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Volume 17, 1884
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– 275 –

Art. XXXII.—On the Botany of Te Aroha Mountain.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 29th September, 1884.]

Te Aroha Mountain stands at the head of the Thames Valley on the right bank of the Waihou River. Its height is 3,176 feet, and thus it is the highest mountain north of the Lower Waikato River.

At a distance it appears to be a continuation of the Coromandel Range; but a nearer examination shows that it is an isolated mountain, and, from a botanical point of view, more closely allied to Karioi and Pirongio on the west side of the Waikato Plains than to the high mountains of the Thames District.

The mountain is somewhat of a pyramidal shape. The side of the base facing the river runs north-west and south-east. On this side, towards its northern end, there are a number of hot springs and mineral springs, with a considerable formation of stalagmite, which is constantly precipitated from the waters of the springs.

The town of Te Aroha is built close to these springs. At the southern end of the same base line at a distance of three miles is situated the township of Wairongomai, so called from the stream that flows from the north-east along another side of this irregular pyramid.

The mountain rises on all sides in a very steep incline; but forms a series of broad plateaux from the base to the summit. At each succeeding plateau in the ascent, a change takes place in the vegetation. The traveller's joy (Clematis indivisa), tataka (Melicope ternata), titoki (Alectryon excelsum), kowhai (Sophora tetraptera), tea-tree (Leptospermum scoparium), ramarama (Myrtus bullata), puketea (Laurelia novæ-zealandiæ), mangeao (Litsæa calicaris), which are abundant near the base of the mountain, are gradually replaced, at higher elevations, by the different species of maire (Olea cunninghamii, O. lanceolata, O. montana), by totara (Podocarpus totara), rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum), kauri (Agathis australis): These again are replaced at higher elevations by neinei (Dracophyllum latifolium), pahautea (Libocedrus bidwillii), tanekaha (Phyllocladus alpina). There- are some plants, such as kotukutuku (Fuchsia excorticata), kohekohe (Dysoxylum spectabile), and taua (Bulschmudia taua), that are abundant from the base almost to the summit.

Indeed Fuchsia excorticata appears to grow as well on the summit of the mountain as on the banks of the Wairongomai Creek.

A very remarkable change takes place in the vegetation about 700 feet from the top of the mountain.

The rimu, Ixerba, Quintinia, and tawhero are suddenly exchanged for groves of neinei from fifteen to twenty feet high, and straggling trees of tanekaha (Phyllocladus alpina) and of pahautea (Libocedrus bidwillii).

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The plants peculiar to the broad but irregular summit of the mountain are Panax sinclarii, P. colensoi, Coprosma, colensoi, Dracophyllum latifolium, D. urvilleanum, Myrsine salicina, Fagus menziesii, Libocedrus bidwillii, Phyllocladus alpina, Hymenophyllum pulcherrimum, H. malingii. To these ought to be added Cordyline indivisa according to the unanimous testimony of Maoris, but I could not find it.

The humidity of the top of the mountain makes it one of the most favourable localities for ferns; not only for luxuriance of growth, but also for variety of species. This reference to the wonderful natural fernery on the north-west slope, near the trig. station, will appear very tame and common-place to any botanist who has the good fortune to visit the locality on a fine day.

The flowering plants, which are characteristic of the high peaks of the Thames Range, are not found on Te Aroha Mountain. The absence of Melicytus lanceolatus, Phebalium nudum, Corokia buddleoides, Metrosideros albiflora, Panax discolor, Gaultheria rupestris, and Archeria racemosa shows a botanical distinction between the Thames Range and that of Te Aroha.

At the altitude of 2,000 feet on the hillside were observed Olea cunning-hamii, O. lanceolata, O. montana, Fagus menziesii, F. fusca, and some beautiful specimens of Todea superba. This plant, which grows at 1,200 feet from the summit of Te Aroha, is found within a few yards of the summit of Pirongia.

Rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum) grows plentifully at the same level, and it is now being rapidly cut up for timber to be used in connection with the mines. There are a few kauris (Agathis australis) scattered over the hill side, which increase in number on descending to an altitude of 500 feet; but on the left side of the Wairongomai there is a large kauri forest.

The most abundant plant on the hill side, spreading over damp-rocks and forming a dense network in every mountain rill, is parataniwha (Elatostemma rugosum), of which not a specimen exists in the Thames district.

The plain at the foot of the mountain is very favourable to a variety of plants, as it is diversified by long elevated mounds, wide swamps, the stony beds of rapid streams, and the calcareous formation near the hot springs, In the latter locality there are two plants, Chenopodium glaucum and Cotula coronopifolia, not found elsewhere at Te Aroha. The abundance and variety of native grasses are much less near the springs than four years ago. It may be said of the plain generally that it contains several plants not found in the Thames district, as Potentilla anserina, Myrtus pedunculata, M. ralphii, M. obcordata, Teucridium parvifolium, Cladium articulatum, Eleocharis sphacelata, Ophioglossum lusitanicum. The sedges mentioned are very abundant.

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On a secondary range, lying to the right of the old Maori track from Wairongomai to Katikati, and elevated about 900 feet above the plain, I was pleased to find two lakes, one of which appears to be 10 chains long and 1 chain wide.

The borders of this lake are not swampy, and the middle of it appears to be deep. The Maoris informed me that it was a favourite place for fishing for eels. It is frequented by wild ducks and river gulls. Here I found Myriophyllum robustum, Aristotelia fruticosa, Myrtus pedunculata, Eugenia maire, Dacrydium intermedium, in addition to the ordinary hill vegetation.

On the dividing range between Wairongomai and Katikati I found no plants different from those found on Te Aroha Mountain except Celmisia longifolia.

I was so struck with the difference of the vegetation of Te Aroha Mountain from that of the dividing range between the Thames and Tairua Districts that I made an excursion to the high hills between Waihi and Waitekauri, which are separated from Te Aroha Mountain by the Waihi Plains, in order to discover where the rare plants on the Coromandel Range end. On the sides and summit of Te Paua I found Pamax discolor and P. anomalum, but not Archeria racemosa nor the other plants peculiar to the main range. It appears evident that the true Coromandel Range, of which Whakairi, Kaitarakihi, and Pakerarahi are high peaks, does not even extend to Waihi, but probably ends near Whangamata, at the head of the Tairua River.*

The plants that are found at Te Aroha and not found in the Thames district, are Aristotelia fruticosa, Potentilla anserina, Myriophyllum robustum, Myrtus ralphii, M. obcordata, M. pedunculata, Teucridium parviflorum, Phyllocladus alpina, Elatostemma rugosum, Libocedrus bidwillii, Eleocharis sphacelata, Cladium articulatum, Hymenophyllum pulcherrimum, H. malingii, Todea superha, Ophioglossum lusitanicum. This list no doubt does not include all those not found in the Thames District, but so far as it goes there is an

[Footnote] ∗ This statement has been verified by a recent visit to the head of the Tairua River. Here the main range rises into Mount Ngapuketurua, 2,275 feet in height, which is clothed with the same vegetation as the other high mountains on the Coromandel Range. There is the same abundance of Panax discolor, Archeria racemosa, and Dacrydium intermedium. In fact, it is essentially a part of Whakairi from a botanical point of view. I found Melicytus lanceolatus and Coprosma fœtidissima at a somewhat higher elevation than the kauri forest, but not abundant. These two plants appear to spread vigorously some years after the mountain forest has been partly cleared. It is worthy of remark that the five high peaks—Mamaepuke, Whakairi, Kaitarakihi, Pakerarahi, and Ngapuketurua—have all immense kauri forests near the base of the respective mountains, and that these forests extend on a moderately steep incline from the main range to the east coast.

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appearance of southern species and a disappearance of some species of Pittosporum of Panax, and of heaths. This disappearance of plants closely allied to those of Northern Australia, and the appearance of South Island species, appears to bear upon the theory of the land connection of New Zealand with Australia and with the Antarctic Continent before the glacial period; but in a paper like the present, the plain duty of the writer is to state what he knows and to avoid all theoretical subjects.

In my last paper I mentioned that a Celmisia found at Table Mountain differed from the description of Celmisia longifolia in the Handbook. There is also a Celmisia growing on parts of the dividing range at Te Aroha, which is no doubt a variety of Celmisia longifolia, but the following descriptions of both plants will, I think, show that the Whakairi plant is a different species.

Celmisia, sp. Whakairi

Leaves 4–7 inches long .7 inch broad lanceolate acuminate flat, distantly toothed. Upper surface dull green almost glabrous. Under surface, cottony, tomentose except the midrib, which is light brown glabrous raised above the leaf, and forms when dry a conspicuous band .07 inch wide. The leaves are sometimes purple at the base. Scapes 7–8 inches long rather weak, bracts leafy. Involucral scales silky subulate green. Rays few .75 inches long, ligules broad. Pappus hairs yellow brown, weak, .2 inch long. Achene brown glabrous, .15 inch long.

Celmisia longifolia. Te Aroha

Leaves, 3 ½–4 inches long, .1 inch broad, revolute, covered with a grey tomentum, especially on the under surface, rather coriaceous, uniform in colour to the base. Scapes rather stiff, cottony; bracts linear. Involucral scales cottony; points brown. Rays many, .5 inch long. Pappus hairs numerous, stiff, .3 inch long. Achene glabrous, white, .25 inch long.

The following list of plants, observed at Te Aroha, cannot be regarded as complete; for although I made two visits to the district, they were both in the month of January. This will partly account for the few orchids observed, as they flower early, and at a later season are easily overlooked. Indeed, the presence of Myrtus ralphii and M. obcordata mentioned above, but not included in my list, rests on the testimony of my friend Mr. Cheeseman, who observed several plants not seen by me. My exploration, of the mountain commenced at an elevation of about 2,000 feet, where I was cataloguing for some days before I visited the base or the summit, and this led me to remark on the locality of the plants in my catalogue, as the absence of some plants and the presence of others on the mountain side were to me alike surprising.

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  • Catalogue of Flowering Plants and Ferns observed at Te Aroha Mountain.

  • Clematis indivisa, Willd. On the mountain side.

  • C. hexasepala, DC. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Ranunculus plebeius, Br. Outskirts of the forest.

  • R. rivularis, Banks and Sol. Flat and marshy ground.

  • Drimys axillaris, Forst. Ascending to high elevations.

  • Nasturtium palustre, DC. Low and damp places.

  • Cardamine hirsuta, Linn. Outskirts of forest.

  • C. stylosa, DC. Outskirts of forest.

  • Viola filicaulis, Hook. f. Marshy ground.

  • Melicytus ramiflorus, Forst. Ascending to high elevations.

  • Pittosporum tenuifolium, Banks and Sol. Near banks of streams on the flat.

  • P. umbellatum, " "

  • P. crassifolium, " "

  • P. cornifolium, A. Cunn. High elevations.

  • Stellaria parviflora, Banks and Sol. Low levels near mountain streams.

  • Hypericum japonicum, Thumb. Flat and marshy ground.

  • Aristotelia racemosa, Hook. f. Widespread.

  • A. fruticosa, Hook. f. Mountain lake.

  • Elæocarpus dentatus, A. Cunn. Common at high elevations.

  • Geranium dissectum, Linn. On mounds in the flat.

  • G. microphyllum, Hook. f. On mounds in the flat.

  • Pelargonium australe, Willd. Common on low grounds.

  • Oxalis corniculata, Linn. Common on low grounds.

  • Melicope ternata, Forst. Outskirts of forest.

  • M. simplex, A. Cunn. Low ground, banks of streams.

  • Dysoxylum spectabile, Hook. f. Ascending more than 2,000 feet.

  • Pomaderris phylicifolia, Forst. On the flat.

  • Alectryon excelsum, DC. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Corynocarpus Iævigata, Forst. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Coriaria ruscifolia, Linn. Along Wairongomai Creek.

  • Carmichælia australis, Br. Banks of Waihou.

  • Sophora tetraptera, Aiton. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Rubus australis, Forst. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Potentilla anserina, Linn. On the flat.

  • Acæna sanguisorbæ, Vahl. On the flat.

  • Quintinia serrata, A. Cunn. Mountain top.

  • Q. elliptica, Hook. f. Mountain top.

  • Ixerba breaxioides, A. Cunn. Mountain top.

  • Carpodetus serratus, Forst. Ascending to high elevations.

  • Weinmannia sylvicola, Banks & Sol. Ascending to high elevations.

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  • W. racemosa, Forst. Mountain top.

  • Drosera binata, Labill. Low and swampy ground.

  • D. auriculata, Backhouse. On the flat.

  • Haloragis alata, Jacq. Outskirts of the forest.

  • H. tetrogyna, Labill. On the flat.

  • H. depressa, Hook. f. At high elevations.

  • H. micrantha, Br. On the flat.

  • Myriophyllum elatinoides, Gaudichaud. Wet places on the flat.

  • M. variæfolium, Hook. f. Streams near Waihou.

  • M. robustum, Hook. f. Mountain lake.

  • Callitriche verna, Linn. Swampy places.

  • Leptospermum scoparium, Forst. Outskirts of the forest.

  • L. ericoides, A. Rich. Mountain sides.

  • Metrosideros florida, Sm. Ascending to high elevations.

  • M. diffusa, Smith. Ascending to high elevations.

  • M. hypericifolia, A. Cunn. Ascending to high elevations.

  • M. scandens, Banks & Sol. Ascending to high elevations.

  • Myrtus bullata, Banks & Sol. Outskirts of forest.

  • M. pedunculata, Hook. f. Near mountain lake.

  • Eugenia maire, A. Cunn. Near mountain lake.

  • Fuchsia excorticata, Linn. Ascending to summit.

  • Epilobium nummularifolium, A. Cunn. Near streams in the flat.

  • E. alsinoides, A. Cunn. Near streams in the flat.

  • E. rotundifolium, Forst. Near streams in the flat.

  • E. glabellum, Forst. On the mountain side.

  • E. tetragonum, Linn. On the mountain side.

  • E. junceum, Forst. On the mountain side.

  • E. pubens, A. Rich. In marshy places on the flat.

  • E. billardierianum, Seringe. In marshy places on the flat.

  • S. pallidiflorum, Sol. In marshy places on the flat.

  • Hydrocotyle asiatica, Linn. In marshy places on the flat.

  • H. dissecta, Hook. f. Near banks of streams.

  • H. pterocarpa, F. Muell. On dry mounds on the flat.

  • H. novæ-zealandiæ, DC. On dry mounds on the flat.

  • H. moschata, Forst. On the mountain side.

  • Daucus brachiatus, Sieber. On the flat.

  • Panax simplex, Forst. Summit of the mountain.

  • P. edgerleyi, Hook. f. Dividing range.

  • P. crassifolium, Dcne. and Planch. Mountain side.

  • P. colensoi, Hook. f. Mountain side.

  • P. arboreum, Forst. Ascending to the summit.

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  • P. sinclairii, Hook. f. Summit of the mountain.

  • Schefflera digitata, Forst. Mountain side.

  • Griselinia lucida, Forst. Mountain side.

  • G. littoralis, Raoul Choix. Mountain side.

  • Alseuosmia macrophylla, A. Cunn. Mountain side.

  • Coprosma lucida, Forst. Ascending to high elevations.

  • C. grandifolia, Hook. f. Ascending to high elevations.

  • C. robusta, Raoul. Ascending from the flat to 1,500 feet.

  • C. spathulata, A. Cunn. Mountain side.

  • C. rotundifolia, A. Cunn. On the flat.

  • C. fœtidissima, Forst. Ascending to high elevations.

  • C. colensoi, Hook. f. Summit.

  • Nertera dichondræfolia, Hook. f. Mountain lake.

  • N. cunninghamii, Hook f. On the flat.

  • Galium tenuicaule, A. Cunn. On the flat.

  • Lagenophora forsteri, DC. On the flat.

  • L. petiolata, Hook. f. On the dividing range.

  • Olearia cunninghamii, Hook. f. Outskirts of the forest.

  • O. albida, Hook. f. On the flat.

  • Celmisia longifolia, Cass. On the dividing range.

  • Gnaphalium luteo-album, Linn. Near streams in the flat.

  • G. involucratum, Forst. Near streams in the flat.

  • Raoulia australis, Hook f. Mountain streams.

  • R. tenuicaulis, Hook. f. Gravelly beds of streams.

  • Cotula coronopifolia, Linn. Near hot springs only.

  • C. australis, Hook. Waysides.

  • Erechtites arguta, DC. Upper course of Wairongomai Creek.

  • E. prenanthoides, DC. Upper course of Wairongomai Creek.

  • E. quadridentata, DC. Upper course of Wairongomai Creek.

  • Senecio glastifolius, Hook. f. Summit of the mountain.

  • Brachyglottis repanda, Forst. Wairongomai Creek.

  • Taraxacum dens-leonis, Desf. Hot springs.

  • Sonchus oleraceus, Linn. Mountain sides.

  • Pratia angulata, Hook f. Mountain streams.

  • Lobelia anceps, Thunberg. Not common on the flat.

  • Wahlenbergia gracilis, A. Rich. On the flat.

  • Gaultheria antipoda, Forst. High elevations.

  • Cyathodes acerosa, Br. High elevations.

  • Leucopogon fasciculatus, A. Rich. High elevations.

  • L. fraseri, A. Cunn. Mounds on the flat.

  • Epacris pauciflora, A. Rich. Mounds on the flat.

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  • Dracophyllum latifolium, A Cunn. Abundant near the summit.

  • D. menziesii, Hook. f. Abundant near the summit.

  • D. urvilleanum, A. Rich. Growing on rocks near the summit.

  • Myrsine salcina, Howard, M.SS. Mountain side.

  • M. urvillei, A. DC. Mountain side.

  • Olea cunninghamii, Hook. f. Numerous at an elevation of 2,000 feet.

  • O. lanceolata, Hook. f. Numerous at an elevation of 2,000 feet.

  • O. montana, Hook. f. Numerous at an elevation of 2,000 feet.

  • Parsonsia albiflora, Raoul. Mountain sides.

  • P. rosea, Raoul. Mountain sides.

  • Geniostoma ligustrifolia, A. Cunn. Mountain sides.

  • Calystegia sepium, Linn. Common on the flat.

  • Dichondra repens, Forst. Near the banks of Waihou.

  • Solanum aviculare, Forst. Upper course of Wairongomai Creek.

  • S. nigrum, Linn. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Veronica salicifolia, Forst. Common on the flat.

  • Rhabdothamnus solandri, A. Cunn. Outskirts of forest.

  • Vitex littoralis, A. Cunn. Mountain side.

  • Teucridium parviflorum, Hook. f. River banks.

  • Chenopodium glaucum, Linn. Hot springs.

  • Polygonum minus, Huds. River bed.

  • P. aviculare, Linn. In streams near River Waihou.

  • Muhlenbeckia adpressa, Lab. On the flat.

  • M. complexa, Meisn. Upper course of Wairongomai Creek.

  • Piper excelsum, Forst. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Peperomia urvilleana, A. Rich. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Hedycarya dentata, Forst. Mountain side.

  • Laurelia novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Outskirts of forest.

  • Bulschmudia tarairi, Hook f. Mountain side.

  • B. taua, Hook f. Ascending to high elevations.

  • Litsæa calicaris, Hook. f. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Persoonia toro, A. Cunn. Mountain side.

  • Knightia excelsa, Br. Mountain side.

  • Pimelea prostrata, Vahl. Along the beds of streams in the flat.

  • Loranthus tetrapetalus, Forst. At high elevations.

  • Fusonus cunninghamii, Hook. f. Mountain sides.

  • Parahophis mycrophyllis, Raoul Choix. Along River Waihou.

  • Elatostemma rugosum, A. Cunn. Mountain sides.

  • Fagus menziesii, Hook. f. Summit of the mountain.

  • F. fusca, Hook. f. High elevations.

  • Libocedrus bidwillii, Hook. f. Near the summit.

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  • Phyllocladus glauca. High elevations.

  • P. trichomanoides, Don. High elevations.

  • P. alpina, Hook. f. Summit of the mountain.

  • Dacrydium cupressinum, Soland. High elevations.

  • D. intermedium. Mountain lake.

  • Podocarpus ferruginea, Don. Mountain side.

  • P. totara, A. Cunn. Mountain side.

  • P. dacrydioides, A. Rich. Along the banks of Waihou.

  • Agathis australis, Lambert. Mountain side.

  • Earina mucronata, Lindl. High elevations.

  • E. autumnalis, Hook. f. High elevations.

  • Dendrobium cunninghamii, Lindl. High elevations.

  • Bolbophyllum pygmæum, Lindl. High elevations.

  • Sarcochilus adversus, Hook f. High elevations.

  • Corysanthes triloba, Hook. f. Near the summit.

  • C. oblonga, Hook. f. Near the summit.

  • C. rotundifolia, Hook. f. Near the summit.

  • C. rivularis, Hook. f. Mountain side.

  • Chiloglottis cornuta, Hook. f. Mountain side.

  • Pterostylis banksii, Brown. Mountain side.

  • Thelymitra longifolia, Forst. On the flat.

  • Orthoceras solandri, Lindl. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Libertia ixioides, Sprengel. Outskirts of the forest.

  • L. micrantha, A. Cunn. Near the summit.

  • Freycinetia banksii, A. Cunn. Mountain side.

  • Typha angustifolia, Linn. Marshy places in the flat.

  • Sparganium simplex, Huds. Marshy places in the flat.

  • Potamogeton natans, Linn. In streams and ponds.

  • P. polygonifolius. In streams and ponds.

  • Rhipogonum scandens, Forst. Ascending to high elevations.

  • Callixene parviflora, Forst. Near the summit.

  • Cordyline australis, Hook. f. On the flat.

  • C. banksii, Hook. f. Summit of the mountain.

  • C. indivisa, Kunth. Not seen but doubtless growing on the mountain.

  • C. pumilio, Hook f. Near the summit.

  • Dianella intermedia, Endl. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Astelia cunninghamii, Hook. f. Ascending to high elevations.

  • A. solandri, A. Cunn. Ascending to high elevations.

  • A. banksii, A. Cunn. On the summit of mountain.

  • A. grandis. On the summit of mountain.

  • A. trinervia. Near the summit.

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  • Arthropodium candidum, Raoul. Near mountain streams.

  • Phormium tenax, Forst. Low and marshy ground.

  • P. colensoi, Hook. f. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Areca sapida, Soland. Mountain side.

  • Juncus communis, E. Meyer. Low grounds.

  • J. planifolius, Br. Mountain side.

  • J. bufonius, Linn. Mountain side.

  • J. holoschœnus, Br. Mountain side.

  • Cyperus ustulatus, A. Rich. On the flat.

  • Eleocharis sphacelata, Br. Swampy ponds.

  • E. acuta, Br. On the flat.

  • Scirpus riparius, Br. Wet places on the flat.

  • S. inundatus, Br. Wet places on the flat.

  • S. nodosus, Br. Wet places on the flat.

  • S. lacustris, Linn. Wet places on the flat.

  • S. maritimus, Linn. Wet places on the flat.

  • Isolepis prolifer, Br. Wet places on the flat.

  • Schœnus axillaris, Hook. f. Outskirts of the forest.

  • S. tendo, Banks and Sol. Dividing range.

  • S. brownii, Hook. f. Mountain side.

  • Lepidosperma australe, Labill. Mounds on the flat.

  • Cladium articulatum, Br. Swamps on the flat.

  • Cladium glomeratum, Br. Low swampy places.

  • C. teretifolium, Br. Mountain lake.

  • C. junceum, Br. On the flat.

  • Gahnia setifolia, Hook. f. Outskirts of the forest.

  • G. hectori. High elevations.

  • G. lacera, Steudel. Mountain sides.

  • G. arenaria, Hook. f. On the dividing range.

  • Uncinia australis, Persoon. Mountain side.

  • U. ferruginea, Boott. Mountain side.

  • U. rupestris, Raoul. Mountain side.

  • U. banksii, Boott. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Carex virgata, Solander. On the flat.

  • C. gaudichaudiana, Kunth. Low and swampy places.

  • C. ternaria, Forst. Low and swampy places.

  • C. forsteri, Wahlenberg. Outskirts of the forest.

  • C. pseudo-cyperus. Swampy places.

  • C. dissita, Solander. Swampy places.

  • C. vacillans, Solander. Mountain side.

  • Microlæna stipoides, Br. On the flat.

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  • M. avenacea, Hook. f. Mountain side.

  • M. polynoda, Hook. f. On the flat.

  • Hierochloe redolens, Br. Swamps.

  • Pasaslum distichum, Burman. Swamps.

  • Isachne australis, Br. Swamps.

  • Echinopogon ovatus, Palisot. Pasture land on the flat.

  • Dichelachne crinita, Hook. f. Pasture land on the flat.

  • D. sciurea, Hook. f. Pasture land on the flat.

  • Sporobolus indicus, Br. Pasture land on the flat:

  • Deyeuxia billardieri, Br. Near hot springs.

  • D. avenoides, Hook. f. Near hot springs.

  • D. youngii, Hook. f. High grounds.

  • D. quadriseta, Br. On the flat.

  • Arundo conspicua, Forst. Swamps.

  • Danthonia semi-annularis, Br. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Deschampsia cæspitosa, Palisot. Low grounds.

  • Glyceria stricta, Hook. f. Mountain side.

  • Poa anceps, Forst. Mountain side.

  • Triticum multiflorum, Banks and Sol. Pasture land on the flat.

  • Gymnostichum gracile, Hook. f. Mountain side.

  • Gleichenia dicarpa, Br. In swampy ground.

  • G. flabellata, Br. Mountain side.

  • G. cunninghamii, Howard. Mountain side.

  • Cyathea medullaris, Swartz. Mountain side.

  • C. dealbata, Swartz. Mountain side.

  • Hemitelia smithii, Hook. f. Mountain side.

  • Dicksonia squarrosa, Swartz. Mountain side.

  • D. lanata, Col. in Tasm. Journ. Mountain side.

  • Hymenophyllum rarum, Br. Near the summit of the mountain.

  • H. polyanthos, Swartz. Near the summit of the mountain.

  • H. javanicum, Wallich. Near the summit of the mountain.

  • H. demissum, Swartz. Near the summit of the mountain.

  • H. flabellatum, Labill. Near the summit of the mountain.

  • H. scabrum, A. Rich. Near the summit of the mountain.

  • H. dilatatum, Swartz. Near the summit of the mountain.

  • H. rufescens, Carmichael. Near the summit of the mountain.

  • H. malingii, Hook. On the summit.

  • H. tunbridgense, Smith. On the summit.

  • H. multifidum, Swartz. Common on the mountain.

  • H. bivalve, Swartz. Common on the mountain.

  • H. minimum, A. Rich. Summit.

– 286 –
  • Trichomanes reniforme, Forst. Summit.

  • T. humile, Forst. Near the summit.

  • T. strictum, Menzies. Rocky elevated places.

  • Davallia novæ-zealandiæ, Col. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Lindsæa trichomanoides, Swartz. Mountain side.

  • Adiantum affine, Willdenow. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Adiantum fulvum, Raoul. Outskirts of the forest.

  • A. hispidulum, Swartz. On the flat.

  • Hypolepis tenuifolia, Bernhardi. Mountain side.

  • Pellæa rotundifolia, Forst. On the flat.

  • P. falcata, Br. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Pteris tremula, Br. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Pt. aquilina, Linn. On the flat.

  • Pt. scaberula, A. Rich. Mountain side.

  • Pt. macilenta, A. Rich. Outskirts of the forest.

  • Pt. incisa, Thunberg. Mountain side.

  • Lomaria patersoni, A. Cunn. Mountain side.

  • L. discolor, Willdenow. Mountain side.

  • L. lanceolata, Sprengel. Mountain side.

  • L. procera, Sprengel. Hot springs.

  • L. filiformis, A. Cunn. Mountain side.

  • L. nigra, Colenso. Mountain streams.

  • L. fluviatilis, Sprengel. Mountain side.

  • L. membranacea, Colenso. Mountain side.

  • L. fraseri, A. Cunn. Mountain side.

  • Doodia media, Br. On the flat.

  • Asplenium obtusatum, Forst. On the flat.

  • A. falcatum, Lamarck. Mountain side.

  • A. hookerianum, Colenso. Swampy places on the flat.

  • A. bulbiferum, Forst. Mountain side.

  • A. flaccidum, Forst. Mountain side.

  • A. lucidum, Forst. Mountain side.

  • Aspidium richardii, Hook. Outskirt of the forest.

  • A. oculatum, Hook. Mountain side.

  • A. capense. Near the summit.

  • Nephrodium decompositum, Br. Mountain side.

  • N. hispidum, Hook. Mountain side.

  • Polypodium punctatum, Forst. Mountain side.

  • P. pennigerum, Forst. Mountain side.

  • P. australe, Mettenius. Mountain side.

  • P. grammitidis, Br. On trees at high elevations.

– 287 –
  • P. tenellum, Forst. On trees at high elevations.

  • P. cunnighamii, Hook. On trees at high elevations.

  • P. billardieri, Br. On trees at high, elevations.

  • P. rugulosum, Labill. Mountain side.

  • Todea hymenophylloides, Presl. Mountain side.

  • T. superba, Hook. At an elevation from 2,000 feet to 2,600 feet.

  • Schizæa bifida, Swartz. High elevations.

  • Lygodium articulatum, A. Rich. Mountain side.

  • Ophioglossum lusitanicum, Willdenow. Near swamps.

  • Botrychium ternatum, Swartz. Banks of streams in the flat.

  • Lycopodium varium, Br. Near the summit.

  • L. billardieri, Spreng. Mountain sides.

  • L. densum, Labill. On the dividing range.

  • L. laterale, Br. High elevations.

  • L. clavatum, Linn. High elevations.

  • L. volubile, Forst. High elevations.

  • Tmesipteris forsteri, Endlicher. High elevations.