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Volume 18, 1885
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Art. I.—The Maori in Asia.

[Read before the Philosophical Society, Wellington, 12th August, 1885.]

One who is an authority on Philology (Dr. Latham), when commenting on the Polynesian language, says “The first thing which commands attention is its thorough insular or oceanic character.”

It is this mistake, made by all the other European scientists also, which it is my endeavour to correct; so far from being insular, its every word is kindred to the speech of the mainland, and, far from being oceanic, it stretches from Iceland and the Isle of Man across the continents of Europe and Asia.

In reading this paper, I must consider the argument used in “The Aryan Maori” as being in the possession of my hearers. I have arrived at the conclusion, mainly by the evidence of language, that the Maori is a branch of that great race which conquered and occupied the major part of Europe, Persia, and India. Of the three divisions of language, the monosyllabic, the agglutinated, and the inflected, the Aryans have been supposed to possess the characteristic of an inflected grammar, while the Maori has been set down among the agglutinated group. But, however true it may be that the Aryan languages are now inflected, I think it can hardly be pretended that they were always thus; grammar is a mere matter of development, and the primitive tribes from whom we are all descended troubled themselves little with the intricacies of scholasticism; the “bare-limbed men with stone axes on their shoulders” who conquered Europe had not conquered the Greek grammar, nor had the victors over the Nagas of India evolved the “rules of external and internal Sandhi” to vex the soul of the student of Sanscrit. The Maori has crystallized his speech in that mode which the primitive Aryans used, perhaps 4,000, perhaps 6,000 years ago.

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It may be said, perhaps, that I throw too much importance into the resemblances of words, and that the community of language is not the only conclusive proof of unity of race. But, each to his own department, it will be for the geologist, the anthropologist, and the general historian to deal with the question more fully—where I go outside the province of language I do so only in the briefest manner. But it is to language that the scientist looks for his most conclusive evidence of common descent. The measurement of skulls, the comparisons of religions, the groupings by shades of colour, would never have led to the certainty that the dusky Hindoo was brother to the fair Prussian, had not the testimony of language been decisive. A change of locality induces alteration in the lower animals far greater than any variety in the races of men; the pig, transported to South America, becomes in some cases red, in some black; it gets a thick fur, underneath which is wool, some even have solid hoofs; the number of the vertebræ differs in different species, and the wild hog has six incisor teeth in the upper jaw, and six in the lower, while the tame animal has only three. According to M. de Quatrefages there is a race of cattle in Piacentino which have fourteen pairs of ribs instead of thirteen. Dr. Draper affirms that darkness or fairness of skin depends on the manner in which the liver performs its duties, and that colour has no reference to race. The ravages made by even half a century of degradation, are well shown by Brace in his manual of Ethnology: “Malacca,” says Dr. Yvan, “has about 30,000 inhabitants. This population is composed of Portuguese, Dutch, English, and Chinese. Among the inhabitants of European origin, the Portuguese are the most numerous. They are, for the most part, descendants of the ancient conquerors of Malaisia. Their fathers were the companions of Vasco di Gama and Albuquerque, but like the monuments that their ancestors raised, and which cover the soil of their ruins, they also have been injured by degradation and age.” After mentioning that they are lower in every way than the Malay, that even their features have put on an Ethiopian type, he resumes: “The majority bear illustrious names, and they are ignorant who were their fathers, and what ray of the past pierces their obscurity. In the space of half a century, perhaps, religion, morals, traditions, written transmission of thought, are effaced from their remembrance.”

The Maoris have had no such fall; in their religion, their language, their customs, they seem simply not to have advanced, but among them we stand as we should have stood among our own ancestors in the age of polished stone weapons, the Neolithic period. I will, then, revert to the chief line of scientific comparison, that of language, and will compare Maori with tongues now spoken. First, the Aryan of Persia and Hindustan. Hindustani is scarcely to be called a language; it is a compound of

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three great languages—Sanscrit, Persian, and Arabic. Of the Maori agreement with older Sanscrit I gave many examples in the “Aryan Maori”—when a dictionary (which I have ordered from England) arrives, I shall be able to show the older forms at a greater length. The words I shall call Sanscrit are those written in the Hindu dictionary in Sanscrit characters, the Persian being written in Persian. The Arabic is a Semitic tongue, and I do not understand it. Let it be remembered that probably the Hindu and the Maori languages have been flowing apart in two distinct streams for over 4,000 years, and I think the following examples will be thought to be very strange coincidences indeed.

In showing these comparisons I must remind my listeners that ng and k are interchangeable, that r and l are interchangeable, r and d, p and b, and that the Maori language insists on a vowel following a consonant, thus plu would be poru or puru. English instances of the interchange of r and l are—Prince Harry into Prince Hal, Sarum into Salisbury, &c. The ng into the k sound is finely shown in the Latin—tango becoming tactus; pingo, pictus, &c., so that all these changes have Aryan features. A good example of r to d is the Maori ra, a day, changes to the Danish dag, the German tag, the English day—the German and Danish interchange of d to t being equal to that of Sanscrit to Maori, as will be shown by examples.

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sanscrit. maori.
Ukhar, to root up Hauhake, to root up crop
ukhar, to extirpate ukupapa, to finish, consume
apas, fraternity apo, to gather, together
apas, fraternity apu, a company of labourers
utar, to cross, low water uta, the land, coast
utar, the fare (ferry) utu, the price paid
utarna, to transport, carry uta, to load a vessel
atur, to hurry atea, to clear out of the way
atute, to jostle
var, a day wa, a division of time
achun, a teacher ako, to teach or learn
ar, contention, dispute arita, irascible
as, to desire, have children ai, to procreate
akirat, defamation akiri, to reject
ankh, the eye anga, to look
agda, firm, strong akuaku, firm, strong
age, before, beyond ake, before, onwards
age, to press forward aki-aki, to urge on
alang, the way, direction ara, the path
anokha, singular, rare anake, only
ani, the point (of an arrow) ane-ane, sharp
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bat, to speak, question patai, to question
bak, to speak pipakiki, to question
pakiwaha, boastful
bal, a baby parare, to bawl
bal, the hair pare, a band for the hair
bal, a sprout pariri, a sprout
ban, an arrow pana, to thrust away
panga, to throw
ban, form, colour pani, to paint
bao, wind, flatulence pahu, to burst, explode
bach, a root pakiaka, a root
burra, seed pura-pura, seed
Barahi, the goddess of eruptive diseases para, affected with pimples
baru, jungle grass paru, to thatch
birash, to separate pirara, to be separated
barah, a homestead para, to fell bush, to clear
bara, cakes parare, food
bara, worthy, eminent para, bravery, spirit
barhna, to increase, expand purena, to run over
basula, an adze pahore, scraped off
bagla, a wading bird pakura, a swamp hen (pukeko)
bala, a beam para, a tree cut in halves down the middle
bulbula, to bubble pu-pu, to bubble up, boil
bahu, a wife (from vah to carry) wahine, a woman, wife
bhoj, to eat po-poa, sacred food
bhor, the dawn puao, the dawn
bhuk, the stomach puku, the stomach
bhushan, jewels, embellishment puhi-puhi, feathers or ornament for the hair
puiaki, treasure
bhuka, longing, fond puku, the affections
puka, jealous
bhuka, hungry puku, without food
bhola, artless, simple porahu, awkward
bhunna, to burn pahunu, to burn
bhae, to fear pairi, afraid
bhapara, deceit paparua, double
bhuchkana, to scare pukana, to stare wildly
bhurkhas, splinters piraka, firewood
bhirai, contact piri, to come close
bhirai, to fight pi-piri, to join battle
bhagana, to rout pakanga, hostilities
bhaggi, flight pake-pake, to put to flight
paketu, to clear off
bika, crooked peka, to branch, turn aside
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ghin, disgust, aversion kino, bad
keno-keno, stinking, offensive
ghuggu, an owl kokou, an owl
ghan, clouds konga, cloudy
ghi, butter kinaki, a relish
gabbha, bedding kapi, to be covered
gatta, a cork, plug kati, shut, closed
gathi, a small bundle ka-kati, to tie in bundles
garra, reddish kura, red
gal, the throat koro-koro, the throat
gulal, red powder kura, red
gobar, cow-dung used for plastering the floor kaupa-pa, a floor
gobar, a deity over cattle kaupa-pa, a wise man, oracle
gopiya, a sling (used to drive away cattle) kopere, a sling
gora, fair, white korapu, to shine
korako, albino
gol, a channel korou, a channel
gol, round, annular koru, looped
khal, a hide kiri, a hide
khad, to dig kari, to dig for
kyari, a garden bed keri, to dig
ket, a comet kotiri, a meteor
khas, a load kawe, to carry
kya, what? kia, when?
kat, to cut koti, to cut
kaj, a feast, dinner kai, food
kakatua, crested parrot (cockatoo) kaka, a parrot
kam, skill, dexterity ka-kama, quick, nimble
kan, to say bitter things kanga, to curse
kachcha, green kakariki, green
kapkapi, to tremble, shake kapekapeta, to flutter, writhe
karva, bitter kawa, bitter
kus, a mattock ko, a spade (a sort of)
Dhori, the bull Maori graft-words, tara, &c.
This is useful as showing the change of d into t.
din, poor, a pauper whaka-tina, to treat as a slave
daur, a string tau, a string
dudhi, the breast (mother's) whaka-tete, to milk
dhara, a robber tahae, a thief
dhaga, a thread taka, a thread
dahana, to burn the dead tanu, to bury
tahu (tahuna), to set on fire
(Referred to afterwards.)
dhava, a march, attack taua, a war party
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dhur, far-off turehu, indistinctly seen
dhura, a boundary turi, a fence-post
turaha, to keep away
dharalla, a swarm tararau, to make a loud confused noise
dhakka, to push, shove whaka-taka, to throw down
dhakka, to fall frequently tataka, to fall off
dhan, riches, property (but especially cattle) tana, his (possessive)
tannga, property
Compare (Lat.) pecu and pecunia.
dhup, the sunshine, warmth tupu, to glow, redness
dubdha, doubt tupua, strange, uncertain
dabna, to be concealed tapanihi, to go stealthily
dabak, to hide tapaki, to cover
tao, to heat ta-tao, a long while cooking
tao-puku, cook (wrapt in leaves)
tujh, thine tau, thine
tevar, eyesight tiwha, to squint
tiya (and tia) a boundary mark tia, to drive in posts or pegs
tia-roa, straight side (as of a pa)
tiri! have mercy! save us! tiri, offering to a deity
tavgi, a hatchet toki, an axe
tar tar, piece by piece tatau, to count
tar tar, to tear to pieces ta-tau, to attack
tat, darling te tau o te ate,” darling of one's heart
tabar tor, one after the other tapa-tahi, one by one
tara, a star tara, to throw rays
tar, to strike ta, to strike with a stick
taga, a thread taka, a thread
taiki, an ear-ring taringa, the ear
hei-tiki, a pendent ornament (hei, to wear)
tur turi, a trumpet tetere, a trumpet
tircha, oblique tiraha, to lean
tari, chastisement whaka-tari, expose to chastisement
tarera, a buoy tarewa, a buoy, float
tallar, the belly tara-uma, the chest
tui, lace kotui, lace
thap, to thump tapa, to pulverize soil
thakka, a heap taka, a heap
thora, a few torutoru, few
tel, oil tere, to float
tere-tere, to be liquid
tar, to go taha, to pass by
taawhe, go round a corner
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tital, cheating tito, to invent, lie
hela, to shove, push hirau, a paddle
hel, a basket of cow-dung hereumu, a cooking-shed
hullar, a crowd hura-hura, visitors
nata, kindred ngati, a tribe, or relations
nichor, the end, termination neku-neku, to decline (as the sun)
nain, the eye nana, the eyebrow
nikki, small nohi-nohi, small
lar, a line, row ra-ranga, a row
lagu, adhering raka, entangled
lapat, the flame ra-rapu, to flash forth
lata, a creeper, vine rata, a creeper, vine
latar, overwork, fatigue rata, tame, quiet
lank, a quantity ranga, a shoal of fish
mohri, ends of a garment more-morenga, the end
mae, a harrow maea, to take up crop
mantar, a spell charm mata, a charm
mok, silent, dumb moke-moke, solitary, lonely
mukh, the mouth, face moka, a muzzle
musli, the tap-root more, the tap-root
mutthi, the hand matau, the right hand
manana, to persuade manene, importunate
moh, affection, love morno, offspring
matkana, to ogle, wanton with the eyes matakana, to be on the lookout, look shy
mota, fat matu, fat
mat, understanding matau, to know
matha, the forehead mata, the face
mala, a necklace, rosary maro, a girdle
pata, a sword patu, a weapon
partala, a sword-belt patai, a girdle
purya, an offering to a deity pure, a ceremony of lifting tapu
pat, a screen, veil patu, a wall-screen
pakka, matured, cooked paka, dried
pakari, matured
vaku, dried, set
pott, to cover potae, a hat, to cover
phari, a small shield pare, to ward off
phut, an opening puta, to pass through, a hole
pi, to love pie, to desire earnestly
pet, the belly pito, the navel
pallu, the border, edge parua, edge of a bowl
pau, the grey dawn puao, the dawn
pokhar, a pool poka, a well, hole
paun, three-quarters punga, an odd number
poe, poya, a pot-herb puwha, sowthistle, greens
pat, a foot patere, a dance
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patar, a dancing girl patere, a dance
papar, cutaneous disease paipai, cutaneous disease
pat, sound of breaking pato, to crack
patate, to crack
py-s, milk pi-pi, to ooze, pia, gum of trees
pat, a platform pataka, a raised food-store
chapar, hard soil tapa, to pulverise soil
chapana, to chew or bite tapa, chapped
tapahi, to chop
tapa-tapahi, cut in pieces
chup, silence, stillness tupo, the cave where the bones of the dead were deposited
tupe, to deprive of power by a charm
chippi, a patch tapi, to patch
chat, instantly tata, sudden
chat, a scratch or scar ta, to tattoo
chitrana, to scatter, strew titari, to strew
chatrao, scattering tatari, to sift, strain
chut (in comp.), common, poor people tutua, ignoble, low born
chahka, the pavement, floor takahi, to trample on
cho, anger totohe, to contend
cho, love, affection topu, to pair
tohu, to preserve
chir, milk (white) tea, white (from tete to milk)
chekke, pudendum muliebre teke, pudendum muliebre
chivar, tattered clothes ti-tiwha, in patches
charcha, talk, report tutara, gossip
jeli, a rake heru, a comb
jai, to be born ai, to procreate
jab, at the time, when apanoa, until
jag, a feast, entertainment haka, a dance song
hakari, a feast
jani, a fainting fit anini, giddy, dizzy
joru, a wife, consort hoa, a wife or friend
joe, jo, a wife hoa, a wife (Scotch joe, a sweetheart)
jhari, a jar or pitcher hari, to carry
sumeru, the holy mountain Meru; sumeru, the North Pole hume, to bring to a point (the Maoris of old knew the point of stellar revolution)
suji, a needle, awl uhi, the tattooing needle
swargi, celestial, heavenly Hawaiki (savaiki)
soka, frost-bitten crops huka, a frost
sel, a spear here, a spear
ragi, a singer rangi, a song
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rang, to be melted rangitoto, scoria
rae, a prince rae, a headland, forehead
rei, a jewel
whaka-rei, canoe with carved figure-head, bust, and arms
rati, enjoyment, intercourse rota, familiar, friendly
ris, anger ri-ri, anger
rassi, a rope rahiri, a rope
rala, mingling, union rara, to go in shoals
rau, a host, swarm rau, a hundred
ruhk, (Pali, rukkho) a tree rakau, a tree
rukha, dry raki, dry, dried up
raula, noise rara, to roar
rauna, a noose tarona, to strangle
ruha, old ruruhi, an old woman
ru-wahine, an old woman


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Persian. Maori.
gor, a waste koraha, a desert
part, winged parirau, a wing
ravan, expert, dexterous rawe, excellent
ravan, flowing, liquid rewa, to melt, float
ravangi, embarkation rawahi, the other side of a river
roz, the day ra, a day
rez, pouring, dripping re-re, falling water
rez ish, running at the nose compare (M.) ihu, the nose
charagah, grazing land tarake, to clean the ground
chopa, boiled rice topa, cook in a hangi
charkh, the celestial sphere taka, on all sides, all round
langar, a rope, a cloth ra-ranga, to weave
pak, clear, fair paki, fair, without rain
puch, empty pute, a bag
puta, a hole
dar, a door ta-tau, a door
duar, a door
daraz, extended tara, rays, spines
darah, a crack, fissure tarahanga, an indentation
taryai, the sea tai, the sea
dam, breath, life tama, a son
tama-hine, a daughter
parva, anxiety, concern pawera, solicitous, anxiety
parhez, keeping aloof pare, to fend off
pashiu, hair, wool pahau, the beard
derah, a tent tiraha, a bundle
tira, a mast (the mast was originally a tent - pole), plaindwellers
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rah, the road ara, the road
huarahi, road
rasa, welcome rahui, to welcome
rasai, power of mind rae, the forehead
tudah, a mound toropuke, a mound
tir, an arrow tiri, to throw one by one
tez, sharp-pointed te-te, the head of a spear
tei-tei, the summit
tia, to stick in
geshu, a ringlet kehu, hair (in com.)
tab, penalty, forfeit tapu
tabahi, destruction tapahi, to chop to pieces
tabar, an axe
tarash, to shave tarai, to adze
tazi, recent, fresh tae, to arrive
mom, soft, waxy momona, fat, rich
mir, a chief mira-mira, to give prominence to
whaka-mira-mira, to treat with deference
mira, to cherish
dur remote, far off tara (korero tara), a fable
turara, spread out
doz, to sew tui, to sew
khak, not at all kauaka, dont!
khak, to be overcast kakarauri, to be dusk
khan, a noble kanapu, bright, shining (compare (Sk.) rajah, from raj to shine)
kham, green, unripe kaimata, green, uncooked
khunak, cold kuiki, cold
koangi, cold
koanu, cold
khuari, vileness, abjectness kuare, ignorant, low
khuah, to desire kuika, desire
khur, to eat kai, to eat
khush, pleased, delighted koa, joy, pleasure
khuni, a murderer konihi, to murder by stealth
khuni dast, dysentery konao, diarrhœa
dar, holding tau, to hold
dar, a stake tau-hokai, stake for nets
baz, a hawk paho, soaring
whako-paho, to soar
bahanah, a stratagem, excuse paheno, to slip away, escape
baja, good, right pai, good
agah, knowing, informed ako, to learn or teach
danu, corn tanu, to plant.
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I will beg you to consider this as no mere idle list of words; many of them are full of history, and open strange doors into the past of our race. I will give a few instances well worthy of attention: In Maori the word “kotaha” has two meanings, one, that of “a sling,” and the other, “part of a chief's head-dress.” Very few men now living have seen the chiefs with their hair dressed in the old fashion—the putiki, ngoungou, &c., are not now used. The Maoris do not seem (at all events for a very long time) to have used the sling in warfare, and thus stand in marked contrast to many other Polynesian Islanders, with whom the sling is an effective and terrible weapon. Another Maori word for sling is kopere, and its Sanscrit equivalent is “gopiya” a sling used to drive away cattle—(go, the cow). The Maori word for a fillet, or band for the hair, is pare, so that kopere, a sling, was also a hair-band, like kotaha. But this word pare, a band for the hair, is derived from pareho, the head, and this pareho is only our English word “brow,” the forehead. We see this word in two forms in Maori; the Scottish word brae means the brow of a hill, shortened in Maori into rae, the forehead, or a headland; again, it is lengthened out into pareho, the head. I was for some time puzzled to know the derivation of the (M.) word korero, to speak or talk. According to my theory of graft words, it should, by its prefix ko, have had originally something to do with “cow.” I analysed the part “rero,” with these results: Connected with speech is the word a-rero, the tongue, represented by the Polynesian alelo or aledo. In Sanscrit lal is to put out the tongue; in Greek lalao is to speak, and eiro to speak—these seemed cognate words, but still far from the Sanscrit word “vach,” speech. Then, suddenly remembering that the vocative of vach was vak, I saw the connection with (Lat.) vacca, a cow. The Sanscrit vach means more than mere speech or language, it was personified as the Goddess of Speech. In the Atharva-veda we find—“That daughter of thine, Oh Kama, is called the cow, the whom sages denominate Vach,” she is the mother of the Vedas, the fount of wisdom, “the melodious cow who milked forth sustenance and water.” So there is some reason also why the Maoris should call speech “the cow's tongue,” korero. Another word for speech in Maori also has the prefix ko, that is koroki—the latter part of this word (by change of r to l) is (Lat.) loquor, I speak, and (Gr.) logos, a discourse. Yet another and most interesting word, reo, speech or language, has its exact equivalent in the Greek rheo. Rheo meant to flow swiftly; as a river-word we find it in the Rhine, Rhone, &c.; in New Zealand we find it as re-re, a waterfall. But there was another meaning for rheo, that of speaking quickly, whence came rhema, a discourse, and rhetoric, the art of speaking. From the Anglo-Saxon form, reord, came our English verb to read; so that two English words, at

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least (read and rhetoric), have Maori brotherhood, through reo, speech.

It is important to students to notice that the (Sk.) dahana, to burn the dead, seems to contain forms of two Maori words—tahu, to set on fire (passive, tahunct), and tanu, to bury. It will be historical evidence if these words can be traced—not only as to which branch of the Aryan race they approximate to most closely, but also as to time. The Persians do not burn their dead; it was an ancient reproach to them that they cast the bodies of their dead out into the highways and open fields for the beasts to devour. At the present day the Parsees, the purest descendants of the fire-worshippers, expose their dead to be devoured by the vultures on the terrible “Towers of Silence,” at Bombay. The Hindus burn their dead, but they did not always do so; it is no part of the old Aryan creed. There are beautiful burial hymns in the Vedas; let me quote one verse:—

“Approach thou now the lap of Earth, thy mother
The wide-extending Earth, the ever-kindly;
A maiden soft as wool to him who comes with gifts,
She shall protect thee from destruction's bosom.
Open thyself, O Earth, and press not heavily;
Be easy of access and of approach to him;
As mother with her robe her child,
So do thou cover him, O Earth.”

It will, of course, be asked, if there are such strange coincidences in language between the modern Hindustani, Persian, &c., and the Maori, is it not likely that the Maoris have very recently left Asia. I will not reiterate the philological argument used in “The Aryan Maori” to prove how pure and ancient is the sound of the Maori letters. One good proof is that of religion: that, even in the graft-words, I have been unable to trace any reference to the Hindu Trinities, or to any distinction of caste, &c. There was no kingly institution; they were governed by the patriarchal elders of families, and men who had gained nobility as leaders in war. I have traced their word “ariki” in every Aryan tongue. In Gaelic it is ardrigh, high king; in Old Slavonic, zary; in Greek arke, chief, archon, a chief magistrate; in English, arch-angel, archdeacon (arke-diaconos), from the Greek. But to the Maori it did not mean so much; it meant a chief with some authority of deity, some spiritual essence not to be described except in many words.

Next, the Maoris had not· learnt to kiss—the Hindus certainly know. The word “kiss” is very interesting by this new light on Maori etymology. The Sanscrit is kuch, a kiss; the Maori has got kuku, to pinch, nip (they pinch gently as a caress), and Williams's Dictionary gives as an example of ku-ku, “Te kuku o tona manawa—that which had fastened on her affections.” Another Sanscrit word for kiss is “niksh,” but this has such a

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suspicious relation to nas, the nose (Fr., nez), that I believe the Maori nose-rubbing was what “niksh” meant originally.

The Maoris knew of no musical stringed instruments. The Hindu word tar, a string of a musical instrument (whence, guitar), is represented by (M.) tau, a string, a rope; but the music-meaning of tau was a song.

The New Zealanders not only do not seem to know the later Indian deities, but they do not know their demons. The Hindu bhut or bhat, a goblin dwelling in holes and graves, may have connection with (M.) patu-paiarehe, the Maori fairies (perhaps paiarehe is the Persian word peri, a fairy), but it is closely allied to puta, a hole; the Persian ghoul, a demon haunting graves, also being found in koro-puta, a hole—ghoul-word and bhut-word together—but the hole had as yet no ghostly habitant.

The Aryans had not learnt to discriminate (in words) between colours, when the Maoris left. The Sanscrit word gaura, yellow, really means shining, splendid; from gaura the Europeans named their metal gold—but (as ghar) it became the root of green. The Maoris kept the original word: k is older than g; kura older than gaura, but it was preserved by them as “red;” in fact, it is not any particular tint; kura is our own English word “colour.”

Next, they had not learnt to drink kava. I think this a very important addition to my argument used in “The Aryan Maori,” that the South Sea Aryans came as a little later wave of migration than the New Zealander. Almost everyone knows what kava is—the leaves of a tree chewed into pulp, and spat out into a vessel for use as an intoxicating beverage; it is much indulged in in the South Seas. But everyone is not aware that kava was anciently drunk in India as a sacred potation, and under the idea that the drunkenness was inspiration—hence the Sanscrit word for a poet is kavi, divinely inspirited, “in a fine frenzy rolling.” There was enmity between the Kahvasakha, the kava-drinker, and those who drank the Soma, the later holy beverage of India.

But if we wish to find the meaning of kava we must go back to “cow” again. In Sanscrit, the genitive case of gau, the cow, is gavas (once kau, kavas), and kava means “chewing the cud.” In a book called “South Sea Bubbles,” whose titled author described the preparation of kava, he says that the pretty girls sitting around the kava bowl did not “chew,” they did it so prettily that it should be called “ruminate.” That is precisely the case, the word comes from that ruminating animal, the cow.

As an instance of cattle words in Maori, I will notice that the original meaning of kowae, cleft, divided, is ko-wae, “cow's foot,” the cloven hoof. This, too, was once the meaning of the Sanscrit word gabha, split, divided; it was ga-pad, cow's foot.

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But the main point against the late arrival of the Maoris from Asia is that many of their words have more direct connection with the Aryans of Europe, and even of the West of Europe, than with those of Asia. The Maori word wai, for water, is close to Sanscrit var, water, but closer far to the Celtic wy, water. Chambers's Ety. Dic. states that Celtic wy, water, is the word found in the rivers Wye, Conway, Medway, &c. The Maori awa, a river, is the Celtic avon, a river, (as the Avon, &c.,) and is exactly the Gothic ahwa, a river. If that most unlikely thing should have taken place, that, amid a multitude of sounds to be chosen, two races on opposite sides of the world selected the same two syllables to represent water, is it by chance that the Maori tutei, a spy, is the Greek teuthen, a spy? I can find no Asiatic resemblance yet so close to the Maori ringa, the hand and arm, as the Lithuanian ranka, the hand, and (Manx) clingan, the arm. The Maori moana, the sea, at first seems far from the Latin mare, the French mer, &c., but directly we know that the Celtic mor is the sea, we recognise the sister words mo, (mo-ana) mor, (Eng.) mere, (Lat.) mare, &c. This is proved by the word “island,” motu. Tu means to stand, mo-tu is “standing in the sea.” (A clump of trees is motu, from resemblance to an island.) We have the word in our own Aryan tongue: a moated grange is a house isolated, surrounded by water—(M.) mote, water. What is the real meaning of Mo? The wet? The tossing? I believe it means the Immense, the Great sea, another meaning to the Celtic mor or mhor, being big, huge. So if the original meaning of sea was “great” (mo-ana or moa-na), it may account for our huge extinct bird being called Moa, the great one.

I had long thought that the Maori word ika, a fish, a monster, also meant an island; that Te-ika-a-Maui, the fish of Maui, (the North Island of New Zealand,) really meant Maui's Island, but finding that our word island was originally ig-land (Anglo-Saxon ig, Scottish, inch,) I am led to believe that the story of Maui pulling up the big fish has only been made to accommodate a forgotten meaning of the old word.

I said in the “Aryan Maori” that I believed the Maoris once knew the pig by a name resembling “porcus,” and one of the graft-words used was “poka-poka, making holes.” The Latins had exactly the same word: porca means a sow, porca a ploughed field; originally, rooted up. Rona, our “woman in the moon” is the Latin deity Luna, the moon.

An important item in the comparison of languages is that of numerals. I shall not be able to go fully into the question of the great beauty and antiquity of the Maori figures; an evening would be taken up entirely by this one subject. I will only deal with a few of them. The Maori rua, two, is the (Lat.) duo, (Eng.) two, &c. Toro, three, is the Aryan three. Wha, four, (pronounced like “fa,”) is the Teutonic vier, the English four.

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The five, rima, is the old primitive way of counting on the fingers. Tahi, rua, toru, wha, ringa!—One, two, three, four, hand! Ringa and rima, (or rather linga and lima) are used in the Malay Archipelago as interchangeable words for hand. Tekau, the Maori ten, is the Greek deka, Welsh deg; and we see the change into the Teutonic form in another Maori word tingahuru, ten. Tekau and tingahuru are merely changes from ng to k, just as the Teutonic form ten changed into Greek deka. In numerals the manner of counting the twenties, thirties, &c., is important: here the Maori is again Aryan, and has one very close English resemblance. The English forty is made from vier, four; tig, ten; viertig, forty, or four tens. The Maori wha, four, tekau ten, wha-tekau forty; viertig and wha-tekau being as perfect in derivation as in sound.

Through the kindness of Dr. Hutchinson I am enabled to lay before you a photograph of the statue of Kamehameha, the King of the Sandwich Islands, in his national dress. The resemblance of the whole figure to that of an ancient Greek warrior is most surprising.

I must now intreat your patience while I compare the Maori with the European languages.


(M.E.) Middle English, (Fr.) French, (O.S1.) Old Slavonic, (Lith.) Lithuanian, (Goth.) Gothic, (Gr.) Greek, (Lat.) Latin, (Scan.) Scandinavian, (Dan.) Danish, (Celt.) Celtic, (Ir.) Irish, (Ga.) Gaelic, (W.) Welsh, (Ice.) Icelandic, (A.S.) Anglo-Saxon, (Teut.) Teutonic, (M.) Maori.

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Ao, the air (Lat.) aura, the air, aer, the air
aroha, love (Gr.) eros, love
ae, yes (Goth.) jai, yes, (Eng.) as in “Ay, ay, Sir”
ao, the world (Goth.) aiws, the world
ako, to teach, learn (Gr.) agora, a debating hall
angi, light breeze (Gr.) anemos, the wind
anene, to blow gently
ara, to rise up (Gr.) oro, to rouse, (Lat.) oriri, to rise up
au, smoke (Gr.) auo, to burn
here-here, a slave (Gt.) helot, a slave
huka, snow, ice (Ice.) jokull, an icicle, (Ir.) aigh
hara, a sin (Lat.) erro, to stray, err
hamuti, excrement (M. Eng.) mute, to dung
(O. Fr.) mutir and esmeut
humit, the hip-bone (Eng.) ham, (Ger.) hamma
hake-hake, the itch (Ger.) jüchen, to itch, (Scotch) yuck
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hine, a girl (Gr.) inne, a daughter, (Russ.) jena
hapara, to cut, slit (Russ.) sabla, (Eng.) sabre
haporo, to cut off
haupu, a heap (W.) hob, a projection, lump
hapu, pregnant (Goth.) hof, pregnant (heaved up)
hau, dew (Ger.) thau, dew
here, to tie, confined (Lat.) sero, to bind
here, to confine (Eng.) Hell, (Goth.) halja
hira, a multitude (Goth.) hairda, a herd
hua, an egg (Gr.) oa, eggs
ika, the fish (Gr.) icthys, (Lat.) piscis, (A.S.) fisc, (Ice.) fiskr, (Goth.) fisks, (Gael.) iasg.
iti, little (Ice.) litill
kaki, the neck, throat (Eng.) gorge, the throat. Compare gargle gurgle, (O.Fr.) gorgias, a ruff, &c., (Gr.) gargale, the neck
koro-koro, the neck (Lat.) collum, the neck
kopu, the belly (Gr.) kolpos, the lap, bosom
koporo, cut off abruptly (Gr.) kopto, to cut off
ko-komo, a return feast (Gr.) komos, a revel
korea, a small canoe (Gael.) curach, a wicker boat, (Eng.) coracle
kapo, to take, snatch (Lat.) capio, to take, (Gael.) gabh, to take
koke, a bottle or vessel (Gael.) cog, a bowl, (Fr.) coche, a small boat, (Eng.) cock-boat
kokini, a bottle or vessel
koparu, to mash (Lat.) copulo, to join together
kokeke, mussels taken from the shell (Fr.) coque, a shell, (Lat.) concha
kamaka, a stone (Teut.) car, a stone, mearc, a mark, boundary, (O. Slav.) kamy, a stone
kopako, back of the head (W.) cop, a head, (Dutch) kop, (Lat.) caput
kape, to pick out (W.) gyp, a beak, (Gr.) gups, a vulture
kau-kau, a spear (A.S.) gar, a spear (from the “gore” of a horned beast)
kopae, a basket (A.S.) cypa, a basket, (Eng.) a coop
kopaki, an envelope (Eng.) cope, a covering (root of “cap”)
kopare, to shade the eyes
kararehe, a quadruped (Gr.) gryllos, a pig
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karau, a comb (Bret.) krib, a comb, (Gael.) chir, a comb
kai, food (Gael.) chuid, food, (Gr.) kao, to eat, kairos, food
kohua, to cook, boil (Lat.) coquo, to cook
kaikora, a vagabond (Gr.) geiros, a stranger
kata, to rejoice (Gr.) getheo, to be glad
koreto, to weep (Gr.) goeros, wailing, weeping, (Scotch) greet, to weep
korenga, soft, boggy (Ir.) gleanir, (Eng.) glen, a narrow valley
kohine, a girl (Goth.) kwino, a woman, (Eng.) quean, a common woman
kanapu, shining (Gr.) ganos, shining
katirehe, sore throat, quinsy (Fr.) goitre, from (Lat.) guttur, the throat
kero, to wound, maim (Gr.) keiro, to cut off, (Gr.) kedo, to injure
kino, bad (Gr.) kaunos, bad
kiri, the skin (Gr.) chroi, (dat.) the skin, (Fr.) cuir, leather
komau, to keep fire alight (Gr.) kauma, flame
koru, coiled (Gr.) guros, curved, round
kuao, young of animals (Gr.) kuo, to be with young
karanga, to call (Norwegian) kalla, (Eng.) call and clang
kau-ruki, smoke (Dutch) rook, smoke, (Ger.) rauch, (Scottish) reek
muku, to wipe (Ice.) myki, (Dan.) mog, (Eng.) muck, (Lat.) mucus
maia, brave, bold (Goth.) magan, might, power
maiangi, raised up
mangai, the mouth (Fr.) manger, to eat, (Eng.) munch, to eat
mutu, to mutilate (Lat.) mutilo, (Eng.) mutilate
mutu, to cut off short (Eng.) mute, a person with the end of his tongue cut off
maunga, a mountain (Lat.) mons, a mountain, (Gael.) monadh, (Eng.) mound
mene, to be assembled (Lat.) minare, to drive cattle
monaroa, loitering (Lat.) mora, to delay
maire, a song (Gr.) melos, a song
momona, fat (Goth.) mammo, flesh
moe, to sleep (Gr.) muo, to close the eyes, moimuao, to close the eyes
mote, water (Gr.) mou, water
maimoa, object of affection (Gr.) mainiao, to desire earnestly
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ngarara, a lizard (Sk.) naga, a snake, (Gael.) nathair, a snake, (Goth.) nadr
ngou-ngou, to knot the hair (Lat.) gnodus, a knot
noho, to dwell (Grr.) naio, to dwell
hiore, the tail (whiore) (Gr.) oura, the tail
ope, a troop, company (Gr.) obe, a tribe
peka, branch of a stream (Tent.) beck, a brook
piki, to climb (Fr.) pic, a hill-top, (Eng.) peak, (Ger.) spitz
pai, good (Celt.) bain, good, (Scotch) bonny, (Lat.) bonus
po-rangi, mad (Sp.) bobo, a fool, (O. Fr.) bobu, stupid. Last part of word probably from same root as de-ranged
po-rotiti, a disc (Lat.) rota, a wheel, (Eng.) rotate
piri, close (Eng.) peer, to look closely, from (Ger.) piren, to draw the eyelids close
puruhi, a flea (Bus.) blocha, (Dut.) bloo, (Ger.) floh
pere, to throw away, cast (Lat.) pello, to drive away, (Eng.) to dis-pel
pipi, the young (as of birds) (Gr.) pippos, a young bird, (Lat.) pipare, to peep, chirp
peka-peka, a bat (Dan.) bakke, a bat, (Scotch) bakke
pori, the tribe (Gr.) polus, the people, (Lat.) po-polus
patiti, a hatchet (O. Ger.) parta, and barte, an axe, (Eng.) partisan and halberd
pikau, to carry on the back (A.S.) bœc, the back, and pick-a-back
panui, to proclaim (Teut.) ban, a proclamation
patu, to beat (Lat.) batuo, I beat, (Celt.) bat
pouto, to cut off (Lat.) puto, to cut off, (Eng.) am-putate
pirangi, to love (Crr.) philo, to love
poka, a hole (Fr.) poche, a pocket, (O. Eng.) poke, a pocket, (Celt.) bac
puta, a hole (Lat.) puteus, a well
pare, to ward off (Lat.) paro, to ward off, (Eng.) parry
pane, the head (W.) pen, the head
purena, to run over (Lat.) plenus, full, (Gr.) pleos
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puna, a spring (Scotch) burn, a stream, (Goth.) brunna, a spring
purakau, old man, old legend (Gr.) palaios, ancient
pie, to call (O. Slav.) pye, to sing
pihe, a song over the slain
pine and pipine, close together (Gr.) bineo, to unite
porohe, to gather in loops (Gr.) bolos, to cast a net
pononga, a slave (Gr.) poneo, to labour
reti, to ensnare (Lat.) rete, a net
rau, a leaf (Ger.) laub, a leaf
rawhi, to seize (O. E.) ravin, to obtain by violence
rawe, to snatch raven, a greedy bird
reke-reke, the heel (Gr.) lax, the heel
rupe, to shake (Gael.) rub, (W.) rhwbio, to rub, grind
ruaki, to vomit (A.S.) hrœcan, to vomit, (Ice.) hrœkja, (Eng.) retch
rere, a waterfall (Gr.) rheo, to flow as a torrent
roi, a tear (O.H. Ger.) ruz, to weep, (Eng.) rue, to be sorry
ropa, a servant, slave (O. Slav.) rabo, a servant
riki, little (A.S.) ling, little
tia, frequent (Grr.) detha, often
tiro, to look, survey (Gr.) delos, apparent, manifest
tini, very many (Gr.) den, a long time
tika, just, right (Gr.) dike, just, right
tapau, a mat to lie on (Fr.) tapis, a carpet
tapaki, mats (Gr.) tapes, carpet
tinei, confused, unsettled (Gr.) dine, a whirlpool, eddy
tatara, a rough mat (Ice.) tetur, a torn garment, (Eng.) tatter
torohe, a marauding party (Gr.) dolops, one who lies in wait
Tote, the god of sudden death (Ger.) todt, dead
toto, bloody
taureka-reka, a slave (Gr.) doulos, a slave, (Celt.) drugaire, a drudge
tarehu a goblin, fairy (Scan.) troll, a goblin
taruke, a trap (Ger.) trugen, to deceive
whaki-tauki, a proverb (Goth.) tugga, the tongue
tango, to take, handle (Lat.) tango, to touch, handle, (Goth.) tekan, to touch, take
tahu, to burn (Gr.) daos, a torch
tahei, divided by a strip (Gr.) daio, to divide
tahuna, furrowed
toro-papa, to lie flat (Lat.) dor (root of dormio), to sleep; cf. dorsum, the back
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tako, the gums, palate (Gt.) dakos, a biting
tae, to be overcome (Gr.) dae, a battle
tai-apu, to storm, assault
takakau, the forearm (comp. of “cow” and “finger”) (Gr.) daktulon, the finger
tamau, to fasten (Goth.) tamjan, to tame
tamoe, to repress (Gr.) damao, to tame, subdue
tau, to lie at rest (Gr.) dauo, to sleep
taitea, fearful, timid (Gr.) deido, to fear
taiatea, nervous
tae, exudation (Gr.) deisa, moisture
ua, to rain (Gr.) huein, to rain
ura, brown, (from pura, fire) (Eng.) brown, from (A.S.) brun, from byrnan, to burn, from (Gr.) pur, fire.

But it is to our own language that Maori shows some of the strangest resemblances. The Teutonic roots of the English speech have close approximation to Maori. Here are some of the most curious. The (M.) tokari, to cut off, or notch, is our word, dock, to cut short, (W.) tociaw, to cut short. The (M.) rara, to roar, is roar. The (M.) patu, to beat, and patu a weapon, is (Eng.) beat, (root A.S. bat) and bat, as a cricket bat. (M.) toi, the toe, is toe. (M.) poka, to thrust, is (Eng.) poke. (M.) karapiti, to grapple, is grapple. (M.) taka, a thread, is (Eng.) to tack with a thread; (M.) taka, to turn, to veer, is (Eng.) tack, to go about; (M.) takai, to wind round and round, is (Eng.) tangle; (M.) tangai, the bark, is (Eng.) tan, (for dyeing,) and tannin. (M.) hau, to chop, is (Eng.) hew. (M.) hopu-hopu, to catch frequently, is (Eng.) hobble, a leg-fastening. (M.) hiteki, to hop, is (Eng.) hitch, to move by jerks. (M.) hoanga, a whetstone, is (Eng.) hone. (M.) hoto, a spade, is (Eng.) hoe. (M.) hape, bent, is (Eng.) hoop. (M.) hake, crooked, bent, is the (Eng.) hook. (M.) hakui, an old woman, (Eng.) hag. (M.) hae, to hate, is (Fr.) hair, and (Eng.) hate. (M.) hoko, to sell, is (Eng.) hawker, one who sells. (M.) hoe, to row, (Eng.) hoy, a boat. (M.) hua, to call, (Eng.) hue and cry. (M.) tae, to dye, is dye. (M.) kiri, the hide, is (Eng.) curry, to dress hides. (M.) tope, to cut off, is (Eng.) to top, as to top shoots of plants. (M.) koripi, to cut, is (Eng.) clip. (M.) tapahi, chapped or chopped, is (Eng.) chapped or chopped—the (M.) tapa-tapahi, cut in pieces, is only chop-choppy. The (M.) kuri, the dog (once a cattle-dog), is the Scotch cooley or collie, the cattle-dog. I only cease from fear of too utterly wearying you with examples, but hundreds of words, in both European and Asiatic Aryan languages, have similar brotherhood with Maori, and have been collected by me. These Maori words are not Anglo-Maori, they are to be found embalmed in old songs

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and legends which have come down to us from days which date centuries before a European keel divided the Pacific.

Although, as I said in my introduction, I shall trespass on the ground of the geologist in the briefest manner, it would be wrong not to notice the evidence forced upon us by discoveries in New Zealand. Dr. Von Haast, F.R.S., says, in an article on the Moa-hunters, in which he judges from the polished stone implements found in the caves with the broken Moa bones, that the men who hunted the Moa lived ages ago: “Of course it is impossible to calculate this time by even hundreds of years, but as polished stone implements have been found in New Zealand buried in littoral beds, 15 feet below the surface, in undisturbed ground over which extensive forests are growing, containing trees of enormous size, there is no doubt that the use of polished stone implements dates far back in pre-historic times; I mean to say, to a period to which even the most obscure traditions of the aborigines do not reach.” Mr. McKay, of the Geological Department, writing on the same subject, says: “Thus we are led to suppose that a people, prior to the advent of the present stock, were the exterminators of the Moa, always accepting as incontrovertible that the immigration alluded to did not take place 1,000 years earlier than stated in the said traditions on the subject. But in the meantime, accepting the 350 years, and treating 1,350 as a wild notion which the science of the subject has never yet dreamed of, let us see if the 350 years will be sufficient for the accomplishment of all that of necessity must be performed by these immigrants and their descendants.” Another branch of science, Philology, will not, I feel assured, treat the early advent of the Maori as a “wild notion”; the trouble has been occasioned by the too great credence given by Maori scholars to the value of oral genealogies, &c. Sir George Grey has kindly allowed me to quote his authority for the following statement. He for years has believed that the Maoris must have inhabited New Zealand much longer than has been stated, the 350 years giving no possible space of time in which the enormous fortifications, &c., could have been erected, and the country populated densely in the North Island—in many cases, huge trees requiring centuries to gain their present bulk having grown out of the deserted defences. On leaving New Zealand for Africa, he took his Polynesian experiences of legend, &c., and compared them with those of other primitive races, such as the Kaffirs, Hottentots, &c., and came to the conclusion that the human memory did not retain legendary personality beyond the tenth or twelfth generation—that after the grandfather, the fourth, the fifth, the sixth ancestor, the Man was getting very shadowy, that back to the twelfth they were into myth, the Man had gone; in myth-land they could remember and sail away grandly, and even make no mistakes, in comparison with

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mythical personages of other tribes. Speaking of skeletons found in the Moa caves, &c., Dr. Von Haast notices that they were all buried in a crouching position. It will be interesting to read a few instances of comparison with the Maori usages (known to us all) that occur in the work “Early Man in Britain,” describing the Neolithic men. “The dead were buried in these tombs as they died, in a contracted or crouching posture. … For purposes of defence, they constructed camps, with well-engineered ramparts either of stone or earth, and fosses, sometimes as many as three or four ramparts being formed one above the other. The ramparts probably bore palisades. … The intercourse between the Neolithic tribes was greatly facilitated by the use of canoes, formed of the trunks of large trees, hollowed partly by the action of fire, and partly by the axe, and propelled by means of a broad paddle. … A flint arrowhead two inches long, and a ‘wooden sword’ have also been met with in the peat close by. … This kind of traffic is proved to have extended over enormous distances in the Neolithic age by the distribution of the axes made of nephrite or jade, a material as yet unknown in its native state in Britain or the Continent.”

With these quotations, I conclude.

So many matters of interest grow up as one proceeds, so many paths are seen along which one would like to tread, that my great difficulty, in this article, has been to compress without leaving some important matter unnoticed. Many offers of kindly help are being made to me, and I feel sure that, before many years have passed, we shall, by study of this subject, have added to the scientific information of mankind, and written an interesting chapter in the history of the Colony.