Art. XXXV.—Description of New Zealand Micro-Lepidoptera.
[Read before the Canterbury Philosophical Institute, 1st October, 1885.]
VIII. Tineina (Part).
The New Zealand species of four families—the Gelechiadæ, Depressariadæ, Plutellidæ, and Micropterygidæ—are here described, together with an additional species of Gracilariadæ. All these are scantily represented, and, though they will doubtless be materially increased, are never likely to occupy any conspicuous place in the fauna; but the Micropterygidæ are of very great interest. Remarks on these will be found under their individual heads.
Head smooth. Antennæ in male usually simple, sometimes ciliated. Labial palpi recurved, pointed. Maxillary palpi very short, not developed. Forewings with vein 1 furcate at base, 7 and 8 stalked (rarely coincident), 7 usually to costa, all veins normally present. Hindwings more or less trapezoidal, hindmargin often indented, veins 3 and 4 separate or from a point, 6 and 7 stalked or approximated at base, rarely remote.
This family occupies a less prominent place in New Zealand than it usually does elsewhere. The only genus fairly represented is Gelechia, which is probably cosmopolitan. Megacraspedus, of which there is one species, occurs in Australia and Europe; doubtless also in intermediate regions. Scieropepla is an Australian genus; the single New Zealand species is also Australian, and has probably immigrated in recent times. The other three genera are endemic, so far as known.
|1a. Second joint of palpi tufted beneath.|
|2a. Veins 3 and 4 of hindwings stalked||5. Anisoplaca|
|2b. " " " " remote||1. Megacraspedus|
|1b. Second joint of palpi not tufted beneath.|
|2a. Veins 2 and 8 of forewings absent||3. Thiotricha|
|2b. " " " " present.|
|3a. Vein 6 of forewings out of 7||2. Isochasta|
|3b. " " "separate.|
|4a. Antennæ of male ciliated||4. Scieropepla|
|4b. " "not ciliated||5. Gelechia.|
1. Megacraspedus, Z.
Head smooth; ocelli present; tongue well developed. Antennæ ⅘ of forewings, in male ciliated (1), joints angularly projecting, basal joint long, slender, terminally dilated, without pecten. Labial palpi long, recurved, second joint densely scaled, with a long projecting dense apical tuft beneath; terminal joint as long as second, slender, acute. Maxillary palpi very short, appressed to tongue. Posterior tibiæ thinly clothed with hairs
above. Forewings with vein 1 furcate, 2 from ½–¾ of cell, 6 separate or out of stalk of 7 and 8, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa, 11 from or before middle of cell. Hindwings as broad as forewings, trapezoidal, apex long, acute, projecting, hind-margin deeply sinuate-emarginate, cilia 2 ½–3; veins 3 and 4 remote at origin, transverse vein bent outwards, 5 and 6 from rather near together, 7 remote from 6.
The genus may be regarded as consisting of two sections; A., in which vein 6 of the forewings rises out of 7, as in the European M. binotellus (F.R.); and B., in which vein 6 of the forewings is separate from 7, as in the European M. imparellus (F.R.); it is to section B. that the New Zealand and Australian species all belong.
1. Meg. calamogonus, n. sp.
Female.—10–16 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax whitish-ochreous. Abdomen and legs grey-whitish, anterior tibiæ and tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, narrow, very acutely pointed; whitish-ochreous, veins sometimes slightly infuscated; a dark fuscous dot in disc slightly before middle, a second very obliquely before it on fold, and a third in disc at ⅔; a short fuscous apical streak: cilia ochreous-whitish. Hindwings and cilia whitish.
Larva undescribed, feeding in the seed-heads of Arundo conspicua; pupa in a slight cocoon in the same position.
Christchurch; three specimens, in August, November, and March. Several were bred from the larvæ in November by Mr. R. W. Fereday.
2. Isochasta, n. g.
Head smooth; ocelli present; tongue well-developed. Antennæ ⅘ of forewings, in male serrate, shortly ciliated (1), basal joint elongate, without pecten. Labial palpi moderately long, recurved, second joint thickened with appressed scales, rough beneath, terminal joint somewhat shorter than second, moderate, acute. Maxillary palpi very short, appressed to tongue. Posterior tibiæ clothed with long fine hairs above. Forewings with vein 1 furcate, 2 from ⅔ of cell, 6 and 7 stalked out of 8, 7 to costa, 11 from before middle of cell. Hindwings as broad as forewings, trapezoidal, apex acute, projecting, hindmargin angularly emarginate, cilia 1 ½; veins 3 and 4 remote, 5 nearer 6 than 4, 6 and 7 remote.
2. Isoch. paradesma, n. sp.
Male.—17 mm. Head and thorax grey-whitish, crown and a spot on shoulders grey. Palpi with second joint dark fuscous, terminal joint white, with a dark fuscous band above middle. Antennæ dark grey. Abdomen grey, and tuft whitish. Legs blackish, with whitish rings at apex of joints, posterior tibiæ whitish. Forewings narrow-lanceolate; whitish, irregularly
irrorated with light grey; a grey suffusion along inner margin from base to anal angle; a small blackish spot on costa almost at base; a black dot beneath costa at ⅕, and a second larger one beneath it on fold; a thick blackish transverse somewhat oblique streak at ⅓, reaching from beneath costa to fold, margins irregular; two black dots nearly longitudinally placed in middle of disc, and a third in disc at ¾: cilia grey-whitish, with a cloudy blackish-grey line near base round apex and upper part of hindmargin, interrupted into spots. Hindwings grey; cilia grey-whitish.
Invercargill; one specimen in December.
3. Thiotricha, n. g.
Head smooth; ocelli present; tongue well-developed. Antennæ ¾ of forewings, in male serrate, clothed with extremely long fine cilia (5–6), basal joint elongate, without pecten. Labial palpi moderately long, smoothly scaled, recurved, second joint hardly thickened or somewhat rough beneath, terminal joint as long as second, acute. Maxillary palpi obsolete. Posterior tibiæ clothed with long hairs above. Forewings with vein 1 furcate, 2 absent (coincident with 3), 3, 4, 5 approximated, 6 rising out of 7 or separate, 7 to costa, 8 absent (coincident with 7), 9 and 10 more or less approximated to 7 at base, 11 from beyond middle of cell. Hindwings as broad as forewings, trapezoidal, apex tolerably acute, hindmargin somewhat sinuate, cilia 1 ½; vein 2 widely remote from 3, 3 and 4 from a point, 5 bent, 6 and 7 stalked.
Sharply characterised by the extraordinarily developed ciliations of the antennæ of male (which are unique in this family), and the absence of veins 2 and 8 of the forewings.
Sect. A.—Vein 6 of forewings separate from 7.
3. Thiotr. tetraphala, n. sp.
Male.—12 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs whitish-grey, somewhat shining; second joint of palpi dark grey; anterior legs dark grey. Forewings elongate, narrow, acutely pointed; light grey, somewhat irrorated with grey-whitish in disc; three dark grey spots; first basal; second triangular, in disc before middle; third larger, oblong, beyond middle, resting on submedian fold: cilia grey-whitish, with a suffused interrupted grey line near base round apex. Hindwings grey; cilia whitish-grey.
Dunedin; one specimen in February.
Sect. B.—Vein 6 of forewings rising out of 7.
4. Thiotr. thorybodes, n. sp.
Male, female.—11–13 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and abdomen whitish-ochreous; second joint of palpi dark
fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, posterior tibiæ and apex of joints whitish-ochreous. Forewings elongate, narrow, round-pointed; rather dark fuscous, irregularly irrorated with ochreous-whitish, more strongly in disc; costa suffusedly darker, and with a darker triangular patch before middle, its apex reaching to fold; an obscure dark fuscous dot in disc slightly beyond middle; a small whitish-ochreous spot, sometimes nearly obsolete, in disc at ¾: cilia grey-whitish, with a dark fuscous line near base. Hindwings grey-whitish or whitish-grey; cilia grey-whitish.
Christchurch; five specimens taken amongst forest-growth in January and February.
4. Scieropepla, n. g.
Head smooth; no ocelli; tongue well-developed. Antennæ ⅔, in male shortly ciliated (1), with angularly projecting joints, basal joint moderately elongate, without pecten. Labial palpi moderately long, recurved, smoothly scaled, second joint somewhat thickened terminally, terminal joint rather shorter than second, acute. Maxillary palpi short, appressed to tongue. Posterior tibiæ clothed with dense long hairs above. Forewings with vein 1 furcate, upper fork partially obsolete, 2 from ⅘ of cell, 3 and 4 approximated at base, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa, 11 from middle of cell. Hindwings as broad as forewings, tolerably trapezoidal, apex round-pointed, hindmargin hardly sinuate, cilia ⅔; 3 and 4 short-stalked, 5 from nearer 4 than 6, 6 and 7 stalked.
An early type, represented by several species in Australia. The larvæ of two are known, both feeding in seed-heads.
5. Scier. typhicola, n. sp.
Male, female.—17–19 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs pale whitish-ochreous, centre of thorax often fuscous; tarsi, and second joint of palpi towards apex, infuscated. Forewings elongate, acutely pointed; whitish-ochreous, sometimes thinly irrorated with brownish-ochreous, costa paler: cilia whitish-ochreous. Hindwings grey-whitish; cilia ochreous-whitish.
Larva 16-legged, stout, cylindrical; whitish, sometimes slightly suffused with pale flesh-colour; dorsal slender, dark flesh-colour; subdorsal and spiracular lines broader, indistinct, flesh-colour; head pale amber, mouth fuscous; second segment with a faint pale amber shield, black-margined on sides; anal segment speckled with black. Feeds in seed-heads of Typha angustifolia, burrowing amongst the seeds and causing the down to hang out in large loose masses; sometimes also boring down stems, eating the pith and making many small holes in the sides; found throughout June.
Christchurch; also occurs in New South Wales; bred freely in June, July, and August, but rarely seen at large. The species must be regarded as an immigrant from Australia.
5. Gelechia, Z.
Head smooth; ocelli present; tongue well-developed. Antennæ ⅔ of forewings, in male filiform, simple or pubescent, basal joint moderately elongate, without pecten. Labial palpi moderately long, recurved, second joint thickened with appressed scales, rough beneath, terminal joint as long or nearly as long as second, moderately slender, acute. Maxillary palpi short, appressed to tongue. Posterior tibiæ clothed with hairs above. Forewings with vein 1 furcate, 2 from about ¾ of cell, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa, 11 from about middle of cell. Hindwings as broad as forewings or rather broader, trapezoidal, apex pointed or round-pointed, hindmargin shallowly emarginate or hardly perceptibly sinuate, cilia ⅔–1 ½; veins 3 and 4 from a point, 5 from rather near 4, 6 and 7 from a point or approximated towards base.
The variation in the form of hindwings and length of cilia is used by Heinemann to characterise two groups, Gelechia and Lita, as separate genera; but these shade so imperceptibly into each other, that I am of opinion that the distinction cannot be advantageously maintained: most of the following species are of an intermediate character, and might be ranked almost equally well with either group. As thus limited, the genus is very large, especially predominating in Europe and North America.
|1a. Hindwings in male with a costal pencil of long hairs||6. solanella.|
|1b. " " without costal pencil.|
|2a. Discal spots surrounded with pale rings||14. achyrota.|
|2b. " not ringed.|
|3a. Thorax partially dark fuscous.|
|4a. Dark costal area of forewings continued evenly to apex||10. parapleura.|
|4b. " " " terminating about ¾||8. brontophora.|
|3b. Thorax not dark fuscous.|
|4a. Palpi with four blackish bands||7. thyraula.|
|4b. " without distinct blackish bands.|
|5a. Head and thorax grey||13. lithodes.|
|5b. " " whitish-ochreous.|
|6a. Hindwings with a cloudy fuscous streak in disc||9. schematica.|
|6b. " without discal streak.|
|7a. Forewings with a mostly entire dark median streak||12. monophragma.|
|7b. " with at most an apical streak||11. pharetria.|
6. Gel. solanella, Boisd.
(Bryotropha solanella, Boisd., J. B. Soc. Centr. Hort., 1874; Ragonot, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., 5 (v.), pp. xxxv.-xxxvii.; Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1879, 112; Gelechia terrella, Walk., 1024.)
Male, female.—14–16 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax pale brownish-ochreous, irrorated with grey-whitish; palpi with two
dark fuscous bands on second joint, and one above middle on terminal joint. Antennæ, abdomen, and legs pale greyish-ochreous, legs irrorated with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, narrow, acutely pointed; pale brownish-ochreous, densely irrorated with whitish-grey, and more or less with dark grey or blackish-grey; the dark irroration forms two small spots on costa towards base, and a suffused streak along inner margin, connected with three or four small irregular spots about fold; cilia pale greyish-ochreous, towards base mixed with blackish-grey points, forming one or two distinct blackish lines round apex. Hindwings with apex acute, hindmargin moderately emarginate, in male with a dilation in middle of costa, and a long dense pencil of hairs from costa at base; pale grey; cilia pale greyish-ochreous.
Closely allied to the other European species of the Solanum-feeding group, but distinguished from all by the costal hair-pencil of the hindwings in male.
Larva feeding gregariously in the tubers of the cultivated potato, boring galleries through their substance, and causing them to rot. This insect does very great damage, especially where potatoes are allowed to remain stored for any length of time, and sometimes destroys nine-tenths of the crop.
Taranaki and Napier, probably generally distributed; common also throughout Eastern Australia; occurs from November to May, coming freely to lamps, and flying at dusk in potato-fields. The species has certainly been introduced with the potato, and is probably a native of Algeria.
Walker's name is really the older, but cannot be allowed to stand, as he appears to have overlooked the already existing Gelechia terrella, Hb., a well-known and abundant European species.
7. Gel. thyraula, n. sp.
Male.—9–11 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen white irrorated with grey; palpi with two blackish bands on each joint. Antennæ white, annulated with black. Legs blackish, apex of joints and a median ring of tibiæ white. Forewings elongate, narrow, acutely pointed; whitish, irrorated with black; markings black, ill-defined; a small spot on costa near base, and a second obliquely beyond it on fold; a rather oblique streak from costa beyond ¼, reaching half across wing; three small discal spots, first in middle, second on fold obliquely before first and almost touching apex of transverse streak, third in disc beyond middle; cilia grey-whitish, towards base mixed with black points. Hindwings with apex acute, hindmargin moderately emarginate; pale whitish-grey; cilia grey-whitish.
An inconspicuous but easily recognised species.
Christchurch and Castle Hill; five specimens in January and February.
8. Gel. brontophora, n. sp.
Male.—11 mm. Head and palpi whitish-ochreous; palpi with two blackish bands on each joint. Antennæ dark fuscous, spotted with whitish-ochreous. Thorax blackish fuscous, with a whitish-ochreous anterior central spot. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs blackish, apex of joints and middle ring of tibiæ ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate, narrow, acutely pointed; whitish-ochreous, thinly irrorated with brownish-ochreous; a dense black irroration covering costal half of wing to fold from base to middle, except an oblique irregular bar at ¼, posteriorly suffusedly attenuated to costa at ¾; five irregular black discal spots, first in middle, second obliquely before first on fold, confluent with costal irroration, third below first, connected with it by a cloudy black irroration, fourth larger, in disc at ⅔, fifth beyond fourth: cilia pale whitish-ochreous, with scattered black points towards base. Hindwings with apex acute, hindmargin moderately sinuate; whitish-grey; cilia grey-whitish.
Christchurch; one specimen in February.
9. Gel. schematica, n. sp.
Male.—16–17 mm. Head and palpi whitish-ochreous. Antennæ fuscous. Thorax whitish-ochreous, more or less infuscated. Abdomen ochreous-whitish, basal half light ochreous above. Legs ochreous-whitish, anterior and middle pair suffused with fuscous. Forewings elongate, narrow, acutely pointed; light greyish-ochreous towards disc, sometimes irrorated with deep ochreous; a dark grey or blackish irroration forming a broad suffused streak along costa from base to ⅔, posteriorly attenuated, variable in intensity, generally divided by a cloudy oblique streak of ground-colour from base to middle of costa; three small dark fuscous discal spots, first before middle, second on fold obliquely before first, third in disc at ⅗: cilia ochreous-whitish, with two irregular interrupted lines of blackish points. Hindwings with apex tolerably acute, hind-margin moderately sinuate; whitish-grey, with a cloudy longitudinal streak of dark fuscous scales in disc towards base; cilia ochreous-whitish.
This and the three following species are nearly allied; this species is recognisable by the greyer tinge and dark costal suffusion of the forewings, and especially the dark discal streak of hindwings (though this may possibly not persist in the female).
Castle Hill and Bealey River (2,100–2,500 feet); five specimens in January.
10. Gel. parapleura, n. sp.
Male, female.—16 mm. Head and palpi ochreous-white, apex of palpi black. Antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax dark
purplish-fuscous, with a broad central ochreous-white stripe. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs dark fuscous, apex of joints and posterior pair ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate, narrow, acutely pointed; dark fuscous; a broad pale whitish-ochreous streak along inner margin from base to apex, occupying nearly half of wing; three indistinct small black discal spots, sometimes obselete, first in middle, second on lower margin of dark fuscous portion very obliquely before first, third in disc beyond middle: cilia pale whitish-ochreous, on costa mixed with dark fuscous. Hindwings with apex tolerably acute, hind-margin gently sinuate; whitish-grey; cilia ochreous-whitish.
Characterised by the straight longitudinal separation of the dark costal and light dorsal halves of the forewings, and the colour of thorax.
Bealey River (2,100 feet), in January; two specimens.
11. Gel. pharetria, n. sp.
Male, female.—13–17 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, abdomen, and legs, whitish-ochreous; anterior legs infuscated. Antennæ fuscous. Forewings elongate, narrow, acutely pointed; whitish-ochreous, obscurely irrorated with brownish-ochreous, tending to form streaks on veins, sometimes a more distinct apical streak; sometimes a few scattered black scales, also tending to accumulate on veins; three small black discal spots, sometimes almost obselete, first before middle, second on fold obliquely before first, third beyond middle; apical portion of costa and hindmargin obscurely dotted with black: cilia whitish-ochreous, with two obscure interrupted lines of blackish points round apex. Hindwings with apex round-pointed, hindmargin gently sinuate; whitish-grey; cilia ochreous-whitish.
Closely allied to the following, from which it differs by the brownish irroration, obscure lines on veins, and absence of the dark fuscous median streak; the hindwings are also somewhat less pointed.
Castle Hill and Arthur's Pass (2,500–3,000 feet); locally abundant amongst rough flowery herbage in January.
12. Gel. monophragma, n. sp.
Male, female.—11–15 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen ochreous-whitish; second joint of palpi externally somewhat irrorated with black, apex of terminal joint black. Antennæ fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, posterior tibiæ and apex of joints ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate, narrow, acutely pointed; ochreous-whitish, somewhat irrorated with ochreous; a narrow blackish central streak from base to apex, sometimes suffused with ochreous beneath, variable in strength, rarely partially obsolete, and tending to form two separate discal spots towards middle: cilia ochreous whitish. Hindwings with apex acute,
hindmargin moderately sinuate; pale whitish - grey; cilia ochreous-whitish.
Distinguished by the pale colour and blackish median streak, which, though sometimes imperfect, is always traceable; it recalls the considerably darker European G. mulinella.
Wellington, Hamilton, and Invercargill; common in dry grassy places in December and January.
13. Gel. lithodes, n. sp.
Male.—16 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs grey, finely sprinkled with whitish; antennæ rather densely pubescent. Forewings elongate, narrow, tolerably acutely pointed; grey, finely irrorated with blue-whitish; three discal spots obscurely darker, first before middle, second on fold rather before first, third in disc beyond middle: cilia whitish-grey. Hindwings with apex round-pointed, hindmargin slightly sinuate; whitish-grey; cilia grey-whitish.
The slaty-grey colouring is imitative of the mountain rock, as in Scoparia cataxesta and other species; the antennal pubescence is also a common characteristic of alpine forms.
Arthur's Pass (2,500 feet), in January; one specimen resting on shingle.
14. Gel. achyrota, n. sp.
Male, female.—17–18 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen pale greyish-ochreous mixed with whitish. Palpi whitish-ochreous, basal ⅔ of second joint, and basal and supramedian bands of terminal joint dark fuscous. Antennæ light greyish-ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, posterior tibiæ above and apex of joints ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate, apex round-pointed, hindmargin very obliquely rounded; light brownish-ochreous, irregularly mixed with whitish and blackish scales; anterior half of costa suffused with whitish, and dotted with blackish; inner margin between ¼ and ⅔ suffused with blackish; a small black spot on base of costa; four small black discal spots, surrounded with whitish rings, first in disc before middle, second on fold rather before first, their rings confluent, third and fourth dot-like, transversely placed and close together in disc at ⅗; a cloudy whitish fascia from ⅘ of costa to anal angle, dentate outwards in middle; a cloudy black hindmarginal line: cilia ochreous-whitish with two dark grey lines, first interrupted, second entire. Hindwings with apex rounded, hindmargin hardly sinuate; grey, towards base paler; cilia ochreous-whitish, with two cloudy grey lines.
Remote from the other New Zealand species of the genus, and approaching Tachyptilia populella in form and superficial appearance.
Christchurch and Dunedin; rather common amongst bush, in December and January.
6. Anisoplaca, n.g.
Head smooth; ocelli present; tongue well developed. Antennæ ¾, in male filiform, moderately ciliated (1), basal joint elongate, without pecten. Labial palpi long, recurved, second joint thickened with dense scales, forming a short dense triangular projecting tuft towards apex beneath, terminal joint longer than second, slightly roughened anteriorly, acute. Maxillary palpi short, appressed to tongue. Posterior tarsi roughly haired above. Forewings with vein 1 furcate, 2 from ¾ of cell, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa, 11 from middle of cell. Hindwings broader by ⅓ than forewings, trapezoidal, apex and hindmargin rounded, cilia ⅖; veins 3 and 4 short stalked, 5 from rather near 4, cell longest above, 6 and 7 approximated at base.
15. Anis. ptyoptera, n. sp.
Male.—27 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen very pale whitish ochreous, shoulders narrowly dark fuscous. Palpi ochreous-whitish, basal half of second joint and a spot at base of terminal joint fuscous. Antennæ fuscous. Legs pale whitish-ochreous, irrorated with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, narrow, posteriorly somewhat dilated, apex obtuse, hindmargin hardly rounded, oblique; very pale whitish-ochreous, with a few blackish scales, and irregularly irrorated with grey except towards costa and apex, and on two round patches surrounding discal spots; costa irrorated with grey towards base; a black dot beneath costa at ¼; three small black discal dots, first at ⅓, the other two transversely placed close together beyond middle: cilia ochreous-whitish, with a grey line, basal third suffusedly barred with grey. Hindwings light grey; cilia whitish, with a grey basal line.
Christchurch, in March; one specimen received from Mr. R. W. Fereday.
Head smooth. Antennæ in male simple. Labial palpi recurved, pointed. Maxillary palpi very short, not developed. Forewings with vein 1 furcate at base, 2 from or near angle of cell, 7 and 8 stalked (rarely coincident), 7 to costa or apex (rarely to hindmargin). Hindwings not broader than forewings, hindmargin rounded, veins 3 and 4 from a point or stalked, 6 and 7 separate, nearly parallel.
The family, not a very large one, is but scantily represented in New Zealand and Australia; it is closely allied to the œcophoridæ, from which it differs essentially only by the simple antennæ of male.
7. Phæosaces, n. g.
Head loosely haired; no ocelli; tongue well developed. Antennæ ¾, in male subserrate, simple, basal joint moderately
elongate, without pecten. Labial palpi long, recurved, second joint thickened with appressed scales, terminal joint shorter than second, acute. Maxillary palpi very short, appressed to tongue. Abdomen not flattened. Posterior tibiæ clothed with long hairs above. Forewings with vein 1 furcate, 2 from near angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to apex, 11 from middle of cell. Hindwings as broad as forewings, trapezoidal-ovate, apex and hindmargin rounded, cilia ⅖ veins 3 and 4 from a point, 6 and 7 tolerably parallel.
Allied to Depressaria, but distinguished by the smoothly-scaled second joint of palpi, the abdomen not flattened, and the termination of vein 7 of the forewings in the apex. So far as known the genus is endemic.
16. Phæo. compsotypa, n. sp.
Female.—19 mm. Head, palpi, and antennæ grey-whitish, palpi externally suffused with dark fuscous. Thorax grey-whitish; shoulders, and a longitudinal anterior mark on each side of back, dark fuscous. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs dark fuscous, suffusedly ringed with grey-whitish. Forewings oblong, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin rather oblique, slightly rounded; light greyish-fuscous, irregularly mixed with whitish and blackish scales, towards costa anteriorly broadly suffused with whitish; a small black spot on base of costa; a cloudy dark fuscous spot on fold at ¼, connected with inner margin by an inwardly oblique line; a blackish dot in disk at ⅖, connected with costa at ⅖ by a dark fuscous line strongly dentate outwards in middle, and a second dot on fold directly beneath first, connected with inner margin by a cloudy irregular inwardly oblique dark fuscous line; a thick cloudy dark fuscous outwardly oblique streak from middle of costa, reaching nearly half across wing; a posterior series of short longitudinal blackish streaks between veins; an interrupted blackish hindmarginal line: cilia light greyish-fuscous mixed with whitish, with a cloudy blackish-grey line. Hindwings whitish, with a broad suffused light-grey border along hindmargin; cilia whitish, with a grey line.
Hamilton; one specimen in January.
17. Phæo. apocrypta, n. sp.
Male, Female.—20–23 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and abdomen light greyish-fuscous, palpi externally irrorated with dark fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, suffusedly ringed with whitish, hairs of posterior tibiæ ochreous-whitish. Forewings oblong, posteriorly somewhat dilated, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, hindmargin obliquely rounded; fuscous, sometimes ochreous-tinged, sometimes finely irrorated with grey-whitish; a small darker fuscous spot in disc at ⅖, a second
almost directly beneath it on fold, and a third in disc beyond middle, all sometimes obsolete; a cloudy curved-angulated line from ⅔ of costa to inner margin before anal angle hardly darker, preceded by a faint paler shade; an interrupted obscure darker hindmarginal line: cilia light ochreous-brownish, with two indistinct darker lines, tips ochreous-whitish. Hindwings rather light grey; cilia ochreous-whitish, with a cloudy grey line.
The form of wings varies, being usually more oblong in the female than in the male.
Christchurch, Dunedin, and Lake Wakatipu; rather common in December and January.
Head tolerably smooth. Antennæ in male simple or pubescent, sometimes scaled. Labial palpi recurved, pointed. Maxillary palpi short or moderate, porrected. Forewings with vein 1 furcate, 7 and 8 separate (or in exotic genera sometimes stalked), 7 usually to hindmargin, secondary cell and forked parting-vein usually well-defined. Hindwings elongate-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, veins 3 and 4 separate, 5 and 6, or 6 and 7, usually separate, sometimes stalked.
In all the three following genera the antennæ are projected directly in front of the head in repose. Plutella is probably a northern genus, but one species at least, P. cruciferarum, is now by the agency of man disseminated through the world; the other two New Zealand species, both new, occur also in Australia, and will probably be found to be not indigenous in either region, but introduced with the weeds of cultivation. The other two genera are endemic, so far as known. Protosynæma is especially interesting, indicating in my opinion with certainty the origin of Glyphipteryx and its allies, whilst in structure clearly referable here. The free-feeding larvæ, tapering towards both ends, and usually spindle-shaped cocoons of this family, are in general easily recognisable by those familiar with them. I found larvæ of one species of the family feeding on a species of Carex in the mountains, but failed to rear them, as they were infested with parasites.
|1a. Second joint of palpi tufted||10. Plutella.|
|1b. " " " not tufted.|
|2a. Antennæ partially clothed with scales||8. Protosynæma.|
|2b. " not thickened with scales||0. Orthenches.|
8. Protosynæma, n. g.
Head smooth; ocelli present; tongue well-developed. Antennæ ¾, lower portion thickened with dense clothing of scales, remainder in male with angularly projecting joints, pubescent-ciliated, basal joint moderately elongate, stout, without pecten. Labial palpi moderately long, recurved, with appressed scales,
somewhat rough beneath, terminal joint longer than second, acute. Maxillary palpi short, filiform, acute, porrected. Posterior tibiæ shortly rough-haired beneath. Forewings with vein 1 furcate, 2 almost from angle of cell, 7 to hindmargin, 11 from beyond middle of cell, all veins separate. Hindwings as broad as forewings, elongate-ovate, cilia, ⅔–¾ veins 3 and 4 remote, 6 and 7 tolerably parallel.
The two species differ much in the extent of the antennal scaling in the male, but comparatively little in the female.
18. Prot. eratopis, n. sp.
Male, female.—11 ½–12 ½ mm. Head yellow-ochreous, face and palpi paler, mixed with white. Antennæ clothed with dense scales in male to ⅓ above only, in female to ½ all over, brownish-ochreous, apex of scaled portion dark fuscous, naked portion grey. Thorax bronzy-ochreous, with a yellowish-white stripe on each side of back. Abdomen grey. Legs dark grey, posterior tibiæ and apex of joints grey-whitish. Forewings elongate, moderate, apex rounded, hindmargin sinuate, oblique; yellow-ochreous, with somewhat coppery reflections; markings margined with fuscous; a straight white streak from middle of base to near inner margin before middle; a straight narrow silvery-metallic fascia from costa near base to middle of inner margin, sometimes not reaching it; a rather broader oblique white fascia from costa at ⅓, reaching to fold, attenuated to extremity; a narrow straight silvery-metallic fascia from middle of costa to ⅔ of inner margin, becoming white towards costa; a narrow straight white fascia from ⅔ of costa to ⅘ of inner margin, interrupted by a small round silvery-metallic spot above middle; between this fascia and hindmargin is a large round white spot, crossed by six fine black lines on veins, connected with costa at ⅚ by a short white bar, beneath margined by a round coppery or violet-metallic black-margined spot at its lower anterior angle, and a black streak along lower half of hindmargin containing three similar coppery or violet-metallic spots; a silvery-metallic streak from costa before apex to hindmargin above middle, becoming white towards costa: cilia ochreous, tips paler, with white spots at extremities of subapical streak. Hindwings and cilia grey.
The superficial resemblance to a typical Glyphipteryx is very extraordinary.
Otira Gorge, about 2,300 feet; taken commonly, flying about a flowery bank in January.
19. Prot. steropucha, n. sp.
Male, female.—13–14 m.m. Head and thorax dark purplish-fuscous, palpi dark fuscous, second joint yellow-whitish beneath towards base. Antennæ clothed with very dense scales in male to ¾, in female to ⅔, dark purplish-fuscous, naked apical portion
yellow-whitish. Abdomen dark grey. Legs dark purplish-fuscous. Forewings elongate, narrow, apex round-pointed, hindmargin sinuate, oblique; deep ferruginous-bronze, with purplish reflections, finely irrregularly irrorated with dark grey and whitish; markings coppery-metallic; a very oblique streak from costa near base to fold; an irregular transverse mark parallel to hindmargin in middle of disc, in female reaching costa in middle, and then appearing as a curved fascia not reaching inner margin; a transverse angulated fascia from beneath costa at ¾ to above anal angle, not reaching margins; a hindmarginal fascia, containing two small round deep black spots above anal angle: cilia deep ferruginous-bronze, mixed with dark grey. Hindwings dark fuscous-grey, lighter towards base, sometimes coppery-tinged; cilia grey.
Hamilton and Christchurch, in January, March and June; four specimens.
9. Orthenches, n. g.
Head smooth; ocelli present; tongue well-developed. Antennæ ⅘, in male filiform, simple or pubescent, somewhat thickened at base, joints angularly projecting, basal joint moderately elongate, with strong pecten. Labial palpi moderate or long, recurved, with appressed scales, somewhat rough beneath throughout except at apex, terminal joint from as long to twice as long as second, acute. Maxillary palpi tolerably filiform, curved, ascending. Posterior tibiæ rough-haired beneath. Forewings with vein 1 furcate, 2 almost from angle of cell, 7 to apex, 11 from ⅓ of cell, all veins separate, secondary cell strongly defined. Hindwings as broad as forewings, elongate-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, hindmargin sometimes rather sinuate, cilia ¾–1; all veins remote, tolerably parallel; beneath sometimes with a neural ridge or pecten in male.
Larva feeding openly or amongst loosely spun leaves.
|1a. Apex of forewings acute||22. porphyritis.|
|1b. " " rounded.|
|2a. Head whitish-yellowish||20. chlorocoma.|
|2b. " grey-whitish||21. prasinodes.|
20. Orth. chlorocoma, n. sp.
Male.—15 mm. Head and antennæ pale whitish-yellowish. Palpi moderate, yellow whitish, second joint with a dark grey subapical band, terminal joint as long as second. Thorax pale whitish-yellowish, sides brownish. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs fuscous, beneath whitish, anterior pair blackish. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa slightly sinuate, apex and hindmargin rounded; fuscous-whitish, towards costa and base slightly yellowish-tinged, with thin irregular blackish irroration throughout, tending to accumulate in small spots, especially on margins; a small round black spot in disc at ⅔: cilia pale whitish-yellowish, suffusedly barred with blackish-grey. Hindwings elongate-ovate,
with a scaled membranous ridge along lower median vein beneath; grey-whitish; cilia grey-whitish, at apex pale whitish-yellowish, with a blackish-grey spot.
Larva 16-legged, slender, attenuated towards both extremities, especially posteriorly; whitish-brown or whitish-green; a straight slender dorsal line and two rather irregular ill-defined lines on each side of it ochreous-brown or green, according to ground colour; beneath these a rather broad yellowish-white spiracular line; space beneath this dull brown; spots minute, black; head grey-whitish or greenish-whitish, irregularly striped longitudinally with dark fuscous. Feeds openly on Carmichælia australis (Leguminosæ), gnawing the twigs (the plant being leafless). Pupa in a rather thin firm spindle-shaped cocoon.
Christchurch; three larvæ found in March, from which I bred one specimen in April.
21. Orth. prasinodes, n. sp.
Male.—14 mm. Head and antennæ grey-whitish. Palpi moderately long, grey-whitish, second joint, except apex, and base of terminal joint dark fuscous, terminal joint somewhat longer than second. Thorax light greenish-grey, suffusedly mixed with dark grey. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs dark fuscous, apex of joints and posterior tibiæ grey-whitish. Forewings elongate, costa sinuate, apex and hindmargin rounded; light dull greenish, disc, inner and hind margins much suffused with dark grey, rest of wing indistinctly dotted with black, costa more distinctly; a small pale spot in dark suffusion below middle of fold; a small black spot in disc at ⅔, preceded by a pale longitudinal streak in disc: cilia grey, mixed with grey-whitish. Hindwings elongate-ovate, beneath with a long thin pecten of hairs from vein 1c directed towards disc; pale whitish-grey; cilia grey-whitish, with a dark grey spot at apex.
Christchurch; one specimen in March, amongst bush.
22. Orth. porphyritis, n. sp.
Male, female.—11–14 mm. Head light ochreous. Palpi long, light ochreous or whitish, externally suffused with dark fuscous, terminal joint twice as long as second. Antennæ whitish, annulated with dark fuscous. Thorax ochreous, mixed and suffused with purplish and dark fuscous. Abdomen grey. Legs dark fuscous, apex of joints and posterior tibiæ whitish. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa arched, apex acute, hindmargin very obliquely sinuate; brownish-ochreous, with purple or coppery reflections, sometimes mixed with grey-whitish; an irregular irroration of small dark fuscous spots; markings suffused, deep bronzy or violet-fuscous, very variable; normally a fascia-like rather oblique streak from costa at ¼, usually abbreviated, but sometimes reaching inner margin, an irregular
median fascia parallel to this, connected by a bar with costa at ¾, and a narrow fascia from costa before apex to anal angle, but these are sometimes incomplete or partially suffused; in one specimen, traces of a longitudinal white median streak: cilia brownish-ochreous, with a dark fuscous spot at apex. Hindwing ovate-lanceolate, apex acute, hindmargin sinuate; grey, towards apex darker; cilia grey.
Larva 16-legged, moderate, cylindrical, rather tapering at both ends; dull light greenish - ochreous; dorsal narrow, ochreous-whitish, bordered on each side by a slender dull reddish-fuscous streak, coalescing towards extremities; head brownish-ochreous. Feeds amongst loosely spun-together leaves of Podocarpus totara (Coniferæ). Pupa in a thin cocoon.
Otira River, Dunedin, and Invercargill, in September, December, and January; five specimens; larvæ found in December produced an imago in January.
10. Plutella, Schrk.
Head with loosely appressed hairs; ocelli present; tongue well developed. Antennæ ¾, towards base somewhat thickened, serrate, in male simple, basal joint moderate, with a dense anterior flap of scales. Labial palpi moderately long, recurved, second joint beneath with long dense projecting tuft of scales towards apex, terminal joint as long as second, slender or somewhat rough anteriorly, acute. Maxillary palpi very short, filiform. Posterior tibiæ shortly haired beneath. Forewings with vein 1 furcate, 2 from rather near angle, 7 to hindmargin, 11 from or before middle of cell, secondary cell more or less well-defined, all veins separate. Hindwings as broad as forewings or somewhat broader, elongate-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, cilia ⅘-1 ¼; veins 3 and 4 more or less remote, 5 and 6 stalked or separate, 7 remote.
The known larvæ are 16-legged, somewhat tapering to both ends, and all feed on Cruciferæ. Probably none of the three following species is indigenous:—
|1a. Apex of hindwings acute||23. cruciferarum.|
|1b. " " " rounded.|
|2a. Hindmargin of forewings concave||25. psammochroa.|
|2b. " " " not concave||24. sera.|
Sect. A.-Veins 5 and 6 of hindwings stalked.
23. Plut. cruciferarum, Z.
Male, female.—13–14 mm. Head and thorax in male ochreous-white, sides of thorax fuscous, in female wholly grey-whitish, mixed with grey. Palpi dark fuscous, base and terminal joint whitish. Antennæ whitish, annulated with fuscous, and with generally five dark fuscous bands. Forewings elongate, narrow, tolerably pointed, in male with a pencil of hairs beneath from base of costa; light fuscous, sometimes partially
ochreous-tinged, somewhat mixed with whitish, with a scanty irroration of small blackish spots, larger and more numerous in female; costal edge white in male, especially towards ⅔; in male a longitudinal white line about fold from base, above margined with dark fuscous or blackish, beneath shading into a pale ochreous dorsal space, twice slightly sinuate upwards, towards anal angle bent upwards and becoming obsolete; in female this line is indistinct, the dorsal space hardly paler than ground-colour, but upper black margin tolerably distinct, the sinuations angulated and much more prominent than in male: cilia grey-whitish, somewhat irrorated with grey, with four dark fuscous lines. Hindwings ovate-lanceolate, grey; cilia whitish grey, towards tips more whitish.
A variable species.
Larva green, feeding on cabbages and other Cruciferæ, to which it is sometimes exceedingly destructive, eating the leaves into holes. Pupa in an open network cocoon.
Cambridge, Wellington, Taranaki, Christchurch, Bealey River, Lake Wakatipu, and probably universally; abundant in the neighbourhood of gardens from August to March. Introduced from Europe, and now occurring probably throughout the world; in Australia often very numerous.
Sect. B.—Veins 5 and 6 of hindwings separate.
24. Plut, sera, n. sp.
Male, female.—11–13 mm. Head whitish-ochreous. Palpi whitish-ochreous, more or less mixed with dark fuscous. Antennæ ochreous-white, with median and posterior bands and two subapical rings dark fuscous. Thorax light brownish-ochreous, anterior margin mixed with dark fuscous. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs dark fuscous, apex of joints and posterior tibiæ whitish-ochreous. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin hardly rounded, very oblique; light brownish-ochreous mixed with grey, and with a scanty irroration of small black spots; a crescentic black mark on fold before middle, extremities directed upwards, posterior tending sometimes to be produced as a cloudy streak to costa beyond middle; a fuscous streak from inner margin at ¾ towards costa near apex, but becoming obsolete before reaching it, margined with black towards lower extremity, sometimes little darker than ground colour; a blackish line along upper part of hindmargin: cilia whitish-ochreous with a black line, a blackish spot at apex and a larger one below middle of hindmargin. Hindwings elongate-ovate, light grey; cilia grey-whitish.
Most allied to the European P. annulatella.
Taranaki, Makatoku, and Palmerston, in March; also common in Eastern Australia, where the imago is on the wing most of the year, frequenting the neighbourhood of cultivation.
25. Plut. psammochroa, n. sp.
Male, female.—16–20 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs whitish-ochreous; head and thorax sometimes with two obscure darker longitudinal stripes; second joint of palpi sometimes with dark fuscous subapical band; anterior legs suffused with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa arched, apex acute, hindmargin concave, oblique; whitish-ochreous; all veins distinctly lined with ochreous-fuscous; a few irregularly scattered black dots: cilia whitish-ochreous. Hindwings somewhat broader than forewings, elongate-ovate; pale whitish-grey; cilia grey-whitish.
Differs from all by the concave hindmargin of forewings.
Otira River, in January; also from Eastern Australia; three specimens.
Head rough or loosely haired. Antennæ in male filiform, simple or pubescent. Labial palpi moderate or short, straight, porrected or drooping. Maxillary palpi moderate or long, porrected or folded. Forewings with venation normal or complex, often with additional veins and subdivisions of cell. Hindwings ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, neuration nearly as in forewings, with not less than 9 veins rising out of cell.
This is the ancestral family of the Tineina, and may be always known by the more complex neuration of the hindwings, which is not essentially differentiated from that of the forewings. In the older genera of the family the neuration cannot be strictly referred to the Lepidopterous type at all, but is really Neuropterous in character, and undoubtedly indicates the origin of the Lepidoptera from that group. In these genera there are several additional veins, and usually several separate cells, the whole presenting a structure which could not possibly be evolved from the normal Lepidopterous type, since such a process would require the creation of the new veins, whilst the Lepidopterous type can readily be deduced from it by the disappearance or modification of existing veins. In the case of these genera the description of the neuration should require, in consequence, an entirely new terminology; but, although the course is not strictly logical, I have thought it more intelligible to maintain for the forewings the assumption of the normal Lepidopterous type in these genera, keeping for equivalent veins their usual designation, and treating those which are without analogue in the normal type as superadded.
Besides the following, only a few European species are authentically known; I have not succeeded in finding any representative of the family in Australia. The two genera occurring here are both endemic; Palæomicra is probably the oldest known genus of the order; Mnesarchæa is very interesting
as exhibiting a step in transition to the Erechthiadæ and Plutellidæ. The species described here are all very difficult to see when on the wing, and therefore likely to be passed over. The known exotic larvæ are apodal and miners.
Under the head of Palæomicra I give a comparison of the neuration of that genus with those Neuroptera (Trichoptera) which approach it most nearly.
|1a. Forewings with additional costal veins; labial palpi very short||12. Palæomicra.|
|1b. Forewings without additional veins; labial palpi rather long, brushlike||11. Mnesarchæa.|
11. Mnesarchæa, n. g.
Head loosely haired, somewhat rough; ocelli present; tongue obsolete. Antennæ ¾, stout, filiform, in male simple, basal joint moderate, without pecten. Labial palpi moderately long, straight, porrected, clothed with long loose scales forming a dilated terminal brush. Maxillary palpi moderate, porrected, terminating in a loose dilated brush. Abdomen in male with uncus and valves well developed, and two long linear internal processes. Posterior tibiæ thinly clothed with long bristles, middle and posterior tarsi with whorls of projecting bristles at apex of four basal joints. Forewings with vein 1 simple, 2 almost from angle of cell, 6 out of stalk of 7 and 8 near base, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to hindmargin, 11 absent. Hindwings ⅘ of forewings, lanceolate, cilia rather over 1; neuration exactly as in forewings, except that vein 6 is separate from 7.
26. Mnes. paracosma, n. sp.
Male, 9–10 mm. Head, palpi, and antennæ whitish-ochreous. Thorax light brownish-ochreous. Abdomen grey. Legs dark grey, bristles whitish-ochreous. Forewings lanceolate; yellowish-ochreous, suffusedly mixed with dark fuscous and a few grey-whitish scales, except towards costa anteriorly; a grey-whitish oblique wedge-shaped streak from middle of costa, reaching almost to anal angle; the dark fuscous scales tend to form a spot in disc before this; a deeper suffusion beyond it, especially towards costa, and a spot towards inner margin before middle: cilia light brownish-ochreous, somewhat mixed with dark fuscous and whitish. Hindwings fuscous-grey, somewhat purple-shining; cilia grey.
Lake Wakatipu (1,100 feet), and Invercargill; nine specimens, flying amongst rough herbage in December.
12. Palæomicra, n. g.
Head with long rough hairs; ocelli present; tongue obsolete. Antennæ ½–⅔, in male filiform, pubescent, basal joint small, concealed. Labial palpi extremely short, rudimentary. Maxillary palpi long, folded, loosely scaled. Abdomen in male
with rounded terminal plate above, valves large. Middle tibiæ without spurs; posterior tibiæ somewhat rough beneath. Forewings with vein 1a with long basal furcation, lower fork sometimes (chalcophanes) again basally furcate, 1b well-defined, connected with lower margin of cell by a bar near base, 2 and 3 from point of angle, transverse vein sometimes (chalcophanes) obsolete between 3 and 4, forked parting-vein well-defined, rising out of lower margin of cell near base, sometimes (chalcophanes) connected with upper margin by a bar near base, terminating in 4 and 5, between which transverse vein is absent, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to hindmargin, secondary cell well-defined, 9 and 10 out of its upper margin, 11 from ⅓ of cell, giving rise to an additional vein, and connected with 12 by a bar above (chrysargyra) or below (chalcophanes) the additional vein, 12 sometimes (chalcophanes) connected with upper margin of cell at base, giving rise to an additional vein above in middle, and sometimes (chalcophanes) a second near base. Hindwings rather narrower than forewings, ovate-lanceolate, cilia ¾; neuration identical with that of forewings, except as follows: 1b rising out of upper fork of 1a, not connected with cell, 2 and 3 remote, transverse vein between 3 and 4 well-defined, the four main veins not connected at base of wing, 11 from middle of cell, 11 and 12 without additional branches.
Differs from the typical genus Micropteryx (which requires subdivision on the basis of neuration) by the stalking of veins 7 and 8 in both wings, and the additional branch of 11 in forewings.
I sent drawings of the neuration of this genus to Mr. R. McLachlan, the well-known neuropterist (whom I am glad to be able to quote as agreeing with me that there is a real and close developmental connection between this genus and the Trichoptera), with the request that he would express an opinion as to which genera of Trichoptera it approached most nearly. In reply he kindly furnished me with figures of several, with which it is practically almost identical. The nearest of these is Rhyacophila (Rhyacophilidæ); Cyrnus and Holocentropus (Hydropsychidæ) also approximate closely, and Diplectrona and Hydropsyche, in the same family, less nearly; Calamoceras (Leptoceridæ) is rather more remote. In the forewings of Rhyacophila the only important difference is the existence of an additional vein rising out of 4; but in the hindwings one observes with interest that this very difference has disappeared, this additional vein being absent; throughout these genera it seems that, in the tendency to a progressive simplification of structure, the hindwings took the lead, with the result that in the final established Lepidopterous type the hindwings have permanently four veins less than the forewings. Rhyacophila shows no other essential distinction from Palæomicra; the other
points of difference consist in the position (whether above or below the furcations) of the transverse bars, or their partial obsolescence. Pal. chalcophanes is especially interesting, as being at present the only Lepidopteron known which shows the basal trifurcation of vein 1a of the forewings, common to all the above-mentioned genera of Trichoptera; and the same species possesses the second (basal) branch of vein 12 of the forewings, which is shown in Rhyacophila, but not in any of the others mentioned, except Hydropsyche, which does not, however, show the other or median branch. I may add that this basal branch is perhaps rather to be regarded as a transverse bar connecting vein 12 with the costa, than as a true branch. It appears to me that the type of neuration of the Trichoptera consists of five simple veins, variously fused, towards the inner margin; and seven apically furcate veins, variously fused towards the base, and connected by a series of transverse bars.
27. Pal. chalcophanes, n. sp.
Male, female.—10 ½-11 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ochreous. Antennæ pale ochreous, with about six very variable blackish bands. Abdomen grey. Legs pale ochreous, sharply banded with dark grey. Forewings oblong, costa abruptly bent near base, thence gently arched, apex acute, hindmargin straight, very oblique; light shining yellowish-ochreous, with hardly traceable somewhat darker coppery-shining oblique reticulating fasciæ, terminating in small dark purple-fuscous spots on margins; these spots are on costa near base, at ½, ⅔, ⅚, and apex, on inner margin near base, at ⅓, ⅔, and anal angle, and on middle of hindmargin; third costal spot often double; cilia shining whitish-ochreous, on costal spots dark fuscous. Hindwings rather dark purple-grey; cilia grey.
Makatoku (Hawke's Bay), in March; nine specimens amongst deep forest.
28. Pal. chrysargyra, n. sp.
Male, female.—9–10 ½ mm. Head and thorax reddish-ochreous. Palpi light ochreous. Antennæ dark grey. Abdomen grey. Legs light ochreous. Forewings ovate-lanceolate, costa abruptly bent near base, thence moderately arched, apex acute, hindmargin very oblique, slightly sinuate; shining golden-ochreous; markings very indistinct, shining ochreous-whitish; a very irregular fascia before middle, a second at ⅔, both often interrupted, and a series of several small spots along hindmargin and apical portion of costa; a dark fuscous dot in disc before middle, sometimes obsolete: cilia pale shining golden-ochreous. Hindwings purplish-grey; cilia whitish-grey.
Lake Wakatipu (1,100 feet), in December; taken commonly flying over flowery herbage by the side of a small rivulet.
I add a new genus and species to those already described.
13. Conopomorpha, n. g.
Head smooth; no ocelli; tongue moderate. Antennæ 1 ½, in male filiform, simple, basal joint moderate, rather flattened. Labial palpi moderately long, curved, rough-scaled beneath throughout, second joint not reaching base of antennæ,-terminal joint acute. Maxillary palpi rather long, slender, porrected. Posterior tibiæ thinly clothed with rough hairs above, tarsi twice tibiæ. Forewings very narrow, parallel-sided, round-pointed; 1 simple, 2 from near angle, 3 and 4 short-stalked from angle, 7 to costa, 9 and 10 from close together, 11 absent, upper margin of cell obsolete towards base. Hindwings half as broad as forewings, almost linear, cilia 5; transverse vein absent between 3 and 5, 4 absent, 5 and 6 as though from a point, 7 free.
29. Con. cyanospila, n. sp.
Male, female.—12–14 mm. Head ochreous-whitish, sometimes suffused with fuscous. Palpi whitish, second joint dark fuscous except apex, terminal joint with dark fuscous band and subapical ring. Antennæ grey. Thorax ochreous-whitish, mixed with dark fuscous. Abdomen grey. Legs dark fuscous, apex of joints and oblique bands of tibiæ whitish. Forewings dark fuscous, irregularly mixed with whitish-ochreous, tending to form small scattered cloudy spots or strigulæ; costa dotted with whitish, with three white strigulæ towards base, first two rather inwardly, third outwardly oblique, a suffused pair beyond middle, and three oblique pairs towards apex, first of these meeting a similar pair from inner margin, preceded in disc by a small white spot, and followed by a metallic-blue spot; two oblique whitish strigulæ from inner margin beyond middle, and sometimes one or two others beneath fold; a transverse metallic-blue ante-apical line; a small metallic-blue apical spot: cilia grey, round apex whitish, with dark fuscous lines. Hindwings dark fuscous; cilia grey.
Taranaki, Palmerston, Makatoku, and Masterton; common in February and March amongst dense forest. In repose the imago sits either with the fore-part raised as in Gracilaria, or closely appressed to surface, but with the four anterior legs laterally extended; the latter position is apparently most habitual, serving to conceal it on the tree-trunks on which it usually sits.