Art. XIII.—Descriptions of New Zealand Micro-Lepidoptera.
[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 2nd October, 1884.]
This paper is supplementary to that which I published on the Tortricina in the Transactions for 1882. It contains nine additional species, of which eight are new, the ninth having been previously known from the Hawaiian Islands; and also some corrections of classification.
I propose to recast the definitions of the Tortricidæ and Grapholithidæ. thus:—
Tortricidæ: Lower median veins of hindwings almost always without basal pectination; vein 2 of forewings rising before posterior third of lower margin of cell; genital uncus of male developed.
Grapholithidæ: Lower median vein of hindwings pectinated with hairs towards base; vein 2 of forewings rising before posterior third of lower margin of cell; genital uncus of male not developed.
I am indebted to Professor Fernald, well known as a special authority on this group, for the information on which this change is founded. He states that the genital uncus never occurs in the Grapholithidæ, and considers that such genera as Ctenopseustis, hereafter described, should be therefore referred to the Tortricidæ; which amounts to saying that the possession of the uncus is a more valuable systematic character than the possession of the basal pectination. As Professor Fernald has devoted much labour to the investigation of material from all parts of the world, there is little doubt that he is correct, and I have adopted his suggestion. I have not yet found leisure to examine the genitalia of all the Tortricina of this region, but I have investigated a few species, which appear to confirm his views; and in the case of the Pyralidina I have found the same character valuable for family separation. The genital uncus (when present) is a hard cylindrical, more or less downwards-hooked, process from the apex of the abdomen, in the male, and in some groups of Lepidoptera assumes complex forms.
The occurrence of the Hawaiian Chiloides straminea is interesting, and may be compared with the presence of the genus Heterocrossa in both regions. Probably they extend over the intervening space, but I have not at present any evidence of this. The other additional species are all of genera already recorded from New Zealand, and mostly interesting as representatives of the old indigenous fauna. It seems probable that Proselena, Harmologa, and Heterocrossa will be found to be richer in species than I had previously anticipated. I think that Cacæcia alopecana is also peculiarly
interesting in another way, from its bearing on general theories of development, since it is my opinion that although now justifiably to be regarded as a species, it has reached this stage only within extremely recent times; I think it would be interesting to experiment on the larvæ of this species with different food-plants, and conversely to try the effect of feeding C. excessana on Phyllocladus.
Thorax smooth. Antennæ in male serrate, with whorls of moderate cilia. Palpi long, straight, porrected, triangularly scaled. Forewings with costa in male simple. Hindwings broader than forewings. Forewings with 12 veins, 7 and 8 separate, 7 to hindmargin, secondary cell well-defined. Hindwings with 8 veins, 3 and 4 remote at base, 4 and 5 almost from a point, 6 and 7 approximated towards base.
Allied to Bactra, Stph. (Aphelia, Stph.), but differing in the separation of veins 3 and 4 of the hindwings, and the longer palpi; only the species here given is known.
Chil. straminea, Butl
(Chiloides straminea, Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1881, 393.)
Media, alis ant. ochreis, venis omnibus lineisque inter venas punctatis, puncto etiam disci postico nigrescentibus; post. griseis.
Male, female.—17–24 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax pale ochreous. Abdomen whitish. Legs pale ochreous, posterior pair ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate, oblong, costa moderately arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin slightly sinuate, rather strongly oblique; light ochreous; all veins marked with fine fuscous or blackish lines; intervenal spaces also marked each with a fine incomplete, often interrupted or dotted, fuscous or blackish line; a larger dark fuscous dot in disc beyond middle; inner margin dotted with black: cilia pale ochreous. Hindwings grey, towards base lighter; cilia white, with a grey line.
Recalls some forms of Bactra lanceolana, Hb., from which it is easiest separated by the structural characters.
Hamilton, Taranaki, Wanganui, and Otaki; common amongst rushes (Juncus) in swampy ground, from January to March. Also occurs in the Hawaiian Islands, from which it was originally described; I have seen Butler's type, and there is no doubt whatever of its identity; probably therefore it will be found to range through all the Pacific islands.
This generic name should be substituted for Aphelia, Stph., of which lanceolana, Hb., is the representative in New Zealand. I make this change on the authority of Professor Fernald, who has specially investigated the point, and is doubtless correct.
Pyrg. eudorana, n. sp
Media, alis ant. ochreo-rufis, area basali externe non angulata, fascia media perobliqua latiore recta, strigulaque subapicali saturatioribus, ciliis purpureo-fuscis; post. flavido-albis, apice flavidiore.
Female.—20 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax purplish-ochreous. Antennæ ochreous-whitish. Abdomen and legs yellow-whitish, anterior and middle pair suffused with reddish-fuscous. Forewings broad, oblong, costa anteriorly very strongly arched, apex round-pointed, produced, hindmargin strongly sinuate, hardly oblique; purplish-ochreous, obscurely strigulated with greyish-purple; a slightly darker purplish basal patch, its outer edge extending from ⅕ of costa to ⅖ of inner margin, not angulated; central fascia straight, broad throughout, greyish purple, suffused with bright reddish-ochreous on upper half posteriorly, running from middle of costa to anal angle; a more distinct strigula from ¾ of costa to hindmargin below middle: cilia rather dark fuscous purplish. Hindwings yellow-whitish, towards apex more yellowish, somewhat spotted with pale grey towards inner margin; cilia yellow-whitish.
A handsome species, readily known by the different form of wing, straight outline of basal patch, and broad central fascia; the costa is very much more strongly arched anteriorly than in any other species. Although the male is not known to me, I have no doubt of the generic position.
Taranaki, in February; one specimen amongst forest.
Pros. elephantina, n. sp
Magna, alis ant. albido-ochreis, linea disci breviore obscura, punctisque plerisque posticis sparsis nigris; post. albidis.
Male.—27 mm. Head, palpi, and antennæ whitish-ochreous, palpi externally fuscous-tinged. Thorax pale yellowish-ochreous. Abdomen and legs whitish-ochreous, anterior and middle pair infuscated. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa slightly arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin hardly perceptibly sinuate, oblique; whitish-ochreous; a cloudy central streak from base to beyond middle more yellowish-ochreous, containing several small dots of black scales, and an ill-defined longitudinal blackish line in disc, extending from ⅓ ⅔; some fine scattered black dots towards hindmargin: cilia pale whitish-ochreous. Hindwings and cilia whitish.
Singularly distinct by its comparatively gigantic size, pale colouring, and blackish discal line.
Arthur's Pass, in January; one specimen on the grassy mountain-side at 4,700 feet.
Pros. eremana, n. sp
Parva, alis ant. fusco-ochreis, innotatis; post. saturate griseis.
Male.—12–14 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax brownish-ochreous. Antennæ dark fuscous. Abdomen dark grey. Legs whitish-ochreous. Forewings elongate-oblong, costa moderately arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin straight, oblique; uniform brownish-ochreous: cilia light brownish-ochreous. Hindwings dark grey, posteriorly still darker; cilia pale grey or whitish, with a grey line.
Closely allied to P. siriana, Meyr., but lighter, more ochreous, and recognizable by the absence of any discal dot in the forewings, and the paler cilia of the hindwings.
Castle Hill (2,500 feet), and Invercargill, frequenting swampy ground; taken commonly in December and January.
Pros. zatrophana, Meyr
(Harmologa zatrophana, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1882, 46.)
Having obtained what I believe to be undoubtedly the male of this species, I find that there is no costal fold, and the species is therefore referable to Proselena. As the male is distinctly marked, and these markings were lost in the dark suffusion of the female, I give a diagnosis and description of the former.
Parva, alis ant. læte ochreis, albido-maculosis, fascia antica angusta obliqua, altera media latiore perobliqua cum tertia postica erecta sub medio confluentibus, hac lineas duas plumbeas metallicas includente, rufo-ochreis, nigro-mixtis; post. saturate fuscis.
Male.—11–12 mm. Forewings bright ochreous, irregularly and suffusedly spotted with whitish; markings deep reddish-ochreous, somewhat mixed with blackish; a narrrow straight fascia from before ¼ of costa to beyond ⅓ of inner margin; a moderately broad very oblique fascia from costa before middle, confluent in middle of disc with a similar straight fascia from ¾ of costa to inner margin before anal angle, the latter fascia containing two irregular incomplete metallic-grey transverse lines: cilia bright ochreous, towards tips paler. Hindwings dark fuscous; cilia grey-whitish, with a dark grey basal line.
Common in Arthur's Pass from 2,600 to 3,000 feet, flying freely over thick herbage in January.
Harm. oblongana, Walk
Larva 16-legged, rather stout, cylindrical, somewhat tapering at both ends; dull grey; dorsal slender, dark grey; subdorsal indistinctly darker than ground-colour; spots small, pale, dark-centred; head and second segment dark fuscous. Feeds on Discaria toumatou, forming a shelter of
very dense web, and loose silken galleries, along the branches, I found these larvæ at the beginning of February, near Castle Hill; from their habit I was led to expect one of the Pyralidina. They are doubtless not confined to this food-plant.
Harm. latomana, n. sp
Media, alis ant. albis, area basali bis secta externe perobliqua, fascia media cum macula costæ postica tripunctata per dentem fere connexa, altera etiam e margine postico in angulum analem percurrente flavido-fuscis, nigro-mixtis; post, albis, apice griseo-suffuso.
Female.—20 mm. Head whitish, spotted with ochreous behind antennæ. Palpi whitish, towards apex of second joint ochreous. Antennæ blackish. Thorax blackish, somewhat mixed with ochreous, apex of patagia and posterior margin white. Abdomen and legs whitish, anterior tarsi dark fuscous internally. Forewings elongate-oblong, costa strongly arched towards base, somewhat sinuate beyond middle, apex very obtusely rounded, hindmargin slightly rounded, hardly oblique; white, with a few grey scales; markings fuscous, densely mixed with yellow-ochreous and black; basal patch with outer edge straight, very oblique, from ⅕ of costa to beyond middle of inner margin, cut in middle and beneath costa by two very irregular longitudinal streaks of ground-colour; central fascia moderate, from before middle of costa to anal angle, anterior edge connected with basal patch above middle and on inner margin by cloudy fuscous bars, posterior edge giving rise in middle to a strong irregular projection almost or quite touching an elongate spot which extends along costa from middle to near apex, and contains three white dots; a small spot on costa immediately before apex; a tolerably straight irregular fascia from hindmargin above middle to lower extremity of central fascia; an irregular hindmarginal line: cilia pure white, base ochreous spotted with dark fuscous. Hindwings white, suffused with grey towards apex; cilia white.
A very distinct species, but evidently allied to H. ænea and H. siræa.
Arthur's Pass, at 4,700 feet, in January; one specimen.
Harm. siræa, n. sp
Media, alis ant. ♂ ochreis, costa late ochreo-rufa, ♀ dilute stramineis; post. ♂ griseis, apicem versus saturatioribus, ♀ albis.
Male.—21 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax brownish-ochreous mixed with grey; thorax hairy beneath. Antennæ stout, dark fuscous. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs whitish-ochreous. Forewings moderate, oblong, costal fold very short, costa moderately arched towards base, thence straight, apex obtusely rounded, hindmargin rounded, not oblique; yellow-ochreous, becoming deeper towards inner margin; a broad reddish-ochreous-brown streak along costa from base to apex, becoming deep ashy-grey towards costa,
pointed at apex; extreme costal edge whitish: cilia pale grey, tips whitish. Hindwings grey, becoming dark grey posteriorly, costa suffusedly yellow-whitish; cilia yellow-whitish, with an indistinct greyish line.
Female.—22–23 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax yellowish-white. Antennæ whitish. Abdomen and legs white, anterior and middle pair light ochreous. Forewings as in male, but hindmargin straighter; whitish-yellowish, interspersed with pale-greyish; costa suffusedly white: cilia white, base whitish-yellowish. Hindwings white, towards inner margin faintly suffused with very pale greyish; cilia white.
Allied to H. ænea, but smaller, and distinguished in both sexes by the absence of yellow in the hindwings; in the male also by the conspicuous dark costal stripe; in the female by the pale yellowish forewings.
Arthur's Pass; four specimens (1 male, 3 females) taken in a grassy place at about 4,500 feet, in January.
Ctenopseustis, n. g
Thorax smooth. Antennæ in male shortly ciliated. Palpi moderate, porrected, second joint roughly scaled. Forewings in male with strong costal fold. Hindwings broader than forewings, lower median vein with strong basal pecten. Forewings with 12 veins, 7 and 8 separate, 7 to hindmargin. Hindwings with 8 veins, 3 and 4 from a point, 5 approximated to 4 at base, 6 and 7 from a point. Abdomen in male with genital uncus well developed.
Cten. obliquana, Walk
(Pædisca obliquana, Walk.; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1882, 60.)
Professor Fernald assures me that the genital uncus of the male (the value of which as a divisional character he has been the first to discover in this group) is never developed in the Grapholithidæ, and that this species (of which I sent him specimens) should therefore be included in the Tortricidæ, notwithstanding the pectination of the lower median vein, this latter structure being indeed also found in œnectra, which is certainly referable to the Tortricidæ. In this view I quite concur, and therefore place the species here, which involves the formation of a new genus for its reception as above, since it differs from œnectra by the costal fold and separations of veins 7 and 8 of the forewings, and from the rest of the family by the basal pecten of the hindwings.
The characters given for this genus are in part quite erroneous; this is in some measure due to my having mistaken my single specimen for a male, whilst it proves to be a female; I have since obtained several specimens of both sexes, and therefore give a fresh and more correct characterization of the genus, with some additions to the specific description, as the species is
found to be very variable. Moreover the development of the genital uncus proves that the genus must be transferred with the preceding to the Tortricidæ; it differs from œnectra by the costal fold, from Ctenopseustis by the stalking of veins 7 and 8 of the forewings, from both by the triple thoracic crest. The combination of characters in this genus is very interesting.
Thorax with a large erect crest on each side of back, and a small double crest behind. Antennæ in male shortly ciliated. Palpi moderate, straight, porrected, second joint with appressed scales. Forewings in male with strong costal fold. Hindwings broader than forewings, lower median vein with strong basal pecten. Forewings with 12 veins, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to near below apex. Hindwings with 8 veins, 3 and 4 separate, 3, 4, and 5 more or less closely approximated at base, 6 and 7 stalked. Abdomen in male with genital uncus well developed.
Epalx. axenana, Meyr
Male, female.—19–26 mm. Forewings in male with apex less produced, hindmargin more perpendicular; very variable; markings always of same form but differing much in intensity, sometimes mixed with ochreous-greenish, or partially blackish; in both males the markings are suffused with blackish towards costa; in one female the whole dorsal half of wing beneath a straight line from middle of base to apex suffused with blackish, costal half unusually light. Hindwings in male pale grey; in female often more or less ochreous posteriorly.
Seven specimens (2 males, 5 females), taken at Palmerston and Taranaki, amongst forest; in March.
Cac. alopecana, n. sp
Minor, alis ant. ochreo-rufis, area basali, fascia media obliqua inferius dilatata, maculaque costæ postica interdum saturatioribus, sæpius obsoletis; post. albidis, griseo-maculosis, apice rufescente; antennarum ciliis longis.
Male, female.—15–17 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax reddish-ochreous-brown. Antennæ dark fuscous, in male with joints sharply angularly dilated at apex, ciliations long, twice the width of the joint. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Legs ochreous-brown, anterior tibiæ and tarsi dark fuscous, posterior pair ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderate, in male triangular, in female tolerably oblong, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin sinuate, slightly oblique; reddish-ochreous-brown, varying in intensity, with numerous small dark leaden-grey spots, which are stronger and more purplish in female; an indefinable basal patch, a central oblique fascia apparently dilated on lower half, a triangular costal spot, and a hind-marginal suffusion sometimes obscurely darker, but generally obsolete: sometimes some evenly-scattered black dots, especially towards hindmargin:
cilia reddish-ochreous-brown, becoming whitish-ochreous at tips, on anal angle dark grey. Hindwings whitish, spotted with grey except posteriorly, apex reddish; cilia whitish, with an obscure grey basal line.
I am compelled to separate this species from C. excessana on account of the structural difference in the antennæ of the male; otherwise I should certainly have regarded it as a mere variety. It is constantly much smaller than the average of that species, but C. excessana is occasionally quite as small; it is also much redder, and the hindwings are more clearly whitish, but these points are quite indefinable, and would not be sufficient for demarcation; moreover I conceive that the diminished size and the reddish colouring of both larva and imago are the direct effect of the peculiar foodplant. But the antennæ of the male are in C. excessana tolerably filiform, the joints hardly dilated, the ciliations not longer than the width of the joints; whilst in C. alopecana they are conspicuously serrate, the joints almost triangular, and the ciliations much longer, fully twice the greatest width of the joints. These differences are quite constant, and must be regarded as sufficient.
Larva 16-legged, moderate, cylindrical, somewhat-tapering at both ends; variable, yellowish to ochreous-fuscous; segmental incisions and sometimes sides ochreous-carmine; spots large, pale, in some lights whitish; head and second segment ochreous-fuscous. Feeds in spun shoots and between joined leaves of Phyllocladus alpinus (Coniferæ), in January. Pupa in the same position.
I took two specimens in the forests on the Bealey River (2,100 feet) in January, and at the same time found larvæ feeding, from which I bred three more specimens in February.
This form of the name, which is orthographically the more correct, should be substituted for Conchylidæ.
The pectination of the lower median vein of the hindwings in this genus is, so far as I can ascertain, confined to the female; the male does not possess any trace of it. I had originally supposed that this was due to denudation in the case of the two or three male specimens which I possessed, but having since acquired more material, I find it to be the normal structure. I think however that the point is not less valuable for generic separation; in the female of Paramorpha, which is the nearest allied genus, this well-developed pecten does not exist.
Het. cryodana, n. sp
Minor, alis ant. albis, griseo-irroratis, strigula e basi sub costa breviore, squamis paucis sparsis, interdum etiam striga disci media nigris; post. griseo-albidis.
Male, female.—16–17 mm. Head and thorax white, slightly speckled with grey. Palpi in male moderate, in female long; lower half dark fuscous, upper half white. Antennæ whitish. Abdomen and legs ochreous-whitish, anterior and middle pair dark fuscous except apex of joints. Forewings elongate, narrow, tolerably oblong, costa moderately arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin straight, very oblique; white, densely irrorated with pale fuscous-grey; a short black streak from base beneath costa; tufts preceded by a few black scales; sometimes a thick irregular blackish longitudinal streak in disc, extending from ¼-⅔; cilia white, densely irrorated with pale grey. Hindwings grey-whitish; cilia whitish.
Characterized by the short black subcostal streak. The arrangement of the surface tufts of scales appears to be the same in all the species.
Dunedin and Invercargill, in September; three specimens from Leptospermum.
Het. epomiana, n. sp
Minor, alis ant. dilutissime griseis, partim albo-conspersis, macula costæ basali nigra, maculis costæ sex parvis, aliisque disci plerisque obscuris fuscis; post. griseo-albidis.
Female.—17 mm. Head and thorax white, irrorated with light grey. Palpi rather long, lower half dark fuscous, upper white. Antennæ whitish. Abdomen and legs ochreous-whitish, anterior pair suffused with dark fuscous, middle pair greyish. Forewings elongate, narrow, oblong, costa moderately arched, somewhat bent at ⅓, apex round-pointed, hindmargin slightly sinuate, rather strongly oblique; very pale grey, irrorated with white towards costa and hindmargin, and with scattered dark fuscous scales; a blackish elongate spot along costa at base; a blackish dot above inner margin near base; costa with six small fuscous spots between ⅓ and apex; discal and posterior tufts also preceded by small obscure fuscous spots: cilia pale grey mixed with whitish. Hindwings and cilia grey-whitish.
Easily recognizable by the conspicuous elongate black spot on base of costa.
Otira River; one specimen amongst forest at 1,600 feet, in January.