually rising from the cell before the upper angle, and marks a terminal development in this direction. Apparently of world-wide distribution, though from Australia I have only a single species.

1a. Hindwings dark grey 5. innotatalis.
1b. "white.
  2a. Forewings with a fuscous longitudinal stripe.
    3a. Thorax mostly fuscous 2. furcatalis.
    3b. "wholly white 3. lycosema.
  2b. Forewings without fuscous stripe 4. monospilalis.

2. Acipt. furcatalis, Walk

(Aciptilus furcatalis, Walk., 950; Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cxl., 52.)

Male, female.—16–19 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and legs white; anterior legs internally dark fuscous. Thorax pale fuscous irrorated with dark fuscous, anterior margin broadly white. Abdomen white, with a central longitudinal fuscous stripe. Forewings light fuscous irrorated with dark fuscous; a broad costal streak from base to opposite cleft, an oblong spot on costa beyond ¾, and a narrow line along upper edge of second segment snow-white: cilia white, costal cilia dark fuscous except on white

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spot, dorsal cilia on terminal half of second segment dark fuscous. Hindwings and cilia snow-white, with a more or less distinct dark fuscous spot in costal cilia before apex.

A handsome and distinct species.

Hamilton, Palmerston, Makatoku, and Otira Gorge, locally common amongst dense forest, from January to March.

3. Acipt. lycosema, n. sp

Male, female.—21–25 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs white; anterior legs internally dark fuscous. Forewings fuscous or ochremis-fuscous; a broad streak along costa from base to ⅖, attenuated posteriorly, a slender line along lower edge of first segment, a narrow streak along inner margin from ¼, and whole of second segment snow-white: cilia snow-white, on costa mixed with fuscous, on lower edge of second segment with two small blackish spots before apex and one at apex, sometimes also with one on lower edge of first segment before apex. Hindwings and cilia snow-white.

Included by Walker as a variety of the preceding, from which it is undoubtedly distinct, and separable by the larger size, and wholly white thorax and second segment of forewings.

Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin, amongst bush in December and January; rather common.

4. Acipt. monospilalis, Walk

(Aciptilus monospilalis, Walk., 950; Aciptilia patruelis, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cxl., 56.)

Male, female.—21–24 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs white; anterior legs internally fuscous. Forewings snow-white; extreme costal edge and a few scattered scales, especially along costa, brownish-ochreous; a blackish dot before cleft, and a minute one on inner margin before middle; sometimes one or two additional black dots on first segment, and rarely a streak of blackish scales along lower edge of first segment: cilia snow-white, on costa ochreous-tinged, on lower edge of second segment with two small blackish spots before apex, and one at apex, and usually a dot on lower edge of first segment before apex. Hindwings and cilia snow-white.

Most allied to the Australian A. aptalis, which ranges into Fiji and Tonga.

Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Otira River, and Dunedin, common amongst forest, from December to March.

5. Acipt. innotatalis, Walk

(Pterophorus innotatalis, Walk., 945.)

Male, female.—15–16 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and abdomen pale ochreous. Legs ochreous-whitish, anterior pair internally fuscous. Forewings pale whitish-yellowish, suffused with pale ochreous on anterior

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half: cilia dark fuscous, becoming yellow-whitish on costa before apex, on lower margin of second segment generally containing a black dot before middle and another beyond middle of segment. Hindwings dark grey; cilia fuscous-grey.

This species might almost be considered identical with the European A. tetradactyla, L., which it approaches very closely; but my specimens of A. tetradactyla are decidedly larger, the cilia darker and more sharply contrasted, and the costa suffused with light fuscous, without trace of black dots in the cilia of the lower margin; these differences are very slight, and if intermediate localities produce connecting forms, the two may be united under the name of tetradactyla, L.; meanwhile it seems well to keep them separate.

Masterton, Otira River, Christchurch, and Invercargill, rather common on open grassy hills, in August and from December to March.

3. Lioptilus, Wallgr

Face smooth, hairs projecting between antennæ. Antennæ shortly ciliated. Palpi moderately long, slender, porrected, second joint smoothly scaled. Posterior tibiæ with spurs moderate, nearly equal. Forewings cleft to ⅓, segments moderate, pointed; with 10 veins (4, 6); 2 from rather near angle, 3 and 4 from a point, 6 and 7 stalked, 6 to costa, 10 free. Hindwings with segments narrow, pointed; with 6 veins (1, 3, 2); 2 from before middle of lower margin of cell, 3 and 4 from a point, 5 apparently shortly anastomosing with 6 in middle.

Distinguished, from Platyptilia and Mimæseoptilus by the smooth face, smoothly scaled palpi, and pointed wing-segments. The genus is well represented in Europe and North America, and probably elsewhere; the single New Zealand species is found also in Australia.

6. Liopt. celidotus, n. sp

Male, female.—15–16 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen light fuscous, irregularly mixed with white. Antennæ fuscous. Legs whitish, internally dark fuscous. Forewings light fuscous, irregularly-strewn with white, sometimes suffused with white in disc, and on a small costal spot above base of cleft; an oblique blackish spot before cleft; apex and sometimes costal edge dark fuscous: cilia white, on costa fuscous. Hindwings fuscous-grey; cilia whitish.

Well characterized by the conspicuous oblique discal spot.

Christchurch and Lake Wakatipu, in December and April; four specimens. Occurs also in South-east Australia.

4. Mimæseoptilus, Wallgr

Face with a cone of scales. Antennæ shortly ciliated. Palpi rather long or very long, porrected, second joint loosely scaled above, terminal joint exposed. Posterior tibiæ with spurs moderate or short, nearly equal.

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Forewings cleft to ¼, segments moderately broad, obliquely truncate; with 10 veins (4, 6); 2 from before posterior third of cell, 3 and 4 closely approximated at base, 6 and 7 stalked, 6 to costa, 10 free. Hindwings with segments moderate, upper two obliquely truncate; with 5 veins (1, 2, 2); 2 from before angle of cell, 3 from angle, 4 apparently shortly anastomosing with 5 in middle: cilia without black scales.

Distinguished from Platyptilia by the 5-veined hindwings, and the origin of vein 2 of the forewings before posterior third of cell; also by the absence of black scales in the cilia of the lower margin of hindwings. Well represented in Europe and North America, and probably elsewhere.

1a. Costa posteriorly dark fuscous.
  2a. Forewings with a whitish line before hindmargin 8. charadrias.
  2b. " without whitish line 9. lithoxestus.
1b. Costa posteriorly not dark fuscous 7. orites.

7. Mimæs. orites, n. sp

Male.—21 mm. Head and thorax pale ochreous, mixed with white. Palpi pale ochreous, above white, very long. Antennæ fuscous. Abdomen brownish-ochreous, with dark fuscous dots on edge of segments. Legs whitish, apex of spurs dark fuscous, spurs short. Forewings light greyish-ochreous, irregularly strewn with whitish, and with some black scales tending to accumulate on veins; costa obscurely spotted with blackish towards base; a distinct black dot in disc at ⅓, and another before and below base of cleft: cilia pale greyish-ochreous, on hindmargin with an interrupted black basal line. Hindwings and cilia light grey.

The palpi are much longer in this species than in the two following.

One specimen taken near Clinton by Mr. G. F. Mathew, who states that it frequented the tussock-grass, and fell down to the roots when disturbed; it is therefore probably often overlooked.

8. Mimæs. charadrias, n. sp

Male, female.—16–20 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen whitish-ochreous. Antennæ fuscous. Legs fuscous-whitish, internally dark fuscous. Forewings light fuscous, more or less suffused with whitish-ochreous posteriorly and towards inner margin, suffused with whitish along sub-median fold (broadly posteriorly) and on a costal spot above base of cleft; costa suffused with dark fuscous, anteriorly obscurely spotted with whitish; a small blackish spot before cleft, in female larger and touching cleft; in female a suffused blackish triangular subapical patch, terminated by a whitish line a little before hindmargin; in male the whitish line broader and suffused into hindmargin, but blackish patch wholly absent: cilia whitish-fuscous, within cleft and on hindmargin of first segment white, with a dark fuscous line from middle of first segment to anal angle, on costa dark fuscous. Hindwings and cilia fuscous.

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The sexes would readily be taken for distinct species.

Arthur's Pass, from 1,500 to 4,000 feet, but principally at the lower levels; common in January.

9. Mimæs. lithoxestus, n. sp

Male, female.—23–28 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen whitish-ochreous, mixed with white. Antennæ fuscous. Legs ochreous-whitish, internally dark fuscous. Forewings light fuscous, suffused with whitish-ochreous posteriorly and towards inner margin, and strewn with white in disc; a sharply-defined very narrow blackish-fuscous costal streak from base to apex, rather strongly dilated between ½ and ¾, obscurely margined beneath with pale whitish-ochreous; a black dot in disc before and rather below cleft; apex and hindmargin rather darker fuscous, somewhat mixed with whitish; a fine black line along lower edge of first segment: cilia whitish-ochreous, on costa dark fuscous, within cleft and on hindmargin of first segment snow-white. Hindwings fuscous-grey; cilia pale greyish-ochreous.

Nearly allied to M. charadrias; but easily separated by the larger size, much neater appearance, sharply defined costal streak, black line on lower margin of first segment, and absence of distinct dark line in cilia.

Arthur's Pass, from 3,000 to 4,000 feet, common amongst rough herbage in January.

5. Platyptilia, Hb

Forehead with a cone of scales. Antennæ shortly ciliated. Palpi rather long, porrected, second joint loosely scaled above, terminal joint exposed. Posterior tibiæ with apex sometimes somewhat thickened, all spurs nearly equal, moderate. Forewings cleft to ¼, segments moderately broad, hindmargin of first segment concave, of second convex; with 10 veins (4, 6); 2 from near angle of cell, 8 and 4 from a point, 6 and 7 stalked, 6 to costa, 10 free. Hindwings with segments moderate, upper two considerably dilated, obliquely truncate; with 6 veins (1, 3, 2); 2 from near middle of lower margin of cell, 3 and 4 from a point, 6 apparently shortly anastomosing with 5 in middle; cilia of lower margin with more or less of black scales.

A genus of probably universal distribution, well represented in Europe and North America; in Australia only by a single species, nearly allied to P. falcatalis. The larvæ appear to be usually attached to Composite.

1a. Forewings with a dark costal triangle beyond middle.
  2a. Dorsal margin of hindwings fringed with black scales on basal half 11. falcatalis.
  2b. " " " without black scales, except in middle 10. haasti.
1b. Forewings without costal triangle 12. heliastis.
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10. Platypt. haasti, Feld

(Platyptilia haasti. Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cxl., 58.)

Male, female.—16–17 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen yellowish-whitish, often suffused with light brownish-ochreous. Antennæ grey. Legs yellow-whitish, banded with dark fuscous. Forewings yellow-whitish, with numerous obscure fuscous or brownish-ochreous transverse strigæ, sometimes nearly obsolete, in other specimens nearly concealing ground-colour; costa from base to ¾ spotted with dark fuscous; a triangular blackish-fuscous spot on costa before ¾, reaching ⅓ across wing, connected at apex with a sometimes obsolete dark fuscous transverse mark in disc; a short interrupted dark fuscous longitudinal streak in disc beyond middle; a blackish dot on inner margin at ⅔; a small elongate dark fuscous spot on costa a little before apex, followed by a tolerably distinct irregular yellow-whitish line not reaching inner margin: cilia yellow-whitish, often suffused with pale ochreous, with a blackish interrupted basal line. Hindwings rather dark reddish-grey; cilia grey, on hindmargin with a partially obsolete blackish basal line, on lower margin of third segment with a small spot of black scales in middle.

Distinguished from both the following by the restriction of the black scales on the lower margin of hindwings to a small central spot, and the obscurely transversely strigulated forewings.

Hamilton, Otira River, Christchurch, Lake Wakatipu, and Invercargill; common in December and January.

11. Platypt. falcatalis, Walk

(Platyptilus falcatalis, Walk., 931; Platyptilus repletalis, ib., 931.)

Male, female.—20–25 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen light reddish-fuscous, irregularly mixed with white, sides of abdomen spotted with blackish. Antennæ fuscous. Legs white, banded with reddish-fuscous. Forewings light reddish-fuscous, irregularly strewn with whitish; costa narrowly dark fuscous from base to ¾, somewhat spotted with whitish; a cloudy rather dark reddish-fuscous spot on inner margin at ⅓ and another beyond middle; a sharply marked blackish-fuscous triangular blotch on costa about ⅔, reaching half across wing, its apex touching a dark fuscous discal dot; a small white spot on costa immediately beyond this; a white sometimes interrupted line near and parallel to hindmargin, preceded on first segment below middle by a blackish-fuscous triangular spot, and on second segment by a blackish-fuscous suffusion; on first segment ground-colour between this line and costal blackish blotch whitish-ochreous, on lower edge margined with blackish: cilia pale reddish-fuscous, with a dark fuscous line, within cleft and on apical and costal spots white, on inner margin white with a tooth of black scales at ⅔ and a smaller one at ⅚. Hindwings

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and cilia grey, somewhat reddish-tinged, lower margin of third segment fringed with coarse black scales on basal half, a patch beyond middle, and a small spot at apex.

Nearly allied to P. haasti, but larger, and readily separated by the reddish-fuseous ground-colour, white costal spot beyond the dark triangular blotch, and abundant black scales of the cilia of hindwings.

Otira River, Christchurch, Dunedin, and Invercargill; common from December to March, amongst bush.

12. Platypt. heliastis, n. sp

Male.—19 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen and legs reddish-fuscous, somewhat mixed with whitish, posterior tarsi white. Forewings light brownish-ochreous, suffused with reddish-fuscous towards base and inner margin, and less strongly on hindmargin, and slightly strewn with whitish in disc; costa suffusedly ochreous-whitish towards ¾, towards base suffused with dark fuscous and obscurely spotted with whitish; a dark fuscous dot before and below cleft: cilia dark reddish-fuscous, on costa whitish-ochreous. Hindwings and cilia light grey, slightly reddish-tinged, lower margin of third segment fringed with coarse black scales from base to ¾.

Immediately recognized by the entire absence of the dark fuscous costal triangle, and other markings.

Castle Hill; one specimen received from Mr. J. D. Enys.

Hydrocampidæ

Maxillary palpi resting on labial, rarely dilated. Abdomen in male with uncus well-developed. Forewings with vein 7 separate from 9 (rarely stalked with 10). Hindwings with lower median vein naked; vein 7 from angle of cell.

Represented in New Zealand by a single species only, which cannot be regarded as belonging to the endemic fauna; it occurs commonly in South-east Australia, and has probably migrated thence in comparatively recent times.

6. Hygraula, n. g

Face tolerably vertical. Ocelli absent. Tongue moderate. Antennæ ½ of forewings, in male filiform, shortly pubescent-ciliated. Labial palpi moderate, 1 ¼, nearly straight, porrected, second joint with short rough scales, terminal joint moderate, obtuse. Maxillary palpi moderate, porrected, slightly dilated with scales, truncate. Posterior tibiæ with outer spurs half inner. Abdomen rather elongate, in male with large broad exserted valves, and long curved uncus. Forewings with veins 4 and 5 closely approximated at base, 10 rising out of stalk of 8 and 9. Hindwings as broad as forewings, veins 4 and 5 from a point 6 and 7 stalked, 8 anastomosing with 7 from before origin of 6 to ¾.

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In structure approaching nearest to Cataclysta, but distinguished by the filiform antennæ and porrected palpi. The larva is doubtless aquatic.

13. Hygr. nitens, Butl

(Paraponyx nitens, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., 556.)

Male, female.—14–17 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous mixed with whitish, face white. Antennæ grey-whitish. Abdomen fuscous, segmental margins and apex white. Legs whitish, anterior pair internally fuscous. Forewings elongate-triangular, very narrow at base, considerably dilated posteriorly, costa almost straight, towards apex moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin strongly rounded, oblique; light fuscous or ochreous-fuscous, closely irrorated with dark fuscous, veins sometimes lined with dark fuscous; first line moderate, whitish, curved, not touching margins, connected with base by whitish streaks along subcostal and submedian, sometimes obsolete; second line moderate, white, from ¾ of costa to ⅔ of inner margin; median third forming a very strong curve outwards; median space usually white except a broad margin all round, and a small quadrate dark fuscous spot in disc beyond middle; a submarginal row of irregular white confluent spots, largest beneath apex and on anal angle, almost obsolete in middle, margined posteriorly by a dark line: cilia grey-whitish, base white spotted with dark fuscous. Hindwings white, markings light fuscous; a small round discal spot; a fascia somewhat beyond middle, angulated outwards above middle, curved inwards below middle; a hind-marginal band, narrower at anal angle, containing several obscure white submarginal spots; cilia whitish, with two pale fuscous lines.

Variable in intensity of colouring; Australian specimens sometimes exceed the size given above, reaching 21 mm., and are then usually lighter and more suffusedly marked.

Hamilton, Napier, Masterton, Christchurch, and Lake Wakatipu, always near-water, common from November to March; often taken at light. Also occurs in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia.

Crambidæ

The following are additions to the list already published. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1882).

7. Diptychophora, Z

14. Dipt. interrupta, Feld

(Crambus interruptus, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cxxxv., 15; Diptychophora astrosema, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1882, 13.)

Felder's figure, which is sufficiently good for recognition, was accidentally overlooked when I was preparing my former paper; it should now be restored.

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15. Dipt. selenæ, n. sp

Male, female.—14–16 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ochreous-yellow, apex of palpi dark fuscous. Antennæ and abdomen whitish-ochreous. Legs ochreous-whitish. Forewings broad, triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin oblique, slightly rounded, twice indented on upper half; pale ochreous-yellowish; markings rather dark reddish-fuscous, suffused with deep ochreous-yellow; a transverse line near base, twice very sharply angulated; first line double, from ¼ of costa to before middle of inner margin, obtusely angulated outwards in middle, and indented inwards near inner margin; an irregular transverse shade from beyond middle of costa to beyond middle of inner margin, and another from inner margin before first line to costa beyond second line; on the intersection of these is the discal spot, which is moderately large, transverse, upper half narrow, dark metallic-grey, lower half dilated, round, white; second line double, from ¾ of costa to ⅖ of inner margin, moderately curved outwards, hardly sinuate below middle; three sharply-marked longitudinal dark metallic-grey streaks from near discal spot to near hindmargin; hindmargin suffused with deep yellow, and marked with three small roundish black spots below middle: cilia whitish-yellowish, with a shining dark grey basal line. Hindwings white, faintly ochreous-tinged; an ochreous-yellow hindmarginal line; cilia white.

Nearly allied to D. metallifera, Butl., but apparently distinguished by the two transverse fasciæ intersecting in the middle of wing; in the absence of specimens of D. metallifera for comparison I cannot certainly indicate any other reliable point of difference. When recently revisiting the British Museum, I again examined the specimen of the latter species, and can confirm my previous remarks on the distinctness of the species and the incorrectness of Mr. Butler's description, but omitted to describe it myself.

Otira Gorge and Dunedin, in January; four specimens.

16. Dipt. holanthes, n. sp

Male, female.—15–17 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ochreous-yellow, palpi suffused with dark fuscous towards base and apex. Antennæ pale greyish-ochreous. Abdomen grey. Legs whitish-grey, posterior tarsi ochreous-whitish. Forewings broad, triangular, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin oblique, slightly rounded, twice indented on upper half; bright deep ochreous-yellow; some black scales at base of costa, and one or two in disc towards base; first line very slender, blackish, partially obsolete, from ⅓ of costa to before middle of inner margin, dilated on margins and on a dot in middle, obtusely angulated outwards above middle and inwards below middle; discal spot represented by two blackish dots longitudinally placed; second line very slender, blackish, tolerably distinct,

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followed by a paler yellow line, from ⅔ of costa to ⅔ of inner margin, upper half strongly curved outwards, lower half nearly straight; three obscure light metallic-grey longitudinal streaks on upper half of wing, extending from before second line to hindmargin; three small quadrate black spots on hindmargin below middle: cilia shining grey, with a darker metallic basal line. Hindwings and cilia grey.

A conspicuous species, easily recognized by the uniform deep yellow forewings and double black dot representing the discal spot, with grey hindwings; it may be placed after D. auriscriptella, Walk.

Near the foot of the Otira Gorge, frequenting rock-faces where moss grows, in January; I found it very common, but in a very restricted locality.

17. Dipt. bipunctella, Walk

(Eromene bipunctella, Walk., Suppl., 1761.)

I saw this insect in the British Museum, and identified it as certainly a new species of Diptychophora; from the type I made a brief diagnosis.

Size of D. auriscriptella. Forewings brown, very neatly marked, markings much as in D. auriscriptella, discal spot small, round, white: cilia white except near apex. Hindwings grey.

Immediately distinguished by the uniform brown forewings, small round white discal spot, and grey hindwings; intermediate between D. holanthes and D. epiphæa.

Locality given as New Zealand, without further indication.

18. Dipt. epiphæa, n. sp

Male, female.—12–14 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs fuscous. Forewings broad, triangular, costa hardly arched, apex rounded, hindmargin oblique, slightly rounded, once indented below apex; fuscous, with green reflections; lines slender, irregularly denticulate, dark fuscous; first line from beyond ⅓ of costa to before middle of inner margin, angulated above middle and bent inwards below middle; discal spot obsolete or represented by a faint darker suffusion; second line from ¾ of costa to ¾ of inner margin, angulated above middle, thence tolerably straight; sometimes two or three whitish longitudinal streaks towards hindmargin above middle; a small black apical spot: cilia whitish, with a shining dark grey basal and lighter median line. Hindwings grey or dark grey, with greenish reflections; cilia light grey, with a dark grey basal line.

Allied to D. bipunctella, from which it is distinguished by the much less distinct markings, and the absence of the white discal spot.

Arthur's Pass, about 3,000 feet, in January; six specimens.

19. Dipt. elaina, Meyr

In this species the discal spot should have been described as terminating beneath in a round white dot; this is sometimes obscure, and was therefore overlooked previously, but is always present.

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The number of New Zealand species of this interesting genus is now thirteen. Since my remarks on the distribution of the genus, Snellen has described from the Malay Archipelago a species which he considered referable to it, under the name of Diptychophora amænella; but it is represented as having strongly pectinated antennæ, and is therefore doubtless generically distinct; probably Snellen was not at the time acquainted with the real neuration of the genus.

8. Orocrambus, n. g

Ocelli large. Forehead rounded. Antennæ moderate, in male filiform, simple. Labial palpi rather long, straight, porrected, clothed with very long rough hairs, attenuated to apex. Maxillary palpi long, broadly triangular, terminally expanded with rough hairs. Thorax and coxæ clothed with long fine hairs beneath. Forewings with vein 7 rising out of the stalk of 8 and 9. Hindwings much broader than forewings; vein 8 free, approximated to 7 in middle.

Closely allied to Crambus, from which it is essentially distinguished by the free vein 8 of hindwings; the neuration is otherwise identical. Other less reliable points are the wholly simple antennæ, the peculiarly broad and rough hairing of the palpi, and the hairy coxæ and under surface of thorax, but this last character is shared by some mountain species of Crambus, as C. catacaustus.

The genus is confined to New Zealand; I have only one species, but from a note of Mr. A. Purdie's in the N.Z. Journal of Science it appears probable that there is a second, darker and without the pale fascia.

20. Orocr. melampetrus, n. sp

Male, female.—24–26 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs dark fuscous-grey; head and palpi mixed with grey-whitish. Forewings moderate, oblong, slightly dilated posteriorly, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin not oblique, rounded beneath; fuscous, strewn with dark grey, appearing dark fuscous-grey, with a slight bluish gloss; a whitish irroration forming a moderate nearly straight cloudy fascia (appearing grey-whitish) from ⅔ of costa to ¾ of inner margin, very slightly curved outwards: cilia greyish-fuscous. Hindwings and cilia fuscous.

Unusually stout in build, and of singular facies.

Castle Hill and Mount Hutt, sitting on the bare shingle slopes (which it imitates in colour) at an elevation of 4,000 to 5,000 feet, in January; not uncommon, but very active in flight, and difficult to capture from the nature of the ground, which affords but insecure footing.

9. Crambus, F

Ten additional species of this genus have been discovered since my paper was written, principally in the mountain districts. At the same time

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the second Australian species has, as I anticipated, been satisfactorily proved to be also, like the first, a species of wide range, occurring through many Pacific Islands, and consequently not attributable to the true Australian fauna, which therefore includes no endemic species of this genus.

21. Cr. catacaustus, n. sp

Male, female.—22–26 mm. Head and thorax dark ochreous-fuscous. Palpi rather long, dark fuscous, mixed with greyish-ochreous beneath. Antennæ dark fuscous, in male very shortly ciliated. Abdomen dark fuscous, hairy beneath towards base. Legs dark fuscous, coxæ densely hairy beneath, posterior legs ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderate, oblong, posteriorly somewhat dilated, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin not oblique, rounded beneath; ochreous-brown, sometimes slightly reddish-tinged; costal edge narrowly whitish-ochreous in male, ochreous-white in female, except near apex; a straight moderately broad ochreous-white central streak from base to hindmargin slightly above middle, hardly narrower at extremities, more or less indented obtusely on both margins a little beyond middle, suffusedly margined above and beneath with dark fuscous: cilia shining grey, tips white. Hindwings dark grey, posteriorly still darker, pectinations grey-whitish; cilia ochreous-white, with a shining grey basal line.

This species and C. tritonellus appear to differ from all the other New Zealand species of the genus by the hairy coxæ and undersurface of thorax, and probably mark the developmental connection with Orocrambus. C. catacaustus, although marked quite as in typical species of the genus, has a different superficial appearance from the much stouter build, the forewings much broader anteriorly and therefore more oblong, and the deep colouring, especially of the hindwings.

Arthur's Pass, taken commonly in swampy places at from 8,000 to 4,000 feet, in January; flies with much activity.

22. Cr. tritonellus, n. sp

Female.—22 mm. Head ochreous-white. Palpi, thorax, and abdomen ochreous-white mixed with dark fuscous; palpi rather long. Antennæ whitish-grey. Legs whitish, coxæ hairy beneath. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa almost straight, apex rounded, hindmargin straight, oblique; pale greyish-ochreous, somewhat mixed with fuscous; costal edge obscurely whitish, posteriorly rather broadly suffused with whitish; inner margin narrowly white towards base, margined above by a strong dark fuscous streak from base to ⅓; a rather broad white central streak from base to middle of hindmargin, attenuated towards base, margined beneath from base to middle with dark fuscous, and cut by a faint greyish-ochreous line from near base of upper margin to beyond middle of lower margin; veins on posterior half marked with strong dark fuscous

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streaks, two margining the central white streak, one within it obsolete: cilia white. Hindwings pale fuscous-grey, towards hindmargin darker, veins paler; cilia white.

Allied to C. catacaustus, which it agrees with in the hairy coxæ, but differing much in the strictly-triangular form of the forewings, and also in colour.

Castle Hill; one specimen received from Mr. J. D. Enys.

23. Cr. ephorus, n. sp

Male.–-32 mm. Head snow-white. Palpi very long, ochreous, above and internally snow-white. Antennæ grey-whitish, very shortly ciliated. Thorax snow-white, patagia deep ochreous-yellow. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs light ochreous, posterior pair more whitish. Forewings very long, narrow, somewhat dilated posteriorly, costa slightly arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin rather strongly sinuate, oblique; shining snow-white; extreme costal edge fuscous, becoming yellow-ochreous posteriorly; a rather broad straight bright deep ochreous-yellow stripe from base below middle to hindmargin above anal angle; inner margin narrowly ochreous-yellow from ⅓ to anal angle: cilia snow-white, opposite submedian stripe and on anal angle whitish-ochreous. Hindwings pale whitish-ochreous-grey; cilia ochreous-whitish.

This handsome species is nearly allied to C. angustipennis, but much more clearly and brightly coloured; the forewings are equally long and narrow, but without the acute produced apex of that species, and the hindwings more greyish-tinged.

Arthur's Pass; one specimen taken at 4,800 feet, in January.

24. Cr. crenæus, n. sp

Male, female.—32–36 mm. Head white, behind eyes ochreous-brown, towards middle of face whitish-ochreous. Palpi very long, light brownish-ochreous, above and internally white. Antennæ whitish, in male shortly ciliated. Thorax ochreous-white, patagia brownish-ochreous. Abdomen whitish. Legs brownish-ochreous, posterior pair whitish above. Forewings very elongate-triangular, costa moderately arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin rather oblique, straight or faintly sinuate, rounded beneath; rather light brownish-ochreous, slightly brassy-tinged, somewhat browner in disc; a rather narrow almost straight white median streak from base to hindmargin slightly above middle; inner margin slenderly white near base: cilia white, sometimes partially slightly ochreous-tinged, beneath anal angle greyish-tinged. Hindwings whitish, faintly greyish-tinged; cilia white.

This species and the four following belong to the group of C. vittellus, and doubtless other allied species will be discovered. C. crenæus is readily known by the entire absence of all white marking except the central streak

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and the base of inner margin, the costa being wholly ochreous; it is also the largest species of the group. It most resembles C. diplorrhous and C. dicrenellus, but in both of these there is a clear white costal streak.

Arthur's Pass, from 3,000 to 4,500 feet; common in January, appearing to frequent rather damp places.

25. Cr. enchophorus, n. sp

Male, female.—29–33 mm. Head white, behind eyes brownish-ochreous, centre of face somewhat ochreous. Palpi very long, brownish-ochreous, above and internally white. Antennæ dark fuscous, in male rather stout, dentate, moderately ciliated. Thorax light brownish-ochreous, with a white central longitudinal stripe. Abdomen whitish. Legs pale brownish-ochreous, posterior pair whitish. Forewings very elongate-triangular, narrow towards base, costa slightly arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin oblique, nearly straight, rounded beneath; dull light brownish-ochreous; a slender white line immediately beneath costa from base to middle; veins on posterior half of wing suffused with white and obscurely margined with dark fuscous; a whitish suffusion towards inner margin throughout, towards base defined and margined above with dark fuscous; a rather narrow nearly straight white median streak from base to middle of hindmargin, unevenly margined with blackish throughout, posterior half slightly curved upwards; a curved transverse row of black dots towards hindmargin, and a hindmarginal row of similar dots: cilia white, faintly barred with very pale greyish-ochreous. Hindwings pale whitish-ochreous-grey; cilia white, base ochreous-tinged.

Allied to C. callirrhous, in which species the male has similar dentate antennæ (not mentioned in my description); but larger, with white markings (except median streak) considerably suffused, whilst C. callirrhous is specially characterized by their definiteness; distinguished also by the posterior and hindmarginal rows of black dots, and by the uppermost white line being distinctly subcostal, not costal, towards base.

Castle Hill, on dry slopes from 2,500 to 4,000 feet, in January; rather common, but apparently local.

26. Cr. diplorrhous, n. sp

Male, female.—31–34 mm. Head whitish-ochreous, becoming white on crown. Palpi very long, light brownish-ochreous, above and internally white. Antennæ fuscous, in male subdentate, moderately ciliated. Thorax pale ochreous, with a suffused white central stripe. Abdomen whitish. Legs light ochreous, tarsi dark fuscous, posterior legs whitish. Forewings very elongate-triangular, narrow, not much dilated, costa slightly arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin slightly sinuate, rather oblique, rounded beneath; pale brownish-ochreous, brassy-tinged, towards inner and hind

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margins paler; a narrow white streak almost along costa from base to apex, leaving extreme costal edge of ground-colour, more widely posteriorly, posterior extremity suffused; a moderate straight white central streak from base to middle of hindmargin, narrowed anteriorly; inner margin suffusedly white from base to beyond middle; cilia snow-white. Hindwings ochreous-grey-whitish, becoming greyer posteriorly; cilia white.

Very similar to C. dicrenellus, but with the apex of the forewings less pointed and the hindmargin less sinuate; readily distinguishable by the uppermost white streak being subcostal instead of costal.

Lake Wakatipu, taken commonly on the dry mountain slopes at from 2,000 to 5,000 feet, in December.

27. Cr. pedias, n. sp

Male, female.—24–27 mm. Head white, behind eyes pale greyish-ochreous. Palpi very long, pale ochreous, above and internally white. Antennæ whitish, in male serrate, shortly ciliated. Thorax pale greyish-ochreous, with a central longitudinal white stripe. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs whitish-ochreous, posterior pair whitish. Forewings very elongate-triangular, narrow, not much dilated, costa slightly arched, apex almost acute, hindmargin sinuate, oblique; very pale dull greyish-ochreous; costal edge except towards base, and all veins narrowly and suffusedly white, obscurely margined with fuscous; a whitish obscure suffusion towards inner margin; a narrow nearly straight white central streak from base to hindmargin somewhat above middle, slightly bent beyond middle, obscurely fuscous-margined; a row of small blackish dots along hindmargin: cilia shining greyish-white, with a shining whitish-grey basal line. Hindwings ochreous-grey-whitish, towards apex greyer; cilia white.

Most like C. callirrhous, but much duller and greyer, not brassy-tinged, and without the sharply defined white lines of that species; the antennæ are whitish, not distinctly dentate in male, and the hindmargin of forewings is somewhat more sinuate, distinctly dotted with black.

Masterton and Wanganui, on the grassy river-banks; common in March.

28. Cr. paraxenus, n. sp

Male, female.—28–31 mm. Head white, on centre of face and behind eyes ochreous. Palpi very long, ochreous, above and internally white. Antennæ dark fuscous, in male serrate, moderately ciliated. Thorax pale ochreous, with a suffused white central longitudinal stripe. Abdomen whitish. Legs ochreous-fuscous, posterior pair whitish. Forewings very elongate-triangular, narrow at base, moderately dilated, costa gently arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin almost straight, rather strongly oblique; light yellowish-ochreous, slightly brassy-tinged, sometimes fuscous-tinged in disc; extreme costal edge white from about middle to apex; a moderate

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straight white central streak from base to hindmargin somewhat above middle, lower edge rather irregular, narrowed towards base; inner margin very slenderly white towards base; a narrow white streak along hindmargin from extremity of central streak to apex: cilia pale shining grey, on upper half of hindmargin barred with white. Hindwings whitish-grey; cilia white.

Closely allied to C. vittellus, with which it agrees in the distinctly barred cilia of forewings, and resembling the most simply marked forms of that species, but constant; larger, more ochreous-yellowish, not fuscous; the antennæ of male somewhat more slender, the apex of forewings less pointed and the hindmargin not distinctly sinuate, the hindmarginal black dots absent, and the hindwings greyer, not ochreous-tinged.

Lake Wakatipu, on the dry mountain sides at from 2,000 to 5,000 feet; taken commonly in December.

29. Cr. sophronellus, n. sp

Female.—19 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-white, coarsely irrorated with greyish-fuscous. Palpi long, whitish, externally irrorated with grey. Antennæ grey. Abdomen whitish, irrorated with grey. Legs grey-whitish. Forewings elongate, tolerably oblong, costa hardly arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin straight, rather strongly oblique; greyish-fuscous, densely irrorated with white, and with a few black scales: cilia whitish-grey mixed with white, base white. Hindwings light fuscous-grey, towards hindmargin darker; cilia grey-whitish.

Nearly allied to C. cyclopicus, but shorter-winged, and immediately separated from it by the grey hindwings; possibly other specimens may possess distinct markings, since in the female of C. cyclopicus they are also sometimes quite obsolete.

One specimen received from Mr. R. W. Fereday, of uncertain locality.

30. Cr. oncobolus, n. sp

Male, female.—24–27 mm. Head white. Palpi very long, white, externally slightly ochreous-tinged. Antennæ whitish, in male shortly ciliated. Thorax white or greyish-white, shoulders ochreous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Legs white, anterior pair internally fuscous. Forewings elongate, narrow, tolerably dilated, costa gently arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin straight, oblique, strongly rounded beneath; pale fuscous; all veins suffused with white, more or less confluent towards costa posteriorly, and obscurely margined with dark fuscous; a narrow white central streak from base to middle of disc, its apex sharply hooked downwards, margined beneath throughout by a strong black streak finely attenuated at base, and its apex margined posteriorly with black; above the white central streak is a yellow-ochreous streak becoming dilated beyond it and suffused into groundcolour, and beneath the black streak a yellow-ochreous streak reaching apex

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of hook; an ill-defined strongly dentate blackish posterior transverse line, tending to separate into longitudinal dashes, sharply angulated outwards above middle, and sinuate inwards towards inner margin: cilia pale greyish, suffusedly barred with white, tips white. Hindwings pale grey; cilia whitish-grey.

Closely allied to C. harpophorus, which it resembles in form of wing, having the forewings therefore much narrower than in C. strigosus; readily separated from C. harpophorus by the absence of the sinuate dark-bordered white streak in middle of disc, and by the strong dentations and inward sinuation of the posterior line.

Castle Hill, from 2,300 to 2,500 feet, especially in the bed of the Porter River; common in January.

The following are additional localities for species of this family described in my former paper:—

Thinasotia leucophthalma, Meyr. Also taken in December.

Cryptomina acerella, Walk. Bealey River, at 2,100 feet.

Scenoploca petraula, Meyr. Also in January.

Diptychophora pyrsophanes, Meyr. Otira Gorge (to 3,000 feet), Castle Hill (2,500 feet), Christchurch and Dunedin; also in December.

D. interrupta, Feld. Arthur's Pass (3,000 feet).

D. auriscriptella, Walk. Otira Gorge (1,500 feet).

D. helioctypa, Meyr. I took this in December on hill-sides near Lake Wakatipu, at about 1,400 feet.

D. elaina, Meyr. Taranaki and Palmerston; occurs from November to March.

Crambus æthonellus, Meyr. Invercargill, nearly at the sea-level, in December.

C. ramosellus, Dbld. Taranaki, Lake Wakatipu and Invercargill, not above 2,000 feet. According to Butler's specimens in the British Museum, C. leucanialis, Butl., is merely a synonym of this species, and not of C. angustipennis, as formerly identified by me from the description and figure.

C. angustipennis, Z. Rakaia and Castle Hill (2,500 feet).

C. dicrenellus, Meyr. Castle Hill (2,500 to 3,000 feet), Arthur's Pass (4,000 to 5,000 feet).

C. haplotomus, Meyr. Castle Hill (2,500 feet), and in the bed of the Waimakariri River (2,100 feet).

C. callirrhous, Meyr. Castle Hill, in the bed of the Porter River (2,300 feet).

C. simplex, Butl. Napier and Lake Wakatipu (not above 2,000 feet).

C. vittellus, Dbld. Taranaki, Napier, Wellington, Lake Wakatipu and Invercargill (not above 2,500 feet); also in December. In one part of the

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Hawke's Bay district I observed this species flying in immense profusion, literally in clouds; they must here have committed frightful ravages on the grass.

C. flexuosellus, Dbld. Taranaki, Lake Wakatipu and Invercargill; as a rule not above 2,000 feet, but at Lake Wakatipu I took a single isolated specimen at 4,500 feet, the species being at the time common at the lower levels.

C. tuhualis, Feld. Castle Hill (2,500 feet).

C. cyclopicus, Meyr. Napier; also in April.

C. harpophorus, Meyr. Arthur's Pass (2,500 feet), Lake Wakatipu (4,200 feet); also in December.

C. strigosus, Butl. Palmerston and Masterton.

C. xanthogrammus, Meyr. Castle Hill, in the bed of the Porter River (2,300 feet), and in that of the Waimakariri River (2,100 feet), taken commonly in January and February; this species sits persistently on the small bare shingle and gravel of the river-beds, the variegated colours of which it exactly imitates; if disturbed it flies a very short distance close to the ground, and settles again. The hindwings should have been described as light grey (not whitish).

Index of Genera
Aciptilia, Hb. 2. Lioptilus, Wallgr. 3.
Asopia, Tr. 1. Mimæseoptilus, Wallgr. 4.
Crambus, F. 9. Orocrambus, n. g. 8.
Diptychophora, Z. 7. Platyptilia, Hb. 5.
Hygraula, n. g. 6.
Index of Species
astrosema, Meyr. 14. innotatalis, Walk. 5.
bipunctella, Walk. 17. interrupta, Feld. 14.
catacaustus, n. sp. 21. lithoxestus, n. sp. 9.
celidotus, n. sp. 6. lycosema, n. sp. 3.
charadrias, n. sp. 8. melampetrus, n. sp. 20.
crenæus, n. sp. 24. monospilalis, Walk. 4.
diplorrhous, n. sp. 26. nitens, Butl. 13.
elaina, Meyr. 19. oncobolus, n. sp. 30.
enchophorus, n. sp. 25. orites, n. sp. 7.
ephorus, n. sp. 23. paraxenus, n. sp. 28.
epiphæa, n. sp. 18. patruelis, Feld. 4.
falcatalis, Walk. 11. pedias, n. sp. 27.
farinalis, L. 1. repletalis, Walk. 11.
furcatalis, Walk. 2. selenæa, n. sp. 15.
haasti, Feld. 10. sophronellus, n. sp. 29.
heliastis, n. sp. 12. tritonellus, n. sp. 22.
holanthes, n. sp. 16.