Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 19, 1886

of the
New Zealand Institute,


Art. I.Monograph of New Zealand Noctuina.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 7th October, 1886.]

I have described the species of this group on the same method as that employed in my paper on the Geometrina,* and the remarks prefatory to that paper may be taken to apply generally to this also.

The species of Noctuina are commonly very dull coloured, and very similar in marking. It is, therefore, not surprising that those writers who classify by superficial appearance have found themselves in a frightful state of confusion; but the structural classification of the group is really not difficult. As an example of the sort of work produced, I will merely point out that fifteen described species of New Zealand Noctuina, all truly referable to the same genus, Mamestra, have been classed by these writers in eighteen different genera, under five distinct families. As the New Zealand fauna is very limited in character, it may be useful to remark that genera such as Hadena, Xylina, etc., to which several of these species have been referred, are really existing genera, quite distinct in structure, and have not been merged by me in Mamestra; I have simply corrected the erroneous reference.

The specimens described in this paper were mainly from the collection of Mr. R. W. Fereday, to whom I am greatly indebted for the loan of them. Mr. Fereday has devoted especial attention to the group, and his collection is a very valuable record of labour; but, as it was taken principally in a few limited localities, it is doubtless incomplete. I imagine that, as in the Geometrina, new species will come mainly from the alpine regions. During my last visit to the table-land of Mount

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., p. 49; xvii., p. 62; xviii., p. 184.

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Arthur I tried the effect of sugaring, with much perseverance and a total absence of result; the only species I took were found by day, but I think an attracting lamp would have been effective. The failure of sugar is probably due to the very great abundance of flowers.

Seventeen genera are recorded, of which number six are represented only by single wide-ranging species, and are not to be regarded as belonging to the true indigenous fauna; five are endemic, and represented in all by only six species; and the remaining six are wide-ranging, and probably almost cosmopolitan genera. Sixty-three species are given, of which nine are found also in Australia, several of them ranging much further; the remainder are endemic. Forty-two—that is, two-thirds of the whole number, or nearly seven-ninths of the endemic species—belong to the two closely-allied genera Leucania and Mamestra, the distinction between which is very slight. Compare with this the predominance of the two closely allied genera, Larentia and Notoreas, among the Larentiadœ (Geometrina); the analogy is so close as to suggest a common origin in time for the New Zealand fauna of both groups. I have little hesitation in asserting, though I cannot yet adduce conclusive proof, that the Larentiadœ of New Zealand approach much more nearly to those of Chili than of any other country, and perhaps the Noctuina may be found to display a similar relation.


Forewings with vein 1 simple, 5 rising nearer to 4 than to 6, 7 and 8 from a common stalk. Hindwings with 1c obsolete, 8 rising out of upper margin of cell near base, frenum developed.

Separated from the Geometrina by the position of vein 5 of the forewings. The following characters are also common to all the New Zealand genera of the group, and are therefore given here, to avoid needless repetition:—Face vertical or obtusely prominent; ocelli present; tongue well-developed; palpi (unless specially mentioned) moderate, obliquely ascending, second joint densely rough-scaled or hairy, terminal joint short, smooth, cylindrical; thorax very densely hairy; tarsi more or less strongly spinose, spurs well-developed; forewings with vein 6 almost from a point with 9, 7 and 8 out of 9, 10 connected with 9 by a bar (except in Erana); hindwings with veins 3 and 4 approximately from a point, 6 and 7 approximately from a point.

The markings are assumed to consist typically of first, second, and subterminal lines, a median shade or cloudy line between first and second, and orbicular, claviform, and reniform spots; the position of all these is practically identical in all

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the New Zealand species. The first line runs from about ⅓ of costa to about ⅖ of inner margin, the second, rather curved on upper portion, from about ⅔ of costa to about ⅔ of inner margin; the orbicular and reniform successively between these above middle, the claviform immediately beyond first line below middle.

The two families represented in New Zealand differ essentially only in the structure of vein 5 of the hindwings:—

Noctuidœ. Hindwings with vein 5 imperfect, parallel to 4.

Plusiadœ. Hindwings with vein 5 well-developed, approximated to 4 towards base.

A. Eyes hairy.
 I. Abdomen more or less crested, thorax with defined crest.
  a. Wings with transverse vein wholly absent 5. Erana.
  b. " present 4. Mamestra.
 II. Abdomen smooth, thorax without defined crest.
  a. Palpi, in male, with terminal joint greatly swollen 1. Physetica.
  b. Palpi, in male, with terminal joint not greatly swollen
   1. Antennæ, in male, strongly bipectinated to apex 3. Ichneutica.
   2. Antennæ, in male, with at least apex filiform 2. Leucania.
B. Eyes naked.
 I. Eyes with long marginal cilia.
  a. Thorax with anterior angles prominent, angularly scaled 6. Miselia.
  b. Thorax with anterior angles not prominent.
   1. Thorax sharply crested 8. Xanthia.
   2. " not " 7. Orthosia.
 II. Eyes without marginal cilia.
  a. Antennæ in male bipectinated 10. Agrotis.
  b. " filiform.
   1. Thorax strongly crested 12. Cosmodes.
   2. " not "
    i. Anterior tibiæ with horny apical hook 11. Heliothis.
    ii. " without " 9. Bityla.

1. Physetica, n. g.

Eyes hairy. Palpi with terminal joint in male greatly swollen, as broad as second, rather short, rounded, with an orifice in outer side, in female normal. Antennæ in male filiform, simple. Thorax and abdomen smooth.

1. Phys. cœrulea, Gn.

(Agrotis cœrulea, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 38.)

Male, female.—38–41 mm. Head, antennæ, and thorax slaty-grey. Palpi whitish-ochreous, laterally suffused with slaty-grey. Abdomen grey, in male mixed with yellowish, anal tuft

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ochreous-yellowish. Legs slaty-grey, ringed with whitish-ochreous; posterior tibiæ pale whitish-ochreous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin somewhat waved, slightly oblique, rounded beneath; dark slaty-grey, finely sprinkled with whitish; sub-basal first and second lines obscure, whitish, dentate, dark-margined; orbicular and reniform very obscurely indicated by pale outlines; median shade dark-grey; subterminal obscure, whitish, twice sinuate; cilia dark slaty-grey, sprinkled with whitish. Hindwings blackish-grey, becoming paler and mixed with whitish-ochreous towards base: cilia whitish-ochreous, with a faint grey line, towards tips white. Under-surface of all wings in male uniform glossy pale whitish-ochreous, in female greyish-tinged.

Blenheim and Rakaia, in October, December, and January; ten specimens; formerly very common at flowers (Fereday).

2. Leucania, Tr.

Eyes hairy. Antennæ in male with short pectinations or dentations terminating in tufts of cilia, or subdentate or filiform, evenly ciliated, towards apex always filiform. Thorax smooth or slightly crested anteriorly. Abdomen smooth.

The variations in the form of antennæ are simply specific, and not available even to form sections. The larvæ are 16-legged, probably generally feeding on grass. The genus is probably cosmopolitan, but is as well represented in New Zealand as anywhere.

A. Forewings with black longitudinal streak from base B.
" without " D.
B. Hindwings rather dark grey 5. atristriga.
" not " C.
C. Forewings with dark fuscous longitudinal streak in disc 6. propria.
Forewings without dark fuscous longitudinal streak in disc 7. acontistis.
D. Forewings with defined oblique fuscous streak from apex 16. extraneea.
Forewings without defined oblique fuscous streak from apex E.
E. Orbicular tolerably defined 2. moderata.
" imperceptible F.
F. Forewings with posterior series of dots absent G.
" more or less distinct H.
G. Forewings whitish-ochreous 13. sulcana.
" light brownish-crimson 4. purdii.
H. Cilia of forewings conspicuously darker 15. blenheimensis.
" not " K.
K. Hindwings dark grey L.
" not dark grey N.
L. Forewings reddish fuscous 9. alopa.
" pale whitish-ochreous M.
M. Cilia of hindwings white 12. arotis.
" dark grey 11. aulacias.
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N. Forewings with darker submedian streak from base 14. semivittata.
" without " O.
O. Forewings with scattered white and black scales on veins 8. phaula.
Forewings without scattered white and black scales on veins P.
P. Forewings with first line indicated by black dots on veins 10. unica.
Forewings with first line not indicated by black dots on veins 3. nullifera.

2. Leuc. moderata, Walk.

(Agrotis moderata, Walk., Suppl., 705; Mamestra griseipennis, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cix., 22; Chera virescens, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., 489; Spaelotis inconstans, ib., 545.)

Male, female.—35–38 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax ochreous-grey, sometimes suffused with dark grey; antennæ in male with moderate transverse triangular dentations, terminating in tufts of long cilia. Abdomen pale ochreous-greyish. Legs dark grey, suffusedly irrorated with whitish-ochreous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; fuscous-grey, yellowish-tinged, densely strewn with whitish scales; hairs at base of inner margin, white; two blackish dots near base, on costa and in middle, followed by pale dots; first and second lines blackish, dentate or interrupted, second followed by a series of whitish points; median shade dark grey; orbicular and reniform indistinctly outlined with pale and then with blackish; subterminal whitish, irregular, interrupted, anteriorly suffusedly margined with dark grey; a hind-marginal row of blackish dots: cilia grey, mixed with ochreous-whitish. Hindwings dark grey, lighter towards base; cilia ochreous-white.

Var. α. Thorax and forewings without ochreous tinge, with numerous white scales tending to form suffused spots and margins to lines; cilia distinctly barred with darker; hindwings grey, with dark grey irregular hind-marginal band.

Christchurch, Lake Coleridge, Rakaia, Akaroa, and Lake Guyon; a single specimen of the variety on Mount Arthur at 4,700 feet; from November to March, very common.

3. Leuc. nullifera, Walk.

(Agrotis nullifera, Walk., Noct., 742, Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 5; Alysia specifica, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 3.)

Male, female.—55–58 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and legs light brownish-ochreous, in female more greyish; antennæ in male with moderate transverse triangular dentations terminating in tufts of cilia; abdomen pale greyish-ochreous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex

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obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; light brownish-ochreous or fuscous; sometimes two faint dentate darker lines visible, approximated on inner margin; a posterior curved series of cloudy darker dots, followed by pale points: cilia pale ochreous or fuscous, tips whitish. Hindwings pale brownish-ochreous or fuscous; cilia pale ochreous, tips whitish.

Larva stout, glabrous; yellow-ochreous, minutely speckled with white; dorsal obscurely fuscous; a very fine fuscous subdorsal line, edged beneath with white; an obscure fuscous shade above spiracles, darker posteriorly; head yellow-ochreous. Feeds within stems of Aciphylla colensoi (Umbelliferœ).

Christchurch, Rakaia, and Mount Arthur (3,500 feet); from November to March, common.

4. Leuc. purdii, Frdy.

(Leucania purdii, Frdy., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1882, 195.)

Male.—46 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ferruginous, thorax between patagia posteriorly grey-whitish. Antennæ whitish-ochreous, with moderate triangular transverse dentations, terminating in tufts of cilia. Abdomen greyish-ochreous, slightly reddish-tinged. Legs dull fuscous-crimson mixed with dark grey. Forewings moderately dilated, costa slightly sinuate, apex obtuse, hindmargin obliquely rounded; light dull brownish-crimson, with a few whitish scales; costa narrowly deep yellow, more broadly near base; a narrow deep yellow suffusion along basal half of inner margin; a moderately broad deep yellow suffusion below middle from base to middle; a moderately broad deep yellow suffusion above middle from ⅓ to ⅔: cilia yellowish-white, basal half pale reddish-ochreous. Hindwings dark grey; cilia pale ochreous-yellowish, tips whitish.

Dunedin; one specimen, sent by Mr. Purdie.

5. Leuc. atristriga, Walk.

Xylina atristriga, Walk., Suppl., 756; Mamestra antipoda, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cix., 23.)

Male, female.—33–36 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ and thorax pale fuscous, tinged with ochreous or reddish, sometimes irrorated with whitish; antennæ in male filiform, subserrate towards base, moderately ciliated. Abdomen and legs greyish-ochreous, spurs branded with blackish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex abtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; light reddish-fuscous, towards inner margin broadly mixed with whitish-ochreous, towards costa paler and irrorated with whitish, especially near base; a black median streak from base to one-third, extremities attenuated; first and second lines very faintly indicated, on costa marked by two black dots, second with a series of inconspicuous minute black dots; all spots tolerably defined by pale margins partially

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surrounded with dark fuscous, claviform elongate, orbicular oval, reniform with posterior margin concave, followed by a yellow-ochreous spot; subterminal obscurely indicated by a cloudy costal mark; a hind-marginal series of minute black dots: cilia pale reddish-fuscous. Hindwings rather dark fuscous-grey; cilia greyish-ochreous, apical, half white.

Nelson, Christchurch, Lake Coleridge, and Dunedin, from January to March; very common.

6. Leuc. propria, Walk.

Leucania propria, Walk., Noct. iii., Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 2, Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 4.)

Male, female.—32–36 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs whitish-ochreous, slightly brownish or reddish-tinged; antennæ in male with moderate transverse triangular dentations, terminating in tufts of cilia; thorax slightly crested anteriorly, with a blackish anterior transverse line; spurs dark fuscous, except towards apex. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hind-margin slightly waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; whitish ochreous, sometimes more or less suffused with light brownish-ochreous; a black median streak from base to ⅖; a minute black dot above it towards base, and another towards inner margin at ⅓; a dark fuscous longitudinal streak in disc, suffused beneath with reddish-fuscous, from above apex of basal streak to near hind-margin; orbicular sometimes indicated, reniform tolerably defined, pale-margined, posteriorly edged with dark fuscous, sometimes intersecting discal streak; a posterior curved series of minute black dots; a hind-marginal series of larger black dots: cilia whitish-ochreous or pale ochreous, indistinctly barred with greyish. Hindwings light grey, sometimes tinged with whitish-ochreous; a dark grey interrupted hind-marginal line; cilia ochreous-whitish.

Mount Arthur (3,800 feet), Blenheim, and Mount Hutt, from January to March; common.

7. Leuc. acontistis, n. sp.

Male.—36 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs whitish-ochreous, slightly brownish tinged; antennæ with strong triangular transverse dentations, terminating in tufts of cilia; collar with an imperfect blackish transverse line. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin rather oblique, rounded beneath; whitish-ochreous, brownish-tinged; a slender attenuated black streak below middle from base to ⅖: cilia ochreous-whitish. Hindwings light grey, tinged with whitish-ochreous; cilia ochreous-whitish.

Castle Hill; one specimen, sent by Mr. J. D. Enys.

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8. Leuc. phaula, n. sp.

Male.—38 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs light brownish-ochreous; antennæ with moderate triangular longitudinal dentations, terminating in tufts of cilia. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; rather light fuscous, ochreous-tinged; veins marked with scattered white and black scales; an obscure white dot at each extremity of transverse vein; a minute black dot towards inner margin at ⅓; a posterior series of obscure minute black dots, bent above middle: cilia fuscous, base more ochreous, tips whitish. Hindwings fuscous-grey, base somewhat lighter; cilia whitish-ochreous, with a faint grey line, tips more whitish.

Christchurch, in November; two specimens; bred from tussock-grass.

9. Leuc. alopa, n. sp.

Male.—41 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax reddish-fuscous, mixed with ochreous-whitish; face whitish-ochreous; thorax, posteriorly between patagia, grey-whitish. Antennæ ochreous-whitish, flatly subdentate, moderately ciliated. Abdomen light grey, anal tuft whitish-ochreous, mixed with reddish. Legs reddish-ochreous, mixed with grey. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; reddish-fuscous, slightly ochreous-tinged; costa somewhat irrorated with whitish; a black dot towards inner margin at ⅓; reniform represented by a subcrescentic whitish-ochreous mark, bordered beneath by a cloudy dark-grey spot; a posterior curved series of obscure black dots: cilia reddish-fuscous, tips white. Hindwings dark grey; cilia ochreous-whitish, slightly reddish-tinged.

Lake Coleridge and Lake Guyon, in March; two specimens.

10. Leuc. unica, Walk.

(Leucania unica, Walk., Noct. 112, Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 9; Nonagria juncicolor, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag., v. 2.)

Male, female.—34–35 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs whitish-ochreous, slightly brownish-tinged; antennæ in male moderately bipectinated, pectinations strongly ciliated. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; whitish-ochreous, slightly brownish-tinged, sometimes with a few scattered black scales; first line represented by three pairs of obscure black dots; a posterior curved series of black dots: cilia whitish-ochreous. Hindwings grey, more or less tinged with whitish-ochreous; cilia pale whitish-ochreous.

Blenheim and Rakaia, in November; nine specimens.

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11. Leuc. aulacias, n. sp.

Male.—41 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-ochreous; palpi externally mixed with blackish; thorax with a slender black transverse line on each side of back, anteriorly. Antennæ whitish, flatly subdentate, moderately ciliated. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs whitish, outer spurs black, except apex, two apical joints of anterior tarsi black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; pale whitish-ochreous, faintly brownish-tinged in disc; a black basal dot below middle; veins posteriorly and in disc lined with blackish, and interneural spaces with central brown lines leaving pale marginal lines but somewhat suffused near hindmargin; a cloudy blackish dot towards inner margin at ⅖; a short very obscure longitudinal streak of blackish scales beneath middle; a posterior curved row of black dots: cilia fuscous, mixed with ochreous-whitish. Hindwings dark grey; cilia dark grey, mixed with whitish.

Dunedin, in March; one specimen.

12. Leuc. arotis, n. sp.

Male, female.—39–42 mm. Thorax tolerably crested anteriorly; submedian streak not traceable; cilia of forewings whitish-ochreous, sprinkled with fuscous and blackish, of hindwings white, with indications of a grey line: all else as in L. aulacias.

Blenheim, Christchurch and Rakaia, in November and December; nine specimens. This may eventually prove to be a form of the preceding species, but at present it is easily distinguishable by the different cilia of the hindwings.

13. Leuc. sulcana, Frdy.

(Leucania sulcana, Frdy., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1879, 267, pl. ix.)

Male, female.—40–42 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and legs whitish-ochreous, partly tinged with brownish-ochreous; palpi mixed with blackish; antennæ in male flatly sub-dentate, moderately ciliated; two apical joints of anterior tarsi black; outer spurs with median black band. Abdomen dark-grey above, anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa slightly arched, apex rectangular, hindmargin almost straight, rather oblique; whitish-ochreous, with a few scattered black scales; costal edge slenderly bright ochreous from base to ⅔; a slender ochreous-brown streak along submedian fold from base to ¾, posteriorly very indistinct, towards base somewhat mixed with black; a slender ochreous-brown suffused median streak from end of cell to hindmargin; indications of darker lines posteriorly between veins; a distinct black dot above middle at 1/ [ unclear: ] , another at 1/ [ unclear: ] , and a third, sometimes

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obsolete, towards inner margin at ⅓; a rather large black dot between origins of veins 3 and 4, and another on middle of vein 6; a hind-marginal series of minute black dots: cilia whitish-ochreous. Hindwings blackish-grey; cilia pale ochreous, with a cloudy dark-grey line.

Akaroa and Dunedin, in February; ten specimens.

14. Leuc. semivittata, Walk.

(Leucania semivittata, Walk., Suppl. 628.)

Male, female.—36–40 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs pale whitish-ochreous; antennæ in male serrate, shortly ciliated; outer spurs with median black band. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly sinuate, apex obtuse, hindmargin slightly waved, rather oblique, rounded beneath; pale whitish-ochreous; space between veins posteriorly sometimes pale brownish, veins sometimes marked with black scales; a slender pale ochreous median streak, irrorated with black, from base to ⅖; a black dot above middle at ⅙, sometimes another at ⅓, and one towards inner margin at ⅓, a fourth between origins of veins 3 and 4, and a fifth between veins 6 and 7, near origin; a curved posterior series of black dots; a hind-marginal series of minute black dots: cilia pale whitish-ochreous. Hindwings grey, in female more or less suffused with pale whitish-ochreous; cilia white, base ochreous-tinged.

Christchurch, Mount Torlesse, and Dunedin; common.

15. Leuc. blenheimensis, Frdy.

(Leucania blenheimensis, Frdy., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1882, 196.)

Male.—40 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs whitish-ochreous, slightly brownish-tinged; palpi externally suffused with blackish; antennæ subserrate towards base, moderately ciliated; anterior legs suffused with dark grey, all tarsi and spurs banded with blackish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly sinuate, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; whitish-ochreous, tinged with pale brownish-ochreous along hindmargin; veins partially white, irregularly irrorated with black; first line represented by three minute black dots; a cloudy black dot between veins 3 and 4 at origin; a posterior curved series of obscure black dots: cilia blackish-grey, irrorated with whitish. Hindwings fuscous-grey, towards base tinged with whitish-ochreous; cilia grey-whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Napier and Blenheim; three specimens.

16. Leuc. extranea, Gn.

(Leucania extranea, Gn., Noct. v., 77, Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 2.)

Male, female.—32–42 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs pale brownish-ochreous, sometimes sprinkled

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with dark fuscous; antennæ in male filiform, rather shortly ciliated; thorax somewhat crested anteriorly; outer spurs banded with black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin rather oblique, rounded beneath; light brownish-ochreous, with numerous scattered short fuscous strigulæ and black scales; orbicular and reniform indistinct, roundish, more yellow-ochreous, dark-centred; a white dot, sometimes very obscure, on lower margin of reniform, preceded and followed by dark scales; a curved posterior series of black dots; a straight oblique slender fuscous streak from apex to this series; a hind-marginal series of black dots: cilia pale brownish-ochreous, apex whitish. Hindwings grey-whitish, towards hindmargin broadly suffused with dark-grey, especially on upper half, veins dark-grey; cilia whitish, sometimes with an indistinct grey line.

Napier, Wellington, Nelson, and Christchurch, from January to April; not uncommon. Occurs also in Australia, Java, India, and North and South America.

3. Ichneutica, n. g.

Eyes hairy. Antennæ in male strongly bipectinated throughout. Thorax and abdomen smooth.

17. Ichn. ceraunias, n. sp.

Male.—41 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs brownish-ochreous; palpi externally suffused with dark fuscous; stalk of antennæ white above. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin rather oblique, rounded beneath; whitish-ochreous, brownish-tinged; a pale yellow-ochreous gradually dilated streak from base above middle to ⅗, where it separates abruptly into two strong remote branches, nearly reaching hindmargin, upper acutely pointed, lower with two acute points; space between and beyond these, and on a broad streak beneath them, reaching from ⅓ to hindmargin but acutely attenuated anteriorly, ochreous-brown, sprinkled with black on margins; a small blackish spot between branches at origin, and an irregular black divided streak from base beneath median streaks to middle: cilia whitish-ochreous (imperfect). Hindwings light fuscous-grey; cilia whitish-ochreous (imperfect).

Mount Arthur (4,700 feet); I took a single specimen, flying by day in January; it is in rather poor condition, but could not be mistaken.

4. Mamestra, Tr.

Eyes hairy. Palpi with terminal joint rarely elongate. Antennæ in male dentate or filiform, ciliated evenly or with fascicles, or moderately bipectinated, apex always filiform.

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Thorax more or less strongly crested anteriorly and often posteriorly. Abdomen more or less distinctly crested towards base.

Probably cosmopolitan, but relatively much more numerous in New Zealand than elsewhere. Larvæ 16-legged, feeding on grasses and low plants.

Abdomen partly rosy A.
" not " B.
A. Hindwings rosy 25. pictula.
" grey 26. rhodopleura.
B. Forewings distinctly green 21. plena.
" not " C.
C. All veins conspicuously pale 18. disjungens.
" not " D.
D. A distinct short blackish median streak from base E.
No black basal streak K.
E. A dark brown interrupted discal patch from first line to hindmargin 19. paracausta.
No such patch F.
F. A black dash above anal angle G.
No black supra-anal dash H.
G. Black dash broadly suffused with dark fuscous 20. polychroa.
" slender, defined 23. mutans.
H. Orbicular and reniform very small or obsolete I.
" large J.
I. Lower edge of reniform forming a white semi-annular mark 33. composita.
Lower edge of reniform not defined 34. steropastis.
J. Orbicular conspicuously pale-margined 38. stipata.
" not " 36. omoplaca.
K. A conspicuous interrupted dark fuscous dash above anal angle 41. ustistriga.
No such dash L.
L. Subterminal with two long teeth below middle reaching hindmargin M.
Subterminal without teeth reaching hindmargin O.
M. Costa suffused with white 35. arachnias.
" not suffused with white N.
N. Markings grey 40. lignana.
" reddish-brown 39. rubescens.
O. Orbicular oblique, suboval P.
" roundish or obsolete S.
P. Reniform marked posteriorly with an oval white or yellowish spot 29. vitiosa.
Reniform not marked posteriorly with an oval white or yellowish spot Q.
Q. A sharply-marked dark fuscous triangular mark above anal angle 37. dotata.
No such defined mark R.
R. Reniform followed by a dark fuscous spot 31. tartarea.
" not " 30. ochthistis.
S. Forewings brown T.
" grey U.
T. Antennæ of male shortly bipectinated 24. agorastis.
" filiform 28. pelistis.
U. Orbicular white W.
" not white V.
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V. Median shade conspicuously darker 44. cucuflina.
"nearly obsolete X.
W. Terminal joint of palpi elongate 43. temperata.
" short 22. lithias.
X. Lines very strongly dentate, tending to form longitudinal streaks 42. prionistis.
Lines normal Y.
Y. First line preceded and second followed by white dots 32. homoscia.
First line without white dots 27. sistens.

The following rough analysis may also be of use in helping to fix the identity of species:—

A. Antennæ of male shortly bipeotinated sp. 18–24.
B. " subdentate or filiform.
  1. Subterminal with two much stronger teeth below middle sp. 33–40.
  2. Subterminal without much stronger teeth.
     a. Terminal joint of palpi rather elongate sp. 43, 44.
     b. " short sp. 25–32, 41, 42.

18. Mam. disjungens, Walk.

(Heliophobus disjungens, Walk., Noct., 1681, Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 1; Hadena nervata, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 40.)

Male, female.—35–37 mm. Head whitish-ochreous, mixed with fuscous, with a dark fuscous band on face. Palpi whitish-ochreous, externally suffused with dark fuscous. Antennæ whitish-ochreous, in male moderately pectinated. Thorax slightly crested, ochreous-whitish, with a central dark fuscous line, collar and patagia with submarginal dark fuscous rims, an ochreous transverse band behind collar. Abdomen ochreous-grey-whitish. Legs dark fuscous, mixed and ringed with ochreous - whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; brownish-ochreous; all veins conspicuously whitish; spots moderate, margined first with white and then with black except on veins; orbicular round, claviform elongate, reniform oblong; lines black, waved, interrupted on veins; subterminal white, obscurely blackish-margined on both sides, with two acute teeth touching hindmargin below middle; a hind-marginal row of black lunules: cilia whitish-ochreous, mixed with fuscous. Hindwings fuscous-grey, lighter towards base; veins sometimes whitish; a dark fuscous hind-marginal line; cilia whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Rakaia; November to January, formerly very common, now scarcer.

19. Mam. paracausta, n. sp.

Male, female.—37 mm. Head whitish, mixed with reddish-ochreous above, with two blackish transverse lines on face. Palpi whitish, externally somewhat mixed with reddish-ochreous and black. Antennæ whitish, in male moderately pectinated

– 16 –

(4). Thorax and abdomen grey mixed with white and black, collar mixed with reddish-ochreous, and with a transverse blackish line, outer edge of patagia blackish. Legs ochreous-whitish, suffusedly mixed with blackish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa slightly sinuate, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, rather oblique, rounded beneath; pale ochreous, towards costa irrorated with dark fuscous and whitish, in female more whitish; lines slender, dentate, obscure, dark fuscous; first anteriorly whitish-margined, second posteriorly white-margined on lower half; spots hardly perceptible; a slender black sinuate streak from base to middle, margined beneath rather broadly with dark ochreous-brown to first line, terminating beneath a rather broad posteriorly dilated dark ochreous-brown discal patch extending from first to second line, between which and inner margin the ground-colour is irrorated with white; the discal dark patch is continued beyond second line to hindmargin, where it is dilated and extends over lower ¾, becoming blackish-fuscous, cut on veins 3 and 4 by light streaks terminating in whitish arrow-headed spots extending into cilia, and containing a double whitish mark on anal angle: cilia pale ochreous mixed with whitish and dark fuscous. Hindwings dark grey mixed with white; an irregular obscurely marked darker post-median line; a dark fuscous interrupted hind-marginal line; cilia whitish mixed with grey.

Castle Hill; two specimens, taken by Mr. J. D. Enys.

20. Mam. polychroa, n. sp.

Male, female.—34–36 mm. Head and palpi dark fuscous mixed with grey-whitish. Antennæ fuscous, in male moderately pectinated. Thorax with angles subprominent, small anterior, median, and posterior crests; fuscous irrorated with whitish, with black angulated anterior and sinuate lateral lines. Abdomen grey, and tuft ochreous-whitish, sometimes reddish-tinged. Legs dark fuscous, irrorated with white. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate or waved, obliquely rounded; light reddish-fuscous, densely suffusedly irrorated with grey white-tipped scales, discal space darker; a short black median streak from base; a short suffused black very oblique streak from inner margin near base, connected with apex of basal streak by a dull green spot; sometimes a dull green dorsal suffusion before middle; spots outlined first with dull green and then with black; orbicular rather large, roundish, claviform roundish, incomplete, reniform oblong, posterior half paler and sometimes clear white; lines slender, dentate, indistinct, black; subterminal very slender, whitish, anteriorly margined with greenish and partially with black, preceded towards inner margin by a triangular blackish spot,

– 17 –

posteriorly suffusedly margined with black except towards extremities, with two acute teeth below middle almost touching hindmargin: a hind-marginal row of black dots: cilia fuscous, obscurely and slenderly barred with paler. Hindwings fuscous; cilia whitish, with a fuscous line.

Blenheim and Christchurch; from April to June, very common. This species appears in some collections to stand for Agrotis admirationis.

21. Mam. plena, Walk.

(Erana plena, Walk., Suppl., 744; Mamestra sphagnea, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cix., 17; Dianthoecia viridis, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii., 547.)

Male, female.—33–34 mm. Differs from M. polychroa only as follows:—Head, thorax, and forewings wholly suffused with green; no black streak from base; sub-basal line double, well-defined; first and second lines and a median shade tolerably distinct; triangular supra-anal spot fuscous.

Christchurch and Mount Hutt; November to May, very common.

22. Mam. lithias, n. sp.

Male.—33 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax white, densely irrorated with black and fuscous; patagia with two obscure black longitudinal streaks. Antennæ grey, with strong triangular transverse dentations (1), terminating in tufts of cilia. Abdomen grey. Legs dark grey, irrorated with white, banded with black and white, spurs white with median black band. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; fuscous, irregularly suffused with grey; veins coarsely and broadly irrorated with black and white; lines white, slender, subdentate, irregularly blackish-margined; a dark median shade; orbicular small, round, white, fuscous-centred, black-margined; claviform very small, but conspicuous, round, black, minutely white-centred; reniform oblong, white, fuscous-centred, blackmargined; subterminal more obscure, nearly touching hindmargin beneath costa, with two indistinct, rather more acute, teeth below middle: cilia rather dark grey, slenderly barred with white. Hindwings grey; a darker hind-marginal line; cilia white, with a pale grey line.

Castle Hill; two specimens, taken by Mr. J. D. Enys.

23. Mam. mutans, Walk.

(Hadena mutans, Walk., Noct., 602; H. lignifusca, ib., 603; Mamestra angusta, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cix., 18; M. acceptrix, ib., pl. cix., 19; Hadena debilis, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 385, pl. xlii., 6.)

Male, female.—34–39 mm. Head and palpi light reddish-ochreous, or white mixed with fuscous and blackish. Antennæ

– 18 –

grey, in male moderately bipectinated. Thorax with angles subprominent, moderate anterior and small posterior crests; light reddish-ochreous, or light grey irrorated with white, with a black angulated anterior line, patagia with obscure black submarginal lines. Abdomen and legs whitish, irrorated with ochreous or grey. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; pale reddish-ochreous, or grey, more or less ochreous-tinged, more or less suffusedly irrorated with white; veins irrorated with blackish; a short black sinuate median streak from base; spots black-margined, orbicular roundish, claviform semicircular, reniform curved oblong, not margined with black on posterior edge; lines indistinct; subterminal pale or whitish, hardly waved, suffusedly margined with dark fuscous, except at extremities and on a single tolerably acute dentation below middle, preceded on submedian fold by a short longitudinal black streak; an interrupted black hindmarginal line: cilia ochreous or grey, mixed with white and black. Hindwings grey, base somewhat lighter; a dark grey hind-marginal line; cilia whitish, with a grey line.

Wellington, Christchurch, Rakaia, Lake Guyon, probably everywhere; from August to March, very common.

24. Mam. agorastis, n. sp.

Male, female.—35 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax reddish-fuscous; thorax with small anterior and median crests. Antennæ fuscous, in male with rather short strongly ciliated pectinations. Abdomen grey, anal tuft light reddish. Legs reddish-fuscous, irrorated with ochreous whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; rather dark reddish-fuscous, lines greyish-tinged, edged with dark reddish-fuscous, tolerably defined; claviform small, obscure, greyish; orbicular and reniform dark grey, margined with white and then with dark reddish-fuscous, orbicular round, reniform oblong: a tolerably distinct median shade; subterminal whitish-ochreous, obscure, waved; a hind-marginal series of black lunules: cilia reddish-fuscous. Hindwings fuscous; cilia whitish, with a fuscous line.

Akaroa and Lake Guyon, in February and March; three specimens.

25. Mam. pictula, White.

(Dianthoecia pictula, White, Tayl. New Zeal., pl. i., 3; Meterana pictula, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 386, pl. xlii., 1.)

Male, female.—36 mm. Head and palpi blackish-grey, face with a yellowish-green band. Antennæ grey, in male submoniliform, moderately ciliated. Thorax with angles subprominent, small anterior, median, and posterior crests; blackish-grey, with sinuate anterior and curved sublateral yellowish-green streaks.

– 19 –

Abdomen light rosy, with dorsal and lateral streaks, anal tuft and ventral surface towards apex dark grey. Legs blackish-grey, apex of tarsal joints whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; dark grey; markings yellowish-green, suffusedly black-margined; orbicular roundish, grey-centred; claviform roundish, grey; reniform irregular, clear white except anterior edge; lines tolerably distinct; subterminal evenly waved; a submarginal series of green lunules: cilia grey, mixed with blackish, with greenish bars and a basal row of white dots. Hindwings pale crimson-rosy; a grey discal lunule, postmedian series of cloudy dots, and rather broad hind-marginal band; cilia grey.

Lake Coleridge, in March; three specimens.

26. Mam. rhodopleura, n. sp.

Male, female.—35 mm. Only differs from M. pictula as follows:—Head and thorax with ground-colour brownish; forewings with ground-colour pale ochreous, becoming grey in disc; median shade distinct, black; reniform not white; cilia blackish, barred with pale ochreous, without white dots. Hindwings grey, with a postmedian series of indistinct darker dots followed by pale dots. Abdomen in male with very large dense tuft of ochreous-whitish hairs from base beneath.

Napier and Wellington; three specimens.

27. Mam. sistens, Gn.

(Eumichtis sistens, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 39.)

Male, female.—32–33 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs light greyish-ochreous; antennæ in male with short triangular transverse dentations (½), strongly ciliated; thorax with very slight crests. Forewings moderately dilated, costa slightly sinuate, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; light grey, with a slight irregular greenish-ochreous suffusion; lines tolerably distinct, blackish-margined; spots obscurely dark-margined; orbicular small, reniform tolerably distinct; median shade perceptible; subterminal hardly defined, hind-marginal space somewhat darker grey; a hindmarginal series of black lunules: cilia light ochreous-grey, with faint slender paler bars. Hindwings grey; a dark-grey hindmarginal line; cilia whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

The crests appear very slight, and it is therefore possible that this species ought to be transferred to Leucania; it bears a close resemblance to L. moderata, from which it may be distinguished by the grey line of the cilia of hindwings, and by the subterminal not being defined by a darker anterior marginal shade.

Rakaia, in February; eight specimens.

– 20 –

28. Mam. pelistis, n. sp.

Male, female.—34–35 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs pale whitish-ochreous, partially suffused with pale brownish, and mixed with reddish-fuscous; antennæ in male submoniliform, moderately ciliated; thorax with moderate anterior and small posterior crests; anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; whitish-ochreous, tinged with fuscous; disc and hindmargin wholly suffused with reddish-fuscous; lines tolerably defined, margined with dark reddish-fuscous; median and subdorsal veins irrorated with blackish and white; orbicular rather small, round, margined with ochreous-whitish; claviform small, roundish, grey, black-margined; reniform oblong, grey, lower part dark grey, margined with ochreous-whitish, and then laterally with dark reddish-fuscous; subterminal ochreous-whitish, with two acute, sometimes undefined, dentations below middle: cilia dark grey, mixed with whitish and reddish fuscous. Hindwings dark fuscous; cilia grey-whitish, with a cloudy dark grey line.

Akaroa and Lake Coleridge, from January to March; nine specimens.

29. Mam. vitiosa, Butl.

(Apamea vitiosa, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 384, pl. xlii., 3.)

Male, female.—32–35 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark reddish fuscous; thorax with moderately large anterior and small posterior crests. Antennæ dark grey, in male serrate, rather strongly ciliated. Abdomen and legs dark grey, anal tuft whitish-ochreous, reddish-tinged. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; dark reddish-fuscous, disc and hindmargin blackish-tinged; lines somewhat paler, dark-margined, very indistinct; orbicular oblique oval, sometimes pale-margined, externally black-margined; claviform semicircular, black-margined; reniform oblong, margined obscurely with blackish and sometimes partially with pale, marked with a whitish-ochreous or white dot at each posterior angle, and a small oval clear white or whitish-ochreous spot lying between these; subterminal obscure, with two moderately acute dentations below middle: cilia dark reddish-fuscous, with a basal series of white dots on veins. Hindwings and cilia rather dark fuscous.

Christchurch, in May and June; very common.

30. Mam. octhistis, n. sp.

Male, female.—34–36 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax reddish-fuscous, mixed with dark fuscous; thorax with angles subprominent, rather large anterior and small posterior crests,

– 21 –

with a small black posteriorly whitish-margined spot on each side of back anteriorly. Antennæ dark grey, in male filiform moderately ciliated. Abdomen grey, sides and anal tuft light reddish-ochreous. Legs reddish-fuscous, base of tarsal joints sharply black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; reddish-fuscous, veins suffusedly dark fuscous; lines dark-margined, tolerably defined; orbicular oblique-oval, margined with pale and then sharply with black; claviform subtriangular, black-margined; reniform curved oblong, rather narrow, margined anteriorly with black and posteriorly with white, with a grey middle line; median shade blackish-fuscous, tolerably defined; subterminal ochreous-whitish, suffusedly dark-margined, with two moderately acute dentations below middle: cilia reddish-fuscous, mixed with blackish, with a basal series of white dots on veins. Hindwings rather dark grey, base paler; a tolerably distinct central darker lunule; cilia ochreous-whitish, with a cloudy reddish-grey line.

Christchurch, from November to April; very common.

31. Mam. tartarea, Butl.

(Graphiphora tartarea, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 384, pl. xlii., 2.)

Male, female.—36–37 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax reddish-fuscous, mixed with dark fuscous; thorax with rather small anterior and posterior crests. Antennæ grey, in male subdentate, moderately ciliated. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish - ochreous. Legs reddish - fuscous, tarsi dark grey. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; reddish-fuscous, sometimes wholly suffused with dark fuscous except a hind-marginal band; lines paler, dark-margined, tolerably defined; claviform semicircular, dark fuscous, black-margined; orbicular and reniform laterally margined with ochreous-whitish and then with black, orbicular oblique-oval, reniform oblong, preceded and followed by a dark reddish-fuscous spot; a dark reddish-fuscous spot preceding second line on fold, forming a dentation inwards; subterminal sinuate, not waved or dentate: cilia reddish-fuscous, obscurely barred with darker. Hindwings dark grey; cilia grey-whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Christchurch, in April; common.

32. Mam. homoscia, n. sp.

Male.—38 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs grey; antennæ with short triangular transverse dentations (½), strongly ciliated; thorax with moderate anterior crest; anal tuft ochreous-tinged. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded, grey; veins irrorated with black and white, marked

– 22 –

with two tolerably distinct series of white dots, preceded and followed by black marks, before first and beyond second lines; lines dark-margined, tolerably defined; orbicular and claviform hardly traceable; reniform indicated by whitish lateral margins; subterminal faintly paler, not dark-margined, waved: cilia grey. Hindwings grey, darker posteriorly; cilia grey-whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Wellington; one specimen, given me by Mr. G. V. Hudson, who has taken others.

33. Mam. composita, Gn.

(Cloantha composita, Gn., Noct. vi., 114; Auchmis composita, Walk., Noct., 616; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 12; Mamestra maori, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cix., 24; Leucania dentigera, Butl., teste Skellon, but reference not found.)

Male, female.—32–36 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs ochreous-whitish; face with a dark fuscous band; palpi more or less mixed with dark fuscous; antennæ in male serrate, moderately ciliated; thorax with moderate double anterior and posterior crests, tinged with brownish-ochreous, with a black posteriorly white-margined anterior line, and a sometimes indistinct blackish streak on patagia; abdomen in male reddish-tinged; legs irrorated with fuscous, anterior tarsi with two apical joints black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; pale whitish-ochreous, towards disc and hindmargin brownish-tinged; subcostal and subdorsal spaces more or less suffused with white; a fine black median streak from base to ⅓; a fine black line, bordered above with white and beneath suffusedly with fuscous, from first to second lines above middle, interrupted by a small semiannular white mark representing lower edge of reniform; first line obsolete; second fine, dark fuscous, very strongly dentate; subterminal fine, obscure, dark fuscous, preceded by a whitish suffusion, extremely strongly and very irregularly dentate, receding widely from hindmargin above middle and towards lower extremity, but with two long dentations touching hindmargin below middle: cilia greyish-ochreous barred with white. Hindwings grey, ochreous-tinged, becoming dark-grey posteriorly; cilia white, with a pale grey line.

Larva longitudinally striped with dark and light, feeding on grasses; sometimes occurs in great profusion.

Napier, Wellington, Christchurch, and Lake Coleridge, in February and March; sometimes abundant. Occurs also in South-East Australia and Tasmania.

34. Mam. steropastis, n. sp.

Male, female.—40–43 mm. Head ochreous, mixed with whitish, and irregularly marked with dark reddish-fuscous.

– 23 –

Palpi dark reddish-fuscous, mixed with whitish. Antennæ fuscous, in male subdentate, rather shortly ciliated. Thorax with moderately large double anterior and small posterior crest; reddish - fuscous, with a black posteriorly whitish-margined anterior line; patagia with two black internally whitish-margined streaks on each. Abdomen grey, and tuft pale reddish-ochreous. Legs ochreous-whitish, mixed with reddish-fuscous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; reddish-fuscous; veins dark fuscous, margined with whitish or ochreous-whitish; a short black median streak from base; a slender dark reddish-fuscous longitudinal streak in disc from above apex of this to ⅗, posterior extremity somewhat dilated; a minute white discal dot near beyond its extremity; a very oblique short blackish streak from inner margin near base; second line hardly indicated; subterminal hardly traceable except by two very long whitish dentations touching hindmargin below middle: cilia reddish-fuscous, slenderly barred with whitish. Hindwings dark grey; cilia white or ochreous-whitish, with a grey line.

Napier, Blenheim, and Christchurch, in November and February; seven specimens.

35. Mam. arachnias, n. sp.

Female.—37 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax reddish-fuscous, slightly irrorated with white; forehead with two black transverse lines; collar with a slender white line; thorax with strong anterior double tuft. Antennæ white. Abdomen light reddish-grey. Legs reddish-fuscous irrorated with whitish, anterior tibiæ and tarsi white, all tarsi with two apical joints black except apex, spurs banded with black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa slightly sinuate, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; reddish-fuscous, slightly irrorated with whitish-ochreous, except on a suffused somewhat darker median streak from base to ⅔; an obscure moderately broad white costal streak from base to ⅔, posteriorly suffused, sharply defined near base only, containing several very oblique ill-defined blackish strigulæ; orbicular moderate, narrow-oval, longitudinal, very finely margined with white and then with black; claviform obsolete; reniform only indicated by two white dots representing its lower angles; lines very acutely dentate but hardly traceable; subterminal indicated only by three very acute slender whitish-ochreous dentations, one below apex, two touching hindmargin below middle: cilia reddish-fuscous mixed with whitish. Hindwings dark grey; cilia whitish-ochreous, with a faint grey line, tips white.

Napier and Blenheim; only one specimen seen, sent by Mr. Skellon.

– 24 –

36. Mam. omoplaca, n. sp.

Male, female.—40–41 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark reddish-fuscous, sometimes blackish-tinged; thorax with rather large double anterior crest, an anterior black anteriorly ochreous-margined angulated line, apex of anterior angles ochreous-whitish. Antennæ fuscous, in male submoniliform, moderately ciliated. Abdomen grey, and tuft reddish-whitish. Legs reddish-fuscous mixed with blackish, anterior pair ochreous-whitish, with three apical joints of tarsi black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hind-margin waved, obliquely rounded; reddish-fuscous; a short black median streak from base, margined above with ochreous-white; space between this and costa marked with suffused ochreous-whitish lines; in one specimen a blackish suffusion extending from base of inner margin obliquely to orbicular and reniform, space between this and subterminal line suffused with pale whitish-ochreous; orbicular and reniform blackish-fuscous, black-margined, connected by a blackish-fuscous spot; orbicular large, roundish; reniform with outer edge white; claviform small, suboval, blackish-fuscous; lines indistinct; subterminal obscurely paler or hardly traceable, with two somewhat acute dentations below middle; hind-marginal space mixed with blackish-fuscous: cilia reddish-fuscous mixed with blackish. Hindwings fuscous-grey; cilia grey-whitish, with a grey line.

Lake Coleridge and Rakaia, in December, February, and March; three specimens.

37. Mam. dotata, Walk.

(Dasypolia dotata, Walk., Noct., 522.),

Female.—42 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and legs dark fuscous, somewhat mixed with reddish, whitish-ochreous, and black. Antennæ dark fuscous. Abdomen fuscous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; dark fuscous, reddish-tinged; a blackish suffused spot on inner margin at ⅓; lines somewhat paler, obscurely blackish-margined; orbicular large, obliqueoval, partially finely margined with whitish and then with black; claviform moderate, triangular, black-margined; reniform oblong, partially white-margined, posteriorly strongly, then with black, containing a cloudy reddish-whitish median line; a tolerably distinct median shade; space between second and subterminal lines paler, mixed with reddish-whitish, cut by an acute triangular dark fuscous mark on submedian fold; subterminal cloudy, whitish-ochreous, dark-margined, waved, regular; a fine black waved submarginal line, anteriorly finely margined with obscure pale ochreous marks; a hind-marginal series of minute ochreous-whitish dots on veins: cilia dark

– 25 –

fuscous mixed with ochreous-whitish. Hindwings rather dark fuscous; cilia reddish-fuscous, with a dark fuscous line, tips whitish.

One specimen, without note of locality.

38. Mam. stipata, Walk.

(Xylina stipata, Walk., Suppl., 753.)

Male, female.—46–47 mm. Head and palpi whitish-ochreous mixed with reddish-fuscous. Antennæ ochreous-whitish, in male filiform, shortly ciliated. Thorax with angles subprominent, large double anterior and small posterior crests; reddish-fuscous, obscurely streaked with whitish-ochreous and darker. Abdomen grey, mixed with reddish-fuscous and whitish-ochreous. Legs reddish-fuscous, mixed with ochreous-whitish, anterior pair with tibiæ suffused with ochreous-whitish, base of tarsal joints black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenate, obliquely rounded; reddish-fuscous, suffusedly mixed with whitish-ochreous, especially towards costa and on a band beyond second line; lines paler, dark-margined, tolerably distinct; a short blackish-fuscous median streak from base, interrupted by a whitish-ochreous mark; orbicular large, oblique-oval, conspicuously margined or almost wholly suffused with pale whitish-ochreous, and then narrowly with dark fuscous; claviform semicircular, black-margined; reniform oblong, margined laterally with ochreous-whitish, and then with dark fuscous; a series of pale dots margined by dark fuscous dots on veins beyond second line; subterminal ochreous-whitish, suffusedly margined with dark reddish-fuscous except towards costa and below middle, with two acute suffused dentations touching hindmargin below middle; hindmarginal space mixed with blackish-fuscous; a hindmarginal row of black dots: cilia reddish-fuscous, mixed with blackish and ochreous-whitish. Hindwings dark grey; cilia ochreous-whitish, with a fuscous-reddish line.

Christchurch, from October to May; common.

39. Mam. rubescens, Butl.

(Xylophasia rubescens, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii., 489.)

Male, female.—40–42 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-ochreous, irrorated with reddish-ochreous; palpi externally mixed with blackish; thorax with moderate anterior and small posterior double crests, with a few scattered black scales, crests suffused with blackish. Antennæ ochreous-whitish, in male subdentate, moderately ciliated. Abdomen grey, mixed with whitish-ochreous, reddish-tinged. Legs whitish-ochreous, mixed with reddish-ochreous, middle tibiæ with two blackish bars, spurs with black bands. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely

– 26 –

rounded; whitish-ochreous, slightly reddish-tinged; lines margined with reddish-ochreous, sharply dentate, very indistinct; orbicular moderate, round, margined with reddish-ochreous, containing a blackish dot near anterior edge; claviform suboval, margined with reddish-ochreous; reniform oblong, margined first with blackish, then with whitish-ochreous, then reddish-fuscous; a faint median shade; a series of dark fuscous dots on veins beyond second line; subterminal very obscure, with two distinct very acute dentations touching hindmargin below middle, above and below which is a reddish-fuscous patch on hindmargin; a hind-marginal row of dark fuscous lunules: cilia reddish-fuscous, barred with whitish-ochreous. Hindwings grey, reddish-tinged; cilia whitish, basal half reddish.

Castle Hill and Lake Wakatipu, in January and February; five specimens.

40. Mam. lignana, Walk.

(Hadena lignana, Walk., Noct., 758; ? Xylophasia morosa, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii., 543.)

Male, female.—38–39 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs whitish, irrorated with ochreous-grey and a few black scales; face with a dark fuscous band; palpi externally mixed with blackish; autennæ in male filiform, moderately ciliated; thorax with moderately large anterior and small posterior crests; anterior tarsi with two apical joints black, spurs with black bands. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; ochreous-grey, densely and suffusedly irrorated with whitish; lines dark-margined, indistinct; spots obscurely dark-margined laterally; orbicular roundish, claviform semicircular, reniform oblong, marked beneath with a roundish blackish-grey spot; an obscure median shade; subterminal suffusedly dark-margined, except beneath apex and below middle, with two acute dentations touching hindmargin below middle; a hind-marginal row of black dots: cilia ochreous-grey, barred with ochreous-whitish. Hindwings grey, darker posteriorly; cilia white, with a cloudy grey line.

Wellington and Mount Hutt, in March; five specimens.

41. Mam. ustistriga, Walk.

(Xylina ustistriga, Walk., Noct., 630; X. lignisecta, ib., 631.)

Male, female.—40–45 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax grey, sometimes more or less suffused with fuscous-reddish; thorax with moderate anterior and slight posterior crests. Antennæ grey, in male with short triangular transverse dentations (½), moderately ciliated. Abdomen whitish-grey or whitish-ochreous, reddish-tinged. Legs reddish-grey, irrorated with whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex

– 27 –

obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; grey, sometimes strongly reddish-tinged, suffusedly irrorated with white; lines hardly traceable: orbicular large, roundish, margined first very obscurely with pale, and then finely with black; claviform triangular, black-margined; reniform curved-oblong, margined very obscurely with whitish, and then anteriorly with black; a cloudy median shade; a short curved blackish line marking anterior margin of a dentation of second line opposite claviform; a black streak, suffused with fuscous or reddish-fuscous, connecting second and subterminal lines opposite this; subterminal waved, whitish, indistinct, margined with dark fuscous on a spot above middle: cilia whitish, with reddish-fuscous or grey basal and median interrupted lines. Hindwings fuscous-grey, darker posteriorly; cilia white, with a grey line.

Blenheim, Christchurch, and Lake Coleridge, from February to May; common.

42. Mam. prionistis, n. sp.

Male.—45 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and legs grey-whitish; crown with two brown lines meeting in front; palpi with second joint externally brown; thorax with large anterior crest, two brown dorsal lines meeting in front, diverging and very indistinct posteriorly. Antennæ grey, filiform, moderately ciliated. Abdomen grey, sides and anal tuft paler, and ochreous-tinged. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hind-margin crenulate, obliquely rounded; pale ochreous-grey, densely and suffusedly irrorated with white, tending to form longitudinal streaks; inner margin suffused with brownish; lines hardly traceable, strongly dentate; reniform narrow, white, anteriorly suffused, posteriorly edged with an interrupted blackish line; subterminal indicated by a posterior brownish dentate margin, diverted to hindmargin below apex: cilia ochreous-grey, mixed with white. Hindwings rather dark grey; cilia whitish, with a grey line.

Rakaia, in February; three specimens.

43. Mam. temperata, Walk.

(Bryophila temperata, Walk., Noct., 1648; Xylina inceptura, ib., 1736; X. deceptura, ib., 1737.)

Male, female.—38–39 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and legs grey, irrorated with white; terminal joint of palpi elongate; antennæ in male filiform, very minutely ciliated (⅕); thorax with rather small anterior crest. Abdomen grey, mixed with ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex subacute, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; grey, densely irrorated with white; lines dark-margined, more or less indistinct; a tolerably distinct median shade; orbicular roundish, wholly white, including a faint greyish ring;

– 28 –

claviform obsolete; reniform oblong, margined with white and then with black; subterminal indicated by suffused dark-grey subdentate anterior margin throughout; a hind-marginal series of dark grey lunules: cilia white, irrorated with grey. Hindwings grey, slightly ochreous-tinged; cilia whitish, with a very faint grey line.

Christchurch and Lake Coleridge, in December, February, March, and June; six specimens.

44. Mam. cucullina, Gn.

(Xylocampa cucullina, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 40; Agrotis mitis, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 383, pl. xlii., 5.)

Male, female.—31–32 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs dark grey irrorated with white; terminal joint of palpi rather elongate; antennæ in male filiform, shortly ciliated (½); thorax slightly crested. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; grey, irrorated with white; lines whitish, dark-margined, very indistinct; a rather conspicuous darker median shade; spots margined first obscurely with white and then with black; orbicular round, claviform very small, semi-oval, reniform curved oblong; subterminal indicated by a posterior suffused darker grey subdentate margin; a hind-marginal row of blackish lunules; cilia ochreous-grey mixed with white. Hindwings grey, darker posteriorly; cilia whitish, with a grey line.

Rakaia, in March; three specimens.

5. Erana, Walk.

Eyes hairy. Antennæ in male filiform, simple, with scattered single cilia. Thorax with anterior and posterior crests. Abdomen with strong dorsal crests towards base. Forewings in male beneath with a very long dense tuft of scent-giving hairs from base; transverse vein absent, 7 and 8 out of 9, 10 free. Hindwings with transverse vein absent, costa in male broadly dilated.

45. Eran. graminosa, Walk.

(Erana graminosa, Walk., Noct., 605; E. vigens, ib., Suppl. 743.)

Male.—30–33 mm. Head and thorax yellowish-green; thorax with small anterior and larger double posterior crest. Palpi whitish-ochreous, externally mixed with blackish. Antennæ fuscous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, back towards apex suffused with grey. Legs pale whitish-ochreous, greenish-tinged, spotted with black. Forewings narrow, moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; light yellowish-green mixed with olive-green; lines whitish-tinged, partially black-margined, distinct; reniform margined with white and then with black; three clear white

– 29 –

dots on costa posteriorly; subterminal suffused with white towards apex; a submarginal waved whitish line: cilia olive-greenish; tuft of under-surface pale whitish-ochreous. Hindwings with rounded costal dilation, twice as broad as forewings; light fuscous-reddish, suffused with grey towards hindmargin; costa broadly ochreous-whitish; a small apical spot and three others on hindmargin towards middle greenish; cilia ochreous-whitish, suffused with greenish on upper half of hindmargin and with pale reddish on lower part.

Larva (according to Mr. Purdie) light green, with white dorsal and subdorsal lines, spots black; feeds on Melicytus ramiflorus, in February and April.

Wanganui, Masterton, and Wellington, in February and March; four specimens. The large tuft of the forewings is the source of a very strong vanilla-like perfume, which scents the box in which the specimens are contained for more than a week after their death; the scent is excited more strongly, even in the dead specimen, by stirring the tuft with a pin.

6. Miselia, Stph.

Eyes naked, margins strongly ciliated. Antennæ in male filiform, moderately ciliated. Thorax with anterior angles projecting, somewhat crested. Abdomen not crested.

46. Mis. pessota, n. sp.

Male.—26 mm. Head, palpi, and antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous, slightly irrorated with white, collar ochreous-brown, with a black transverse line. Abdomen greyish, anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, ringed with whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenate, rather obliquely rounded; dark fuscous, slightly purplish-tinged, with a few scattered ochreous-whitish scales; lines obscurely paler; a blackish acutetriangular spot towards base of inner margin, containing a hooked ochreous-whitish mark; orbicular moderate, round, whitish-margined; claviform represented by a short ochreous-whitish mark; reniform connected with orbicular by a quadrate blackish-fuscous spot, ochreous-white, anteriorly margined first with dark fuscous and then with pale ochreous; subterminal hardly traceable; a hind-marginal row of obscure whitish dots: cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings rather dark fuscous; cilia fuscous, tips whitish. Christchurch, in December; two specimens.

7. Orthosia, Tr.

Eyes naked, margins ciliated. Antennæ in male subdentate or filiform, moderately ciliated. Thorax without defined crest. Abdomen not crested.

– 30 –

47. Orth. comma, Walk.

(Mamestra comma, Walk., Noct., 239; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 6; Graphiphora implexa, Walk., Noct., 405; Hadena plusiata, ib., Suppl. 742; Nitocris bicomma, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 4.)

Male, female.—31–40 mm. Head fuscous, crown more or less ochreous-whitish. Palpi dark fuscous, terminal joint and apex of second ochreous-white. Antennæ fuscous, in male subdentate. Thorax fuscous or dark fuscous, collar with two black lines, space behind it sometimes ochreous-whitish. Abdomen fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, anterior tibiæ and tarsi whitish-ochreous, tarsi with three apical joints blackish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin hardly waved, rather obliquely rounded; ochreous-brown, suffusedly irrorated with grey and sometimes with dark fuscous; lines not paler, blackish-margined, tolerably distinct; a slender dark fuscous angulated median shade; orbicular minute, dot-like, ochreous-white, very minutely fuscous-centred, dark-margined; claviform obsolete; reniform narrow, oblong, almost occupied by strong whitish-ochreous or yellowish-white lateral margins, lower posterior angle sending an acute short white projection towards hindmargin; subterminal indicated by suffused darker somewhat irregular almost straight anterior margin, sometimes blackish on upper half: cilia dark grey, irrorated with whitish, with a fine pale ochreous basal line dotted with blackish. Hindwings fuscous; cilia white, with a cloudy fuscous line.

Wellington, Blenheim, Christchurch, and Rakaia, from December to February; common.

48. Orth. immunis, Walk.

(Tœniocampa immunis, Walk., Noct., 430; Cerastis innocua, ib.,1710 (locality probably erroneous); Agrotis acetina, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cix., 6.)

Male.—34 mm. Head and thorax light reddish-fuscous, sprinkled with whitish, face suffused with white. Palpi reddish-ochreous, terminal joint and apex of second white. Antennæ whitish (?). Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous, and tuft whitish-ochreous. Legs reddish-fuscous irrorated with white, anterior tarsi white. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin slightly waved, rather obliquely rounded; light reddish-fuscous, irrorated with pale grey; lines obscurely darker-margined; orbicular moderate, roundish, laterally margined with darker; claviform small, suboval, indicated only by posterior darker margin; reniform oblong, outer edge indented, with lateral yellowish-white margins coalescing in centre, posterior followed by a dark fuscous margin; subterminal yellow-whitish, nearly straight, slightly sinuate: cilia light reddish-fuscous, irrorated with whitish. Hindwings pale grey; cilia whitish-ochreous, reddish-tinged, tips white.

Blenheim; two specimens.

– 31 –

8. Xanthia, Tr.

Eyes naked, margins ciliated. Antennæ in male filiform, moderately ciliated. Thorax with sharp compressed anterior and small posterior crest. Abdomen not crested.

49. Xanth. ceramodes, n. sp.

Male.—35–36 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark reddish-fuscous, terminal joint and apex of second of palpi sometimes whitish-ochreous. Antennæ dark fuscous. Abdomen reddish-fuscous. Legs dark reddish-fuscous irrorated with pale ochreous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; dark reddish-fuscous; lines ochreous-whitish, very ill-defined; orbicular and reniform very small, margined with ochreous-whitish, open beneath, connected by a semi-oval black spot margined with ochreous-whitish beneath, reniform followed by a very small black spot; subterminal somewhat sinuate, very indistinct: cilia reddish-fuscous. Hindwings rather dark fuscous, with a darker discal spot, conspicuous on under-surface; cilia rather dark fuscous, tips whitish.

Dunedin and North Island; two specimens.

9. Bityla, Walk.

Eyes naked. Antennæ in male filiform, shortly ciliated. Thorax not crested, collar suberect. Abdomen not crested.

50. Bit. defigurata, Walk.

(Xylina defigurata, Walk., Suppl. 756; Bityla thoracica, ib., 869.)

Male, female.—38–39 mm. Head and antennæ dark fuscous. Palpi dark fuscous, terminal joint and apex of second ochreous. Thorax fuscous, collar dark fuscous. Abdomen fuscous-grey. Legs dark fuscous, apex of joints ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; brown, glossy; lines dark-margined, tolerably defined; spots and subterminal line not traceable: cilia brown. Hindwings rather dark fuscous-grey, glossy; cilia white, basal half suffusedly fuscous.

Blenheim, Christchurch, Lake Coleridge, and Dunedin, from January to March; eight specimens.

51. Bit. sericea, Butl.

(Bityla sericea, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 387, pl. xlii., 12.)

Male, female.—35–36 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax brown. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, apex of joints ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; glossy, greyish-fuscous; first line indicated

– 32 –

by an obscure darker margin; median shade thick, faintly traceable; second line cloudy, very obscure, grey-whitish, anteriorly obscurely dark-margined; spots and subterminal line absent; a conspicuous waved whitish hind-marginal line: cilia grey, suffusedly mixed with whitish. Hindwings fuscous-grey, lighter towards base; cilia whitish, base suffused with pale fuscous.

Wellington, Christchurch, and Lake Guyon, in February and March; six specimens.

10. Agrotis, Tr.

Eyes naked. Antennæ in male moderately bipectinated, towards apex filiform, simple. Thorax and abdomen without defined crests.

A large cosmopolitan genus, but little represented in New Zealand. The larvæ are frequently subterranean, feeding on roots.

A. Claviform produced to base 53. admirationis.
" not " B.
B. Costa of forewings somewhat concave 56. ceropachoides.
" not concave C.
C. Forewings brown 52. ypsilon.
" grey D.
D. Cilia of hindwings male wholly white 55. inconspicua.
" with a grey line 54. sericea.

52. Agr. ypsilon, Rott.

(Noctua ypsilon, Rott.; Agrotis suffusa, Hb.)

Male, female.—40–42 mm. Head reddish-fuscous. Palpi and antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax greyish fuscous, somewhat mixed with reddish, with a strong black angulated anterior line. Abdomen light-grey. Legs blackish, mixed with whitish, anterior pair ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin slightly waved, obliquely rounded; fuscous, reddish-tinged; basal area and a band beyond second line suffused with whitish-ochreous except towards costa, median space blackish-tinged towards costa; lines dark-margined, distinct, second straight on lower half; spots outlined with black; orbicular round, dark-centred; claviform elongate; reniform followed by a short black longitudinal mark; a cloudy median shade; subterminal whitish-ochreous, with two strong dentations nearly reaching hind-margin below middle, anteriorly fuscous-margined and with two short dark fuscous dashes above middle, hind-marginal space suffused with dark fuscous: cilia pale ochreous mixed with dark-grey. Hindwings grey-whitish, becoming grey posteriorly, veins and a hind-marginal line dark-grey; cilia white, with a grey line.

Larva feeding on roots of grass.

– 33 –

Napier, Christchurch, and Lake Coleridge, from January to March; very common. Also occurs in Australia, China, India, Africa, Europe, North and South America.

53. Agr. admirationis, Gn.

(Agrotis admirationis, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 38.)

Male, female.—32–34 mm. Head, antennæ, and thorax in male whitish-ochreous, brownish-tinged; in female fuscous mixed with whitish. Palpi whitish, second joint externally dark fuscous except apex. Abdomen grey-whitish, anal tuft ochreous-whitish. Legs ochreous-whitish, anterior tarsi black towards base of joints. Forewings moderately dilated, less in female, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin straight, rather oblique, rounded beneath, hardly waved; in male whitish-ochreous, in female fuscous mixed with whitish; costa mixed with blackish towards base and sometimes posteriorly; lines obsolete; claviform suffusedly outlined with blackish-fuscous, elongate and produced as an obscure streak to base; orbicular narrow-oval, dark-fuscous, margined with whitish-ochreous, and then imperfectly with dark-fuscous, posterior extremity of whitish-ochreous margin produced to touch reniform, and margined below by a dark fuscous spot; reniform irregular, dark fuscous, obscurely pale-margined; subterminal indistinct, with two strong dentations below middle, margined anteriorly by several small dark fuscous triangular marks, and posteriorly by a suffused dark fuscous hind-marginal space above middle; a hind-marginal row of small black triangular spots: cilia whitish-ochreous. Hindwings in male grey-whitish, in female slightly greyer; a hind-marginal row of dark-grey lunules; cilia white, with a faint grey line.

Christchurch, at roots of tussock-grass on sand-hills; very common.

54. Agr. sericea, Butl.

(Chersotis sericea, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii., 490.)

Male, female.—33–35 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax grey, fuscous-tinged; palpi with second joint suffused with dark fuscous externally. Abdomen grey, and tuft ochreous-tinged. Legs dark grey, apex of joints whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; grey, fuscous-tinged; lines obscurely paler and dark-margined, or obsolete; spots blackish-margined; claviform elongate; orbicular roundish, dark-centred, connected with reniform by a dark fuscous spot; reniform containing a darker inner ring; subterminal obsolete; a hind-marginal row of black dots: cilia ochreous-whitish, with three cloudy grey lines. Hind-

– 34 –

wings grey, paler and whitish-tinged towards base; cilia whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Christchurch, in October and November.

55. Agr. inconspicua, Butl.

(Chersotis inconspicua, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii., 545.)

Male, female.—33–35 mm. Differs from A. sericea as follows:—Head, thorax, and forewings sometimes suffusedly irrorated with white; abdomen in male grey-whitish. Forewings with sub-basal line black-margined, first and second lines blackish-margined on discal side; no distinct dark fuscous spot between orbicular and reniform; subterminal sometimes tolerably defined, with three acute dentations below middle. Hindwings in male suffused with grey-whitish; cilia wholly white.

Christchurch and Rakaia, in December and January.

56. Agr. ceropachoides, Gn.

(Agrotis ceropachoides, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 39.)

Male.—33–34 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax and abdomen grey-whitish; second joint of palpi banded with blackish. Legs white, irrorated with black, tarsi black, with apex of joints white. Forewings moderately dilated, costa subconcave, apex obtuse, hindmargin entire, obliquely rounded; dark grey, very densely irrorated with whitish, slightly greenish-tinged; lines and spots paler, dark-margined, almost obsolete; a hind-marginal row of black dots: cilia ochreous-grey, apical third clear white. Hindwings grey; cilia as in forewings.

Rakaia, in July, August, and September.

11. Heliothis, Tr.

Eyes naked. Antennæ in male filiform, shortly ciliated. Thorax and abdomen not crested. Anterior tibiæ with apical hook.

57. Hel. armigera, Hb.

(Heliothis armigera, Hb.; H. conferta, Walk., Noct. 690.)

Male, female.—36–37 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and legs whitish-ochreous, slightly tinged with reddish-ochreous. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin slightly waved, obliquely rounded; whitish-ochreous, tinged with pale reddish-ochreous; lines margined with reddish-ochreous, distinct, second marked with grey and a series of white dots; orbicular indicated by a dot; claviform obsolete; reniform very small,

– 35 –

mixed with blackish-grey; a reddish-ochreous line representing median shade; subterminal absent; a hind-marginal row of very minute black dots: cilia reddish-ochreous, with a fine grey line. Hindwings ochreous-whitish, reddish-tinged; a moderately broad blackish-grey hind-marginal band, reddish-tinged: cilia white, base ochreous-tinged, with a fine reddish line.

Larva feeding in various flowers and seeds. Christchurch, Rakaia, Wellington, and Waimarama; December to March; abundant, but in some localities less so than formerly. Occurs also in Australia, Samoa, India, Ceylon, Madagascar, Africa, Europe, North and South America, thus practically cosmopolitan.

12. Cosmodes, Gn.

Eyes naked. Antennæ in male filiform, shortly ciliated. Thorax with strong transverse anterior and posterior crests. Abdomen strongly crested towards base. Hindwings with veins 6 and 7 short-stalked.

58. Cosm. elegans, Don.

(Phalaena elegans, Don., Ins. N.H.; Cosmodes elegans, Gn., Noct. vi., 290.)

Male, female.—29–30 mm. Head grey-whitish, with two dark ferruginous bands. Palpi dark ferruginous, mixed with reddish-whitish. Antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax whitish-reddish, crests posteriorly dark ferruginous, anterior crest mixed in front with black. Abdomen grey-whitish, crest dark ferruginous. Legs grey, anterior and middle tibiæ reddish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin oblique, with strong broad triangular projection below middle; dark ferruginous, mixed with blackish-fuscous; four pale green spots margined with white; first large, irregularly elongate, extending almost from base to middle, curved downwards in middle; second moderate, oval, above and touching posterior extremity of first; third moderate, subtriangular, beyond second; fourth moderate, trapezoidal, above anal angle; centre of disc between these lighter, with veins whitish; a transverse light ferruginous streak towards hindmargin in middle, anteriorly white-margined, representing subterminal line: cilia fuscous-reddish mixed with black. Hindwings whitish; posterior half suffused with fuscous-reddish: cilia whitish, with a fuscous-reddish line.

Napier, Christchurch, and Governor's Bay, in March and April; several specimens. Occurs also commonly in Eastern Australia.

– 36 –
A. Eyes with marginal cilia 13. Plusia.
B. " without cilia.
  1. Antennæ in male bipectinated 17. Rhapsa.
  2. " filiform.
    a. Tarsi in male strongly thickened with dense scales 16. Dasypodia.
    b. Tarsi in male not thickened.
      i. Terminal joint of palpi rather long 14. Ophideres.
      ii. " short 15. Achaea.

13. Plusia, Tr.

Eyes naked, margins ciliated. Antennæ in male filiform, very shortly ciliated. Thorax with large double posterior crest. Abdomen with dorsal crests towards base.

Larva 12-legged, feeding externally; pupa in a silken cocoon.

A cosmopolitan, yet not very large genus.

59. Plus. eriosoma, Dbld.

(Plusia eriosoma, Dbld., Dieff. N. Zeal. 285, Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. x., 1, 2; P. argentifera, Gn., Noct. vi., 352.)

Male, female.—32–36 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous, mixed with darker and ferruginous. Antennæ greyish-ochreous. Abdomen grey, in male with whitish-ochreous lateral tufts of long hairs beyond middle, and apical tuft black beneath. Legs grey, irrorated with whitish-ochreous. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded, anal angle slightly prominent; fuscous; sub-basal line straight, golden-white, not reaching inner margin, followed by a blackish-bronze spot in disc; first line straight, golden-white, angulated and interrupted beneath costa; median space suffused with deep bronze on dorsal half, containing a golden-white ?-shaped longitudinal mark and small oval spot beyond it beneath middle of disc; second line nearly straight, obscurely paler, dark-margined; an oblique sub-apical streak terminated by a straight sub-marginal line before upper half of hindmargin, and a spot on anal angle deep bronze: cilia grey, irrorated with whitish. Hindwings fuscous grey, darker posteriorly; cilia ochreous-whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Var. a. Golden-white discal spots wholly absent.

Larva polyphagous, on various garden plants.

Taranaki, Napier, Wellington, and Nelson; rather common. Also occurs commonly in Eastern Australia. P. chalcites, Esp., from Europe, India, and Madagascar, appears to differ in having the hindwings yellowish anteriorly, but is otherwise almost exactly similar.

– 37 –

14. Ophideres, Hb.

Eyes naked. Palpi with terminal joint rather long, slender. Antennæ in male filiform, simple. Thorax and abdomen not crested. Forewings with tooth of scales on inner margin towards base.

An Indo-Malayan genus.

60. Oph. fullonica, L. (?)

(Noctua fullonica, L.S.N. 812, Cl. Icon., pl. xlviii., 1–4; Noctua pomona, Cr. 77c; Ophideres fullonica, Gn., Noct. vii., 111.)

100 mm. Forewings brown, marked with lighter and darker and greenish; hindwings orange, with large lunule and broad hind-marginal band black.

A single greatly-damaged specimen of what may be this species was taken in Christchurch and brought alive to Mr. Fereday; but as it is too fragmentary for identification, I give only a rough diagnosis from an Australian specimen; the species must not be quoted as from New Zealand without further proof, but in any case it is probably only a stray immigrant. The principal reason for supposing the New Zealand specimen to be referable to this species is its geographical range, which includes Samoa, Australia, India, Ceylon, and South Africa.

15. Achaea, Hb.

Eyes naked. Antennæ in male filiform. Thorax and abdomen not crested.

61. Ach. melicerte, Drury.

(Noctua melicerte, Drury, Ins. Exot. i., 46, pl. xxiii., 1, Cr. 323, C.D.; Achaea melicerte, Gn., Noct. vii., 247.)

Female.—64 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs light greyish-ochreous. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, costa posteriorly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin slightly waved, straight, somewhat oblique, slightly rounded beneath; pale greyish-ochreous irrorated with fuscous; lines darker; two dark fuscous discal dots on extremities of transverse vein; second line preceded by a fuscous band, containing a paler suffused subdentate line near its anterior edge; subterminal cloudy, fuscous, preceded by a narrow suffused reddish-ochreous band: cilia ochreous-whitish, with a cloudy dark-grey line. Hindwings blackish, becoming grey towards base; a straight cloudy white fascia from middle of costa to anal angle, gradually attenuated beneath; a moderate white sub-quadrate spot on hindmargin above middle, and an irregular white spot on hindmargin below middle; cilia whitish.

Wellington; one specimen. Occurs also in Australia, Fiji, Celebes, Ceylon, and India.

– 38 –

16. Dasypodia, Gn.

Eyes naked. Palpi with terminal joint very slender. Antennæ in male filiform, hardly pubescent. Thorax and abdomen not crested. Tarsi in male very much [ unclear: ] thickened, with dense scales (teste Guénée).

62. Das. selenophora, Gn.

(Dasypodia selenophora, Gn., Noct. vii., 175.)

Female.—75 mm. Head dark fuscous. Palpi dark fuscous, second joint ochreous-yellowish beneath, terminal joint ⅔ of second. Antennæ whitish-ochreous, base dark fuscous. Thorax, abdomen, and legs ochreous-brown, anterior edge of collar, under-surface, and hairs of femora ochreous-yellowish. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa posteriorly moderately arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, slightly rounded, oblique; brown, slightly purplish-tinged, on median fascia paler and tinged with pale ochreous; first and second lines hardly indicated by darker margins in disc; a rather large crescentic dark grey spot in disc, margined first with whitish-blue, then black, then orange, then black again, concavity filled with a circular black spot; a median series of three fine dark-brown lines near beyond this, innermost sending three very acute teeth inwards beneath discal ocellus; a marginal series of bluish-white crescentic dots: cilia brown. Hindwings brown, lighter and ochreous-tinged towards base; a median series of three waved lines obscurely indicated; marginal dots and cilia as in forewings.

Napier, Richmond and Christchurch, in January; apparently not common. Occurs commonly in Eastern Australia.

17. Rhapsa, Walk.

Eyes naked. Palpi very long, obliquely ascending, loosely rough-scaled throughout, second joint with dense long projecting tuft above towards apex, terminal joint moderate. Antennæ in male moderately bipectinated, apex simple. Thorax and abdomen not crested. Forewings in male beneath with large broad costal fold on anterior half.

63. Rhaps. scotosialis, Walk.

(Rhapsa scotosialis, Walk., Suppl., 1150; Herminia lilacina, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, pl. xlii., 11.)

Male, female.—32–37 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax fuscous or greyish-ochreous. Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, apex of joints ochreous-whitish. Forewings very elongate-triangular, costa arched posteriorly, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, rather obliquely rounded;

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greyish-ochreous, suffusedly irrorated with fuscous; lines darker fuscous, tolerably distinct or obsolete; orbicular very small, round, varying from orange to whitish, black-margined; claviform absent; reniform moderate, whitish-ochreous, outer edge indented, anterior half margined with black and ferruginous, posterior half containing a curved transverse fuscous line; a series of dark fuscous dots beyond second line; subterminal pale, dark-margined, rather irregular, terminating in a pale triangular costal blotch; a hind-marginal row of blackish dots: cilia fuscous, irrorated with grey-whitish. Hindwings pale greyish-ochreous; a faint discal dot, slender postmedian line, and very obscure submarginal band darker grey; sometimes a hind-marginal row of dark grey dots; cilia pale greyish-ochreous.

Auckland, Napier, Wellington, Christchurch, Nelson, Akaroa and Invercargill, April to February; generally common.


The following names represent unidentified descriptions; probably they are synonymous with some of the preceding. I do not quote the descriptions, which are of little value:—

64. Xylina spurcata, Walk., Noct., 631.

65. Orthosia infensa, Walk., Noct., 748.

66. Xylina provida, Walk., Noct., 1737; X. canescens, ib., Suppl. 757.

67. Orthosia communicata, Walk., Suppl. 716.

68. Xylina turbida, Walk., Suppl. 754.

69. Xylina vexata, Walk., Suppl. 755.

70. Euplexia insignis, Walk., Suppl. 724.

Walker and Butler quote two other species, Agrotis munda and Heliothis peltigera, but there is no reason to doubt that these records are erroneous, and founded on a mistaken identification.

Index of Genera.
Achaea, Hb. 15
Agrotis, Tr. 10
Bityla, Walk. 9
Cosmodes, Gn. 12
Dasypodia, Gn. 16
Erana, Walk. 5
Heliothis, Tr. 11
Ichneutica, n. g. 8
Leucania, Tr. 2
Mamestra, Tr. 4
Miselia, Stph. 6
Ophideres, Hb. 14
Orthosia, Tr. 7
Physetica, n. g. 1
Plusia, Tr. 18
Rhapsa, Walk. 17
Xanthia, Tr. 8
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Index of Species. Names italicized are synonyms.
acceptrix, Feld. 23
acetina, Feld. 48
acontistis, n. sp. 7
admirationis, Gn. 53
agorastis, n. sp. 24
alopa, n. sp. 9
angusta, Feld. 23
antipoda, Feld. 5
arachnias, n. sp. 35
argentifera, Gn. 59
armigera, Hb. 57
arotis, n. sp. 12
atristriga, Walk. 5
aulacias, n. sp. 11
bicomma, Gn. 47
blenheimensis, Frdy. 15
caerulea, Gn. 1
canescens, Walk. 66
ceramodes, n. sp. 49
ceraunias, n. sp. 17
ceropachoides, Gn. 56
comma, Walk. 47
communicata, Walk. 67
composita, Gn. 33
conferta, Walk. 57
cucullina, Gn. 44
debilis, Butl. 23
deceptura, Walk. 43
defigurata; Walk. 50
dentigera, Butl. 33
disjungens, Walk. 18
dotata, Walk. 37
elegans, Don. 58
eriosoma, Dbld. 59
extranea, Gn. 16
fullonica, L. 60
graminosa, Walk. 45
griseipennis, Feld. 2
homoscia, n. sp. 32
immunis, Walk. 48
implexa, Walk. 47
inceptura, Walk. 43
inconspicua, Butl. 55
inconstans, Butl. 2
infensa, Walk. 65
innocua, Walk. 48
insignis, Walk. 70
juncicolor, Gn. 10
lignana, Walk. 40
lignifusca, Walk. 23
lignisecta, Walk. 41
lilacina, Butl. 63
lithias, n. sp. 22
maori, Feld. 33
melicerte, Drury. 61
mitis, Butl. 44
moderata, Walk. 2
morosa, Butl. 40
mutans, Walk. 23
nervata, Gn. 18
nullifera, Walk. 3
ochthistis, n. sp. 30
omoplaca, n. sp. 36
paracausta, n. sp. 19
pelistis, n. sp. 28
pessota, n. sp. 46
phaula, n. sp. 8
pictula, White. 25
plena, Walk. 21
plusiata, Walk. 47
polychroa, n. sp. 20
pomona, Cr. 60
prionistis, n. sp. 42
propria, Walk. 6
provida, Walk. 66
purdii, Frdy. 4
rhodopleura, n. sp. 26
rubescens, Butl. 39
scotosialis, Walk. 63
selenophora, Gn. 62
semivittata, Walk. 14
sericea, Butl. 51, 54
sistens, Gn. 27
specifica, Gn. 3
sphagnea, Feld. 21
spurcata, Walk. 64
steropastis, n. sp. 34
stipata, Walk. 38
suffusa, Hb. 52
sulcana, Frdy. 13
tartarea, Butl. 31
temperata, Walk. 43
thoracica, Walk. 50
turbida, Walk. 68
unica, Walk. 10
ustistriga, Walk. 41
vexata, Walk. 69
vigens, Walk. 45
virescens, Butl. 2
viridis, Butl. 21
vitiosa, Butl. 29
ypsilon, Rott. 52
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To accompany Paper by W. M. Maskell.

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Art. II.On the “Honeydew” of Coccidæ, and the Fungus accompanying these Insects.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 25th August, 1886.]

Plate I.

It has long been known that, in common with the Aphididœ, Psyllidœ, and other Rhynchota, the Coccidæ secrete a glutinous fluid, which has received the name of “honeydew.” In the other families mentioned, this fluid serves to attract and to feed various insects: thus, for example, Aphides are commonly visited by ants, which devour the honeydew, and even, it is said, go so far as to tickle the Aphides, in order to make them secrete additional fluid. Whether the secretion of Coccids may serve as food for other insects is not certain. I have never noticed anything tending to this idea: often, minute dipterous and hymenopterous insects may be seen amongst Coccids on leaves, but I incline to the belief that certainly the latter, and possibly the former, are seeking rather a place for depositing their eggs than a meal of honeydew. Hymenopterous insects are very often parasitic on Coccids: and out of a hundred pupæ of, say, Ctenochiton perforatus, as many as seventy-five may often be found with hymenopterous pupæ or larvæ inside them. Acarids of various kinds are also very numerous on leaves where Coccidæ are found; but, whilst it is quite possible that they may be attracted by the honeydew, this may not be the case, as Acarids are numerous and common on all plants, whether infested with Coccids or not. On the whole, I cannot affirm that the Coccid honeydew affords nutriment to any insects. I have never seen an ant amongst Coccids: but ants are not common in New Zealand, and this point is only negative, after all.

Still, the fact remains that Coccidæ exude, like other Rhynchota, a glutinous fluid. This is well known, but I think that nobody as yet has described either the mode or the organ of the secretion. An observation lately made enables me to fill this lacuna, and the points noted are not without interest in the study of the family. It happened that I was lately examining some specimens of the second, or pupa, stage of the female of Ctenochiton elœocarpi, mihi.* In one of these I noticed a sudden protrusion of an organ from between the

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvii., 1884, p. 26.

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two dorsal abdominal lobes, and the excretion of a drop of honeydew.

Ctenochiton elœocarpi, like all Lecanids, exhibits at the abdominal extremity a deepish narrow cleft, on the dorsal side of which are two roundly-triangular protruding lobes. In a specimen of the second female stage it may be seen, under the microscope, that these lobes lie in a shallow groove formed by the sides of the cleft. At intervals, which may vary in length, the insect protrudes rapidly from beneath the lobes a cylindrical organ (figs. 1a, 1b,), composed of a basal, thickish tube, bearing at its extremity another, similar, but much thinner. The organ being pushed out to its full extent, a minute globule of transparent glutinous fluid appears at its extremity, rapidly expands, something like a soap-bubble, and then suddenly breaks and falls in spray on the leaf. The excreting organ is then rapidly withdrawn.

I do not entertain much doubt that the process just described is the same used by all the “honeydew”-secreting Coccids. Some of these, like Rhizococcus fossor, Planchonia epacridis, etc., produce much less than others; but even they, I think, excrete some. The observation which I have made as above throws a light upon an organ which I noted as occurring in the second female stage of Cœlostoma zœlandicum, in vol. xiv. of the “Transactions,” page 227, and in the adult female of the same insect in vol xii., p. 295. I then considered this organ as an oviduct, remarking, however, that I could not see its use in the pupal stage. I never saw it exserted, and was not aware that it ever was so; but it seems clear to me now that this is an organ similar to the one excreting honeydew in Ctenochiton elœocarpi, and it probably occurs in at least most of the other Coccids.

But observation of this organ is extremely difficult, if not in most cases impossible. The best and most careful work on the anatomy of Coccids is that of Professor Targioni-Tozzetti, “Studie sulle Coccineglie” (Milano, 1867); and there is no mention in it of any such organ. I have carefully, at various times, examined in every way many specimens of different genera, and, with the exception of Cœlostoma (an exceptionally gigantic species), I have not seen it.

There is no doubt of the quantity of glutinous matter secreted by Coccids; but, as observed above, the origin and mode of the excretion have not been noticed before. There does not appear to be any other organ, or any other portion, of the insect's body, producing this secretion; and it may well be that the absence of insects feeding on the honeydew may be due to the fact that the excreting organ, instead of being constantly protruded like the cornicles of the Aphididæ, is only now and then exserted and then withdrawn. In many genera,

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such as Aspidiotus, Ctenochiton, Inglisia, Eriococcus; etc., the character of the shield or test, waxy or cottony or felted, would prevent the honeydew from exuding anywhere but at the abdominal extremity; there, however, there is almost always some kind of orifice or cleft permitting the extrusion of the excreting organ.

A point of considerable economic importance is connected with this honeydew of Coccids, namely, the growth upon it of various fungi; and I take this opportunity of drawing the attention of farmers and tree-growers to it, as I believe that a good deal of misconception exists in its regard. Everybody, doubtless, has observed how, in gardens or in greenhouses, in plantations or in forests, many plants have an unpleasantly blackened appearance; and it frequently happens that the true colours of the twigs and leaves are much, if not quite, obscured by the black coating on them (see figs. 2a and 2b). Now, it will generally be observed that this black coating is in most cases thicker and more unsightly on the lower than on the upper leaves and branches: sometimes, indeed, the uppermost leaves will be bright green, whilst the lowest look as if they were covered with soot. It will also be noticed that the black coating is abundant, not only in the damp recesses of the forest, but also in comparatively dry greenhouses, and just as much so in open-air gardens.

The primary cause of this is usually the presence of some homopterous insects, whether Aphididœ, Psyllidœ, Coccidœ or others. The “honeydew” excreted by them drops, or in the case of Coccids falls in spray, over the leaves beneath them: it very soon furnishes a glutinous and congenial soil for the spores of fungi. If one may judge from the quantity of black coating often found, the act of excretion above described must be repeated somewhat frequently, though so seldom observed.

As to the question, what is this black sooty coating: there is no doubt of its fungoid character, but I am not able to identify it precisely. There seem to be, in fact, several species in it. On the leaves, the fungus forms usually a flat, black, thinnish, closely woven covering; on the twigs and stem it has a looser texture, and generally forms a mass of small erect threads (see figs. 2a and 2b). These appearances are by no means confined to New Zealand, and most writers on Coccidæ devote some phrases in passing to the fungus. Signoret* calls it “Fumagine;” Comstock calls it “Fumago salicina:” in an early paper of mine (1878) I attributed it to “Antennaria.” In point of fact, a good many of the Hyphomycetes and Physomycetes may be found amongst this fungoid growth. I have attached to this

[Footnote] * “Essai sur les Cochenilles.”

[Footnote] † Report of the Entomologist, U.S. Department of Agric., 1880.

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paper (figs. 2c, 2d, 2e) rough representations of three different forms observed.

The economic point, however, to which I draw attention is that, as a general rule (I might even put it more strongly), the appearance of this black fungus is an indication of the presence of homopterous insects; probably, in New Zealand, of Coccidæ, because they are the most numerous of the order in this country. Now, a great deal has been heard of late years of the damages by scale-insects, and all sorts of people have written or experimented about them. I find that, amongst the diseases of trees, this black fungus-growth has attracted attention: but the misconception to which I alluded just now is that it has been considered as a separate, or primary, disease, which I do not think it is.

In Mr. Kirk's “Report upon the Diseases of Lemon and other trees in New Zealand,” the common notion is embodied, and, under the head of “Lemon Smut, or Black Blight,” the writer even emphasizes it, by saying that the excreta of Icerya purchasi (a scale-insect) had no share in its production, and that it was of “purely vegetable origin.” In answering, in 1885, questions by a Select Committee of the General Assembly upon tree-diseases, I combatted this view, and ascribed the black “smut” to fungoid growths, the result of the presence of homopterous insects. I believe that Mr. Kirk has now come round to this view of the question, which is, undoubtedly, the right one.

It stands to reason, then, that if a farmer, or orchard-grower, or gardener, observing this black growth on his trees, imagines it to be the primary cause of disease, and sets to work to eradicate it without attending to the insect pests, he will be simply throwing his labour away. And there is this important fact to be remembered, that it is not with scale-insects as with other insects. Coccidæ are impervious to many things which might, in other cases, be efficacious. There is a common belief which, like most superstitions, it is excessively difficult to destroy, that sulphur is an useful ingredient in what are called “scaly-blight destroyers.” I should not be in the least surprised to find that many who hold this belief do so because they have found the black fungus disappear, or lessen, after its use, for sulphur is undoubtedly a remedy for fungoid blights—e.g., oidium, etc.; and probably they never thought of looking more closely into the matter. All experience goes to show that sulphur, unless applied in such strength as to burn up insects, fungus, tree and all, is not a remedy against Coccids. Comstock, Riley, Hubbard, and others agree in this: and although, in newspaper

[Footnote] ‡ Boudier (Assoc. Fran. pour l'avancement des Sc., 1884) includes the European fungi developed in the honeydew of Aphis in the genus Cladosporium (Quart. Journ. Roy. Micros. Soc., Aug. 1886, p. 597).

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accounts, and in the replies of farmers to questions from officials or committees, we find sulphur a common ingredient in the thousand-and-one mixtures recommended, I doubt very much if anybody could give an intelligent reason for its employment.

No harm will therefore have been done, I think, if this paper should induce gardeners and fruit-growers to go direct to the true origin of disease in their trees and neglect the secondary one. That the fungus will grow independently of scale-insects is, of course, indisputable: but those who wisely consider it as, in the vast majority of cases, merely an accessory to their presence, and who set themselves to destroy the Coccidæ or Aphididæ on the plants, will find the black fungus also very quickly disappear.

Explanation of Plate I.

Fig. 1a. Ctenochiton elœocarpi (larva) magnified, with waxy test removed; showing excreting organ, and bubble of honeydew.

Fig. 1b. Abdominal extremity of same, magnified, with waxy fringe; honeydew bubble bursting.

Fig. 2a. Fungoid growth on twig.

Fig. 2b. Fungoid growth on leaf.

Fig. 2c. Varieties of fungoid growths.

Fig. 2d. Varieties of fungoid growths.

Fig. 2e. Varieties of fungoid growths.

Art. III.Further Notes on New Zealand Coccidæ.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 19th January, 1887.]

Plate II.
Group Coccidinæ.

Icerya purchasi, mihi. Plate II., figs. 1–4 (male).

By the kindness of the Rev. Mr. Colenso, of Napier, I have received some specimens of the male of this species. No published description of the male Icerya is known to me, though the insect must be common in California. The following description is therefore here given:—

Male insect large; body red, with a shining, diamond-shaped, black patch on the dorsal surface of the thorax; legs and antennæ black; wings dark-brown, marked with numbers of parallel, wavy, oblique, narrow stripes; main nervure red, branching once; there are also two longitudinal whitish stripes in each wing. Antennæ long, slender, with ten joints, all nearly equal; the last joint is clavate; all except the first are constricted in the middle and with two dilations, at each of which there is a ring of very long hairs, giving to the antennæ

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almost a plumose appearance. From these dilations and the median constriction the antenna appears to have nineteen joints, and it requires close examination to show that there are really only ten. Eyes very large and prominent, dark-brown, and divided into numerous semi-spherical facets; at the base of each eye is a prominent tubercle. Feet long, and very hairy; coxæ short and thick, tibiæ long and slender; claw thin. The digitules appear to be represented; by two minute bristles on the claw, as in Cœlostoma zœlandicum. Abdomen long and slender, with eight cylindrical segments, each segment bearing some hairs; the last segment ends in two conspicuous, thick, cylindrical processes which, when the insect is viewed sideways, are seen to turn upwards, and beneath them the conical, sharp-pointed sheath of the penis turns downwards (figs. 3, 4); penis large, reddish-coloured, with many recurved short hairs, and at the end a ring of short spines. Each terminal process of the abdomen bears three or four long strong setæ.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length of the body somewhat variable; some of my specimens attain ⅛ inch; expanse of wings ¼ inch; length of antenna 1/9 inch.

This is a very handsome insect, clearly showing the characters of the group Monophlebidœ, and a little resembling the male of Cœlostoma; but specially fine in its variety of colours. The antennæ approach those of Leachia; the two abdominal terminal processes recall the six or eight tassels of Monophlebus. Mr. Colenso informs me that the insect flies strongly and swiftly, which is rather exceptional amongst Coccids, whose wings usually seem too weak for them.

Group LecanidinÆ.

Sub-section Lecano-CoccidÆ.*

Abdominal cleft and lobes present in all stages of female. Insects covering themselves with a secretion of cottony or felted matter, forming more or less complete sacs.

Genus, Eriochiton, gen. nov.

Secretion white, felted, formed of agglutinated threads issuing from prominent spiny spinnerets; inconspicuous or absent on adult female, more or less noticeable on female larvæ and pupæ; thick on male pupa. Abdominal cleft and lobes normal. Feet and antennæ present in all stages. Adult antennæ seven-jointed.

Differs from Lecanodiaspis, Targioni, in retaining the feet, and in the antennæ; from Philippia, Targioni, in not constructing its sac, or test, simply for gestation.

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., 1883, p. 128.

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New Zealand Coccidæ

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The fact that the tibia is shorter than the tarsus in the adult female, in both the species here given, is quite exceptional in the family. It occurs only, besides in these, in some species of Acantho-coccidœ; in all others, a tibia shorter than the tarsus is an indication that the specimen examined is not full-grown. I have hesitated to include this amongst the generic characters of Eriochiton until at least a third species has been found possessing it. Some persons are fond of creating genera and species from a single specimen or two. I do not agree with this.

Eriochiton spinosus.

(Ctenochiton spinosus, mihi.)

From closer examination of the female test of this species I find that it is not formed of waxy plates but of felted threads.* and I am therefore obliged to remove it from the genus Ctenochiton. It should be described as follows:—Test of female white, thin, formed of felted threads; inconspicuous in all stages and often absent from the adult, but distinguishable on the larva and on the second, or pupal, stage.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

The male test (which I have only lately found) is white, thick, felted, oval, convex, averaging 1/16 inch in length.

To the description of the adult female already given in former papers, it must be added that the tibiæ are shorter than the tarsi, a very exceptional character.

The adult male (only lately found, and apparently very rare) is of the normal Lecanid form; colour generally dark brown. Eyes: two dorsal, two ventral; and two ocelli. Antennæ of ten joints; the second thicker than the rest, the third and fourth the longest, the eighth, ninth, and tenth moniliform; all the joints hairy, and on the five last joints are several hairs with clubbed extremities. Feet slender, hairy; digitules fine hairs. Abdominal spike somewhat strong and sharp; and on each side of its base is a tubercle bearing two long setæ, and each pair of setæ becomes enclosed in a long white cottony thread, the two threads forming conspicuous “tails,” as is common with many male Coccids.

Eriochiton hispidus, sp. nov. Plate II., figs. 5–8.

Test of female white, very thin, felted, formed of threads secreted by the numerous spiny spinnerets. At the edge

[Footnote] * The tests of all Lecanids may be said to be more or less “waxy;” and I am not certain that there is any chemical difference between them: but there must be some reason why, in certain species, the secretion forms plates of wax which are apparently homogenous, whilst in others the threads issuing from the spinneret tubes never entirely coalesce. I believe the distinction which I have made between “waxy,” “cottony,” and “felted,” and which is made also by other writers, is quite clear enough for generic purposes; though it may never be worth while for anybody to ascertain the chemical reasons for it.

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each thread corresponds with one of the marginal spines, and forms a more or less conspicuous fringe, the segments of which are cylindrical tubes, not feather-shaped as in E. spinosus. Test often absent on the adult female, and always fragmentary: it is better observed on the second, or pupal stage, or on the larva.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Test of male white, thick, felted, oval, and convex, completely covering the pupa. Length about 1/16 inch. As the test exhibits a kind of segmented appearance, with transverse obscure grooves, it may at first sight be mistaken for a dactylopid insect.

Larva normal of the Lecanid group; flat, elliptical, active, exhibiting the abdominal cleft and lobes. Dorsal surface covered with numerous spiny spinnerets, from which issue the threads of the test and fringe.

Female of the second (pupal) stage more or less elliptical, slightly convex, reddish-brown in colour beneath the thin white felted secretion, which often presents an obscurely segmented appearance, due to the transverse rows of spiny spinnerets. Dorsum covered thickly with these spines, which are sub-cylindrical, with rounded tips, and spring from tubercular bases. On the ventral surface many small spiny hairs. Abdominal cleft normal, the lobes large. Mentum monomerous, the tip bearing several hairs. Antennæ of six somewhat hairy joints. Feet with rather large femora; digitules all fine hairs. Anogenital ring bearing several hairs.

Adult female elliptical, convex, reddish-brown in colour, hollow beneath; usually affecting the twigs of the plant in preference to the leaves. Apparently naked, but on close inspection found to retain at least portions of the thin felted secretion. Dorsum covered with great numbers of the spiny prominent sub-cylindrical spinnerets; ventral surface bearing many small spiny hairs. Antennæ of seven joints (fig. 6). Feet with large coxæ and femora; tibia a good deal shorter than the tarsus; lower digitules only fine hairs.

Adult male reddish-brown in colour; form normal of Lecanidæ. Two dorsal eyes, two ventral eyes, two ocelli. Antennæ ten-jointed, the last three moniliform; second, third, and fourth the longest. On the five last joints are several hairs with clubbed extremities. Feet slender, hairy. Abdominal spike rather strong and sharp; and on each side of its base is a broad tubercle bearing two long setæ, which become joined in long cottony “tails.”

Habitat.—On Olearia haastii, found as yet (in great numbers) only on a plant cultivated in the Botanical Gardens, Wellington. It is rapidly killing the shrub. O. haastii is, I believe, an alpine plant.

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New Zealand Infusoria

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This species is distinguished from E. spinosus by the great number of spiny spinnerets on the dorsal surface of the female, and by the cylindrical tubes of the fringe. Its colour is also rather redder and lighter; but that is not a valuable character. I cannot find any clearly distinguishing marks in the males of the two species.

Description of Plate II.

Fig. 1. Icerya purchasi, male insect.

Fig. 2. " part of antenna.

Fig. 3. " extremity of abdomen, viewed from beneath.

Fig. 4. " extremity of abdomen, side view.

Fig. 5. Eriochiton hispidus, adult female.

Fig. 6. " Antenna.

Fig. 7. " Foot.

Fig. 8. " Marginal spines and fringe of test.

Art. IV.On the Freshwater Infusoria of the Wellington District.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 30th June, 1886.]

Plates III., IV., V.

The following is the result of some investigations by the Microscopical Section of the Wellington Philosophical Society, Messrs. A. Brandon, jun., W. F. Barraud, C. P. Powles, T. W. Kirk, and the writer. These investigations have only been undertaken in the intervals of leisure afforded to men engaged in the ordinary work of life: the result, therefore, can be taken simply as complete as far as it goes; that is, merely a systematic list of the freshwater infusorian life here. The preparation of similar lists appears to be desirable in any country, and especially so in New Zealand, where the fauna and flora offer still so large a field for the inquiries of students of Nature.

The want of full opportunities and ample time, hinted at above, and the difficulty of arranging and working with apparatus constantly requiring attention, have prevented the members of the section from properly investigating the development of the animalcules herein presented as new to science. But, as these have not necessitated the establishment of any new genera, and as the processes of reproduction have been so fully studied and described in other countries, the defect in the present case is not of great importance. The phenomena of reproduction by fission have, of course, been frequently noticed, but time and opportunity have not been available for their continuous observation.

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Two points require slight mention here. First, it is to be noted that in many instances, where animalcules have been referred in this paper to described species, there have been observed minute variations, not considered sufficiently important to induce the erection of a new species, yet often tending to make identification a matter of some difficulty. Instances of this may be mentioned in the genera Stentor, Euglena, and others, and especially, perhaps, in the Heterotrichous Order. It has been considered desirable to avoid as much as possible the multiplication of species. Secondly, it is noticeable that in some instances—e.g., Aspidisca turrita, Licnophora setifera—animalcules inhabit freshwater here which are only reported from sea-water in Europe or elsewhere.

Finally, it is to be observed that examination has only been made into strictly freshwater animalcules, excluding marine or “infusion” types. The present paper, being only the beginning of what may easily be a long task, has been purposely complicated as little as possible.

Catalogue of Infusoria.
Class I. Flagellata.
Order. Flagellata-Pantostomata.

Genus Monas.

Monas fluida, Duj. Wellington.

Monas attenuata, Duj. Wellington; Wainui.

Probably several others of this genus may also occur here.

Genus Scytomonas.

Scytomonas pusilla, Stein. Wellington.

Genus Oikomonas.

Oikomonas mutabilis, Kent. Wainui.

Genus Cercomonas.

Cercomonas grandis, sp. nov. Plate III., fig. 1, a, b, c, d, e.

Animalcules free-swimming, variable in shape, globular or elongate, with a single anterior terminal flagellum, and a somewhat shorter posterior terminal filament. Flagellum about half the length of the fully extended body. Contractile vesicle single, central.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length when fully extended 1/400 inch = 62 μ. No oral aperture.

Wellington, W. M. Maskell.

Differs from described species in its very large size. The presence of a caudal filament and the absence of an oral aper ture remove it from the genus Astasia.

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Genus Dendromonas.

Dendromonas virgaria, Weisse. Wainui.

Genus Anthophysa.

Anthophysa socialis, De From. Wellington; Wainui.

Anthophysa vegetans, Müller. Wellington.

Genus Goniomonas.

Goniomonas truncata, Fres. Wellington.

Genus Rhipidodendron.

Rhipidodendron huxleyi, Kent. Wainui.

This is a peculiar and interesting form, and it is remarkable that the only other recorded specimens are from Dartmoor, in England. Curiously, also, the Wainui infusorian is accompanied, as in England, by the following species, Spongomonas sacculus.

Genus Spongomonas.

Spongomonas discus, Stein. Wainui.

Spongomonas sacculus, S. Kent. Wainui.

The occurrence of this curious monad with Rhipidodendron, here, as at Dartmoor in England, seems to suggest possible connection between the two. Neither of the two appears to have been recorded from any other locality. The character of the zoocytium, or common gelatinous granuliferous mass enclosing the animalcules, seems scarcely to vary in the two genera; and the main difference would appear to lie in the fact that the animalcules of Rhipidodendron inhabit separately the tubes of a branching zoocytium, those of Spongomonas living together in the common mass. Time has not yet permitted a continuous investigation of the two forms, which might not impossibly be found, as hinted above, to be in some way connected.

Genus Heteromita.

Heteromita lens, Müller. Wellington.

Order. Flagellata-Discostomata, or Choano-Flagellata. (The “collared” monads.)

Genus Monosiga.

Monosiga consociata, Kent. Wainui. Plate III., fig. 2.

A figure of this species is given to illustrate the peculiar “collar” of the order.

Genus Salpingæca.

Salpingœca amphoridium, James-Clark. Wainui, Karori, Porirua.

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Order Flagellata-Eustomata.

Genus Phialonema.

Phialonema cyclostomum, Stein. Wellington.

Genus Astasia.

Astasia tricophora, Ehrenberg. Wellington, Wainui, Hutt Valley.

Genus Euglena.

Euglena viridis, Ehrenberg. Wellington, Wainui, Mungaroa, Hutt Valley.

Euglena spirogyra, Ehrenberg. Wellington, Wainui.

Euglena acus, Ehrenberg. Wellington.

Genus Amblyophis.

Amblyophis viridis, Ehrenberg. Wainui.

Genus Phacus.

Phacus triqueter, Ehrenberg. Wainui, Hutt Valley.

Genus Trachelomonas.

Trachelomonas volvocina, Ehrenberg. Wellington.

Trachelomonas armata, Ehrenberg. Wellington, Wainui, Hutt Valley.

Trachelomonas crenulatocollis, sp. nov. Plate III., fig. 3.

Lorica elliptical, covered with sharp conical spines, which at the edge form a continuous border of points; anterior aperture large, and produced in a short tubular fluted neck slightly widening to the end, and terminated by a crenulated edge. Animalcule green; lorica dark yellow with red edge. Flagellum single.

Wainui, Pukerua, Hutt Valley, W. M. Maskell.

An elegant little species, distinguished from T. hispida by the fluted tubular neck; from T. eurystoma by the rough lorica; and from T. armata by the absence of caudal spines.

Genus Uvella.

Uvella virescens, Ehrenberg. Wainui, Karori.

Genus Dinobryon.

Dinobryon sertularia, Ehrenberg. Wellington.

Genus Sterromonas.

Sterromonas formicina, Kent. Wellington, Wainui.

Order. Cilio-Flagellata.

Genus Peridinium.

Peridinium tabulatum, Ehrenberg. Wainui, Mungaroa, Karori.

Picture icon

New Zealand Infusoria

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A variation of this infusorian, which might perhaps be a new species, was observed on one occasion, but not sufficiently examined. The cuirass was nearly twice as long as broad, almost ovate, and the posterior extremity exhibited a narrow, not very deep, slit.

Class II. Ciliata.
Order. Holotricha.

Genus Paramœcium.

Paramœcium aurelia, Müller. Wellington, Wainui, Hutt Valley.

Paramœcium bursaria, Ehrenberg. Wellington, Hutt Valley.

Genus Prorodon.

Prorodon sulcatus, sp. nov. Plate III., fig. 4; a, b.

Animalcules free-swimming; motion gliding, sometimes rotatory, not rapid. Body persistent in shape, cylindrical, ovate, slightly narrowed anteriorly, longitudinally furrowed by numerous, somewhat deep, striæ. Oral aperture terminal, narrow; pharynx narrow, cylindrical, somewhat deep, armed with numerous rod-like teeth which are very inconspicuous. Nucleus band-like, curved, sub-central. Contractile vesicle single, at the posterior extremity.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length, 1/300 inch = 83 μ; greatest width, about 1/400 inch = 62 μ.

Wellington, W. M. Maskell.

No mention appears to be made in descriptions of recorded species of the longitudinal furrows mentioned above. These show as conspicuous striæ in viewing the animalcule on the side; but in end view they become apparent as furrows. Other differences from P. niveus, P. teres, etc., are size, the narrowness of the pharynx, and the inconspicuous rods. After treatment with iodine, a kind of protrusion of the oral aperture is sometimes visible.

Genus Trachelophyllum.

Trachelophyllum apiculatum, Perty. Mungaroa.

Genus Coleps.

Coleps hirtus, Ehrenberg. Wellington, Wainui.

Genus Tillina.

Tillina enormis, sp. nov. Plate III., fig. 5.

Animalcule free-swimming; motion rapid, gliding, some-times spiral. Persistent in shape, elongated, scarcely showing any reniform outline; length about three times the greatest width. Oral aperture ventral, slightly in advance of the median line; simple, fringed with cilia longer than those of the body;

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followed by a distinct curved pharynx. Pharynx simply ciliated throughout. Nucleus oval, conspicuous, sub-central. Contractile vesicles two, near the extremities, often exhibiting stellate appearance, as in the figure. Body finely ciliated throughout, also sparsely striated longitudinally.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length 1/30 inch = 833 μ.

Wellington, W. M. Maskell.

A large and distinct species, placed here in the genus Tillina on account of the characters of the oral aperture and pharynx. The longer cilia of the former remove it from Paramœcium, and the absence of a vibratile membrane in the latter distinguishes it from Plagiopyla or Colpidium. Anophrys has no cilia in the pharynx. Kent assigns to the genus only one contractile vesicle, and in his species, as well as in those reported from America by Professor Stokes,* the outlines are distinctly reniform; but these points do not seem sufficient to demand a new genus for the New Zealand animalcule. The shape and dimensions given above were very constant in a large number of specimens observed.

Tillina inequalis, sp. nov. Plate IV., fig. 6.

Animalcules free-swimming; motion rapid, gliding; persistent in shape, outline sub-reniform, the posterior portion larger than the anterior. Oral aperture ventral, a little in advance of the median line, situated in the shallow and not extensive depression of the body. Oral cilia longer than those of the body. Pharynx curved, not conspicuous, simply ciliated: no vibratile membrane. Nucleus inconspicuous, circular, posteriorly sub-central. Contractile vesicle single, sub-central, near the extremity of the pharynx. The food particles usually collected in a number of circular masses. Body finely ciliated throughout.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length, 1/240 inch = 104 μ; greatest width, 1/400 inch = 62 μ.

Wellington, W. M. Maskell.

This animalcule seems most nearly allied to T. inflata, Stokes, but differs in the inequality of the anterior and posterior portions, and in the shallowness of the depression between them. The form and dimensions given are quite constant. Tillina campyla, Stokes, is much narrower and smaller generally.

Genus Trachelocerca.

Trachelocerca filiformis, sp. nov. Plate V., fig. 15; a, b, c.

Animalcule highly elastic and variable; body fusiform, somewhat pointed posteriorly, produced when extended into

[Footnote] * “Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist.,” vol. xv., 5th series, p. 441.

[Footnote] † “Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist.,” Feb., 1886, p. 101.

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an exceedingly long filiform neck, often reaching six or seven times the length of the body, and terminating in an obtuse sub-conical region rather wider than the neck, with a circle of longer cilia beneath it. Contractile vesicle single, posterior: endoplast elliptical, sub-lateral. The whole body and neck are marked with a network of striæ.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length when fully extended reaching perhaps 1/70 inch = 357 μ, but the twistings and curlings of the thread-like neck are so rapid that measurement is very difficult.

Wellington, W. F. Barraud.

Closely allied to T. olor, Müller, but differing in the position of the single contractile vesicle and the character of the nucleus.

Genus Amphileptus.

Amphileptus anser, Ehrenberg. Wellington.

Genus Colpidium.

Colpidium cucullus, Schrank. Wellington.

Genus Plagiopyla.

Plagiopyla varians, sp. nov. Plate IV., fig 7; a, b.

Animalcules free-swimming; motion rapid, gliding; persistent in shape, sub-reniform. Oral fossa ventral, a little in advance of the median line, sometimes shallow, broad, and at right angles to the axis of the body, sometimes tubular, conical and oblique; containing a narrow vibratile membrane which does not quite reach to the aperture. Nucleus posteriorly located, conspicuous, circular. Contractile vesicles 2, placed between the oral fossa and the posterior extremity.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length, 1/200 inch = 125 μ.

Wellington, W. M. Maskell.

Resembling P. nasuta, Stein, but differs in the position of the nucleus, the two contractile vesicles, and the variation of the oral fossa. The animalcules observed presented this variable arrangement in a large number of specimens, and were at first thought to be distinct; but on further consideration they seemed to be really the same.

Genus Pleuronema.

Pleuronema coronata, Kent. Wainui.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

This animalcule appears to be identical with Kent's infusorian in everything except size. The European species is stated to have a length of only 1/290 inch = 86 μ, whilst the Wainui specimens reached 1/200 inch = 125 μ. It is not P. chrysalis, as it possesses long, fine, rigid setæ in addition to the cilia.

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Pleuronema cyclidium, sp. nov. Plate V., fig. 16.

Animalcules sub-reniform, with very shallow groove, about twice as long as broad, having a number of long fine hair-like setæ over the whole body; setæ of equal length throughout. Extensile membrane of the oral region narrow, and rather deep when extended. Contractile vesicle single, at one extremity; nucleus sub-central, elliptical. A number of granular masses often visible in the parenchyma.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length, 1/1330 inch = 19 μ.

Wellington, A. Brandon.

Differs from P. chrysalis and P. coronata in its extremely small size, which was constant in many hundreds of specimens observed, and which would make it approach nearer to Cyclidium or Uronema, except for the absence of the long caudal setæ characterizing those genera.

Genus Cyclidium.

Cyclidium glaucoma, Ehrenberg. Wellington.

Genus Uronema.

Uronema marinum, Dujard. Wainui.

Order Heterotricha.

Genus Metopus.

Metopus sigmoides, Müller. Wellington.

Genus Spirostomum.

Spirostomum ambiguum, Ehrenberg. Wainui, Hutt Valley.

Genus Stentor.

Stentor gracilis, sp. nov. Plate V., Fig. 13; a, b.

Body of moderate size, highly extensile, white or light-brown: when fully extended very slender for almost all its length and suddenly widening to the peristome, giving something of the appearance of a broad-headed nail. Peristome at full extension nearly half as wide as the length of the body. Sides of the extended stem nearly parallel, average width below the peristome region about one-fifteenth of the total length. Parenchyma containing often several dark-coloured granular masses. Contractile vesicle spherical, situated below the peristome. Endoplast band-like. Peristome border narrow, slightly emarginate in its whole extent, with a very deep cleft on one side extending for some distance down the stem; the cleft bears the usual peristomal cilia. Body when free-swimming elongate, racket-shaped, exhibiting the cleft of the peristome almost closed, as a narrow longitudinal slit.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length of the extended animalcule rather more than 1/30 inch = 833 μ.

Wellington, Hutt Valley, W. F. Barraud.

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The slenderness of the extended stem, the sudden widening of the peristome, the deep lateral cleft and the white colour, separate this from all described species. The dimensions and form given were constant in several specimens observed.

Stentor striatus, sp. nov. Plate V., fig. 14; a, b.

Body very large, dark-green with almost a blue tinge, highly elastic. When fully extended it has something of the shape of an old-fashioned deep champagne-glass, being narrow and very long, widening gradually from the point of attachment to the peristome, which is not recurved and widened, being scarcely wider than the portion of the body beneath it. The peristome edge is irregular, rising at one spot to a sharp point, and in another depressed in a not very deep groove, beneath which is a sub-cylindrical transverse region of very dark - green colour, reaching nearly to the median line: this appears, when the animalcule is free-swimming, as a conspicuous helical coil. Parenchyma containing several large granular masses, often coloured brown. Contractile vesicle spherical, below the peristome. Endoplast long, moniliform. The whole body is marked with broad, conspicuous striæ, which are most perceptible in the contracted state, and which give a crenulated appearance to the edge when the animalcule rolls over and is seen from one end.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length of the fully extended body 1/11 inch = 2260 μ.

Wellington, Ohariu, W. F. Barraud.

The very large size, dark-green colour, conspicuous striæ, and scarcely expanded peristome of this species are sufficiently characteristic. Dimensions and form constant in many specimens.

Order. Peritricha.

Genus Halteria.

Halteria grandinella, Müller. Wellington, Wainui, Hutt Valley, Karori.

Genus Strombidium.

Strombidium claparedii, Kent. Wellington.

Genus Gyrocoris.

Gyrocoris oxyura, Stein. Wellington, Wainui.

Genus Urocentrum.

Urocentrum turbo, Müller. Wainui, Hutt Valley.

Genus Licnophora.

Licnophora setifera, sp. nov. Plate IV., fig. 8; a, b, c.

Animalcules free-swimming, sometimes attached; motion very rapid, jerking or twisting. Body very irregularly shaped; the foot-like region more or less oval beneath, tumid, and bearing instead of cilia a few, about 20, somewhat strong setæ, of which

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the greater number are collected in two groups at the extremities of the foot. Neck-like region long, slender, compressed, elastic, bearing numbers of short fine cilia. Anterior portion or head variable in form from triangular to oval; peristomecilia long and conspicuous, surrounding the large oral aperture. Nucleus oval, inconspicuous, situated in the foot-region. Contractile vesicle not observed.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length variable, from 1/900 inch = 28 μ when contracted, to 1/350 inch = 71 μ when extended.

Wellington, W. M. Maskell.

This is the first species of the genus as yet reported in fresh water. It is somewhat larger than either of the two European marine animalcules, and differs also in the presence of strong setæ, instead of cilia, on the foot-region.

Genus Vorticella.

Vorticella annularis, Müller. Karori.

Vorticella longifilum, Kent. Wellington.

Vorticella campanula, Ehrenberg. Wellington.

Vorticella cratera, Kent. Wainui.

Vorticella citrina, Ehrenberg. Wellington.

Vorticella zealandica, Kirk. Wellington.

Vorticella elongata, De From. Wellington.

Vorticella patellina, Müller. Wellington, Wainui.

Vorticella nebulifera, Ehrenberg. Wellington.

Vorticella aperta, De From. Wellington.

All the above species are reported by Mr. T. W. Kirk, in “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., 1885, p. 215.

Genus Zoothamnium.

Zoothamnium affine, Stein; var. granulatum, var. nov.

Resembles almost entirely the European infusorian, but has a longer pedicle and a rough granular surface. It was also not observed on aquatic animals, but on plants.

Wellington, A. Brandon.

Genus Epistylis.

Epistylis leucoa, Ehrenberg. Wellington.

Ehrenberg's species, according to Kent, p. 705, has not been observed for many years. The present infusorian agrees with it entirely, with the exception that the surface is granular and the colonies larger, containing 20 to 35 individuals.

Genus Opercularia.

Opercularia parallela, sp. nov. Plate IV., fig. 9.

Body slender, about three times as long as broad, sides parallel for about two-thirds the length from the margin, then

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tapering rapidly to the pedicle. Peristome border not, or only slightly, thickened. Ciliary disc moderately elevated, cilia in a single row. Endoplast band-like, curved, nearly transverse. Cuticular surface granular. Contractile vesicle single, near anterior margin. Pedicle annulated, branched.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length of body 1/350 inch = 71 μ.

Wellington, T. W. Kirk.

Closely allied to O. cylindrata, Wrzes., but more cylindrical and rough, without striæ.

Genus Vaginicola.

Vaginicola crystallina, Ehrenberg. Karori.

Genus Platycola.

Platycola longicollis, Kent. Wellington.

Order. Hypotricha.

Genus Litonotus.

Litonotus fasciola, Ehrenberg. Wellington, Wainui.

A specimen from Karori appeared to be also of this species, but exhibited a number of transverse corrugations.

Genus Chilodon.

Chilodon cucullulus, Müller. Wellington, Hutt Valley.

Genus Loxodes.

Loxodes rostrum, Ehrenberg. Wellington. Doubtful.

Genus Stichotricha.

Stichotricha remex, Hudson. Wainui.

Genus Psilotricha.

Psilotricha acuminata, Stein. Wainui.

Genus Uroleptus.

Uroleptus musculus, Müller. Wellington, Hutt Valley.

Genus Gastrostyla.

Gastrostyla Steinii, Engelmann. Wainui.

Genus Histrio.

Histrio acuminatus, sp. nov. Plate IV., fig. 10.

Animalcules elongate-elliptical, with nearly parallel sides, somewhat pointed at the posterior extremity; border evenly ciliated. Peristome-field large, with long cilia and conspicuous reflected border, ciliated on left side. Three large uncinate frontal styles and a few smaller ventral setæ. Five simple anal styles, which project for about two-thirds of their length beyond the posterior extremity. Contractile vesicle single, situated just below the peristome-field. Endoplast elongated, conspicuous.

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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length about 1/180 inch = 139 μ.

Wellington, Wainui, A. Brandon.

This animalcule resembles H. similis, Quennerstedt, but differs in the acuminate posterior extremity, and in the freshwater habitat.

Genus Stylonichia.

Stylonichia mytilus, Ehrenberg. Wellington, Wainui, Hutt Valley.

Genus Aspidisca.

Aspidisca turrita, Claparède. Wellington.

The European species only inhabits salt-water. There appear to be no differences between it and our New Zealand form, and the only point to be noted is the freshwater habitat.

An animalcule observed, having a very short and blunt dorsal spine, even in some instances without spine, is taken to be only a variety of this species.

Genus Glaucoma.

Glaucoma scintillans, Ehrenberg. Hutt Valley.

Genus Euplotes.

Euplotes patella, Ehrenberg. Wellington, Wainui, Hutt Valley, Mungaroa, Karori.

Class III. Tentaculifera.
Order. Tentaculifera-Suctoria.

Genus Sphærophrya.

Sphœrophrya magna, Maupas. Wellington.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

This animalcule seems to agree entirely with Maupas' species (which is reported only from Algeria), with the exception of its size, which reaches 1/450 inch = 55 μ as against 1/600 inch = 41 μ in the African infusorian. All other characters being similar, it is not thought desirable to consider it as even a variety.

Genus Acineta.

Acineta elegans, sp. nov. Plate IV., fig. 11.

Lorica vase-shaped, with distinctly reversed margin, which is chiefly apparent at each side. Lorica widening somewhat below the edge, and rapidly compressed beneath, though not at once closing, but produced downwards to a point whence there is a short pedicle. Length from the point to the orifice about twice the width of the expanded margin. Animalcule nearly spherical, only occupying the upper half of the cup; tentacles forming two antero-lateral groups with about fourteen in each group; tentacles distinctly capitate, rather longer than the diameter of the animalcule. Contractile vesicle spherical, eccentric. Endoplast indistinct. Parenchyma granular.

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New Zealand Infusoria

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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length of lorica, exclusive of pedicle, 1/300 inch = 83 μ; width at margin 1/600 inch = 41 μ; length of pedicle, 1/2000 inch = 12 μ usually, but reaching sometimes 1/1500 inch = 16 μ.

Wellington, C. P. Powles.

The animalcule of this species very nearly resembles that of A. grandis, Kent; but the form of the lorica separates it from all described species. A. poculum, Hartwig, a saltwater infusorian somewhat resembling it, has apparently a long pedicle.

Acineta simplex, sp. nov. Plate V., fig. 12.

Lorica wine-glass shaped, anterior edge not narrowed, lip not reversed, posterior extremity rounded, sides nearly parallel; pedicle moderately stout, about twice as long as the lorica. Animalcule occupying the anterior half of the lorica, subspherical. Tentacles capitate, arranged in two groups of about ten in each. Contractile vesicle situated on one side near the anterior margin.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Length of lorica, 1/500 inch = 50 μ; width of edge, 1/600 inch = 41 μ.

Wellington, T. W. Kirk.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Amongst the division of Acinetœ having the tentacles in two groups, the nearest to this seems to be A. grandis, Kent; but the sizes differ greatly, the European species having a length of 1/100 to 1/75 inch = 250 to 333 μ; also its lorica tapers much more rapidly to the base, which is obtusely pointed.

Explanation of Plates.

Plate III.

Fig. 1. Cercomonas grandis.

Fig. 2. Monosiga consociata (after S. Kent).

Fig. 3. Trachelomonas crenulatocollis.

Fig. 4. Prorodon sulcatus.

Fig. 5. Tillina enormis.

Plates IV.

Fig. 6. Tillina inequalis.

Fig. 7. Plagiopyla varians.

Fig. 8. Licnophora setifera.

Fig. 9. Opercularia parallela.

Fig. 10. Histrio acuminatus.

Fig. 11. Acineta elegans.

Plate V.

Fig. 12. Acineta simplex.

Fig. 13. Stentor gracilis.

Fig. 14. Stentor striatus.

Fig. 15. Trachelocerca filiformis.

Fig. 16. Pleuronema cyclidium.

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Art. V.On New Zealand Glow-worms.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 4th August, 1886.]

Plate VIa.

The following article by Mr. Meyrick appeared in the “Entomologists' Monthly Magazine,” for April, 1886:—

A Luminous Insect Larva in N.Z.—Whilst collecting recently after dark beside a densely shaded creek near Auckland, New Zealand, I observed the precipitous earthy banks of the creek illuminated with great numbers of a larva, which has, I believe, never been reared. It resembles in general appearance an Annelid, being about an inch and a half in length, very slender, slimy, and without apparent organs; but under a microscope (as Prof. Hutton has shown me) the head appears that of a predaceous coleopterous larva—e.g., one of the Staphylinidœ. The light consists of a small light-greenish white erect flame, rising from the back of the neck. The larva burrows in the earth, exposing the head and anterior portions from the burrow, but having in front of them a sort of irregular slimy network. They occur in great numbers; I have counted fifty in a square foot of surface. The same or a similar species has been noticed in caves and mines elsewhere in New Zealand. It is impossible for a wandering entomologist to attack a larva of these habits. I should therefore be interested if any reader can give me a clue to its systematic identification. I suppose that it is carnivorous, feeding on minute insects, and I conjecture that it uses its lamp (as I do mine) to attract them, or perhaps to see to eat them.—E. Meyrick, Wellington, N.Z.—24th January, 1886.”

“[There is distinct necessity for further information (with examples in fluid) respecting the animal noticed above. The larvæ of Staphylinidœ are ordinarily so like the perfect insect in form (allowing for absence of elytra, etc.) that we venture to doubt the connection of the animal with that family.—Editors, ‘Ent. Mon. Magazine.’]”

It is extremely unfortunate that such an erroneous statement as the above, concerning one of our most interesting insects, should be the first to reach the ears of the London entomologists; and as it is the opinions of those gentlemen that will most influence us out here, I have instituted a number of observations on the insect, a summary of which I have sent in answer to the Editors' note, and propose to relate them to-night

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in a somewhat more extended form. But in order that my remarks may be better understood, I will commence by stating that the Staphylinidœ are one of the most well-marked families of the Coleoptera, being none other than the famous Cocktail or Rove Beetles; their larvæ are furnished with six strong thoracic legs, a large head, and powerful mandibles, thus differing, as will be seen, in the widest possible manner from the insect under review.

Everyone who has walked in the bush at night, or, indeed, along any road at the bottom of a steep gully, cannot fail to have noticed the little points of light, mentioned as occurring in such vast numbers by Mr. Meyrick. I have not yet, however, seen 50 to the square foot of surface, although perhaps others may have been more fortunate; but, in my case, I should regard 20 of these little stars visible from one standpoint as indicating an exceptionally wealthy region.

When carefully examined with a bull's-eye lantern and pocket lens, this light is found to proceed from a large glutinous knob, situated at the posterior extremity of the larva, a fact I have verified by repeated investigations: but the insect's curious habit of occasionally travelling backwards has doubtless led to this mistake. It inhabits irregular cavities in the bank, where it hangs suspended in a glutinous web, which also appears to envelope the body, large quantities of sticky mucus being periodically shot out of the mouth of the larva, and formed into threads as required; but I have never seen anything like a net extended in front of the insect, neither have I found flies or gnats detained in the webs, although I have examined a large number. At the back of this irregular chamber the larva constructs a small hole, into which it retreats with great rapidity when alarmed.

With regard to its food, I am unable to speak, with absolute certainty on this point at present, but have little doubt that it consists of decaying vegetable matter. One individual I kept alive for eight weeks was enclosed in a small jar of mud, taken from his native bank, and placed in a caterpillar cage, where no flies or other small insects could possibly be obtained; as, however, there were some small earthworms in the mud, it might have subsisted on these, although I examined the insect nearly every night and morning and never saw it eat anything.

The light is not shown by any means regularly. On several occasions I have observed no light all the evening, and then a brilliant display at 3 or 4 o'clock in the morning, but have not noticed any peculiar meteorological conditions to affect this. As to its use, I do not think that Mr. Meyrick's explanation can be entertained, as I am sure everyone who has attracted insects at night will know how utterly inadequate such a minute point of light would be to draw them from the shortest distance. If

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the larva requires a lamp to see to eat by, nearly all the New Zealand insects should have lights, as they are chiefly nocturnal. When, however, we reflect that the construction of the bee's comb is always carried on in utter darkness, the light would seem unnecessary for this purpose. If I might be allowed to suggest a use, I think it may often assist the larvæ in escaping from enemies, as when disturbed they nearly always gleam very brilliantly for a few seconds, suddenly shutting off the light and retreating into the earth. Of the pupa state I am as yet quite ignorant, as the only larva. I succeeded in rearing was left undisturbed during that condition, in order to insure the appearance of the imago. This turns out to be a small gnat, apparently one of the Tipulidœ, and not differing materially from many of those little long-legged Dipterons so often noticed on window-panes and in similar situations. The specimen, which is the only one I have as yet found, is now on its way Home for identificacation by a systematic, dipterist, and will in all probability be found undescribed.

Note.—Since the above was written, I have been informed by Baron Osten-Sacken, to whom I sent the perfect insect for identification, that it is Trimicra pillipes, the larva of which is well-known and different from the glow-worm. He still agrees, however, that the glow-worm is the larval condition of a gnat (Mycetophilidœ), and certainly not of a Coleopterous insect.—G. V. H.

Description of Plate VIA.

Fig. a. N.Z. Glow-worm; larva of a small gnat (Tipulidœ).

Fig. b. Larva of a Rove Beetle (Staphylinidœ).

Art. VI.Note on a curious Double Worm.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 19th January, 1886.]

Plate VIB.

Some time ago, Mr. W. Marshall informed my father that there were some curious double worms in the Rangitikei, and promised to send him one. This promise he fulfilled a few weeks ago, the specimen now on the table being the one sent. It was placed in my hands for determination. I am not aware of any record of an Annelid of similar appearance. The anterior portion is about 1 inch in length and ¼th of an inch in diameter, and presents nothing peculiar so far; but from the posterior end of this

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To illustrate Papers by T. W. Kirk.

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thick part, which terminates abruptly, spring two limbs, each 2½ inches in length, and of an average diameter of ⅛th inch. These appendages make the animal look most grotesque. At first sight, these limbs look as though two worms of smaller circumference were grafted on to an abnormally short and thick individual. At times they trail behind like two tails, or are gathered up, sometimes together, sometimes one is moved first, the body pushed slightly forward with that, then the other is used, and so on alternately. The anal aperture is situate immediately at the posterior end of the thick portion, and between these two limbs or tails. There is no aperture in the end of either limb, though there is a spot which at first sight gives the impression that an opening is present.

I have not yet examined it very critically, lest it should sustain damage and die before I was able to exhibit it to this meeting.

It is a species of Acanthodrilis; but the question arises: Is it only an abnormal form, or are they tolerably common? Probably they are far from rare, as Mr. Marshall, in forwarding it, says: “I send you one of those two-tailed bush-worms I spoke to you about;” thus implying that he had seen others. He has been asked to endeavour to procure more specimens, and to send any information in his possession regarding their habits, abundance, etc. Till this information is received I prefer to suspend further decision as to its specific value.

This note was written for a meeting called in October, and which lapsed for want of a quorum. The worm has since died; but, as no other specimens have yet been received, I hesitate to dissect this one, and until that is done I feel that the examination is necessarily incomplete.

Description of Plate VIB.

Fig. a. Double worm (Acanthodrilis), seen from above.

Fig. b. " seen from below.

Art. VII.On Ixodes maskellii, a Parasite of the Albatross (Diomedea exulans).

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 19th January, 1886.]

I had intended in this short paper to include a number of species of parasitic insects lately obtained from young specimens of the Pencilled Albatross; but as I have been unable yet to identify several specimens, in consequence of th+++

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difficulty experienced in obtaining works of reference, they will be retained for a future occasion, and your attention directed to a very large tick, two specimens of which were found with their claws so firmly imbedded in the neck of the bird as to render it impossible to remove them without the loss of some of their legs.

The genus to which this belongs is a very interesting one, for Mr. Murray tells us that their habits are at first herbivorous, that from the vegetation they find their way to the creatures on which they fix, and that when mature they avail themselves of every opportunity of fixing upon vertebrate animals, whose blood they suck instead of sap. It is very remarkable that these creatures should be at one time phytophagous and at another carnivorous. And it would seem that the usual special adaptation of structure to kind of food is absent; but Mr. Murray says that the anomaly is only apparent, and goes on to say that “carnivorous mammals are provided with different apparatus for obtaining their food from that of vegetable feeders; not on account of the different chemical constituents of their food, but on account of the different form in which it is presented to them for consumption and assimilation. If, for example, the food of both were presented to them in a liquid state, in the one case blood, and in the other juice of plants, we may be sure that the carnivorous canines in one case, and the vegetarian molars in the other, would be alike dispensed with, and both would be furnished with a sucking-up or pumping apparatus, which might be identical, if no speciality in the mode in which the liquid presented itself called for a difference. There might be a difference in the structure of their viscera, adapted to the character of the liquid food, but there is no reason why the external and oral structure should not be the same in both. This is what we find in all suctorial insects, bugs, gnats, Acari, etc. All are provided with a sucking apparatus constructed on a similar plan, which some use upon animals and others upon plants.” I read recently that some insects—for instance, the London house-bug—feed indiscriminately upon the juice of plants, and the blood of animals. The impossibility of the immense numbers of mosquitos that we meet with in the forests ever obtaining food if restricted to the blood of mammals has probably struck most of you. Is it not likely that they also are capable of living on a vegetarian diet, when no nice juicy specimen of humanity is forthcoming.

The insect to be noticed—viz., Ixodes maskellii (which I have ventured to name after Mr. Maskell, who described the only other species yet recorded from New Zealand)—is probably one of the largest of the genus, being, when alive, just under half an inch in length, excluding the rostrum; it is

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elliptical, but with a pronounced lateral compression on the anterior third of the body, then gradually expanding again, the hinder third being slightly wider than the anterior. On the dorsal aspect two crescent-shaped shallow grooves rise from the posterior angles of the shield, and extend backwards for about one-third the length of the body, terminating in deep pits immediately opposite the lateral constrictions; from these pits two deep crescent-shaped grooves extend backwards, ceasing abruptly a short distance from the posterior margin. A straight medial depression, not so pronounced as the crescents, runs between them from the posterior margin for rather more than a third the length of the body. The pits are connected by a transverse line.

On the under-side, a deep and wide central groove starts at the posterior margin and runs for about one-fourth the length of the animal. Two equally deep and wide grooves commence in a line with the insertion of the third pair of legs, and run backwards, gradually widening till they reach the centre of the mesial groove, when they turn in rapidly, giving the inclosed space (from the third pair of legs to the posterior margin), much the outline of a Florence flask. The rostrum, in addition to the spines possessed by all the members of the genus, appears to be armed on its under side with five lines of hard-pointed tubercles.

The body of the animal when alive is of a delicate Frenchgrey colour; the shield on the head pale-brown; legs red, with white at the joints; rostrum same colour as the body.

It is generally supposed that a separate species of tick is appropriated to a particular species of animal. Although this appears to be usually the case it is not always so, as proved by the fact that in England the common species I. erinaces is found on rough herbage, in forests; and on dogs, cattle, foxes, and hedgehogs. A short time since I found on a large gull a tick exactly similar to the one from the Crested Penguin described about two years ago by Mr. Maskell.

Art. VIII.On the Occurrence of the English Scaly Lizard (Zootoca vivipara) in New Zealand.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 30th June, 1886.]

In August of 1883 I had the pleasure of bringing under the notice of the Society two English butterflies—viz., the Red Admiral, or Alderman, and the Small Tortoiseshell, both of which were captured in the Wellington Botanic Gardens—and drew attention to the fact that the importation of plants and

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seeds from various countries had become so extensive that it was almost certain much foreign animal life, some useful and some destructive, would be brought into the colony. It was also pointed out that, in order that the noxious forms might be more speedily detected, and to prevent confusion in future publications, it was advisable that the occurrence of unknown or uncommon species in a district should be promptly recorded.

The importation which I have now to notice is much higher in the scale than those already mentioned. It is the English Scaly Lizard (probably familiar to many persons present who in their young days rambled about the English country districts). As its food consists exclusively of insects, it is not likely to prove an unwelcome visitor.

Several specimens were captured about a year ago, on the Tinakori Hills, and one on the road, as it was crossing from the Botanic Gardens towards the shelter of the opposite bank. Being certain that it was quite distinct from any described New Zealand species, I took it to be a new form, and it was not until recently, when working up the specimens, that I became convinced it was a true British species.

As I have only found it in the localities mentioned, I conclude some specimens must have been brought to the Botanic Gardens in cases of plants. The following is the technical description:—


Nostril on one side of the nose, in the lower hinder angle of the nasal shield, with one small posterior nasal. Lower eyelid opaque, scaly. Throat with a narrow cross-fold under the ears. Abdominal shields square. Temple scales small, with a larger central one. Pre-anal shield single, surrounded by smaller ones.

Z. vivipara.

(Gray, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus., p. 27.)

Ventral shields, 8-rowed; the temple covered with manysided shields, with a larger central shield; olive, back with a white-edged blackish streak on each side, and a central black streak; belly orange, black spotted.

According to Wood, many of the habits of this pretty little creature resemble those of our common brown lizard, or Mokomoko, so abundant on the hills and beaches around Wellington.

In England, it is found plentifully upon the banks and commons; it is extremely lively, and progresses by means of a series of sharp twists and springs. It captures flies and other insects with great dexterity. So quick are its movements, and so sharp its sight, that capture is far from easy. The colour is extremely variable, but generally the upper parts are olive-brown, with a dark brown line often interrupted along the middle of the back,

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and a broader band along each side, with black spots and blotches interspersed; the under-parts are orange, spotted with black in the male, and olive-grey in the female. The length is about 6 inches.

It is one of the reptiles that produce living young, the eggs being hatched just before the young lizards are born. The usual plan adopted by reptiles is to lay the eggs in some spot where the sun's rays are able to warm them. But the Scaly Lizard is in the habit of lying on a sunny bank before the young ones are born, apparently for the purpose of gaining sufficient heat to hatch the eggs, a process which is much aided by the extreme thinness of the membrane covering them.

Art. IX.Description of a New Species of Moth (Pasiphila lichenodes).

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 8th September, 1886.]

The genus Pasiphila is a very distinct genus of the New Zealand Geometrina, containing some of the smallest moths in that division. In his monograph of the New Zealand Geometrina,* Mr. Meyrick maintains that there is but one species of this genus in New Zealand, and to this opinion I have already made objection in a paper in the “New Zealand Journal of Science”. for July, 1884, in which it was urged that at least two species had been included under the name Pasiphila bilineolata. Since then I have bred out a third form from the caterpillar state; so that, besides the species to be described to-night, there are at least three other species of Pasiphila in New Zealand. I have also, besides these, several doubtful forms; but Mr. Meyrick has admitted to me that he had wrongly included four, if not five, distinct species under the one name. As, however, he intends shortly to write upon this subject, it will be well to leave to him the disentanglement of the synonomy, as it is a matter upon which, perhaps, he alone is qualified to speak with authority. Here I take the opportunity of acknowledging Mr. Meyrick's kindness and readiness in furnishing information regarding insects sent to him.

Those that are acquainted with English moths may easily recognize the New Zealand species of Pasiphila by their likeness in size and appearance to the various species of Eupithecia, to which the New Zealand genus is closely allied. The members of this genus are small moths, usually less than an inch across

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., p. 49; xvii., p. 62; xviii., p. 184.

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the wings, and they rest on tree-trunks or rock-faces with their wings flatly spread out, the inner half of the hindwings not being covered by the forewings, and sharing the colouring and markings of the forewings. The neuration of the forewings also serves readily to distinguish this genus, for usually in the forewings of our Geometrina, twelve veins can be counted along the margin; but in this genus, and in the next to it,—namely, Elvia—the eleventh vein coalesces with the twelfth and appears only as a short bar from the upper side of the small cell to the twelfth vein, so that only eleven veins appear on the margin.

Pasiphila lichenodes.

Expanse, 16–19 mm. General description: Ground colour glaucous-green, with finely crenulated black lines, and two conspicuous, irregular, transverse bands of light brownish-red or chocolate colour, one near the base, the other near the hindmargin.

Detailed description: Forewings with slightly arched costa, hindmargin with a slight swelling or convexity about the middle, not crenulate; ground colour glaucous-green, becoming paler with exposure. Basal area very pale pinkish or reddish-brown, bordered by a black line sharply angulated at the middle, and followed by a broad pinkish or reddish-brown band, also bordered on the outer side by a black line. This band is contracted about the lower side of the cell, so as to be nearly divided, into two unequal blotches. The centre of the wing is occupied with a broad belt of the glaucous-green ground colour, boldly angulated about the middle of the outer side. This central belt is occupied with three finely crenulated black lines, which are so closely placed that they seem almost to divide the central belt into imbricating green scales edged with black. The central belt is also bordered along the outer edge by a black line. Between the central belt and the sub-marginal line is another broad belt, of a chocolate or reddish-brown colour, sometimes divided into two unequal blotches by the angulation of the outer side of the central belt. This reddish-brown band is crenulated on the outer side and edged with a pale sub-marginal line which follows the crenulations. Between this and the margin the ground colour appears without any distinct markings. The black lines of the forewing are sometimes edged with paler lines. The hindmargin is edged with an interrupted black line. Fringe fuscous and pale alternately. Hindwings with a distinct convexity, rather below the middle of the hindmargin. Inner half with colour and markings similar to those of the forewings. Outer half paler, greyish or whitish, markings not so distinct. Below, the forewings are fuscous, with a few of the black lines showing along

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the costal edge, while the hindwings are greyish white, with a black discal dot and a few faint lines.

This species has received its specific name because its colourings and markings seem to me to have a protective likeness to those of the thallus and thecœ of some lichens. It occurs not uncommonly in the forest about the river-bed in the upper part of the Leith Valley, Dunedin. I have collected specimens in the latter part of January; and it is not known to Mr. Fereday or to Mr. Meyrick, except from my specimens; hence its range must be somewhat limited.

I stated that I had bred out three species of Pasiphila from the larval state, and the descriptions of the larvæ are here subjoined. Specimens of the perfect insects have been sent to Mr. Meyrick for identification. There seem to be differences between these caterpillars quite unusual in the case of closely-allied species. The first and second descriptions are reprinted from the “N.Z. Journal of Science” for July, 1884:—

No. 1. Pasiphila, sp.?

“Larva smooth, green, about 10 mm. long; an indistinct dorsal and sub-dorsal stripe of darker green; underside green, with a light ventral stripe; head yellowish. Formed small rough earthen cocoons on the surface of the earth. The food-plant is Myoporum lœtum. Larvœ in March. (See ‘N.Z. Journ. Sc.,’ March, 1882, p. 95.)”

No. 2. Pasiphila, sp.?

“Larva about 12 mm. long. Colour brownish; surface very rugged; body tapering somewhat towards the head. Two pair of small dorsal tubercles about the middle, the posterior pair being larger. Oblique lateral dark markings faintly seen on the dark ground colour; below lighter. I have beaten this larva from Aristotelia, from Leptospermum ericoides, and from a mixed growth of bramble (Rubus) and Muhlenbeckia. Larva in December and January.”

No. 3. Pasiphila, sp.?

Larva loopers from 13 to 17 mm. long, with a black median dorsal line, and on each side of it a black sub-dorsal line. The whole dorsal area between the sub-dorsal lines is brown, or brownish-black, while the rest of the back is greenish-white; below greenish-white; lateral line and median ventral line, white; there are sometimes dark blotches above the lateral line, while below it the ground colour is suffused with purplish-black. The median dorsal line is often bordered with greenish-white.

The larvæ were found about full-grown, feeding on Veronica salicifolia, in the Leith Valley, Dunedin, in the beginning of April. Two of the moths were reared, one of which had the

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ground-colour greenish, while the other was brownish. At the same time, and on the same plants, a considerable number of larvæ, resembling the above in shape and size, were collected. Some of these had the ground-colour green, with very faint dorsal and sub-dorsal lines, the dorsal area being green, or only faintly clouded with black. Others had the ground-colour green, while the dorsal and sub-dorsal lines were distinct and black, and the dorsal area between the sub-dorsal lines was filled with alternate light and reddish - brown blotches. The two last forms had their other characters as in the first-described form, and they may be immature stages, or the larva may be a variable one.

Art. X.On New Species of Araneidea.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 17th November, 1886.]

Plates VII., VIII.

Fam. Epeiridæ.

Genus Epeira, Walck.

Epeira corrugatum, sp. nov. Plate VII., fig. 1.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 4; broad, 4; facial index, 2. Abd., long, 8; broad, 7. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 17, 16, 14, 9 mm.

Cephalothorax chocolate-black; short, adpressed, yellowish hairs; in. length equal to genua and tibiæ of a leg of 4th pair; depressed, sides rounded, moderately constricted forwards; ocular eminence not very prominent, mammiform prominences on caput slightly developed, lateral index (i.e., length of caput from striæ to fore-angle) nearly equals space between a posterior lateral eye and the hind-central next to it; median indentation on thorax transverse, radial and caput striæ rather faint; contour of profile forms an undulating curve, rising at occiput, which slopes abruptly forwards; height of clypeus nearly equals facial space.

Fore and hind rows of eyes moderately recurved; posterior centrals separated by an interval equal to about twice their diameter, nearly twice their space from hind-laterals; anterior centrals about one-fourth larger than posterior, placed rather further from each other—nearly their diameter and a-half—than each is from the hind-central next to it; lateral eyes seated moderately obliquely on low tubercles, nearly their diameter apart.

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New Zealand Spiders

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Legs rather slender, femora dark lake-colour, suffused with brown, convex above, spines; genua and tibiæ grooved, these joints, with metatarsi and tarsi, have a dark lake-brown hue, faintly annulated with chocolate-brown, rings of white and black hairs; besides irregular spines above, tibiæ have a double row of 6, metatarsi two rows of 4 yellowish spines beneath. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 9 comb-teeth, increasing in length and strength; inferior claw, 2 close teeth.

Palpi slender, dark chocolate-brown, short yellowish bristles, palpal claw moderately curved, 9 teeth, directed forwards.

Falces conical, vertical, convex, project forwards in front, not equal to femora of first pair in stoutness, bright lake-brown.

Maxillœ nearly as broad as long, obliquely truncated, inclined towards labium, which is somewhat triangular, more than half length of maxillæ; organs chocolate-brown, light apices.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ brown-black, light hairs.

Fore part of abdomen somewhat pointed, carinate, moderately convex, projects over base of thorax; posterior half broad, semi-oval, depressed, transversely corrugated, incurvate; marginal zone directed inwards, longitudinally corrugated; anterior tubercles applanate, apex rounded, directed outwards; posterior tubercles, which project from transverse wrinkles, are broad, rounded, applanate, directed backwards; in first row are three of about equal size, beneath central tubercle there is another rather larger, beneath latter a small one; integument black-brown, base and lateral margins more or less spotted with dull creamy-buff coloured flecks; on dorsal surface is a large, slightly flecked black-brown, acute-crenate, leaf-like mark, the black, buff-margined, carinate eminence forming the petiole; sparsely clothed with very short, close, and erect hairs. On ventral surface is a large greenish-brown, transversely wrinkled, cordate mark, with two large buff spots beneath branchial opercula [ unclear: ] and two above spinners. Fore part of epigyne represents a yellowish, transversely-wrinkled, semicircular, cucullate membrane, centrally produced into a large, transversely wrinkled lip with tumid incurved margins, its greatest diameter is across centre, from whence it forms a moderately acute angle, apex produced into a clear yellow vermiform process, equal to three-fourths of lip in length; lateral margins of hood, on posterior side, involute within dark spotted concavity.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 4; broad, 3.5. Abd., long, 4.5; broad, 3. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 15, 14, 11, 8 mm.

Cephalothorax mahogany-colour, hairs sparse, yellowish; sides prominently rounded, laterally constricted at caput, which is rather depressed, ocular eminence prominent; median indentation longitudinal, oval, deep; normal grooves slight.

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Posterior central eyes separated by a space equal to their diameter and a half; anterior centrals rather more than that interval from each other, and about their diameter from hind-median eyes, separated from fore-laterals by about their space and a quarter; laterals on dark tubercles, about their radius apart.

Legs yellowish, moderately defined brown annulations; 1–2 pair rather stout; strong curved process on outer side of coxæ of 1st pair; armature sparse light hairs, spines numerous, yellowish, base dark, cluster of 8 short curved spines near apex of tibiæ of 2; 3–4 rather slender; long spines on inferior surface of femora, especially of 4th pair. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 9 teeth, 4 terminal strong; inferior claw, 2 close teeth.

Palpi yellowish, humeral joint stout, tuft of bristles project from tumid eminence on inferior surface near apex of article; cubital joint broad, somewhat spathulate, projects at apex a long strong bristle; radial joint shortest, articulated to inferior surface of cubital, produced on outer side into a large linear-oval yellowish process; digital joint broad-oval, convex and moderately hairy externally, convexities directed towards each other, base of convexity produced on outer side into a rather long, stout, curved apophysis of a dark-reddish colour; bulb, viewed from somewhat beneath, represents a series of bright red-brown dark - margined folds; terminates with several large tumid, introflexed, somewhat lip-shaped dark lobes; near apex, directed forwards, is a horizontal, dark, curved membranous apophysis, a prolongation of an upper fold, behind this apophysis there is a short process, curved backwards.

Falces slender, vertical, yellowish.

Abdomen somewhat oviform, specific pattern and coloration does not differ essentially from female.

Pairs about November. Cocoon sub-globose, composed of dark-green silk of a loose texture, about two metres in diameter; eggs pinkish, spherical, 350–645 in number.

Te Karaka, Auckland, A.T.U. Otago, F. Goyen.

Epeira pocillator, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 5; broad, 4; facial index, 2.2. Abd., long, 10; broad, 8. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 17, 15, 13.5, 9.5 mm.

Cephalothorax lake-chocolate colour, hairs adpressed, sparse, yellowish; rather depressed, sides not prominently rounded, moderately constricted at caput, sides of which are not very abrupt, lateral index equals space between a hind-lateral eye and the hind-central next to it, ocular eminence fairly prominent, mammiform eminences moderately developed; median

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indentation transverse, normal grooves not strongly marked; contour of profile horizontal above, dips moderately posteriorly and anteriorly, rising at occiput. Height of clypeus rather exceeds space between fore-central eyes.

Fore and hind row of eyes moderately recurved; four centrals of equal size; posterior pair separated by a space equal to a diameter and a half, rather less than that interval from anterior centrals, which are rather further from one another than are the former pair, nearly twice their space from fore-laterals; side-eyes seated obliquely on small tubercles at angle of caput, about radius of an anterior eye apart, latter exceeds posterior eye in size by about one-third.

Legs rather slender, femora of 1–2 lake-coloured; 3–4 suffused with brown, convex above, few spines; genua and tibiæ double-groove above, latter joints, metatarsi and tarsi have a yellowish tinge, brownish annulations; armature sparse yellowish hairs, spine at apex of genual joint, double row of 6 beneath tibiæ, and of 5 beneath metatarsi. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 10 comb-teeth, increasing in length and strength; inferior claw, 2 close teeth.

Palpi moderately slender, yellow-brown, yellowish hairs and slender spines; palpal claw 10 comb-teeth, 2 basal small.

Falces conical, vertical, convex, prominent at base in front, nearly as thick as base of femora of 1st pair of legs, brownish-lake, few yellowish hairs.

Maxillœ nearly as broad as long, obtusely pointed, inclined towards labium, which is triangular, about as long as broad; organs chocolate-brown, pale apices.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ; black-brown.

Abdomen. oviform, projects over base of cephalothorax, depressed above, sensibly convex; lateral margins rather deep, convex; fore-tubercles moderately prominent, apices rounded, directed outwards; posterior tubercles prominent; central tubercle of first row twice size of laterals, tubercle of second row exceeds first central in size, tubercle of third row nearly equals it. Sparsely clothed with short fine light hairs; integument yellowish-brown, spotted with brown; dorsal mark brownish-buff, brown flecks, from apices of fore-tubercles it tapers off, margins incurvate, round base of abdomen, brown centre of narrow band bifurcates to base of fore-tubercles; from latter, dorsal mark extends with slightly undulating margins to posterior tubercles, which have the same pale hue; in centre of specific mark is a brown, somewhat lugeniform mark, with rather slight oblique streaks beneath; almost entire length and breadth of lateral margins covered by creamy-white, lake-tinted, somewhat oval marks, with brown dentate margins on dorsal side, and series of nearly vertical streaks of similar hue. Ventral surface brown, dark-green, orange-yellow margined, shield-

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shaped mark in centre, large flecks of latter colour beneath branchial opercula, and close to spinners, which are short. Epigyne represents a yellowish, transversely wrinkled, cucullate membranous projection, depressed above, sides abrupt, margins beaded, centrally produced above into a semi-oval dark-margined lip, whose apex is prolonged into a segmented vermiform process, nearly equal to lip in length.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 5; broad, 3.5. Abd., long, 4.5; broad, 3.2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 17, 15, 13, 9 mm.

Cephalothorax light mahogany colour; hairs sparse, yellowish; moderately depressed, constricted at caput, which projects over falces; ocular eminence prominent, somewhat oblique; angular depression in centre of caput; median indentation longitudinal, dark colour, normal grooves rather faint; profile line forms a slight curve from thoracic junction to occiput.

Posterior central eyes separated from anterior centrals by a space about equal to their diameter, rather closer to one another than are the latter pair; lateral eyes placed within a slight concavity at angle of caput, fore-eye rather larger than posterior, separated by an interval equal to radius of anterior eye.

Legs yellowish, reddish-brown annulations; armature sparse light hairs, numerous strong spines, yellowish, base brown; coxæ of 1st pair projects a short curved process; 1–2 much the stoutest, femora clouded with chocolate-brown; tibiæ of 2nd pair tumid, 7 stout dark spines at extremity; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 10 comb-teeth; inferior claw, 2 short close teeth.

Palpi yellowish, humeral joint short, stout, strong tuft of long yellowish bristles project from near centre of inferior surface; cubital joint about half length of humeral, some-what spathulate, broad, projects from apex a long, strong bristle; radial joint short, produced on outer side into a large, yellowish, linear oval process; digital joint large, oval, at apex of hairy convexities—which are directed towards each other—there are prominent, somewhat conical tubercles, base of convexities produced on outer side into a long, stout, black-brown apophysis, sharply bent inwards at extremity; bulb has rich red and yellow - brown tints; on crown of bulb is a black tumid crescent-shaped eminence, centrally constricted into acute points; beneath the convex transversely striated upper fold are a series of dark lobes, mostly pointed, concave above, apices directed forwards; near apex is a dark pointed apophysis, which projects forwards; about centre of bulb, on lower side, is a short, stout apophysis, curved backwards.

Falces vertical, conical, yellowish.

Maxillœ somewhat spathulate, about as broad as long,

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brownish, pale apices, inclined towards lip, which is somewhat triangular, everted, dark-brown; apex light.

Sternum cordate, dark-brown.

Abdomen oviform, tubercles moderately developed; integument light-brown, thickly mottled with creamy-coloured flecks, specific mark yellowish-brown; margins between anterior and posterior tubercles acute-crenate; series of brown marks on median line, impressed spots well marked.

Pairs about November. Cocoon somewhat globose, composed of dark-green silk; comprised within are 350 or more pinkish eggs.

Auckland, A.T.U.

Epeira oblitera, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 6; broad, 5; facial index, 2.5. Abd., long, 8; broad, 6.5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 21, 19, 17, 10.5 mm.

Cephalothorax yellowish, faintly suffused with brown, moderately clothed with coarse light hairs; rather depressed, sides rounded, constricted forwards; caput squarely truncated, sides low, convex, lateral index nearly equals interval between a hind-lateral eye and the hind-central next to it; mammiform eminences well-developed; caput and radial striæ rather faint; semicircular indentation on thoracic slope. Contour of profile rises at an angle of 40°, moderately arched across caput, synclinal dip behind occiput. Height of clypeus nearly equals depth of facial space.

Fore and hind rows of eyes sensibly recurved; ocular eminence prominent; eyes small; anterior centrals separated by a space equal to twice their diameter, rather less than that interval from hind-pair, which are further from each other than they are from anterior centrals; laterals seated obliquely on very low tubercles, encircled by black rings, nearly their breadth apart.

Legs moderately strong, yellowish, sparsely furnished with light hairs; femora convex above, few spines; genua of 1–2 two-thirds length of tibiæ, two grooves on former and latter articles, spines yellowish. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, strong, 10 open comb-teeth; inferior claw, 2 teeth.

Palpi as long as cephalothorax, yellowish, light hairs, palpal claw straighter than tarsal, 10 similar teeth.

Falces yellow-amber colour; as long as genua, and as broad as femora of 1st pair of legs; somewhat conical, vertical, project at base in front.

Maxillœ broad, obtusely pointed, inclined towards labium, which is triangular; organs chestnut-brown, yellowish margins.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ; chestnut-brown colour.

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Abdomen oviform, depressed above, sides abrupt, convex; anterior tubercles very small, conical; posterior rather small, central tubercle of first row shortest of three. Yellow stone-colour, faintly mottled with brown; specific mark almost obliterated, leaf-like, mottled with creamy-coloured flecks, margins brown, faint, three somewhat angular brown marks on median line, impressed spots, well-defined, form a trapezoid. On ventral surface is a large dark-green shield-like mark, margins buff, double row of four foveola. Epigyne represents a cucullate, transversely wrinkled, membranous eminence, depressed above, sides abrupt, centrally produced into a broad, transversely wrinkled, yellowish lip, margins tumid, apex forms an obtuse angle, terminates in a clear yellowish, segmented, vermiform process, as long as lip.

Whangarei Harbour, T. Broun.

Epeira tri-tuberculata, sp. nov. Plate VII., fig. 2. Plate VIII., fig. 1.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 2.5; facial index, 1. Abd., long, 5.5; broad, 5. Legs, 1, 2–4, 3 = 11, 10, 6.5 mm.

Cephalothorax reddish-amber colour, few small blackish spots, hairs short, sparse, whitish; rather depressed, sides rounded, laterally constricted forwards; caput squarely truncated, lateral index equal to interval between a fore-lateral eye and the hind-central furthest from it; sides nearly vertical, slight constriction behind posterior row of eyes; median indentation longitudinal, radial and caput striæ moderately marked; contour of profile rises at an angle of 45°, slightly curved across caput, rising a little at occiput. Clypeus in height equals two-thirds diameter of a fore-central eye.

Posterior row of eyes sensibly recurved, median pair rather more than their breadth apart, their space and an eye's diameter from hind-laterals; anterior row recurved, centrals rather larger than hind-pair, separated by their diameter and a half, less than that interval from posterior pair; lateral eyes separated by a space equal to their radius, placed obliquely on tubercles; anterior tubercles prominent.

Legs moderately slender, yellow-amber colour, faint reddish-lake annuli, clouded with similar hue; sparsely furnished with short light hairs; femora convex above, numerous short spines; genual joint of 1st pair more than half length of tibial, two grooves, continued on latter joint; besides upper spines, tibiæ has double row of 6, metatarsi two rows of 4. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair long, free end rather sharply bent, 13 teeth, 5 basal, small, terminal strong, somewhat form of free end; inferior claw sharply bent, 2 points.

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Palpi resemble legs in colour and armature; palpal claw, partially broken, apparently like tarsal claw.

Falces vertical, conical, moderately strong, yellowish.

Maxillœ somewhat spathulate, inclined towards lip, which is pointed, nearly twice as broad as long; organs reddish-brown, light margins.

Sternum cordate, broad as long, eminences opposite coxæ, yellowish, shaded with reddish-brown.

Abdomen somewhat obtusely pointed, from anterior tubercles, which are mammiform with yellow nipple-like apices, abdomen tapers moderately off to small posterior tubercle; depressed above, sides convex; from apex of fore-tubercle profile line forms a rather sharp angle; hairs light, short, sparse; dorsal mark leaf-like, coarsely acute-crenate, mottled with creamy-brown, spotted with lake-coloured, white-margined flecks, with blue-black vein-like streaks between; dark impressed spot in each acute projection; creamy - white transverse band, with lake-coloured margins, connects anterior tubercles, directed obliquely backwards from centre of band are two short bars of similar hue; petiole of leaf-like mark curves round base, is creamy-white, lake margins; lateral margins mottled, flecked and veined with normal tints. On ventral surface is a shield-like mark with white flecks. Epigyne represents a broad, yellowish, transversely segmented, napiform lobe; above apex of lobe, which is directed forwards, is a brown membrane produced into central and lateral acute projections; margins of lobe on posterior side incurvate, divided by a short, petiole-like projection from lobe.

Colorations of some examples have rich lake, chocolate, and orange tints. Taken amongst low, moist vegetation.

Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Epeira orientalis, sp. nov. Plate VII., fig. 3.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 5; broad, 4; facial index, 2. Abd., long, 10; broad, 9. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 19, 18, 16, 12 mm.

Min.—Abd., long, 9; broad, 8. Max.—Abd., long, 12; broad, 9. Leg of first pair, 24.5 mm.

Cephalothorax lake-black, lake-coloured about dorsal surface, hairs sparse, light, short, adpressed; length of cephalothorax equal to tibiæ of a leg of first pair, sides rounded, moderately compressed forwards; lateral index of caput nearly equal to facial; luniform transverse depression in centre of caput; thoracic indentation transverse, radial and caput striæ fairly marked; contour of profile rises from thoracic junction at angle of 40°, slopes forwards with a slightly undulating line, rising at ocular eminence, which is moderately developed, slopes abruptly

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forwards, widest in front. Clypeus in height equal to about half facial space.

Posterior row of eyes nearly straight, median pair their diameter apart, twice their space from hind-laterals; anterior row recurved, central pair largest of eight, separated from one another by their diameter and a-half, rather less than that interval from hind-centrals; lateral eyes seated obliquely on moderate tubercles, their radius apart.

Legs moderately stout, femora brownish-lake, clouded with brown, few short yellow spines; double groove on genua and tibiæ, latter articles, metatarsi, and tarsi yellowish-brown, blackish annuli; armature black and white hairs, yellowish spines, tibial spines less than diameter of article in length. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 9 teeth, increasing in length and strength; inferior claw, 2 teeth.

Palpi brown-black, few white hairs, spines numerous; palpal claw 9 teeth, directed forwards.

Falces rather slender, conical, vertical, brown-black.

Maxillœ broad as long, obtusely pointed, inclined towards labium, which is rather pointed; organs chocolate-brown, pale apices.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ, brown-black.

Abdomen somewhat diamond-shape, or broad oval, projects over base of cephalothorax, depressed above, sides convex; integument has a soft black velvety appearance, petiole of leaf-like serrated dorsal mark, dark, with orange-red and yellow sinuated margins, numerous flecks of similar hue on base of abdomen on either side of petiole; tubercles prominent, directed outwards; dorsal mark extends to apices of tubercles, is sharply constricted at central pair of impressed spots, tapers towards spinners, throwing off a few transverse bars, has orange-red tints, with dull-yellowish shading, few black marks in centre; lateral margins longitudinally wrinkled, large irregular-shaped mark of normal tints; sparsely clothed with very fine short hairs, few black erect hairs. Ventral surface dull-black, bright orange-red and yellow marks above spinners, which are short, brown-black. Epigyne represents a somewhat oval, greenish-black, eminence, anterior portion transversely wrinkled, projects moderately forwards, centrally produced into a pendulous, oval, fleshy process, directed backwards; lateral margins form a series of three curved folds.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 4.5; broad, 4. Abd., long, 6; broad, 5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 20, 18, 15, 9 mm.

Cephalothorax light-brown, fore-lateral margins and median indentation dark-olive; fairly clothed with glossy pale stone-coloured hairs; depressed, sides rounded, compressed forwards; median indentation longitudinal, deep, striæ faint; caput

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narrow, depressed, ocular eminence prominent; fore and hind row of eyes much recurved, posterior centrals less than their diameter apart.

Legs same tint as cephalothorax, light-brown annuli on tibiæ and metatarsi, whitish hairs; spines short, yellow-brown, base dark, numerous, especially on tibial joints; femoral joints of 1–2 rather stout; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 8 teeth, inferior claw, 2 short teeth.

Palpi, humeral and cubital joints yellowish, latter applanate, broad, base constricted, projects from apex two long strong bristles, radial joint short, pitchy-red, produced above into a stout upright process, from curved apex there projects forwards a somewhat semi-oval, truncated membrane, finely toothed along truncated end; in centre of article, on outer side, is a rather large mammiform eminence, beneath which is a black curved apophysis, convave above, directed forwards; digital joint large, broad-oval, convex and hairy externally, convexities directed towards each other; palpal organs complex, most remarkable are, at base of bulb, a large black apophysis, concave above, directed forwards; projecting upright from its base is a long, stout, black process, curved forwards at apex; between former projection and apex of bulb is a dark, somewhat membranous, pointed apophysis, projecting from a ring-like base; bulb terminates with several membranous projections, concave beneath, acuminate.

Abdomen, base somewhat rounded, tapers posteriorly from lateral angles; tubercles conical, well-developed.; specific pattern on fore-part bears some resemblance to female's, but has duller tints—which also obtain in some female examples; from the broad transverse band which connects tubercles, a tapering mark, with few acute projections, extends to spinners.

This handsome Epeira is rather uncommon, but mature examples may be met with throughout the winter months—frequents branchlets of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium); the snare, apparently, only consists of a few irregular lines; the cocoon, which she fabricates amongst the slender branches, is sub-globose, composed of coarse dark-green silk of loose texture, about two metres in diameter; comprised within are about 70 or more oval eggs of a pale-brown colour, agglutinated together in a lenticular form. Male rare.

Te Karaka, Auckland, A.T.U.

Epeira bi-albimacula, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 2.3. Abd., long, 4; broad, 2.5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 11, 10, 9.5, 6 mm.

Cephalothorax pellucid stone-brown, caput clouded with

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olive-brown; moderately clothed with light hairs; broad-oval, compressed forwards; median fovea somewhat circular, normal grooves moderately marked; caput convex, projects forwards, lateral index equals space between a fore-lateral eye and the hind-central furthest from it; contour of profile rises from thoracic junction at an angle of 30°, forms a very low arch across caput. Clypeus in height equals diameter of a fore-central eye.

Four central eyes large, seated on a prominent eminence, form a trapezoid, whose anterior side is widest; hind-centrals, which are separated by nearly their diameter, and rather more than that space from fore-centrals, exceed latter a little in size; lateral eyes nearly contiguous, placed obliquely on moderate tubercles, are further from anterior median eyes than those eyes are from each other.

Legs and cephalothorax concolorous, black-brown, olive-tinged annulations, armature pale hairs, numerous black spines; 1–2 equal in strength; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, strong, slightly sinuated, free end curved, 9 open comb-teeth, increasing in length and strength; inferior claw long, sharply bent, 2 teeth.

Palpi long, colour of legs, olive-green annuli; palpal claw long, 12 open teeth.

Falces vertical, somewhat conical, divergent, clear stone-brown, clouded with olive-green.

Maxillœ quadrate, strong, greenish-stone, dark centre. Labium oval, pointed, rather broader than long, resembles maxillæ in colour.

Sternum cordate, glossy black-brown, yellow median line.

Abdomen broad-oviform, slightly convex, projects over base of cephalothorax, clothed with light hairs, and bristle-like black hairs; ground colour brown, mottled with a pale hue; between the rounded tubercular eminences are two remarkable large creamy-yellow spots; tapering posteriorly as far as spinners is a wide acute-crenate red-chestnut and brown mark. Ventral surface light dull-yellow, broad T-shaped black-brown mark. Epigyne large, conical, pendulous, segmented, clear dark-green process, apex directed backwards, tinged with yellow, on either side of process are glossy-black planiform spiral lobes.

Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Epeira saxitalis, sp. nov.

Female, immature.—Ceph. th., long, 2.5; broad, 2.5; facial index, 1. Abd., long, 5.3; broad, 5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 11.5, 10, 9, 7 mm.

Cephalothorax yellowish, sparsely clothed with light hairs; broad oval, laterally constricted forwards; caput moderately convex, roundly truncated; median indentation somewhat

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diamond-shaped; caput and radial striæ moderately marked; contour rises from thoracic junction at an angle of 45°, slightly arched across caput. Clypeus sensibly directed inwards, in height equal to half facial space.

Eyes on black rings, posterior row sensibly recurved, hind-centrals rather further from anterior pair than they are from each other, an interval slightly exceeding their diameter, their space and a half from hind-laterals; anterior centrals dark, on low eminences, interval between them rather exceeds the space between posterior pair; lateral eyes smallest of eight, seated obliquely on low tubercles, less than their radius apart.

Legs straw-colour, almost devoid of hairs, numerous irregular, erect, light-yellowish spines, dark base, rather less than diameter of tibiæ in length; superior tarsal claws—1st pair fine, moderately curved, free end long, tip bent, 10 close teeth directed forwards, two terminal teeth exceed third by one-half; inferior claw long, fine, 2 small points.

Palpi resemble legs in colour, light hairs, erect bristles, palpal claw form of tarsal, 8 teeth.

Falces glossy, yellowish, conical, project sensibly forwards.

Maxillœ nearly as broad as long, obliquely truncated, yellowish.

Labium rather broader than long, somewhat pointed, nearly half length of maxillæ, greenish tinge.

Sternum cordate, yellow-brown.

Abdomen somewhat diamond-shaped, depressed, projects over base of cephalothorax, short obtuse tubercles at lateral angles; greyish stone-colour, thickly flecked with brown, fine brown streak along median line—in some examples almost obliterated—throwing off series of oblique bars.

This species is common about the cliffs at Waiwera, its stone-colour assimilating with its environment; several immature males, 4 mm. in length, were taken. Resembles female in form and coloration.

Epeira sub-compta, sp. nov. Plate VII., fig. 4.

Female.—Ceph. th. long, 3.2; broad, 3; facial index, 1. Abd. long, 5; broad, 4.7. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 14.5, 13.3, 12, 9 mm.

Cephalothorax yellowish-amber colour, clothed with few light hairs, spine-like bristles on caput, striæ of latter and median indentation chocolate - brown; thorax moderately depressed, broad, sides rounded, curvature directed somewhat backwards; normal grooves well-marked; caput applanate (viewed from above), somewhat conical, sides compressed, lateral index about equal to space between a hind-lateral eye and the hind-central next to it; profile line rises at an angle of 30°, runs with a faint

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slope to posterior central eyes, dips abruptly across facial space. Height of clypeus equals space between fore-median eyes.

Posterior row of eyes recurved, interval between median pair equals their diameter; anterior row recurved, centrals slightly largest of eight, rather more than their breadth from each other, separated by latter space from hind-pair; lateral eyes placed obliquely on separate tubercles, their diameter apart, fore-tubercle prominent.

Legs moderately strong, concolorous to cephalothorax, broad chocolate-brown annulations; light and dark stiff hairs; femora convex above, few short spines; genual joint half-length of tibial, both articles have two well-marked longitudinal grooves; tibiæ and metatarsi have few irregular yellowish spines above, former double-row of 4 beneath, latter two rows of 6. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair moderately curved, 9 open comb-teeth, points curving slightly backwards; inferior claw, 2 points.

Palpi moderately stout, rather longer than cephalothorax, resemble legs in colour and armature; palpal claw long, moderately curved, 10 comb-teeth, increasing in length and strength, directed forwards.

Falces strong, vertical, somewhat conical, project at base in front, divergent, yellowish, suffused with chocolate-brown.

Maxillœ nearly as broad as long, obtusely pointed, inclined towards labium, which is broader than long, pointed; organs yellowish, base dark.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ, yellowish-brown, suffused with darker hue.

Abdomen somewhat oviform, posterior end transversely wrinkled, base broad, projects over thorax, slightly convex above, sides rounded, longitudinally wrinkled; sparsely clothed with short light hairs, few bristles; a broad, coarsely runcinate, median band tapers to spinners, mottled brown, inner marginal streak black-brown, outer creamy-yellow, in centre of dorsal band is a—not clearly defined—acute-crenate chocolate mark, few creamy-yellow marginal lines; lateral margin yellow stone - colour, series of somewhat sinuated, brown-black, oblique lines converge towards spinners. On ventral surface there is a large, somewhat quadrate, shield-shaped dark olivaceous mark, with two large creamy-yellow spots near spinners. Epigyne transverse oval, encircled by two broad projecting membranes, outer yellowish, inner shades off to chocolate-brown on posterior side, is confluent with outer anterior side, from whence they are produced into a broad tapering central keel, connected at its truncated apex with outer membrane; dark inner membrane incurvate within concavities, on either side of keel; projecting over labia is a broad, pendulous, segmented, contorted, yellowish process, applanate and incurved at apex.

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α. Annulations on tibiæ and metatarsi faint. Superior surface of abdomen creamy-yellow; specific pattern resembles type form, more defined; apices of runcinate band black-brown, between teeth are a series of three acute black-brown marks.

Two specimens, Whangarei Harbour, T. Brown,

Epeira viriditas, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 4; broad, 3.5; facial index, 1.4. Abd., long, 5; broad, 4. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 15, 14, 13, 8 mm.

Cephalothorax greenish straw-colour, suffused with bright pea-green; hairs very sparse and fine; sides rounded, laterally constricted at caput, which is depressed, lateral index equals space between a fore-lateral eye and the hind-central furthest from it; ocular eminence moderately prominent; median indentation transverse, radial and caput striæ fairly marked; contour of profile rises at an angle of 30°, slopes, with slight curve, to ocular area. Height of clypeus equals radius of a fore-central eye.

Eyes on lake-coloured rings; posterior row straight, interval between median pair slightly exceeds their diameter, nearly twice their space from hind-laterals; anterior row recurved; median pair, which are slightly larger than hind pair, about their breadth and a half apart, rather less than interval from posterior centrals, their space from fore-laterals; side eyes placed on low separate tubercles, about their radius from one another.

Legs concolorous to cephalothorax; rather stout, armature sparse, short, whitish hairs, lake-tinged spines numerous on tibiæ and metatarsi, 10–12 on inferior surface, latter article and tarsi tinged with lake-colour; superior tarsal claws—1st pair 9 teeth, 5 basal close, terminal strong; inferior claw sharply bent, 2 teeth.

Palpi resemble legs in colour and armature; palpal claw 8 teeth.

Falces moderately stout, conical, directed somewhat inwards, pea-green; fangs, dark lake-colour.

Maxillœ nearly as broad as long, obtusely truncated, inclined towards labium, which is rather broader than long, roundly, pointed, everted; organs pea-green, yellowish margins.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ, yellowish, clouded with pea-green.

Abdomen oviform, base somewhat pointed; very sparsely clothed with short light hairs; dorsal surface covered by a bright, deep pea-green, yellow margined, oviform mark; lateral margins greenish-black. On ventral surface is a green, yellow-

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margined, shield-shaped mark. Epigyne represents a yellowish, transversely wrinkled, cucullate eminence; projecting outwards from beneath hood-like membrane, is a broad, long, clear greenish-yellow, linear process; about 12 well-defined segments, concave above, apex cupuliform; integument at base of process produced, at right angles to it, into large, somewhat conchiform projections, with brown margins, curving inwards beneath process.

Frequents Leptospermum; Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Epeira discolora, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th. long, 3; broad, 2.2; facial index, 1. Abd., long, 5; broad, 4. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 12, 11, 9.2, 5 mm.

Cephalothorax yellow amber-colour, suffused with reddish-amber, hairs sparse, whitish; oval, rather depressed, moderately constricted forwards; caput roundly truncated, ocular eminence moderately prominent, lateral index equals space between fore-lateral eyes; median fovea somewhat circular, deep, radial and caput striæ fairly marked; contour of profile rises from thoracic junction at an angle of 60°, dips slightly across caput. Clypeus vertical, in height equal to diameter of a fore-central eye.

Posterior row of eyes sensibly recurved; centrals separated by an interval that slightly exceeds their diameter, little more than their space from hind-laterals; anterior row recurved, median pair rather smaller, and further apart than are posterior pair; interval between fore and hind-centrals rather exceeds space between latter pair; lateral eyes seated obliquely on black tubercles, less than their radius from each other.

Legs rather slender, yellow-amber colour, reddish annuli, femora of first pair clouded with olive-green; sparsely furnished with short hairs, erect black spines; tibial and metatarsal spines exceed diameter of those articles in length. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 11 comb-teeth, increasing in length and strength; inferior claw, 2 teeth.

Palpi moderately slender, about length of cephalothorax, yellowish, spines numerous; palpal claw like tarsal, 8 teeth.

Falces strong, conical, vertical, red-amber colour.

Maxillœ broad, rounded, inclined towards labium, which is nearly twice as broad as long, everted; organs yellowish, base chocolate-brown.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ, brown, yellowish streaks in centre.

Abdomen oviform, convex above, projects over base of cephalothorax; dorsal surface covered by an oviform pea-green mark, margins brown, sinuated; on its fore-part there is a creamy-white angular line, vertex directed forward, base extends back to central pair of impressed spots, between latter

– 87 –

and spinners are two or more whitish spots; upper portion of lateral margins rich maroon, lower greenish-brown oval patch, with creamy margins. Ventral surface brown, two longitudinal whitish streaks and spots. Epigyne yellowish, moderately convex, somewhat triangular, transversely wrinkled, cucullate membrane, centrally produced into a short involute lip; dark margins of hood-like membrane project a little forwards, from base of lip curve backwards, forming large lateral loops, confluent beneath lip.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 2.4. Abd., long, 3.2; broad, 2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 14, 12, 10, 7 mm.

Cephalothorax yellowish-amber, slightly suffused with darker hue; broad oval, fore-part of caput more depressed than female's, contour of profile low arch; median indentation and striæ well marked.

Legs concolorous to female's; femoral spines exceed diameter of article in length, numerous on 1–2; margin of coxæ, 1st pair, produced on inner side into a short curved apophysis.

Palpi yellowish, few pale hairs, humeral joint short, small curved spine on fore-end; cubital short, complanate, fore-angles produced into cylindrical tubercles, from which project remarkably long, strong bristles, outer angle produced into a stout conical apophysis; radial joint cyathiform, length about equal to diameter of cubital, attached to inferior surface of latter joint; digital joint large, somewhat globose, reddish tints, convexities hairy, directed towards each other; palpal organs complex, superior surface, large, brownish, convex disc, dark margins of which are produced into a curved, tapering apophysis, directed backwards; most remarkable, projecting from inferior surface of bulb are two broad curved apophyses near articulation of joints, terminating in several black points; between these and the terminal, long, tapering, black process, which is directed downwards and somewhat backwards, are two large, broad-conical eminences directed downwards.

Abdomen small, oviform, pea-green, varies somewhat in coloration.

This species varies in colour, lateral margins in some examples being brown or green, in others the abdomen has a yellowish tinge.

Not uncommon; usually frequents manuka (Leptospermum); forms a moderate-sized web; pairs in November.

Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Epeira verutum, sp, nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3.5; broad, 2.5. Abd., long, 6; broad, 4.7. Legs 1, 2, 4, 3 = 11, 9, 8, 6.5 mm.

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Cephalothorax yellow-brown, suffused with red-chestnut; hairs greyish, sparse; broad-oval, constricted laterally forwards, depressed; caput roundly truncated, lateral index nearly equals space between fore-lateral eyes; ocular eminence low; median indentation transverse, normal grooves well-marked. Clypeus vertical, height exceeds diameter of a fore-central eye.

Posterior row of eyes moderately recurved, median pair about their diameter apart, rather more than their breadth from anterior centrals, which are separated by about their diameter and a half, and rather more than that interval from the side-eyes next to them; laterals seated obliquely on dark tubercles, about their radius from each other.

Legs moderately strong, concolorous to cephalothorax, more or less defined greenish annulations; armature darkish hairs and spines; length of tibial spines about equal to diameter of article.; superior tarsal claws—1st pair evenly curved, 11 teeth, 4 outer open, curved backwards; inferior claw long, sharply bent, teeth small.

Palpi moderately slender, armature and colour of legs; palpal claw moderately curved, 6 teeth, increasing much in length and strength.

Falces vertical, conical, tumid at base in front, strong teeth; similar to legs in colour.

Maxillœ broad, inclined towards labium, which is nearly as long as broad, somewhat pointed, everted; yellowish-green, base dark.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ, chocolate-brown colour.

Abdomen ovoid, projects over base of cephalothorax, on dorsal surface is a broad, pale pea-green, yellow-margined lance-like mark, basal angles obtuse, shaft tapers posteriorly; the four central, well-marked, impressed spots on lance-head form a trapezoid; lateral margins dark velvety - brown. Epigyne represents a yellowish-green, transversely wrinkled, moderately prominent, semicircular eminence, centrally produced into a broad, transversely wrinkled process, directed backwards, concave above, apex somewhat calceolate; projecting laterally from base of lip are large processes, terminating with somewhat planiform spiral lobes.

Female.—Var. veruina, var. nov.

Cephalothorax, legs, and palpi do not differ essentially in coloration from type form. Abdomen light brown, shading off on lateral margins to a soft dark brown, specific mark pale chalky-green edged with buff, sharply constricted at posterior pair of central impressed spots, giving it the form of an arrow, with a well-defined shaft: on posterior half of abdomen is a brownish band, with sinuated margins.

– 89 –

Var. hastatum, var. nov. Plate VIII., fig. 2.

Female.Cephalothorax and legs resemble type form. Abdomen light-brown above, graduating to a darker shade on lateral margins; dorsal surface covered by a more or less defined somewhat oviform brown mark, with sinuated margins; specific mark differs in form from that of var. veruina, constriction defining arrow-head being in line with anterior pair of central impressed spots; in line with posterior pair is an obtuse - angled transverse bar, shaft tapers off to spinners.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 2. Abd. long, 3.6; broad, 2.7. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 11, 9, 8, 6 mm.

Cephalothorax. yellowish-brown, greenish-tinge; caput slightly more compressed than female's.

Legs yellow-brown, olivaceous annulations; coxæ of first pair produced, on outer side, into a short curved apophysis; femoral spines of latter pair strong, tibial exceed diameter of article in length.

Palpi yellowish, humeral joint slender, short; cubital, broad, somewhat oval, complanate, truncated at apex, projecting from short cylindroid tubercles, at each angle are long bristles; radial joint articulated to inferior surface of cubital, nearly twice diameter of latter joint, umbraculiform; digital joint large, somewhat oval, convexities moderately hairy, directed towards each other, base of convexity produced on outer side into a reddish-brown curved apophysis, concave on superior surface; beneath it is a large, conical, yellowish process, directed downwards and outwards; superior surface of bulb semi-globose, transversely striated, crumpled on inner side into a hippocrepiform eminence, lobe beneath, terminates in a short beak-like process, concave within, directed downwards; remaining most remarkable projections are, a short, broad, pale, rugose membrane, curving upwards towards point of beak, and a large yellowish and black claw-like apophysis projecting from apex of joint, curved backwards.

Abdomen oviform, coloration and markings resemble female.

Var. lineola, var. nov.

Abdomen brown, oviform mark nearly obliterated, specific pattern reduced to a narrow longitudinal line, with similar tints; in some examples faint trace of arrow-like mark.

Examples of this interesting species, and the more or less clearly defined varieties, were numerous on low shrubs, about the summit of Arthur's Pass; I also captured them at Lake Alexandra, Mackenzie Plains, Canterbury. Examples of var. hastatum have been sent to me by F. Goyen, Esq., Dunedin.

– 90 –

Epeira linea-acuta, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 2.8; facial index, 1. Abd., long, 5; broad, 4. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3=10.5, 9.5, 9.5, 6.5 mm.

Cephalothorax greenish, hairs sparse, grey; depressed, sides rounded, laterally constricted forwards; caput roundly truncated, ocular eminence low, lateral index equal to space between a fore-lateral eye and the hind-central nearest to it; median fovea deep, striæ fairly marked; profile line rises from thoracic junction at an angle of 30°, forms slight arch across caput. Height of clypeus about equal to diameter of an anterior central eye.

Eyes on dark rings; posterior row sensibly recurved; median pair rather more than their diameter apart, their space and a quarter from hind-laterals; anterior row recurved, centrals nearly twice their breadth from each other, rather less than that interval from hind-centrals, nearly their space from side-eyes next to them; laterals seated obliquely on low tubercles, separated by about their diameter.

Legs moderately stout; clear yellowish-green, brownish annulations; short grey hairs, spines rather numerous, yellowish, double row of five beneath tibiæ and metatarsi; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 9 teeth; inferior claw, 2 strong teeth.

Palpi rather slight, yellowish-green; palpal claw straighter than tarsal, 9 teeth.

Falces conical, directed somewhat inwards, greenish-yellow.

Maxillœ nearly as broad as long, obtusely pointed, inclined towards labium, which is triangular, almost twice as broad as long; organs yellowish, base greenish.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ, yellowish, olive tinge.

Abdomen somewhat oviform, broad, sensibly convex above, sides rounded, projects moderately over base of cephalothorax; sparsely clothed with short fine hairs; dorsal surface covered by a large, mottled, greenish-yellow oviform mark, margined by two streaks, inner white, outer brown, graduating off to green; four central impressed spots form a trapezoid, 1st pair placed close to apex at base; on either side, and directed towards 2nd pair, are two fine brown lines forming an acute angle; extending outwards from spinners to 3rd pair are a series of four brown lines—outer streaks in most examples form a curve connected with narrow dorsal line. On ventral surface there is a wide green band, white and brown margins. Epigyne represents a broad, transversely wrinkled, yellowish eminence, centrally produced into a short, pendulous, cupuliform, wrinkled process, directed backwards; projecting at right angles from base of process are two smaller, somewhat vermiform, short

– 91 –

thick processes, base of which consists of two well-defined segments; apices conical, smooth.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 3.4. Abd., long, 3.5; broad, 3. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 12, 11, 10, 6 mm.

Cephalothorax deeper green, caput more compressed laterally, ocular eminence projects more over clypeus, and tubercles of anterior lateral eyes more prominent than female's.

Legs strong, yellowish-green; annuli well marked.

Palpi short, greenish; cubital joint about half length of humeral, applanate, projecting from truncated apex are two long bristles; radial joint articulated to inferior surface of cubital; projecting outwards and downwards is a large, yellowish, conoid process; above is a broad, spiral apophysis; apex dark-lake, directed outwards, curving inwards; digital joint large, somewhat oval, convexities hairy, directed towards each other; palpal organs complex, superior surface of bulb striated, apex partially cleft through, exposing inner dark lobe: lower, smooth portion of bulb terminates in a remarkable claw-like process; projecting downwards are two wide, darkish, semi-pellucid, membranous processes.

Abdomen resembles female's in coloration and pattern.

Numerous examples. Lake Tekapo, Canterbury, A.T.U.

Epeira purpura, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3.2; broad, 2.8; facial index, 1.2. Abd., long, 7; broad, 6. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 12.5, 11.5, 10, 6 mm.

Cephalothorax yellowish-amber, suffused with red-lake; hairs sparse, light; rather depressed, sides rounded, constricted at caput, which is roundly truncated, ocular eminence low, lateral index less than interval between a fore-lateral and the hind-median eye furthest from it; normal grooves not well-marked; contour of profile rises at an angle of 45°, slopes forwards with a slight curve to occiput; clypeus in height equals diameter of a fore-central eye.

Posterior row of eyes slightly recurved, median pair rather more than their breadth apart, their space and a quarter from hind-laterals; anterior row moderately recurved, centrals separated by an interval equal to nearly twice their diameter, rather more than their breadth from hind-pair, nearly their space from fore-laterals; side-eyes seated obliquely on separated tubercles, nearly contiguous.

Legs rather slight, yellowish-amber colour, suffused with red-lake; armature few light hairs, spines numerous, double row of 5 on inferior surface of tibiæ, about equal number under metatarsi; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 9 comb-teeth; inferior claw strong, 2 teeth.

– 92 –

Palpi resemble legs in colour and armature; palpal claw somewhat like tarsal, 8 teeth.

Falces vertical, conical, moderately stout, yellowish.

Maxillœ longer than broad, somewhat spathulate, inclined towards labium, which is pointed, rather broader than long; organs brownish, pale apices.

Sternum cordate, nearly as broad as long, eminences opposite coxæ; chocolate-brown.

Abdomen large, base obtusely pointed, lateral angles prominent, pointed posteriorly; sensibly convex above, sides slope inwards; creamy-white transverse band connects angles, thickly marked with large irregularly-shaped creamy-white flecks, which are intersected by lake-purple vein-like lines; very sparsely clothed with short, fine hairs. Dark-green yellow-margined shield-shaped mark on ventral surface; epigyne yellowish, broad, somewhat vermiform process, segments well-developed, apex calceolate: three-fourths of pendulous process is attached to a wide membrane, beaded margins of which are involute on posterior side.

Single specimen. Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Genus Nephila, Leech.

Nephila argentatum, sp. nov. Plate VIII., fig. 3.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 2.8; broad, 2. Abd., long, 7; broad, 4. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 20, 18, 15, 8 mm.

Cephalothorax dark straw-colour, translucid, marginal zone and V-shaped mark on caput olive-green; broad oval, depressed, moderately constricted forwards; caput convex, roundly truncated; median fovea deep, olivaceous tint, somewhat diamond-shaped, placed rather forwards; caput and radial striæ well-marked; contour of profile represents a double-arch, thoracic curve indented; clypeus vertical, in height rather exceeds space between anterior central eyes.

Eyes on dark spots, four centrals nearly form a quadrilateral figure, longer than broad; posterior row sensibly procurved, median pair separated by rather more than their diameter, nearly twice that space from hind-lateral eyes; anterior row recurved, centrals dark, placed on blackish-green moderate eminences, nearly their diameter apart, and about twice that interval from hind-centrals; lateral eyes seated on black tubercles, rather less than their radius from each other.

Legs long, slender, femora clear green, remaining joints yellowish, brownish annulations; armature long, fine hairs, long slender spines on femoral, tibial, and metatarsal joints; latter article about equal in length to genua and tibiæ; superior tarsal claws—1st pair long, moderately curved, 13 short somewhat

– 93 –

even comb-teeth; inferior claw sharply curved, apex directed outwards, 2 small teeth.

Palpi slender, resemble legs in colour and armature; palpal claw long, rather straight, 6 teeth.

Falces vertical, somewhat conical, project at base in front, as stout as femora of first pair of legs, divergent at apex, double row of about 5 strong teeth; yellowish, olive-green, yellow-mottled oval streak on fore-part.

Maxillœ rather longer than broad, spathulate, divergent, yellow-brown. Labium oval, about as broad as long, less than half length of maxillæ; dark-brown, apex yellowish.

Sternum mahogany-brown, longer than broad, roundly truncated in front, pointed posteriorly, eminences opposite coxæ.

Abdomen large, oblong-oval, dorsal surface and sides somewhat deplanate, base projects forwards, slope abrupt, projects rather beyond spinners; dorsal surface dull silver, specific pattern varies in accuracy of outline in different examples; brown-black cruciate figure on fore-part intersects four rounded mammiform eminences, two black dots in front, four behind transverse bar, four anterior dots on eminences, base of cross extends nearly to spinners, throwing off two oblique lines, which are directed backwards; from dark bands along lateral margins two blackish streaks converge towards spinners; two subulate marks extend from near spinners to posterior pair of dots, apices directed forwards. Ventral surface, brown and blackish streaks, two longitudinal golden lines or spots extend from branchial opercula to spinners. Epigyne simple, semicircular, brownish-black eminence, slightly concave within.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 2.8; broad, 2. Abd., long, 3.8; broad, 2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 26, 19, 15, 9.5 mm.

Male does not differ essentially from female in coloration or form, except that the legs are longer, abdomen shorter and slimmer.

Palpi, humeral joint slender, clear straw-colour, few black hairs, and slender bristles; nearly twice as long as cubital and radial joints together; former article short, radial rather the longest, base slender, projects a long bristle on fore-part; two latter joints clouded with olive-green; digital joint nearly equal in length to three former articles; yellowish-brown; oval, convexities hairy, directed towards each other; palpal organs simple, bulb large, glossy light orange-brown, on outer face are two brownish curved lines, integument of bulb hexagonally veined, projecting from apex are two somewhat beak-like membranous apophyses; curving over bulb, at basal end, is a short, stout, dark process.

– 94 –

Species common, pairs in November; web oblique or horizontal, constructed amidst green vegetation, spider rests in centre, beneath the web, exposing the dull-coloured ventral surface. Mature examples are apparently not to be met with during the winter months, but the young may be found on fine webs about grass, etc.

Tairoa, T. Broun. Te Karaka, Waiwera, A.T.U.

Fam. Thlaosomidæ.

Genus Thlaosoma, Cambr.

Thlaosoma pennum, sp. nov. Plate VIII., fig. 4.

Ceph. th., long, 2.5; broad, 2.3. Abd., long, 3; broad, 6.5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 8, 7.8, 6.5, 5.5 mm.

Cephalothorax creamy-white, few brownish streaks and spots; sparsely clothed with whitish hairs, chiefly in lines; sides rounded sharply, laterally constricted at caput, which has the characteristic upturned form of the genus; bifurcation at conjunction of caput striæ and median indentation not so prominent as in T. olivacea; contour of profile rises somewhat abruptly from thoracic junction, forms a prominent rounded hump sloping off with slight arch to upturned apex. Height of clypeus slightly exceeds facial space.

Falces placed in usual position, four central divided by a yellowish cross-like figure.

Legs concolorous to cephalothorax, faintly clouded and annulated with brown; sparsely furnished with light hairs and bristles; 1–2 hardly differ in length or strength; femoral joints strong; two rows of minute spinous tubercles with numerous small irregular spines between on outer side; similar but smaller spines extend along genual and tibial joints, two or three at base of metatarsi; 4th pair slightly exceeds 3rd in length and strength; femora of latter pair armed with short irregular row of spines, nearly absent and weak on 4th pair. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, outer strong, long, sharply bent, 2 short curved teeth at base; inner claw less than one-third size of outer, 5 comb-teeth, increasing in length and strength; inferior claw nearly equals inner in strength; auxiliary claws.

Palpi creamy-white, brown annuli, whitish hairs; palpal claws strong, sharply bent, no teeth.

Falces long, conical, directed slightly inwards, divergent at apex, few strong teeth; pale stone-colour, clouded with brown.

Maxillœ directed towards each other, somewhat pointed on inner side; labium triangular, broader than long; organs chocolate-brown, light apices.

– 95 –

Sternum cordate, bifurcates at base, light-brown, clouded with a darker hue.

Abdomen creamy-white, faintly clouded on fore-part with brown; sparsely clothed with whitish hairs, bristle-like hairs at posterior end, few black tufts; broader than long, sides prolong, outwards, into sharp conical prominences, 2 mm. in length; base of abdomen rounded, semicircular indentation over thorax, with brown mark in centre; transverse row of humps faintly developed; posteriorly it forms an obtuse angle, contour slightly rounded; four impressed spots form a trapezoid. Ventral surface deeper hue, bronchial opercula brownish. Epigyne greenish-black, prominent, lip-like, somewhat pointed.

This species was described from a single example taken at Waiwera.

Thlaosoma olivacea.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 0.6. Abd., long, 1.2; broad, 1.2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 1st pair, 2.1 mm.

Cephalothorax areolate; chocolate-brown; two yellowish, half-circular lines extend along caput grooves, conjoined in centre of thorax, curving outwards near base; clothed with a few stout white lanceolate hairs, long erect black one at base of caput; oval, laterally compressed at caput, which is upturned, sub-conical, reddish-chocolate colour; four central eyes, which are comparatively larger than female's, intersected by a less defined yellow cross; lateral eyes seated obliquely on strong tubercles, rather less than diameter apart. Clypeus in height equal to about twice diameter and a half of an anterior central eye.

Legs moderately stout; 1–2 and 4–3 nearly equal in length and strength; brownish-yellow, fore-half of femora, genua, and basal half of tibiæ black; chocolate annuli at apices of tibial and metatarsal joints; sparsely furnished with light hairs, few spines, long erect bristles; double row of short, black, tubercular spines along outer side of femora of 1–2. Superior tarsal claws differ in size; inferior claw sharply bent, free end fine.

Palpi short, tints of cephalothorax; humeral joint rather exceeds cubital and radial in length; cubital joint somewhat applanate, broad, and rounded in front, projects a strong bristle; radial joint calycoidal; digital oval, convex, and hairy externally, convexities directed towards each other; superior and inferior lobes of bulb large, reddish-brown; projecting at apex is a stout yellowish conical process; springing from base of article on outer side is a reddish, rather flat, but convex apophysis, curved inwards at apex.

Falces long, vertical, somewhat linear; yellowish, clouded on inner side with brown-black.

– 96 –

Maxillœ spathulate, much inclined towards labium, which rounded, more than twice as broad as long; former organ greenish, latter brownish-yellow, dark bases.

Sternum broad-cordate, areolated, chocolate-brown.

Abdomen rounded in front, slightly curved indentation, pointed posteriorly; tubercles strong, project moderately backwards and outwards; brownish-yellow, dark, oblong mark at basal indentation; brownish marks between tubercles; strong black and white lanceolate serrated hairs.

This little spider may possibly not prove to be the male of T. olivacea, but I have taken it on two occasions, at Te Karaka and Waiwera, in the vicinity of females of that species; the first mature male was taken on November 1st. Females fabricate cocoons as late as April 17th; they are spherical, 5 mm. in diameter, echinulate, of a hard, brown, parchmenty nature, four or five in number, suspended by a short pedicel; comprised within are about 80 spherical, unagglutinated, dark straw-coloured eggs. The web is small, resembles that of the Theridiidœ, the lines intersecting one another at different angles and planes; web and cocoons may be met with about hakea fences and low shrubs. The female probably obtains some protection from her remarkable form and pale coloration; in the early part of summer examples may be met with resting on the upper surface of broad leaves—e.g., apple; when in such positions their irregular forms, tinted with a pale greenish-blue and creamy-white, bear a strong resemblance to the excreta of birds.

Fam. Theridiidæ.

Genus Ariamnes, Th.

Ariamnes conifera, sp. nov. Plate VIII., fig. 5.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1; broad, 0.8. Abd., long, 2; broad, 1; high, 1. Legs, 1, 4, 2, 3. 1st = 4.5 mm.

Cephalothorax oval, nearly as broad as long, slightly compressed forwards, depressed, caput roundly, thorax squarely truncated, areolate, normal grooves faint yellow-brown, shaded on lateral margins with olive-green, two bands of similar hue converge from hind eyes to base of thorax; contour of profile rises rather abruptly, runs nearly horizontally, rising slightly at occiput; clypeus nearly as long as depth of ocular area, projects forwards.

Eyes of equal size, seated on lake-coloured spots; four centrals nearly form a square; posterior row sensibly procurved, median eyes separated by rather more than their breadth, their diameter and a half from side eyes of same row; anterior row recurved, nearly equidistant; laterals placed on moderate tubercles, their radius apart.

– 97 –

Legs slender, 1–4 nearly equal in length; pale stone-colour, dark olivaceous annuli at articulations; metatarsal joint exceeds tibial in length, tarsal joint very short; armature few black hairs, long slender bristles; superior tarsal claws—1st pair slender, outer claw 1 tooth, inner (?); inferior claw sharply bent.

Palpi rather short, resemble legs in colour and armature, palpal claw about four teeth.

Falces conical, project slightly forwards, yellowish.

Maxillœ greenish-yellow, somewhat spathulate, moderately inclined towards labium, which is dark, pointed, about as long as broad.

Sternum oval, slightly angular at coxæ of second pair, rugulose, centre greenish-yellow, margins dark.

Abdomen oblong-oval, base cleft in centre, forming short obtuse tubercles, apices directed forwards, posterior quarter compressed into a stout tail-like projection; at base of compression dorsal surface is produced into a conical nearly upright tubercle, about equal in length but slighter than posterior end of abdomen; very sparsely furnished with light hairs; dorsal surface mottled with stone-coloured brown, dark median band extends to apex of cone. Ventral surface darkest, spinners at apex. Epigyne simple, red-brown, circular orifice, labia black-brown, moderately prominent.

Chiefly frequents Leptospermum. Waiwera, Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Ariamnes triangulatus, sp. nov. Plate VIII., fig. 6.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 0.8. Abd., long, 1.7; deep, 1. Legs, 1, 4, 2, 3, = 6.2, 6, 3.7, 2.2, mm.

Cephalothorax yellow-brown, suffused about thorax with brown, rugulose, almost glabrous; oval, about twice as long as broad, slightly compressed forwards, transverse indentation on thorax deep; fovea oval, striæ fairly marked; contour of profile rises from thoracic junction with a moderate curve, forms nearly even line across caput, slopes forwards at ocular area, which projects a little in front. Clypeus projects forwards, length about equals depth of facial space.

Posterior row of eyes moderately procurved, median pair on lake-coloured rings, have with side eyes a pearly lustre, separated by an interval equal to more than twice their diameter, less than their breadth from hind-laterals, they form with anterior-centrals a nearly quadrilateral figure, broader than long; anterior row recurved, centrals dark, seated on black eminences, rather closer to each other than are posterior pair, close to fore-laterals; side eyes nearly contiguous, seated obliquely on small lake-coloured tubercles.

Legs slender, yellowish, clouded with reddish-brown, armature light hairs and bristles; superior claws—1st pair slightly

– 98 –

curved, weak, few teeth; inferior claw bent, free end fine, curved outwards.

Palpi rather stout, short, resemble legs in colour and armature, palpal claw form of tarsal.

Falces long, nearly linear, directed forwards, yellowish.

Maxillœ, long, spathulate, inclined towards labium, which is broad-conical, more than halflength of maxillæ; organs yellowish.

Sternum shield-shaped, yellowish, mottled with lake-brown.

Abdomen somewhat oval, base squarely truncated, centre grooved, prolonged beyond spinners into a stout tubercle, nearly twice length of abdomen proper; profile somewhat triangular, spinners at apex; sparsely clothed with light hairs; integument mottled with various tints of yellowish-brown, brown dorsal band converges round apex at tubercle, which has faint transverse rings. Epigyne simple.

Male, immature.—Ceph. th., long, 0.6.—Abd., long, 1.2. Legs 1, 4, 2, 3 = 6, 4.5, 3.3, 2 mm.

Cephalothorax yellowish, lateral margins suffused with brown; sides nearly parallel, twice as long as broad, transverse indentation on thorax, small oval fovea; contour on profile rises at occiput. Clypeus projects forwards, slightly exceeds in length depth at ocular area. Eyes resemble female's in position.

Legs long, slender, yellowish, suffused and annulated with red-chestnut; armature sparse light hairs, few slender bristles.

Palpi yellowish, humeral joint long, slender; cubital short.

Falces long, somewhat linear, directed slightly forwards, yellowish.

Maxillœ long, spathulate, moderately inclined towards lip.

Sternum shield-shaped, chocolate-brown, yellow spots.

Abdomen does not differ essentially from female in form or coloration.

Frequents Leptospermum, Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Ariamnes attenuatus, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1.3; broad, 0.8. Abd., long, 4; broad, 1.5. Legs, 1, 4, 2, 3, = 11, 9.2, 6.8, 3 mm.

Cephalothorax mottled, brown-black, light median band; areolate; elongated, sides nearly parallel, strong transverse indentation, caput roundly truncated; contour at profile forms a moderate arch from thoracic junction, notched at indentation, slopes slightly, rising somewhat abruptly at occiput. Clypeus nearly horizontal, about equal to depth of ocular area.

Eyes disposed in two semicircles, forming an oval space, four centrals form a quadrilateral figure, separated by about their radius from laterals, which are contiguous, seated on very low tubercles, have pearly lustre at hind-median eyes; anterior centrals, dark, placed somewhat obliquely on prominences.

– 99 –

Legs long, slender, yellowish, spotted and annulated with dark-brown and chestnut-brown; armature few fine erect hairs and slender bristles; superior tarsal claws moderately curved, weak; inferior long, fine.

Palpi stout, nearly as long as cephalothorax, radial joint broadest at apex, red-chestnut; palpal claw fine, moderately curved, about 4 small teeth.

Falces narrow, conical, project moderately forwards, yellowish-chestnut, base dark.

Maxillœ yellowish, long, obliquely truncated on outer side, slightly inclined towards labium, which is broader than long, slightly pointed, two-thirds length of maxillæ, dark, light apex.

Sternum long-obovate, brown, spotted and suffused with brassy metallic lustre.

Forepart of abdomen somewhat oviform, prolonged beyond spinners into a long cylindrical tubercle, curving slightly downwards, about half-length of abdomen, transversely rugulose; brown-black, mottled with stone-colour, glabrous. Epigyne, concavity oval, reddish, labia dark, protuberent, broad, introflexed.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 1. Abd., long, 3. Legs, 1, 4, 2, 3 = 9.6, 6, 4.5, 2.3 mm.

Cephalothorax similar in form, and coloration to female; anterior median eyes rather further apart.

Legs slender, yellowish, clouded or spotted, and annulated with dark chestnut-brown; armature fine hairs, few slender bristles.

Palpi long (2 mm.), slender, resemble legs in colour and armature; humeral joint rather less than one-half length of palpus; cubital joint short; radial twice length of former article, stoutest at articulation with digital joint, which is convex, rugulose, and hairy externally; palpal organs small, on outer side is a sinuate process, apex black, curved, toothed beneath, directed forwards; at basal end is a yellow acuminate apophysis, directed downwards.

Abdomen does not differ essentially from female.

Frequents manuka. Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Genus Linyphia, Latr.

Linyphia blattifer, sp. nov. Plate VIII., fig. 7.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1. Abd., long, 1.8. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3.

Cephalothorax light mahogany-brown, median line and margins darker hue, rugulose; oval, moderately compressed forwards, caput roundly truncated; median fovea transverse oval, caput and radial striæ moderately marked; profile line

– 100 –

rises, not very abruptly, from thoracic junction, forms a low arch across caput. Clypeus projects forwards, indentation below eyes, in height equals depth of facial space.

Eyes on black spots, posterior row procurved, median eyes rather less than their diameter apart, more than their breadth from hind-laterals; anterior row strongly recurved, central pair black, rather smallest of eight, separated by a space equal to their radius, more than their diameter from side eyes; laterals nearly contiguous, seated obliquely on strong black tubercles.

Legs slender, bright yellow-amber colour; armature erect dark hairs, erect spines on femoral, genual, and tibial joints, circle of weak spines round metatarsi of 3–4; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, fine, slightly curved, about 10 somewhat even teeth; inferior claw, free end fine, one point.

Palpi resemble legs in colour and armature, palpal claw slender, apparently no teeth.

Falces long, linear, vertical, rugulose, reddish-amber colour.

Maxillœ broadest at apex, inferior angle obtuse, base chocolate-brown, apices yellow.

Labium oval, everted, about half length of maxillæ, dark.

Sternum broad-cordate, dark chocolate-brown.

Abdomen oviform, convex, above, rises abruptly from petiolum; a not very clearly defined leaf-like mark on dorsal surface, marks and shading, various tints of purple. Epigyne represents a remarkably large yellowish-brown appendage, convex above, few hairs, apex directed backwards.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 1.3; broad, 1. Abd., long, 1.3. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3. Leg of first pair, 4.5 mm.

Cephalothorax olive-brown, glossy; oval.

Legs 1–2 do not differ much in length; resemble female's in colour and armature.

Palpi, humeral joint about twice length of cubital and radial together, latter articles of about equal length, cubital somewhat globose, projects a long black bristle; radial broad cup-shaped, black bristle; articles yellowish; digital joint large, somewhat oviform, convex and moderately hairy externally, convexities directed towards each other, palpal organs complex, bright reddish-brown; series of, more or less, semi-transparent membranous folds—viewed in front, article appears almost transversely disconnected in centre; close to base of article, on outer side, is a large, reddish-brown, membranous apophysis, curved forwards, concave on outer side, apex truncated.

Abdomen rather narrower than cephalothorax, resembles female's in pattern and coloration.

Taken on shrubs, three examples. Waiwera, A.T.U.

– 101 –

Linyphia melanopygia, Cambr.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1. Abd., long, 1.4. Legs, 1–4, 2, 3 = 3.9, 3.5, 2.5 mm.

Cephalothorax yellow-brown, suffused with olive-green, few bristly hairs on forepart of caput; oval, slightly compressed forwards; median fovea rounded in front; somewhat pointed behind, normal grooves moderate; contour of profile moderately arched backwards from ocular area; clypeus projects forwards, in height nearly equals depth of facial space.

Hind-centrals and lateral eyes have a pearly lustre, large, of nearly equal size; posterior row slightly procurved, hind-centrals rather more than their diameter from posterior laterals, more than that distance from anterior-centrals, rather less than their breadth from each other; fore-centrals smallest of eight, dark, rather less than their diameter from one another, and from fore-laterals; side eyes largest of eight, placed obliquely on low tubercles, nearly contiguous.

Legs moderately slender, 1–4 about equal in length; brownish-yellow; armature stiff black hairs, few fine spines, except on metatarsi; superior tarsal claws—1st pair slight, but somewhat even curve from base, about 8 close fine teeth; inferior claw long, fine, curved, free, and projects outwards, 1 tooth.

Palpi have an olivaceous, hue, armed with hairs, few strong spines, digital joint terminates with a rather stout point.

Falces stronger than femoral joint of 1st pair of legs, prominent at base in front, somewhat attenuated at extremities, which are divergent, strong teeth; cocolorous to cephalothorax.

Maxillœ stout, obtusely pointed, inclined towards labium, do not possess characteristic conical eminences of male, strong bristles project from usual slight eminences, colour of falces.

Labium broader than long, brown-black.

Sternum broad-cordate, dark-brown.

Abdomen oval, base squarely truncated, moderately notched; dark orange-red, sparsely clothed with coarse dark hairs, broad black ring round spinners, which are yellowish. Epigyne represents a prominent blackish hood, concave within, centrally produced into a semicircular band, attached to integument on posterior side.

The male is described by the Rev. O. P. Cambridge in the “Proc. Zool. Society,” 1879, from an imperfect example in Mr. A.S. Atkinson's collection, probably from Nelson. Relative length of legs 1, 4, 2, 3; 1–4 nearly equal in length. Both in form and coloration it resembles the female. Specimens may be found about loose debris, under old bags, etc.; the female constructs a fair sized horizontal web, with a fine close mesh. Mature examples are to be found throughout the year.

Te Karaka, Auckland, A.T.U.

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Genus Erigone, Sav.

Erigone atriventer, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 0.9. Abd., long, 1.5. Legs, 1–4. 2–3 = 4; 3.3 mm.

Cephalothorax areolate, glossy, yellowish-brown; three rows of black bristle-like hairs converge from base at caput to ocular area; oval, compressed forwards, caput convex, lateral margins deep; median fovea transverse oval, radial and caput striæ fairly marked; contour of profile rises somewhat abruptly from thoracic junction, represents a double arch; clypeus directed moderately forwards, projects laterally, indentation below eyes, in height nearly equal to depth of facial space.

Posterior row of eyes slightly procurved, about equidistant, median pair separated by rather less than their diameter, rather more than that interval from anterior centrals; hind-centrals and laterals—which are contiguous, and placed obliquely on strong tubercles—are large, pearl-grey lustre; anterior row recurved, central pair small, dark, rather less than their breadth from each other, and from fore-laterals.

Legs long, moderately slender, 1–3, 2–3, about equal in length, bright yellow-brown; armature stiff black hairs, few long bristle-like spines, none on metatarsi; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, long, fine, form an even curve from base, about 6 fine teeth, increasing in length; inferior claw long, moderately bent.

Palpi rather long, olivaceous tinge, black hairs, strong bristles, digital joint terminates with a short point.

Falces gibbous at base, taper towards apex, directed inwards, fang and teeth strong; yellowish, suffused with brown.

Maxillœ strong, dilated towards extremity, pointed, curving towards labium, which is somewhat oval; organs greenish-black, apices pale.

Sternum large, cordate, areolate, brown-black.

Abdomen oviform, convex, projects moderately over base of cephalothorax, brown-black, sparsely clothed with stiff black hairs, spinners greenish-yellow. Epigyne represents a triangular, transversely wrinkled, membranous eminence, about as broad as long, apex directed forwards, margins curve within the concavity, and are produced into a short, rather thick, apophysis, curved downwards, directed backwards.

Taken in July, amongst grass. Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Genus Theridium, Walck.

Theridium melanozantha, sp. nov. Plate VIII., fig. 8.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 1.8; broad, 1.4. Abd., long, 3; broad, 1.5. Legs, 1, 4, 2, 3 = 10, 9.5, 7, 5 mm.

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Cephalothorax glossy light-brown, marginal zone and median band wide, dark olive; broad oval, compressed forwards, caput roundly truncated; median indentation deep, transverse oval, caput and radial striæ moderately marked; contour of profile represents a low double arch; clypeus projects forwards, height equals depth of facial space.

Anterior row of eyes recurved; posterior row sensibly recurved, equidistant, interval between them rather more than their diameter; four centrals, form a square, about one eye's breadth apart, anterior pair dark; latter pair closer to fore-laterals than they are to each other; side eyes separated by a space nearly equal to their radius, seated slightly obliquely on separate dark tubercles.

Legs long, slender, dark straw-colour, chocolate-brown annuli at articulation of joints; fine erect black hairs; superior tarsal claws—1st pair curved, 4 strong open teeth, increasing in length and strength, terminal tooth nearly equals free end in strength; inferior claw long, fine, sharply bent, 1 strong curved tooth, directed forwards.

Palpi resemble legs in colour, humeral joint long; cubital short, cup-shaped; radial applanate; digital joint large, somewhat cupuliform, convex and hairy externally, convexities directed towards each other, prolonged and tapering beyond bulb, projecting at apex is a greenish, membranous, pointed process; palpal organs complex, bulb large, convoluted, bright reddish-brown, attached to extremity is a remarkable long, broad, ribbed, spiral, tapering, black process, which, after making four revolutions in contact with bulb—truncating apex of article—fine end sometimes springs off laterally into an independent curl.

Falces vertical, conical, divergent at apex, glossy, yellow-amber colour.

Maxillœ spathulate, inclined towards labium, which is a broad-oval; organs yellowish, base chocolate-brown.

Sternum cordate, rugulose, chocolate-brown, broad light mark in centre.

Abdomen ovoid, projects over base of cephalothorax; creamy-white, two brownish bands—in some examples consisting of continuous, rather broad rings, in other series of more or less disconnected spots, of a lighter hue—converge from base to spinners; similar bands encircle lateral margins. Ventral surface black-brown; shield-like creamy-coloured mark in centre.

Female (immature) resembles male in form and coloration.

Palpi yellowish, few black hairs and fine bristles; palpal claw short, free end more than half length of claw, 4 strong teeth, resembling free end in form, 2 apical teeth nearly equal in strength.

Six examples were captured at Waiwera, A.T.U.

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Theridium tuberculum, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1. Abd., long, 2.8; broad, 2. Legs, 1, 4, 2, 3 = 5.6, 4.2, 4, 2.9 mm.

Cephalothorax glossy brown-black, few strong bristles on caput; oval, about as broad as long, compressed forwards, caput convex, projects in front, lateral index equals twice diameter of a side eye; median fovea large transverse oval, radial striæ broad; contour of profile rises rather abruptly from thoracic junction, slopes across caput; clypeus projects forwards, in height about equal to depth of facial space.

Eyes large, posterior row sensibly procurved, median pair separated by nearly their diameter, their radius from hind-laterals; anterior row recurved, centrals black, seated obliquely—rather more than their breadth apart—on eminences, rather further from hind-centrals than they are from each other, close to fore-laterals; side eyes rather smaller than posterior centrals, have their pearly lustre, are placed obliquely on strong lake-coloured tubercles, nearly contiguous.

Legs moderately slender, 2–4 nearly equal in length; semi-pellucid stone-colour, dark-brown annuli; dark stiff hairs, few erect strong bristles; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 6 open comb-teeth; inferior claw fine, 1 point.

Palpi resemble legs in colour and armature, base of palpal claw straight, free end sharply curved, 6 open comb-teeth.

Falces long, somewhat linear, convex, vertical, glossy mahogany-brown.

Maxillœ, long, spathulate, inclined towards lip, which is nearly as long as broad; organs dark-brown, pale margins.

Sternum cordate, areolate, chocolate-brown.

Abdomen oval, yellowish olive-green, thickly mottled with creamy-white lobate spots, suffused with reddish-chocolate; on fore-part there is a black median band, with three cross bars, partially obliterated in centre where it throws off, round lateral margins, oblique creamy-coloured, sinuated lines, which have black patches on anterior side; on posterior curve of abdomen is a remarkable large, low, pointed tubercle, apex pale-yellow, nearly encircled by lemon-coloured, brown-lake, and black rings, posteriorly the pale-yellow flows over the darker colours, and apparently forms a series of creamy-coloured lobate flecks as far as spinners, which are prominent, placed about centre of ventral surface; abdomen sparsely clothed with bristle-like dark hairs. Epigyne glossy-black, conoid, orifice at apex, which is directed towards base of abdomen, attached to integument along its inner side.

Single specimen. Te Karaka, Auckland, A.T.U.

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Theridium maculopes, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1.7; broad, 1.5. Abd., long, 3; broad, 2.2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3. = 10, 8, 6, 4.5 mm.

Cephalothorax areolate, yellow-brown, broad, brown median band extends from occiput to base, marginal zone similar hue, few bristles on occiput; oval, compressed forwards; median fovea nearly circular, deep, normal grooves moderately marked; caput convex, roundly truncated, lateral index rather less than space between an anterior lateral eye and the fore-central furthest from it; contour at profile rises with an abrupt curve, arched across caput; clypeus projects forwards, height rather exceeds depth of facial space.

Anterior row of eyes recurved, posterior row slightly procurved; centrals nearly form a square, hind-median pair separated by their diameter, rather more than that interval from side eyes next to them and anterior-centrals, which are prominent, their breadth and a quarter apart, close to fore-laterals; side eyes nearly contiguous, seated obliquely on strong dark tubercles.

Legs slender, yellowish, first pair brown annulations at articulation of joints, marked—especially femora—with brown spots; lake-chocolate spots and annuli on hind pairs; armature black hairs, few bristle-like spines, strong curved hairs on metatarsi and tarsi of two hind pairs; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 8 teeth, 7 basal close, fine, terminal tooth strong, resembles free end; inferior claw fine, 1 long point.

Palpi short, yellowish, brown spots, stiff hairs on digital joint; palpal claw moderately curved, 5 teeth, increasing greatly in length and strength, small point at base.

Falces vertical, conical, rather divergent at apex, yellowish, clouded with brown.

Maxillœ long-oval, somewhat pointed, inclined towards lip, yellowish-reddish apices; labium oval, strongly convex, nearly half length of maxillæ, greenish-yellow, dark-red apex.

Sternum broad-cordate, greenish-yellow, mottled with olive-brown.

Abdomen oval, base truncated, hairs sparse, integument mottled with chocolate-brown and creamy colour; extending from base for about one-fourth along dorsal surface, is a narrow-oval creamy band with black margins, which project at right angles at either end; this part forms the petiole to the brown, black-margined, runcinate, leaf-like dorsal mark, in centre of which are a series of more or less defined somewhat triangular creamy-coloured marks. In centre of a greenish-yellow transverse eminence is the epigyne, which is brownish, reniform, concave; labia on posterior side moderately deep, and produced into a short, narrow, lip-like process, with incurved margins.

Several specimens. Canterbury, A.T.U.

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Theridium viridana, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1. Abd., long, 2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3; leg of 1st pair, 4 mm.

Cephalothorax pea-green, glabrous; sides rounded, moderately compressed forwards, fovea and normal grooves faint; caput comparatively long, broad, convex; contour of profile rises somewhat abruptly from thoracic junction, forms low arch across caput; clypeus vertical, height equals depth of facial space.

Posterior row of eyes sensibly procurved, separated by an interval equal to about twice their diameter, median pair on dark lake-coloured rings, have, with side eyes, a pearly lustre; anterior row recurved, nearly equidistant, rather closer to one another than are eyes of hind row; median pair dark, on black spots, as far from each other as they are from hind-centrals; laterals seated obliquely, nearly their radius apart, on separate dark tubercles.

Legs long, slender, yellowish-green; armature black hairs; 1 exceeds 2 a little in length, 3–4 nearly equal; superior tarsal claws—1st pair rather short, about 5 comb-teeth; inferior claw moderately long.

Palpi resemble legs in colour and armature; palpal claw fine, curved, about 6 teeth.

Falces strong, vertical, somewhat linear, greenish - straw-colour.

Maxillœ rather broad at extremity, inferior angle obtuse, projects over labium, which is conical, three-fourths length of maxillæ, darker yellowish hue.

Sternum cordate, glossy, deep straw-colour.

Abdomen narrow-ovate, bright pea-green, series of irregular shaped marks of a lighter hue, largest on fore-part and lateral margins; posterior end in most examples crimson. Epigyne prominent, red-chestnut, somewhat quadrilateral lip, sides incurved, apex rounded.

Frequents Leptospermum. Waiwera, A.T.U.

Theridium flabellifera, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1.8; broad, 1.4. Abd., long, 2.5; broad, 1.8. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 9, 5.5, 4.5, 3.5 mm.

Cephalothorax glossy, yellow-amber colour; oval, moderately compressed forwards; lateral index of caput nearly equals depth of facial space; median fovea small, oval, striæ irregular, but well-marked; contour of profile rises from thoracic junction at an angle of about 65°, very slight arch across caput. Clypeus convex, projects forwards, in height nearly equals depth of ocular area.

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Eyes on black rings, form two evenly curved rows, enclosing a narrow oval space, four centrals nearly form a square; posterior median eyes rather less than their diameter apart, more than that space from hind-laterals; anterior centrals dark, separated from each other by a space equal to their diameter, less than that interval from fore-laterals; side eyes nearly contiguous, placed obliquely on moderate tubercles.

Legs bright deep straw-colour; armature black erect hairs, few slender spines; first pair of legs longest and strongest; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 7 open teeth, not differing greatly in length or strength; inferior claw, free and directed outwards, 1 tooth.

Palpi resemble legs in colour and armature; palpal claw somewhat form of tarsal claw; teeth broken.

Falces conical, project sensibly forwards; yellowish.

Maxillœ straw-colour, somewhat spathulate, inclined towards labium, which is oval, nearly as long as broad, half length of maxillæ, deep yellow.

Sternum cordate, colour of lip.

Abdomen oviform, yellowish-olive, thickly marked with creamy-coloured flecks, fan-shaped mark on dorsal surface, forehalf heart-shaped, apex directed forwards, black-brown, margined and marked with reddish tints, posterior half narrow, linear, pale-yellow, irregular line of light-brown down centre. Epigyne transversely wrinkled eminence, orifice semicircular.

Taken on Leptospermum; Waiwera, A.T.U.

Theridium venustulum, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1. Abd., long, 1.9; broad, 1.3. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3. First pair, 6.4 mm.

Cephalothorax glossy, yellow-amber colour; broad-oval, moderately constricted at caput, which is roundly truncated; median indentation and normal grooves moderately marked; profile line rounded posteriorly, rises to occiput; clypeus projects forwards, in height rather more than half depth of facial space.

Eyes about equal in size, represent two curved rows, enclosing a narrow oval space, four centrals form a square, are separated by a space equal to rather more than their diameter, anterior pair dark; lateral eyes nearly contiguous, seated obliquely on small black tubercles.

Legs slender, yellow-amber colour, 1–4, reddish annuli at articulation of tibial and metatarsal joints; 1 exceeds 2–4 a little in length, two latter nearly equal; armature long hairs, few fine erect bristles; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 5 comb-teeth; inferior claw 1 short tooth, point behind.

Palpi like legs in colour and armature; palpal claw 6 comb-teeth.

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Falces pale stone-colour, somewhat linear, project sensibly forwards, strong teeth.

Maxillœ somewhat linear, rounded on outer side, yellowish; labium oval, rather broader than long, nearly half length of maxillæ, reddish-amber colour.

Sternum cordate, yellow-amber, glossy.

Abdomen oviform, projects over base of cephalothorax; light fine hairs, pale stone-colour, tinged with pink; median band broad, tapers off at either end, reddish-lake, pale margins. Ventral surface colour of dorsal, spinners small. Epigyne represents a moderate-sized, slightly concave space, encircled by a very narrow dark-brown membrane, the slightly tumid pale-brown margins curve towards each other on anterior side, but are disconnected by a narrow space.

Taken on Leptospermum; Waiwera, A.T.U.

Theridium albo-gullatum, sp. nov. Plate VIII., fig 11.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 1. Abd., long, 1.1. Legs 1, 2, 4, 3 = 6.2, 4, 3.3, 2.3 mm.

Cephalothorax areolate, glossy, yellowish-brown, small olivaceous flecks, chiefly along grooves and about caput, on forepart of which are few bristle-like hairs; broad-oval, compressed forwards, caput projects forwards, projection blackish; median fovea dark, large oval, striæ well-defined; contour of profile rises rather abruptly from thoracic junction, forms a faint curve across caput; clypeus projects forwards, height about equal to depth of ocular area.

Eyes large, posterior row sensibly recurved, median pair encircled by lake-coloured rings, have pearly lustre of laterals, nearly their diameter apart, about that interval from side eyes next to them; anterior row strongly recurved, centrals dark, largest of eight, three-fourths their diameter from each other, closer to fore-laterals, more than their breadth from posterior centrals; lateral eyes seated obliquely on somewhat triangular lake-coloured tubercle, nearly contiguous.

Legs long, moderately stout, yellowish, chocolate-brown annulations; femora of 1 darkest, 3–4 greenish tinge; armature long, stiff black hairs, few long fine spines, none on metatarsi; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 7 teeth; inferior, 2 small teeth.

Palpi rather short, humeral and cubital joints yellowish; radial somewhat crateriform, about equal to cubital in length; digital joint oviform, convexities hairy, directed towards each other, project beyond bulb; latter yellowish-brown, viewed from beneath it represents a smooth, convex, oval eminence; on fore-half is a somewhat circular, narrow, brown membrane terminating at apex in a short black spiral process.

Falces vertical, somewhat linear, glossy amber-colour.

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Maxillœ long, somewhat tapering, curved towards labium, which is broader than long, everted; organs yellowish.

Sternum broad-cordate, yellowish.

Abdomen oval, black-margined indentation at base; olive-brown; a series of oblique bands, formed of wreath-like clusters of large creamy-white flecks, with pinkish centres, extend from base to spinners, converging round lateral margins, leaving a long open space on forepart of median line, dark spot towards posterior end; sparsely clothed with long black hairs, few bristles; ventral surface brownish-yellow.

Two specimens, taken on webs formed of a few irregular lines, amongst long grass; June—July. Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Fam. Drassidæ.

Genus Drassus, Walck.

Drassus formicarius, sp. nov.

Male, immature.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 2. Abd., long, 6; broad, 2. Legs, 4, 1, 2, 3=8.5, 7.8, 7, 5.5 mm.

Cephalothorax chocolate-brown, sparsely clothed with short fine yellowish hairs; oval, convex above, compressed forwards, somewhat squarely truncated posteriorly; median striæ rather faint; contour of profile represents a nearly horizontal line dipping moderately at base; clypeus in height equals diameter of a fore-central eye.

Posterior row of eyes procurved, median pair oval, closer to one another than they are to hind-laterals a space equal to diameter of latter eyes, which rather exceed former in size; anterior row procurved, centrals largest of eight, about twice size of fore-laterals, separated from each other by an interval equal to rather more than their radius, closer, to side eyes next to them; space between laterals nearly equal to that between centrals.

Legs moderately strong, yellow-brown, broad olive-brown annulations at articulation of joints, faint or absent on terminal articles; armature fine hairs (on both specimens), only 1 spine at extremity of tibiæ and metatarsi of 4 pair; genual joints of 1–2 about equal in length, tarsi about one-fourth shorter than metatarsi; tarsal claws—1st pair, base straight, 4 open somewhat crooked teeth, point at base; claw of fourth pair, 8 teeth increasing in length and strength; hairs of claw-tuft dilated towards extremity, flattened, extend beneath nearly entire length of tarsi of 1–2, and along sides of metatarsi.

Palpi yellowish, humeral joint rather longer than cubital and radial together, latter articles about equal in length.

Falces rather short, conical, convex, divergent, project moderately forwards, greenish-brown.

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Maxillœ long, dilated and rounded at extremity, slightly curved round lip, which is conical, large, nearly equal to maxillæ in length, chocolate-brown.

Sternum long-oval, somewhat pointed at both ends, rugulose, chocolate-brown, white hairs.

Abdomen linear-oval, moderately convex above; greenish-slate colour, two broad, transverse, pale-yellow stone-coloured bands, disconnected on median line, about equidistant from each other and base of abdomen, a trilobate mark of similar hue above spinners, which have the same yellowish tint; sparsely clothed with short fine hairs; ventral surface light-brown.

I am indebted for the first specimen to Mrs. Nathan, who captured it on the walls of the Waiwera Hotel; the second example was amongst Mr. Joseph Mayo's collection, from Drury.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 5; broad, 3. Abd., long, 7; broad, 4. Legs, 4, 1, 2, 3 = 13, 12, 11, 10 mm.

Cephalothorax in colour and form resembles male, median indentation longitudinal, moderately marked.

Legs moderately stout, yellow-brown, faint annuli.

Palpi resemble legs in colour, short, dense hairs at apex of digital joint; palpal claw short, free end projects beyond hairs, teeth (?).

Abdomen does not differ essentially in form or coloration from males; epigyne lake-black, large oval, rugose, a somewhat hippocrepiform low eminence at anterior end.

Waiwera, A.T.U.

Fam. Thomisidæ.
Sub-Fam. Philodrominæ.

Genus Hemiclæa, Thorell,

Hemiclæa plautus. Plate VIII., fig. 9.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 6; broad, 4.2. Abd., long, 7.5; broad, 3. Legs, 2, 4, 1–3. = 24, 22, 17 mm.

Cephalothorax glossy, red-mahogany colour, sparsely clothed with light pubescence, strong black hairs about margins; oval, much depressed, moderately constricted forwards; caput squarely truncated, lateral index about equal to space between lateral eyes, two somewhat cuniform indentations on median line; thorax squarely truncated, median indentation longitudinal, caput and radial striæ moderately marked; clypeus in height nearly equal to diameter of an anterior central eye.

Posterior row of eyes sensibly recurved, median pair smallest of eight, closer to one another than each is to the hind-lateral next to it; anterior row straight, central eyes largest of eight, separated by nearly their diameter, about same space from hind-

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centrals, with which they form a trapezoid, more than their breadth from fore-laterals, latter eyes equidistant from hind-laterals and hind-centrals.

Legs moderately strong; yellow-brown, terminal articles red-mahogany; armature light pubescence, long, fine, erect black hairs; femora, on superior surface, 2 slender spines; tibiæ, about 3 on inferior side; metatarsi, 2 at base of article; on 1–2 scopula extends nearly entire length of penultimate joints; tarsal claws—1st pair, coarse, moderately curved; inner claw 15 teeth, 12 basal somewhat even comb-teeth, 3 terminal, coarse, curved backwards; outer claw, 4 coarse sparse teeth; claw-tuft linear, equals claw in length.

Palpi yellow-brown, long, slender; humeral joint long, group of 3 spines, dark hairs; cubital and radial comparatively short, latter reddish, produced above into a broad-subulate process; digital joint oviform, convex and hairy externally; bulb, reddish, large, directed backwards; viewed in front, somewhat hippocrepiform, face concave, concavity shallow, margins wide introflexed; on fore-part of bulb is a short, curved, black apophysis.

Falces short, somewhat conical, project forwards at base, reddish-black, two rows short teeth.

Maxillæ reddish-black, broadest at articulation of palpi, terminal half nearly linear, rounded, divergent; lip conical, apex rounded, about half length of maxillæ, blackish.

Sternum oval, yellow-brown, light pubescence.

Abdomen stone-brown, shading off to slate-colour on lateral margins, elliptical, base squarely truncated, much depressed.

Male bears a marked resemblance to the female,* differing chiefly in the actual and relative length of the legs, and slenderness of abdomen.

Te Karaka, A.T.U. Otago, P. Goyen.

Genus Philodromus, Walck.

Philodromus sphœroides, sp. nov. Plate VIII., fig. 10.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 2.6; broad, 2. Abd., long, 3.9; broad, 1.9. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 10, 9.9, 5.1, 5 mm.

Cephalothorax deep pea-green, in some examples lake-coloured about frontal region; broad-oval, slightly compressed forwards, caput index equals space between anterior lateral and posterior median eye furthest from it; median indentation and striæ not well-marked; contour of profile rises from thoracic junction at an angle of about 45°, slight slope across caput; clypeus nearly vertical, in height equal to three-fourths depth of ocular area.

[Footnote] * Vide description “Trans. N.Z., Inst.,” vol. xiii., p. 199.

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Legs pea-green, yellow tinge, metatarsi and tarsi red-lake; 1–2, and 4–3, about equal in length and strength, sparsely furnished with hairs, except at extremities, slight spines on femoral, tibial, and metatarsal joints; tarsal claws—1st pair, slightly sinuated, moderately long and curved; inner claw 12 teeth, 8 rather fine comb-teeth increasing in length, 4 coarse terminal teeth; outer claw 8 open teeth increasing much in strength, claw-tuft linear, equals claw in length.

Palpi shorter than cephalothorax, yellowish-green; humeral joint rather exceeds cubital and radial together in length; former projects a strong bristle, is widest at its articulation with radial joint, which is about equal in length, latter article produced, on outer side, into a broad curved apophysis, apex lobed; below it, margin is produced into a broad, curved apophysis, concave, apex directed inwards, lake-coloured; digital joint red-chestnut, oviform, convex and hairy externally, bulb moderately prominent; a spiral brown beading—in contact with face of bulb—starts from centre, follows margin of convexity, terminates at base.

Falces vertical, strong, rugose, greenish, clouded with lake-colour, more or less dark beading on outer side.

Abdomen cylindric-oval, bright pea-green, spinners usually lake-coloured.

Common on Leptospermum, male-female; many of the females taken at Waiwera were larger (max., 8 mm.; min., 5 mm.) than the single example captured at Lake Tekapo, Canterbury.* All had the coloration of the male. Clypeus of female in height equals three-fourths depth of ocular area. Palpal claw resembles tarsal in form, 5 rather coarse teeth.

Philodromus anbarus, sp. nov.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 1.9; broad, 1.9. Abd., long, 2.5; broad, 1.5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 8, 7.5, 4, 3.5 mm.

Cephalothorax as broad as long, sides rounded, slightly compressed forwards; dark pea-green, two broad lake-coloured bands converge from ocular area, which has same hue, along caput striæ as far as shallow median fovea, normal grooves faint; profile line rises at an angle of 40°, curves slightly across caput; height of clypeus rather exceeds space between anterior median eyes.

Legs slender, 1–2, 4–3, about equal in length and strength, brownish-yellow,’ suffused and annulated with dark-brown, hind-pairs greenish; armature few fine hairs, short spines on femora, genua, tibiæ, and metatarsi; tarsal claws—1st pair rather thick, curved, tip bent, 5 strong open teeth, form of free

[Footnote] * Vide description, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xiii., p. 44.

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New Zealand Spiders

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end, 1 short basal tooth; claw-tuft sparse, long, slender plumose hairs.

Palpi humeral and cubital joints green; former exceeds cubital and radial in length, latter articles equal; base of cubital slender; radial, yellowish-brown, somewhat linear, short bi-cornute apophysis on outer side; digital joint same tints, small, oviform, tapering, convex and sparsely haired externally; oval concavity on inferior surface, margins glossy-brown, reddish bulb in centre.

Falces broad at base, tapering, vertical, rugose; reddish-black.

Maxillœ inferior angle somewhat pointed, superior rounded, inclined towards labium, which is oval, more than half length of maxillæ; these organs have a rich chestnut hue.

Sternum cordate, green.

Abdomen cylindric-oval, resembles female's in pattern and coloration.

Numerous specimens; frequents Leptospermum. Waiwera.*

Philodromus ovatus, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 2.8; broad, 2.4. Abd., long, 3.5; broad, 2.2. Legs, 1–2, 4, 3 = 9.5, 5.5, 5 mm.

Cephalothorax pea-green, lake-colour about ocular area; broad-oval, slightly compressed forwards; caput roundly truncated, lateral index equals rather more than space of side eyes; median fovea shallow oval, normal grooves faint; profile line rises at an angle of 45°, slight arch across caput; height of clypeus nearly equals space between anterior median eyes.

Four central eyes nearly form a quadrilateral figure, posterior side slightly broadest; lateral eyes placed on prominent tubercles, nearly as far from one another as each is from the posterior lateral eye next to it; fore-lateral largest of eight.

Legs pea-green, faintly shaded with lake on anterior surface of femora and tarsi; 1–2 about equal length, former slightly stouter; slender spines on femora, double row under tibiæ and metatarsi; few, somewhat irregular spines on 3–4; black hairs, numerous at extremities; tarsal claws—1st pair, 8 teeth, 7 coarse divergent teeth, 1 short tooth at base; inner claw 12, except 2 basal, open, somewhat coarse teeth; claw-tuft longer than claw, hairs linear; scopula hairs on tarsi.

Palpi like legs in colour, about twice length of falces, black hairs, few strong bristles; palpal claw form of tarsal; 5 strong, open, somewhat even teeth.

Falces vertical, conical, broad at base, greenish.

[Footnote] * The female was described (“Trans. N.Z., Inst.,” vol. xiii., p. 44.) from two examples in Capt. T. Broun's collection; owing to the action of spirit, the cephalothorax and legs were erroneously described as amber-colour, instead of pea-green.

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Maxillæ broadest at extremity, obliquely truncated, inclined towards lip, which is triangular, more than half length of maxillæ, greenish-yellow.

Sternum cordate, greenish-yellow.

Abdomen oblong-ovate, moderately convex above; pea-green, white oval mark runs through six impressed spots; marginal zone corrugated, shaded with lake; ventral surface greenish; epigyne greenish-yellow; fore-part represents a well-defined circular band, labia on posterior side, confluent carinate, dividing organ into concave circular depressions.

Taken on Leptospermum, single specimen; Waiwera, A.T.U.

Fam. LycosidÆ.

Genus Lycosa, Latr.

Lycosa adumbrata, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 4; broad, 2.7. Abd., long, 4; broad, 3. Legs, 4, 1–2–3 = 12.5, 9 mm.

Cephalothorax oval, moderately compressed forwards; yellow-brown, marginal zone dark-brown, from ocular area, which is brown-black, a large oval brown mark extends to base of thorax, posterior portion of caput yellow-brown, striæ dark, well-marked, median-line on thorax, and radial striæ yellow-brown; a narrow, oval, grooved eminence occupies crown of thorax; lighter parts and facial space clothed with short adpressed whitish hairs, erect black hairs on caput; contour of profile rises at an angle of 70°, slopes forwards with an even curve, dipping abruptly at second row of eyes; clypeus vertical, in height equals space between first and second row of eyes.

Anterior row of eyes small, sensibly procurved, laterals slightly the largest, rather closer to median pair than the latter are to each other, a space about equal to their diameter and a quarter; eyes of second row large, about one-third larger than dorsal eyes, less than their radius from laterals of anterior row, separated from each other by an interval which slightly exceeds their diameter; eyes of third row placed obliquely, rather further from one another than they are from eyes of second row.

Legs long, moderately strong; one pair rather stoutish, 1–2–3 about equal in length; yellow-brown, narrow well-defined brown annuli, 4 on femora, 3 on tibiæ and metatarsi; armature fine erect hairs, 2 or 3 short spines on femoral joints, 6 or 7 long slender spines on tibial and metatarsal joints; superior tarsal claws—4th pair, strong, evenly curved, 8 somewhat coarse open teeth; inferior claw thick, no teeth.

Palpi yellowish, fine hairs, long slender bristles, few spines; palpal claw short, thick, 4 coarse open teeth.

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Falces somewhat conical, vertical, sharply convex, redmahogany colour, few longitudinal dark streaks, white hairs.

Maxillæ spathulate, brownish-red, inclined towards labium, which is somewhat oval, more than half length of maxillæ, dark-brown, numerous short white hairs.

Sternum broad-cordate, dark-chocolate colour.

Abdomen oval, yellow-brown, clouded with black-brown; lighter tints clothed with white hairs—with the exception of an acuminate mark, which extends from base for two-thirds along dorsal line; four broad, irregular, somewhat acute-crenate transverse bands; dark patches clothed with dark hairs. Ventral surface lighter than dorsal, whitish hairs; spinners yellowish, short. Epigyne brownish, moderately prominent, oval, centrally produced, on anterior side, into a tapering projection, labia tumid, obliquely truncated on posterior side, concavities at truncation lake-coloured.

Single specimen. Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Fam. AttidÆ.

Genus Attus, Walck.

Attus aquilus, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 1.5. Abd., long, 1.8. Legs, 4, 1, 2–3.

Cephalothorax rugulose, elevated; thorax less than one-fourth longer than caput, latter slightly compressed forwards; chocolate-black, moderately clothed with orange and white papillæform hairs; contour of profile rises from thoracic junction at an angle of about 60°, slopes forwards across ocular area; clypeus very narrow.

Anterior row of eyes slightly recurved, close to one another, irides chiefly whitish hairs; posterior eyes not prominent, slightly further from each other than they are from anterior laterals; small intermediate pair closer to fore-laterals; ocular area one-third broader than long.

Legs: 4 slightly exceeds 1 (2 mm.) in length; 2–3 about equal in length; femoral joints brown, sparsely furnished with white and orange papillæform hairs; other joints yellowish, brown annuli at articulations; three curved fine spines on superior surface of femora, latter joints of 1–2 stout; metatarsal spines stronger than tibial; tarsal claws—1st pair, outer, 1 strong tooth; inner claw about 13, 12 close teeth, 1 strong terminal tooth; claw-tuft linear, equals claw in length.

Palpi yellow-brown, radial and digital joints yellowish, white hairs.

Falces short, applanate, in length rather more than diameter

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of an anterior central eye; transversely wrinkled, yellow-brown, base dark.

MaxillÆ somewhat quadrate, slightly rounded. Labium oval, broader than long; organs yellowish, base dark, lips darkest.

Sternum somewhat ovate, chocolate-brown.

Abdomen oviform, projects over base at cephalothorax; moderately convex above, rugose, black, sparsely-clothed with orange and white papillæform hairs; spinners long, bright-brown. Epigyne moderately prominent, large, transverse oval, centrally divided by a broadish keel, fluted margins, within concavities, terminate on anterior side in dark spiral processes.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 1.5. Abd., long, 1.2.

Cephalothorax of male does not differ essentially from female's in form—slightly broader—or colour.

Legs 1–2 strong, femoral joints applanate; 1 pair stoutest, genua and tibiæ strong, former article nearly equals latter in length; metatarsi and tarsi about equal.

Palpi brownish, few white hairs; humeral joint strong, three-fourths length of palpus; cubital short, broadest at its articulation with radial joint, which is somewhat cupuliform, projects on outer side, a fine-pointed, curved, black apophysis; digital joint large, oviform, yellowish, convex and hairy externally, bulb large, somewhat conical, apex directed backwards, dull orange-red, short black spine-like apophysis projects downwards and outwards from fore-part.

Abdomen projects rather over cephalothorax, and is more pointed at either end than female's; red mahogany hue, clouded with dark-brown, sparsely clothed with papillæform hairs.

The cephalothorax in some female specimens has a red-mahogany hue, clouded with black-brown; abdomen mottled with yellowish-brown and dark-brown.

Captured on rocks about road-cuttings; Waiwera, A.T.U.

Attus bimaculosus, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 2; broad, 1.5. Abd., long, 2.5; broad, 1.3. Legs, 4, 1, 2, 3.

Cephalothorax yellow-amber colour, two black spots on caput, rarely absent; few erect hairs; median fovea circular, shallow, contour at profile rises from thoracic junction at an angle of 45°, slight indentation at fovea, slope across caput, which projects forwards; clypeus in height is equal to rather more than radius of a fore-lateral eye, yellowish hairs about eyes and clypeus, directed somewhat centrally.

Eyes on large black spots, anterior row curved, nearly half radius of lateral eye apart; dorsal eyes form with fore-laterals, which they equal in size, a quadrilateral figure, whose transverse side is greatest.

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Legs clear yellow - amber, more or less distinct reddish-brown annulations, few fine hairs; first pair stoutest, nearly equals fourth in length, short curved spines on femoral joints; first pair genua nearly equal to tibiæ in length, 6 spines on latter; metatarsi slightly exceed tarsi in length, on former 4 long spines exceeding article in length; tarsal claws—1st pair evenly curved, outer claw 1 strong tooth; inner claw about 16 close even teeth, 1 strong apical tooth; hairs of claw-tuft linear, pointed.

Palpi resemble legs in colour, fine light hairs, slender bristles.

Falces vertical, short, as broad as long, length equal to diameter of an anterior central eye; rugose, yellowish.

Maxillæ rather broader than long, inferior angle obtuse, project over labium, which is oval, apex everted; clear yellow.

Sternum oval, yellowish, black coarse hairs.

Abdomen squarely truncated at base, which rises abruptly from petiolum, which is exposed, tapers towards spinners; creamy-yellow, two broad somewhat clouded marks of a darker hue extend along dorsal surface, ending near spinners in a series of short oblique bars; clothed with few fine hairs; on forepart of epigyne are two circular dark-margined fovea, centrally divided by a narrow keel, posterior projection cyathiform, about twice as long as broad, black margins.

Examples of immature males do not differ essentially from females.

Taken on shrubs and old logs.

Whangarei Harbour, T. Broun; Waiwera, A.T.U.

Attus sub-fuscus, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 4; broad, 2.5. Abd., long, 4.5; broad, 2.5. Legs 4, 1, 2–3 = 8, 7, 6 mm.

Cephalothorax dark mahogany-brown, few fine yellowish hairs, widest at fore-part of caput, rounded posteriorly; median fovea large, circular, shallow; profile line rises at an angle of 45°, depressed at fovea, slopes across caput; clypeus narrow, less than space between central eyes, projecting hairs.

Eyes, anterior row sensibly curved, median pair nearly contiguous, laterals about half their radius from centrals, irides bright orange-red hairs; dorsal eyes are slightly smaller than anterior laterals, and the interval between them rather less.

First pair of legs stoutest, red-mahogany colour, hind pairs yellowish-tinge, faintly annulated; femora have short curved spines on superior surface, spines on tibiæ and matatarsi; tarsal claws well curved, outer claw 1 strong tooth; inner 15 close even and 1 strong terminal tooth; claw-tuft linear hairs.

Palpi light-brown, digital joint dark, grey hairs, bristles.

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Falces short, oval, nearly as broad as long, rugose, rich red-chestnut.

Maxillæ broader than long, inferior angle projects over labium, which is oval, everted; red-orange, pale apices, furnished with coarse black hairs.

Sternum oval, olive-brown, black and white hairs.

Abdomen oviform, dark-brown, clothed with fine pale-yellow, orange-tinted hairs, and coarse black hairs; lateral margins longitudinally wrinkled, hairs chiefly growing in depressed lines; large conical brown mark, margins pale on ventral surface; spinners long, orange-red; epigyne moderately prominent reddish-brown eminence, on the face of which there are two large circular depressions, divided by a keel more than their diameter in breadth.

Some examples have a broad light-brown lanceolate mark on median line, on fore-part are two angular brown marks, apices directed forwards, above spinners are a series of small oblique angular marks.

Taken on shrubs, Cordyline; Waiwera, A.T.U.

Explanation of Plates.

Plate VII.

Fig. 1. Epeira corrugatum, sp. nov., male-female, twice natural size; a palpus; b, epigyne.

Fig. 2. Epeira tri-tuberculata, sp. nov., female, twice natural size.

Fig. 3. Epeira orientalis, sp. nov., male-female, one-third larger than natural size; a, palpus; b, epigyne.

Fig. 4. Epeira sub-compta, sp. nov., female, twice natural size.

Plate VIII.

Fig. 1. Epeira tri-tuberculata, epigyne.

Fig. 2. Epeira verutum, sp. nov., var. hastatum, nov., twice natural size; a, epigyne.

Fig. 3. Nephila argentatum, sp. nov. female, twice natural size; a, palpus of male.

Fig. 4. Thlaosoma pennum, sp. nov., female, three times natural size.

Fig. 5. Ariamnes conifera, sp. nov., female, eight times natural size.

Fig. 6. Ariamnes triangulatus, sp. nov., female, eight times natural size.

Fig. 7. Linyphia blattifer, sp. nov., palpus of male.

Fig. 8. Theridium melanozantha, sp. nov., palpus of male.

Fig. 9. Hemiclœa plautus, sp. nov., palpus of male.

Fig. 10. Philodromus sphœroides, sp. nov., palpus of male.

Fig. 11. Theridium albo-gullatum, sp. nov., palpus of male, viewed from beneath.

Note.—Chief errata, Vol. XVIII., p. 185, lines 15, 16 from the top, for “tarsi,” read “tibiæ; line 36, for “talica,” read “labia”; p. 186, line 5 from below, for “tibiæ” read “libia” p. 187, line 16 from below, for “free, and,” read “free end” (throughout paper); p. 188, line 15 from below, for “pea-shaped,”read “pear-shaped”; p. 202, line 13 from below, for “general,” read “genual.”

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Art. XI.—On the Work of Earth-worms in New Zealand.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 14th November, 1886.]

Although it has become generally known, since the publication of Mr. Darwin's researches, how rapidly surface débris is buried through the action of earth-worms, the result of a few observations may, nevertheless, be worth recording, as they afford means of comparison between the work done by the New Zealand and the British species. The comparative weight of their castings, and an estimate of the number of earth-worms usually found in some of the cultivated and uncultivated lands in Auckland District were given in a former paper, “On the Habits of Earth-worms in New Zealand.”*

A section was described, the result of the work of worms, chiefly the common Lumbricus campestris, but only an approximate estimate could be arrived at as to the length of time which it had taken for the surface - charred debris to sink to an average depth of about 5 ¾ inches. The section when first exposed, in 1875, showed an average of 4 ½ inches of black vegetable mould, free from stones, etc., and a horizontal layer, nearly 1 inch thick, of charred wood, burnt marl, fragments of jasper, and pumice, lying on the subsoil, a brownish-green arenaceous clay. In October, 1883, (i.e., in eight years), the depth of mould had increased 1 ¼ inches, giving an average depth of about 5 ¾ inches above the burnt layer; during the past three years there has been an even average increase to the superficial layer of nearly 1 inch, the total depth now being rather more than 6 ½ inches.

Considering the depth of vegetable mould above the charred layer, this certainly appears to be a considerable increase for so short a period, but apparently the estimate is correct: it is in all probability to be attributed, independently of the increase of worms since the land has been in grass, to the moisture and nature of the subsoil. Worms living in lands with a moist substratum continue to work at a low level, not only during the short intervals of dry weather that occur in the spring months, but as long as there is sufficient moisture; whereas in the upper lands, during these dry intervals, the worms cease to work, retire temporarily to their chambers, coil themselves up, and remain apparently in a dormant state until rain sets in again.

On the 15th October, 1883, a layer of charred wood and broken

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., 1883, p. 266.

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brick was strewed on the surface, above the former layer, and a similar strip of débris was also scattered in a grass paddock on the upper land, ordinary light clay soil, with a moderately hard subsoil. Although the spot selected was rather favourable for earth-worms to work in, the amount of castings ejected on the surface may be taken as a fair average for the whole field. Sheep were occasionally grazed in the field; but considering how soon small fragments disappear beneath the surface, probably their treading did not much influence the result.

Owing to there being no well-defined line between the dark mould and substratum, no estimate of any value can be given as to the probable amount of subsoil that has been brought to the surface during the past three years; but a record will be kept of any marked increase in the depth of the vegetable mould, the average depth now being about 5 ¾ inches. At the present time the section in the trench shows, the grass being shaved off close to the surface, an average of ⅞ths of an inch of brownish-black mould, free from coarse material, and a horizontal layer of charred wood and broken brick half an inch thick, forming an even line round the vertical sides. This means that in three years, or rather during the working months of that interval, through the agency of earth-worms, ⅞ths inch of mould has been added to the superficial layer—mould that has been enriched with vegetable and animal matter, passed the bodies of the worms, and ejected as castings on the surface.

This annual working of the superficial mould effects a remarkable change in the character of our fern-lands in the course of time—that is, after they have been cultivated, or, more especially, if left in permanent pasture, for 10–15 years, and have become fairly stocked with worms. There are, no doubt, other agencies that, under the circumstances, tend to improve the soil, but, more particularly in the case of permanent pastures, only minor agencies.

From the number of earth-worms that live in most of our old pasture-lands, it is evident—independently of the experiment given above—that, as Mr. Darwin has shown, the superficial mould must pass over and over again through their bodies, and be brought to the surface. It is hardly necessary to point out the value such work must be to the agriculturist, especially when taken in conjunction with the loosening of the subsoil by their burrows and chambers, which in time become more or less filled up with their castings and the dark viscid linings of the walls. These moist and nourishing galleries, penetrating, as a rule, to a depth of 6–15 inches beneath the surface, must tend to draw the roots of the vegetation to a depth that they would not otherwise attain.

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The test in the lower land (mentioned above), a black arenaceous loam, was submitted to rather severe conditions—that is, the coarse wood-ashes and broken brick were spread over a thick sward of cocksfoot grass, from which stock is always excluded. Last September, when the strong grass was shaved off close to the surface and a trench opened up, the section, in the vertical sides of the walls showed that all the débris was buried beneath an average depth of rather more than ⅜ths of an inch of mould; the layer forms a horizontal line ⅞ths of an inch in thickness, but most of the débris is more or less entangled amongst the roots, consequently does not represent a compact and well-defined line; some of the fragments of brick, about 1 ½ inches square, weighing over loz., have sunk about ½ inches beneath the surface. This irregularity is to be attributed to the fragments having remained entangled amongst the grass for a more or less length of time, consequently buried at various intervals. It will be observed that there is a difference of about half an inch between the increase to the superficial layer in the upper and lower lands, which is easily accounted for: it was an oversight on my part that, when the débris was scattered over the latter, a portion of the grass was not skimmed off; this would have given the worms a fair chance of more rapidly burying the material thrown over it; however, this error will be remedied before next winter.

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The larger of the two stones mentioned in the former paper, which was laid on the turf in May, 1876, when raised on the 15th October, 1883, left a cast 2 inches in depth; when again examined on the 26th September, 1886, it was firmly embedded, and required some force to raise it; the most protuberant point was 3 inches beneath the level of the surface, the raised margins being removed; the flatter portion had sunk 2 6/10 inches; worm burrows were numerous beneath. The smaller stone, which was placed near the former in September, 1882, sank in thirteen months 1 inch; on the 26th September of the present year it had attained a depth of 2 inches below the general level of the ground; its convex margins were partially covered with worm castings and grass; it will, if left undisturbed, soon become entirely buried beneath the surface. It is well, perhaps, to bear in mind that under favourable conditions, through the agency of earth-worms, it is possible for a stone 6 ½ inches long, 3 ⅜ inches broad, and 3 ⅜ inches in thickness, to disappear below the surface of the ground in about seven or eight years.

The experimental stones laid on the turf on October 15th, 1883, when recently examined gave the following results:—

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No. 1, triangular block of trachyte, 6 inches high, when raised left an impression 6 inches long, 4 4/10 inches wide, depth below general level of the ground 1 2/10 inches.

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No. 2, 4 inches in thickness: cast, long, 6 8/10 inches; wide, 6 inches; slopes from surface to a depth of 1 2/10 inches.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

No. 3, average thickness 4 inches, bottom irregular: cast, long, 8 inches; greatest width, 5 5/10 inches; average depth, 1 4/10 inches.

These stones were surrounded with the usual margin of fine vegetable mould, were rather firmly embedded, and had not been raised since they were first laid down; beneath were numerous worm-burrows.

The researches which I have carried out during the last three winters, with the rather vague hope of affording some evidence that earth-worms possessed, to a limited extent, a sense of direction (for it may be assumed that there is such a sense), have, owing chiefly to the unnatural conditions to which they had to be submitted, not been by any means conclusive.

Although it was very improbable that, when worms left their burrows and wandered about for considerable distances after more or less heavy rain, they ever returned to them, as it was possible that on ordinary nights, when they sometimes only wander for a short distance from their burrows in search of food, that they might intentionally return to them, I thought it worth while to endeavour to determine if such was the case, as earth-worms certainly appear not to be devoid of a low form of intelligence. In the centre of boxes, 2 feet square, a small hole was pierced, a shallow vessel was placed beneath the orifice, filled with moist siliceous sand, with the hope that it would be the means of compelling the worms to come to the surface in search of food. Four or five of our large Lumbricus uliginosus were placed within each box—the boards having been well damped. As is almost invariably the case when worms are placed in confinement, in the first instance they travelled round the margins (when placed in pots containing well-pressed earth they finally force their way down the sides, rarely towards the centre); after attempting for 15–20 minutes to burrow into the boards, or scale the walls, one or two of the more vigorous, possibly more intelligent, struck out across the centre; after a few traverses they finally, as a rule in about 30 minutes, discovered and entered the artificial burrow. About as often as not, all the worms had found out the entrance before the morning; but in some instances, part or all, after crawling for a time round the sides of the box, finally huddled up into a corner, and would have died there, had they not been removed. Although tempting baits consisting of their favourite food, onion bulb, etc., were placed close to the mouth of the burrow, the worms rarely came to the surface; when they did, and left the burrow to wander about, apparently in most instances they never

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returned to it, but remained alongside the walls. In hopes of affording them greater inducement to return, tufts of grass were placed in the centre; but the result was not satisfactory, as they appeared never to leave them, probably owing to there being no inducement for them to do so. Although the fact that some of the earth-worms after coming to the surface and wandering about returned to the burrow, by no means proves that the act was intentional, the fact that the majority of them never did so, hardly disproves the possibility of their possessing sufficient intelligence to do so. Considering the unfavourable conditions to which they were submitted, and that they must necessarily have been weakened through want of food, it could hardly be expected that they would under the circumstances have acted with the same freedom and intelligence as when in their natural haunts.

Art. XII.Notes on New Zealand Earth-worms.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 4th August, 1886.]

The habits of New Zealand earth-worms receive the smallest share of attention from naturalists of any group of our native fauna. This is to be expected, as the study of worms requires much time and patience, and the attractions in a young country among the higher groups is greater, especially one like New Zealand where so many anomalous forms exist, that little time is given to some of the lower orders. Some notes, therefore, on earth-worms, made during eleven years of almost daily experience with them in several localities in the South Island, will contribute a little towards a knowledge of their habits.

As the habits of some of our earth-worms differ considerably from others, I propose to give notes on each species separately, of all I am acquainted with, and the locality where I have collected them. This will enable other workers who may be studying earth-worms in various parts of the country to compare their own observations. This appears to me a sound method of working out perfectly the habits and distribution of all species.

Like other groups of animals, earth-worms vary in their habits, size, and colour, according to the nature of the soil or situation they inhabit; but, so far as I have ascertained, our worms differ, distinctly in some respects, from the British species, so ably treated by Mr. Darwin, in the construction and form of their burrows. I think I will be able to show that New Zealand earth-worms, whether kept in pots in confinement or

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in their natural state, differ much in their economy from the British Lumbricus; but more especially in the peculiar semicircular and distinctly branching burrows they construct. This, however, does not apply to all species, as there are others which cannot be said to construct any particular form of burrow: those species, for instance, which live and bore, or burrow, in every direction in loose decaying vegetable matter, or rotten wood, in the bush. The habit of lining their burrows with leaves or other materials is absent with worms in Canterbury and Otago. Mr. A. T. Urquhart, in an excellent paper “On the Habits of Earth-worms in New Zealand,” * has shown that the habit obtains with worms inhabiting the Auckland District. He has also shown that they are content with drawing in leaves to the mouths of their burrows; but he thinks they are chiefly for food. The same habit prevails with worms in Canterbury and Otago; but here in the South, where they live beneath gravel-walks, they draw small stones over to conceal the mouth of the burrows, when not protected by the usual covering of viscid castings. My notes have been gathered in the country between the Rivers Rakaia and Kakanui, and I do not venture to treat of worms beyond the limits of these rivers, although no doubt they will be found to vary little.

Between the two rivers, a distance of 115 miles, worms abound in all the forests, hills, downs, and plains; in some districts they are abundant, in others they occur sparingly. Wherever a clearing is made in the forests they are very active in favourable weather, and throw up immense quantities of castings on the surface. Worms increase in numbers more rapidly in forest clearings than in open pastures; it is due to the mould containing much decayed matter, which they so much relish. They are plentiful beneath dense beds of ferns, or any undergrowth in the forest, and occur sparingly on all the diverging spurs of Mount Peel, Rangitata, up to 4,000 feet. If a prostrate log in the bush be rolled over, large numbers of worms of several species will sometimes be found secreted beneath it; the same may be said of flat stones, and slabs of wood. About farm homesteads, where old bags are left lying on the ground, worms gather beneath them in great numbers, especially during moist or wet weather. They appear to prefer the shelter of rotten bags lying on the surface; it is probably for warmth, as they do not generally burrow beneath them.

In old forests, where small streams flow through them, sections of considerable thickness are often exposed in their banks; at depths varying from 10 to 40 inches a distinct layer

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., pp. 266–275.

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of black mould is visible. These layers appear to have been once the open land inhabited by worms, before the forest spread over it. As the vegetation flourished, the decaying matter from it in the form of leaves, bark, and rotten wood, assisted by the actions of worms, made up in time the superficial mould as we find it to-day in forests. The Canterbury Plains, near the north terrace of the Rangitata River, is covered in some parts with 2 ½ to 4 inches of brown friable mould. It is doubtful whether worms ever existed there in any numbers, as the greater number of various-sized stones lying on the surface exhibit few signs of sinking, and must have remained on the surface for many ages. A few are slightly embedded, while others show a slight impression as if produced by their own weight; the same will be noticed by many on other parts of the Plains, in passing over in the train. These portions of the Plain are exposed to fierce north-west winds, which blow during the spring and early in the summer with terrific force, down the gorges of the Rangitata and Rakaia Rivers, carrying away the finer mould, and depositing it over the Plains along the eastern or lower side.

Worms greatly dislike wind, and, so far as I have ascertained, do not rise to the surface to change quarters, to feed or pair, during dry or cold windy nights, unless accompanied by heavy rains, when they are sometimes flooded out of their burrows. It is during the spring and summer that worms are most active; on mild nights they rise to the surface and pair, and can often be seen lying long after sunrise. I am, therefore, inclined to believe that their absence from those parts of the Plains is chiefly due to their exposure to the dry and fierce “nor'-wester.” On some parts slight depressions occur. After heavy rains small lakes are formed for a time, but generally disappear in a few weeks. The mould in such places is much deeper, and worms more numerous, than on the more stony parts. Although in a few places stones are not seen on the surface, they have sunk through the action of worms, and lie only a few inches below the scanty covering of turf.

Near the banks of the River Hinds, nine miles north of the Rangitata River, where the thick tussock grass breaks—or a few years ago broke—the fury of the wind, worms begin to be more numerous, and along the sea-board for miles inland the land is deep and strong. It is also comparatively free from stones, and worms are abundant. The common Acanthodrilus uliginosus was a few years ago the more numerous. Another larger and undescribed species, of very sluggish habits, is found near the edges of permanent swamps. The other species occurring on the Plains are Endrilus annulatus, E. campestris and E. levis, the first-named of the three being the commones. Beneath the great terrace on the north side of

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the Rangitata, there is some excellent land, where worms exist plentifully, and at all seasons, when the weather is favourable, throw up large quantities of castings. The soil, excepting in the swampy parts, is slightly sandy, and probably has been blown on to it from the river-bed by the strong wind. I have no doubt that the great depth of rich mould along the sea-board of Canterbury has been added to considerably by the storms of fine mould blown by the “nor'-westers” from the hills and western portions of the Plains. Some of the stony parts that have been ploughed within the last eight years, and sown down in grass, show signs of worms increasing, by the greater number of castings thrown up annually. When cutting the crops of grain, farmers put little value on the straw, and set the knives of the reapers to clear the stones on the surface. When the grain is threshed out, the straw is sometimes left to rot in large heaps. When trodden down by cattle or sheep, the ground around the mass soon becomes inhabited by Endrilus levis.

Agriculture is favourable to the increase of worms. It is due to the land being loosened by the plough and sweetened by the atmosphere. Worms are the natural fertilizers of the soil, and in favourable weather are constantly replenishing it by the addition of fresh castings. The enormous area of land in New Zealand at present sown down in English grass, will be greatly enriched in a few years for future cropping, through the action of worms. In mild weather, and at all seasons, worms eject more castings on bare patches free from grass, sheep tracks, or well-beaten paths across fields, than on ordinary pasture land, even when many years in grass, but no more than on old lawns that are kept well-mown and rolled. I think this can be explained by the paths and lawns being firm and compact, and having no interstices where they can eject their castings. If burrowing afresh in solid ground, they are compelled to void all the mould they swallow on the surface.

During heavy rains, pools of water are sometimes formed on bare paths; as the weather becomes fine, and the water drains away, a fine sediment or “film of mud” settles on the surface; worms are then very active, and in a few days almost cover the site of the pool with dark mould. As the worms work vigourously, and appear especially to relish the mould, it is probable that many nutritious particles accumulate in the pools, and sink into the earth with the water as it drains away.

Worms throw up castings abundantly in corn-fields, between the stalks of grain, but not for some time after the land settles down; heavy rain settles the ground in a few days. While it remains loose, the worms eject their castings in any crevice. They delight in moist but not wet land, and in dull mild days throw up castings as well as during the night. I first observed this by castings appearing on a tennis lawn through the day,

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that had been well rolled in the morning. Some days more are thrown up than others. On those days they are ejecting mould, birds can often be seen flying on to lawns and drawing worms from their burrows.

Some curious sections can be seen on some of the low flats of some Canterbury rivers, notably at the Rakaia, Hakatere, and Tungawai. They consist of thin alternate layers of fine sand and mould. After the deposition of the thin layer of sand, the worms appear to have thrown up a few inches of mould, when another layer of sand was again and again deposited over it. Heavy rains also wash down quantities of fine silt and clay from the clay-banks or “facings” at Albury, and deposit them over the flats below. The worms in a short time throw up abundance of castings; the clay soon becomes perfectly mixed with the mould, and forms land of great depth and good quality.

The cold and wet season of 1884 was specially suited to the actions of earth-worms. Many English grass paddocks adjoining the Haketere or Ashburton River, and broken up eleven years, were daily closely covered with fresh castings. In some parts the whole surface had the appearance of having been covered with a thin covering of dark mould. Many of the castings were of considerable size, and measured in height from ¼ to 1 ½ inches. Owing to the continuous wet weather, it was impossible to collect and weigh them accurately from a measured space, but the amount of mould thrown up must have been considerable, compared to other seasons. On the low undisturbed land, elevated only a few feet above the river, fresh castings were numerous, some portions covered with a fine layer of sand had also a sprinkling of them on the surface.

Worms living in gardens, in cold weather, often cluster together into any piece of rank, loose, or half-decayed manure buried in the soil. Such no doubt is warmer and more pleasant to their bodies; it is also more porous, and allows the wet to percolate through. In rich well—worked gardens, Endrilus annulatus and E. campestris attain their largest size: both species often assume a blackish hue; the former in colour, when inhabiting pastures, is whitish-pink; the latter is generally brownish-red. Both species, with Endrilus levis, are often found between the outer leaves of cabbages and lettuce, and consume much of the softer parts. They cling in great numbers around the stems of blanched celery, and nibble at the more tender parts, often proving very destructive. Although A. uliginosus is found in gardens, they prefer the shelter of large trees in the orchard, or strawberry-beds, to the more cultivated parts, and are not so numerous as the three last-named species, which certainly are the commonest garden worms. They do much injury in flower-pots, and impede the growth of plants by boring or burrowing through the mould,

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disturbing and consuming the tender roots, and absorbing all nutritious particles from the soil. If pots are thus infected, and the plants carefully turned out, it will be seen that they keep chiefly to the sides of the pots. The burrow or track against the side is generally open. The tender feeding-roots can be seen “pressed into the walls,” and their actions choked in the viscid lining of the burrow. They deposit their castings among the drainage cracks beneath the mould, and, if not removed, will sometimes effectually choke the drainage. Worms, especially half-grown specimens of Endrilus annulatus, occasionally hibernate in pots, even when the conditions are favourable for their actions.

Some of our worms present some problems, which, as yet, I have not been able to solve. I have already mentioned a large undescribed species existing in a few swampy places on the Plains. Here, near Oamaru, it exists as a more diminutive species, although the conditions appear equally favourable for its development. In one particular swamp, on the south side of the Rangitata Gorge, it attains its maximum size, some specimens measuring 13 and 14 inches, and varies much in colour from each locality, from yellowish-white to dark reddish-pink.

The diseases of earth-worms are little known; yet they are subject to some of a virulent type. I have seen a few individuals of A. uliginosus with hard excrescences on different parts of their bodies. They appear to be painful to the animals, as the slightest touch on one of them causes the worm to shrink. The disease first appears as a small hard pimple, and increases gradually in size. It sometimes almost surrounds the worm's body. At this stage the swelling softens and opens, and the intestines protrude, tinged with blood, when the miserable creature finally rots away.

Mr. Darwin, in his “Vegetable Mould,” page 14, remarks: “After heavy rain succeeding dry weather, an astonishing number of worms may sometimes be seen lying on the surface.” He believed that they were “already sick,” and that their deaths were “merely hastened by the ground being flooded.” He thought if they had been drowned “they would have perished in their burrows.” After many years experience with worms, under all circumstances, I am fully convinced that severe and protracted droughts are both distressing and destructive to them. When drought sets in they are compelled to hibernate, excepting those affecting the edges of permanent swamps. If it be severe, the mould becomes so intensely hard that they are unable to escape, and many perish with exhaustion. If the drought be succeeded by heavy rains, many survive; while some appear to have only sufficient strength to struggle to the surface and die from the same cause, probably accelerated in their weak state by a little cold or exposure. I think this is borne

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out by the appearance of their limp and emaciated bodies; but, whatever may be the cause of their deaths, I am of opinion that they die more from the lack of the necessary moisture in the mould they inhabit, than from actual disease.* Mr Urquhart, who has paid some attention to this subject, and who collected worms roaming about after heavy rains, says that they were certainly not all sick, as he obtained healthy as well as sickly and dead worms; but in the case of the healthy ones they were no doubt flooded out of their burrows, and searching for drier ground when picked up. However, that worms are sometimes drowned there is no doubt, as any one can observe after heavy rains. When the water sometimes forms large pools in paddocks, numbers of dead worms are seen lying on the bottom. If it occurs in the spring or summer, the little grey Tern (Sterna antarctica) soon detects them, and small flocks hover and circle about the pools, dipping into the water every few minutes and picking up the dead worms.

Protracted droughts do incalculable injury to the land, not only in destroying worms, but in preventing their actions from replenishing it. The summer and autumn of 1885 and 1886 have been the driest on record, and the most disastrous to earth-worms, that of 1884 the coldest and wettest, but well suited to their actions and the most beneficial to the land.

Mr. Urquhart states that the greatest enemies of worms in the district of Auckland are the Limosa baueri (Var. Redrumped Godwit) and Larmus scopulinus (Mackerel Gull). Here in the South, undoubtedly their strongest enemies, excepting in the more settled districts, are the Weka (Ocydromus australis) and Swamp Hen (Porphyrio melanotus). Both species, being of nocturnal habits, come in for the lion's share. Both the introduced blackbirds and thrushes consume immense numbers. The old adage, “The early bird catches the worm,” is most appropriate when applied to both species. The abundance of worms in settled districts, combined with their habit of lying paired, or roaming about on the surface after daybreak, may be said to be one of the chief causes favouring the great increase of both these English songsters. They, however, do not lose their finer relish for strawberries and other fruits, as they have already gained the same ominous name in this

[Footnote] * Mr. Darwin has fully discussed the effects of an English winter on earth-worms. After observing their movements on the surface, he remarks: “On these occasions, very few dead worms could anywhere be seen,” and continues, “on January 31st, 1881, after a long-continued and unusually severe frost, with much snow, as soon as a thaw set in the walks were marked with innumerable tracks;” but no further mention is made of dead worms

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respect as in England.* In the springtime, when lands are ploughed, millions of sea birds, coming inland to breed, follow the plough, and subsist for weeks and months on worms. Several species of birds come a long distance from their nesting-place to follow the plough, and obtain food for their young. When mild weather, with sunshine, succeeds heavy rain, worms often lie in loose mould near the surface. The weka is then very busy, and digs them out with its powerful bill, and consumes great quantities. I have dug up a number of worms, from time to time, minus their tails. I think that during the process of ejecting their castings they are sometimes attacked by birds, which with a quick snap of their beaks tear away a portion of the worm's body. If the tail of a worm be seized with the fingers, when protruding from its burrow, it has great power, and it would be almost impossible to extract it without injury. If only a few segments of the tail are removed, the worms apparently suffer little or no inconvenience, and, if placed in pots, continue active and throw up castings.

The burrows of New Zealand earth-worms form a curious and striking contrast to the British species, described by Mr. Darwin in his valuable work on “Vegetable Mould.” He says, “they run down perpendicularly, or, more commonly, a little obliquely.” He doubted if they branched in solid ground, and adds: “As far as I have seen this does not occur, except in recently-dug ground, and near the surface.” Mr. Urquhart, in his paper already mentioned, states that he “met with instances in which the burrows branched in solid ground, but the branching merely consisted of two short lateral passages at the termination of the burrow, leading into two distinctly separate chambers,” and adds, further, “it is not unusual for two separate burrows to terminate in the same chamber.” Mr. Urquhart, however, does not name the species inhabiting these forms of burrows.

I have already stated that our worms construct semicircular and distinctly-branching burrows. I will select those of A. uliginosus, as it is a common species, and its burrows large. They can be more easily examined than those worked by the smaller forms. In order to examine them perfectly, I have been in the habit of stripping off the turf or covering of

[Footnote] * Probably the best introduced bird is the English starling (Sturnus vulgaris), which is increasing at an unprecedented rate. In settled districts it can be seen in troops of many thousands, busily picking over the ground infested by the larvæ of Odontria striata. Besides consuming great numbers of worms, it bids well at present to exterminate the native Locustina, as they have almost disappeared from districts where the birds are numerous. It would, therefore, be well for collectors to secure abundance of specimens in all districts where the starling is likely to increase.

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dead grass with a sharp spade until the mouths were exposed. I then pour a small quantity of a weak saturated solution of corrosive sublimate into the burrow. No sooner does it come in contact with the animal's body than it starts to the surface. Sometimes they rise 12 or 15 inches from the mouth of the burrow where the solution is poured in, but invariably at the mouth to which the worm's head is directed. I never saw one leave its burrow tail first, except when it was a new one in course of making.

Another method of testing the form of these burrows is to insert a fine pliable twig (a weeping-willow answers well) into them, passing it through from one mouth to the other. It is at times difficult to do this, unless the solution be used, as the worms will often refuse to leave the burrow, or when both mouths are close together on the surface, or branches in other directions. When the twig is passed through, it is then easy to dig away the mould or clay on one side and examine the burrow. The two or more mouths vary from 2 to 18 inches apart. When they meet close together on the surface, the worms often lie in the morning with portions of their bodies exposed, with head and tail down each mouth of the burrow, as if enjoying the sun's warmth; but the habit causes the death of many, as the keen eyes of the weka and swamp-hen detect them, and the birds snatch them from their burrows.

When they are working in a considerable depth of rich mould they do not always line their burrows, especially in mild weather. Others, again, are partially lined, being dotted over sparingly with “small globular pellets adhering to the walls.” When living in clay or clayey land the walls of the burrows are thickly lined with viscid earth, and can be examined perfectly, as the dark lining of the burrow contrasts well with the clay. The latter being colder, accounts for the greater thickness of lining. In depth, the burrows vary from 4 to 20 inches; those of the young worms are generally about 3 or 4 inches. It is difficult to dig up whole burrows without fracturing them, yet I have succeeded in raising some perfect ones, which I will forward to the Colonial Museum. When frosts or droughts set in, many of them hibernate for a time; the chambers in which they hibernate are sometimes excavated on one side of the burrow, or a few inches from its walls, but commonly in the middle, and form an enlargement. The chambers are always lined with viscid earth; in addition to this they are often saturated with slime from the animal's body, this forms a cool and slimy bed; they then roll themselves up in the form of a ball, or lie coiled in a circle, with the head in the centre. I have dug them out tied in a perfect knot, or in the form of a running noose, with head and tail placed together. After hibernating for some time, especially in

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dry weather, many of them become pale and almost transparent; their bodies also become limp, compared to those that remain active in moister places.

Where two or more worms are found in one burrow, or in separate chambers attached to or leading from it, it can only be explained by some finding their way into them during the night, when roaming about on the surface, and when the mouths of the burrows are open. I have observed that when worms are numerous in solid ground, their burrows often enter or run into each other; they then have the appearance of branching burrows, but the difference can be detected, as a perfect one is either semicircular, or branches gradually like railway points, usually but not always at the bottom, or turn, and rises again to the surface. If worms are about to hibernate, they sometimes descend perpendicularly to a considerable depth, and turn a few inches horizontally before they excavate their chambers; the mould is generally voided in the channel leading from the main burrow, and effectually shuts off the worm from any contact with the cold or dry air.

In some of the branching burrows may often be seen quantities of fresh castings packed tightly into them. The difference between dark mould washed in from the surface, or from the broken walls of a burrow, can be distinguished from castings voided intact, as the latter retain their perfect vermiform shape for a considerable time. There is no doubt whatever that the New Zealand earth-worms “use old burrows for the purpose of voiding their castings in,” as abundance of them can be found in clay, or clayey lands, perfectly packed with them, both fresh and old. The habit of voiding castings, or pairing in their burrows, must tend to the preservation of worms in districts where their enemies are numerous.

During the last summer, undoubtedly the hottest and driest on record in this province, the sun cracked the land which these worms inhabit to a great depth. In order to ascertain the depth they burrowed under the circumstances, we dug several holes, and found them chambered at from 20 to 49 inches from the surface.

Early in September of last year one of the ploughmen informed me that he was ploughing a piece of land on the banks of the Waiareka Creek which contained great numbers of large worms. I went out next day, and followed in the wake of the plough, collecting specimens and examining the burrows. The land was the same peculiar adhesive mould already mentioned, and the worms were numerous and large. Previous to this the weather had been mild, and suited to their actions. The burrows were very perfect, nearly all being of the semicircular form. The air echoed with the delighted cries of gulls, stilts, and terns, all eagerly devouring the large worms.

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In regard to the number of worms living in gardens, cultivated fields, and undisturbed Native land, I have made many tests. Worms like naturally rich and even strongly-manured land, but occur plentifully in some districts in poor soils. In an old kitchen-garden on the Rangitata they averaged 7 per square foot; in a similar one at Albury they averaged 8 per square foot; and in another in North Otago, cultivated seventeen years, the average was 7 per square foot. Worms are more numerous in old pastures than in gardens; in some paddocks in the Waiareka Valley they vary from 5 to 16; at Ashburton, on the Plains, paddocks broken up ten years had an average of 8 to each square foot, but they are often found twice more numerous in some parts of the same paddock than in others. In the winter of 1884 we were planting some pines on a piece of Native land, where A. uliginosus was plentiful; at six different places on the slope we dug out a square yard, and counted the worms, which numbered in each as follows: 11, 8, 7, 13, 9, 6; but in some places, lower in the valley, they are more numerous.

The habit of worms rising to the surface and leaving their burrows, caused by beating the soil or other disturbance, is peculiar to two species, Endrilus campestris and E. annulatus. As far as I know, this only occurs on loose ground, particularly in gardens or swampy land that trembles when treading on it. Occasionally, though rarely, they do so in pasture, when the land is soaked after heavy rains; but no manner of beating, or treading, will drive them to the surface in fine weather, either in pastures or on lawns, when they are a few years old, and the ground solid and favourable for their actions. The reverse is the case in loose garden mould: almost any piece not dug for several months, if trod on, or beaten with a spade, will bring some to the surface. This instinct is a subject for speculation; and after experimenting with a view to ascertain the cause, I have no doubt that the sudden breaking or crushing of the burrows causes the worms to extricate themselves and rise to the surface. Both are very sensitive and timid species, and the sense of fear highly developed in both. This considered, I think that any sudden shaking of the mould, or collapse of the burrows, would cause the animals instantly to free themselves, by rising to the surface; but possibly the habit may be acquired from living in loose mould.

I have never lived long enough in one locality to experiment with the sinking of large stones or other bodies, through the actions of worms; but Mr. Urquhart, from experiments made in the Manukau District, has shown that they sink sooner in New Zealand than in England; the gravel on garden walks also sinks much earlier in this country, but the greater number of worms will account for this. There is no doubt that the

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accumulation of mould increases more rapidly in our climate than in countries where the winters are long and severe.

The habits of our earth-worms kept in pots differ also from the British species, and are the same highly sensitive animals. If the pots are placed in the open air, they plug the mouths of the burrows with castings, but never plug them or line the burrows with leaves or other materials. They consume fresh or tainted meat; they especially relish the small soft leaves of the common chickweed (Stellaria media). As many as four and five are often drawn into one burrow in a single night. They nibble at almost every variety of mixed fruits or vegetables placed on the pots, and swallow quantities of pounded glass, brick, oyster-shells, and small stones, to aid in the trituration of their food. They are greatly benefited by a change of fresh mould occasionally, and burrow vigorously through it for days after, as if searching for the more nutritious particles it contains. When worms are kept in a limited quantity of mould they become weak and sluggish in their habits. If experiments are tried with worms in penetrating hard compressed soil, or sand, specimens of the same species fresh from the pasture will penetrate it much quicker than those which have been previously kept in confinement. When the mould in pots is pressed down hard, the worms construct the most perfect semicircular and branching burrows, and line them perfectly with viscid castings. The best results are obtained by putting one worm in each pot, according to the size of the animal, but the larger the pot the better, if obtainable.

The following is some account of six species, the other two recorded species (Megalosolex antarctica and M. lineatus,) I have had no experience with:—

Acanthodrilus (?) uliginosus.

Lumbricus uliginosus, Hutton, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. ix., p. 351.

Acanthodrilus (?) uliginosus, Hutton, “N.Z. Journ. of Science,” vol. i., p. 586.

Professor Hutton gives this species as 9 inches in length. This is about the average size, although it attains the length of 12 inches. It appears to be distributed over the whole length of the islands, as Mr. Urquhart mentions it occurring in the Auckland District; and I bear from a correspondent that it is plentiful at Riverton, in Southland. In some districts, in suitable soils, it is exceedingly abundant. It attains its greatest size on low-lying, moist flats, or near the margin of sluggish streams, where it is not much disturbed by the plough. It is sparingly found in poor and stony soils, but does not thrive so well as or attain the size of those living where the land is richer and moist. It is a more active species than its larger congener, and during dark damp nights in spring and summer they leave

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their burrows in prodigious numbers, and move about on the surface; some are in search of food; some to pair; while others seek new ground to burrow afresh. The nights they appear on the surface, the weka and swamp-hen commit great havoc among them. In some parts of the Waiareka Valley, near Oamaru, the land is intensely adhesive; if ploughed when a little wet, it adheres to the plates of the plough and causes it to stick fast in the furrow. In this particular mould this large species exists in enormous numbers, and attains a great size. From the adhesive nature of the mould, the castings they eject retain their size and form for a long time, and are not so easily defaced or washed away by heavy rains as those thrown up on friable loam. Some thrown up by the larger worms resemble the one figured by Mr. Darwin,* but not so large or perfect. I have not seen an analysis of this mould, but after experimenting with a number of the worms, by handling the animals with the bare hand, and mixing the secretions with the other soils, I am of opinion that its tenacity is chiefly owing to its being saturated with the intestinal secretions of these animals. The same result is obtained by placing a number in a large flower-pot containing friable loam; in a few months it is changed to a rich adhesive mould. The land, however, is well suited for growing wheat, a yield of 70 to 80 bushels per acre being commonly obtained on it. As winter approaches, any castings standing up are soon pulverized by frost, and form small heaps of fine mould on the surface.

Acanthodrilus, sp. nov.

This undescribed species is the largest yet discovered, and although I have stated that it varies in size and colour in different localities, individuals are met with much larger than the largest forms of A. uliginosus. It is found living chiefly in clay, or clayey soils, and its habits are more sluggish than the last-named species. It is limited in its range, being confined to a few places in the districts I have examined. In one spot, a few miles below the Rangitata Gorge, the largest forms are found. Its colour in this locality is reddish-pink. It also occurs in a few places on the Canterbury Plains. At Oamaru I find it in one place, a small swampy patch of Native land; but here it exists as a more diminutive species, and never attains the size of those living in the two other localities. Its burrows are peculiar, as they are more commonly found running horizontally, than perpendicularly or obliquely. They appear to burrow in this manner when inhabiting solid clay. The burrows are of no particular form, but wind in all directions, generally, horizontally, and near the surface, especially if the clay be wet.

[Footnote] * “Vegetable Mould,” p. 129.

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When living in deep clayey land, as at the Rangitata Gorge, their burrows have often two distinct mouths, and frequently resemble the letter Y. They work deeper in the mould, usually preferring the clayey subsoil. The dark superficial mould is intermixed with clay, voided in old chambers by the worms. Sometimes the burrows run a few inches horizontally at the bottom. I have never observed this species hibernating, but the habit of living in damp clay may account for it not doing so.

Endrilus (?) levis, Hutton.

Lumbricus levis, Hutton, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. ix., p. 351.

Dygaster (?) levis, Hutton, “N.Z. Journ. of Science,” vol. i., p. 586.

This species abounds plentifully in heaps of rotten dung, or any decayed vegetable matter. It attains its greatest size in the bush, among moist beds of dead leaves, or leaf-mould, when its colour is paler and very distinct. It is also found, as Professor Hutton states, “in gardens and fields,” and is “a variable species, sometimes of a greenish hue.” If seized with the fingers, or touched in any way, it secretes a yellow fluid having a fetid odour, which is most distasteful to birds. Caged birds will generally reject it if any other food is obtainable. It is common in Peel Forest, in parts where the mould is deepest and moist. It is somewhat sluggish in habit; and numbers can often be found lying paired beneath slabs of wood, or rotten logs, in which it sometimes bores between the bark and decaying wood, generally on the under surface. It delights most in wet decomposing manure. I have observed it in a matted mass, in the bottom of an open drain leading from a gentleman's kitchen, living in the slimy, soapy pulp. After much wet weather, which causes celery to rot in the trenches, they cling to and nibble at the tender or rotting parts. Where numerous, the rotten celery occasionally partakes of their offensive odour.

Endrilus (?) annulatus, Hutton.

Lumbricus annulatus, Hutton, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. ix., p. 352.

This species is the commonest form in all the localities where I have examined; it abounds in gardens and pastures, and is met with in almost every quality of land, from peaty soil on low flats to dry friable loam several thousand feet up the slopes of the ranges; it increases rapidly as the land becomes broken up. It is a very variable species in colour and size, being met with from pale-pink to brownish-black. When living in peaty soil they are pale, and never attain the size of some specimens living in well-manured gardens. When heavy rains fall on newly-dug ground, they often leave their burrows and move about on the surface, leaving a distinct track behind them. This species has the habit of lying closer to the mouth of its

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burrow than any other, and is more consumed by birds. It is about 5 to 1 more numerous than any other species. In the summer, during damp mornings, it may be seen moving about on the surface of lawns or pastures, moving its head to and fro, searching for food among the short grass. It has the habit of lying or working close beneath the surface of the mould; this occurs in fine weather after heavy rains, it then falls an easy prey to the weka, which roots them out with its strong bill, and consumes vast numbers. Hundreds can sometimes be seen dead in ditches, or in paddocks where water lodges on the land, after storms of rain.

Endrilus (?) campestris, Hutton.

Lumbricus campestris, Hutton, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. ix., p. 352,

Dygaster (?) campestris, Hutton, “N.Z. Journ. of Science,” vol. i., p. 586.

This species is found plentifully in gardens; more so in old ones cultivated some years, than in gardens recently made. A very variable species: Professor Hutton gives its colour as “reddish or olivaceous-green.” In good garden soil it is sometimes almost black, with the clitellum “reddish-brown” and very distinct; I have collected specimens on poor soil clear red. If held before the light of a lamp at night, it is almost transparent. It is a very sensitive and active form; it prefers medium dry to wet land; in gardens in summer it collects into strawberry-beds or under the shade of trees in the orchard: it appears to have a strong liking for both cos or cabbage lettuce, as I find it often between the inner leaves, nibbling at the tender edges. It delights to live in the rot-heap of kitchen gardens, where the refuse of all vegetables is thrown to form manure; it climbs through the heap in all directions, subsisting on the decaying matter. Common in some districts in the open land.

Megalosolex sylvestris, Hutton, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.” vol. ix., p. 351.

This species is plentiful in some places in Peel Forest, It lives in the rotten centres of prostrate trunks, or in the bark. It appears to prefer the dampest parts of the forest. It occurs in the fine mould which often accumulates around the bottom of the stems of tree-ferns. Colour, “dark red-brown.” The young is generally lighter in colour. If placed on level ground, it has a curious habit of wriggling or twisting itself violently about.

The actions of earth-worms on the Canterbury Plains in former times is of much interest, as a little reflection will show that the accumulation of the mantle of mould now covering them must have proceeded at an exceedingly slow rate. The

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enormous mass of shingle and sand which underlies the mould would, after their deposition, on account of their great power of absorbing moisture, naturally retard the action of worms for many ages. I have no doubt that worms, or their seed capsules, were transported across the plains by floods in the great rivers, and some probably lodged in the fine silt or sand often deposited on the edges of the streams, leaving them to effect a footing at many places. Some of the best land in the Colony is found on parts of the Plains. The plantations and fences now planted will in a few years serve to break the wind in the more exposed parts affected by the dry north-west gales, and naturally assist the actions of earth-worms. It is well known that some of the heaviest yields of grain are grown in New Zealand, and no one who has examined a heavy crop of wheat growing in this country could fail to observe the astonishing height and thickness of the stalks. This applies to land broken up and in crop for the first time. Mr. Darwin has said that archæologists in England “ought to be grateful” to earth-worms for the preservation of many antiquities of the Roman period. In New Zealand, naturalists are indebted to them for the preservation of many valuable bones of the moa and other extinct birds, and for ethnological relics, buried beneath their castings.

Although earth-worms are “lowly organized” forms of life, any time given to observing their habits is well spent, and only by patient observation can their fertilizing actions on the land be realized.

Note.—Since the foregoing was written, the great drought of the past season has broken up, and been succeeded by the greatest rainfall recorded in New Zealand in a short space of time, and destructive floods, equalled only by those in the memorable year 1868. To show, however, the disastrous effects of droughts on earth-worms, when followed by heavy rains and floods, I will add a few facts which will tend to strengthen my theory of accounting for the death of large numbers of worms. From the 10th to the 24th of July, rain fell sufficient to moisten the land to the depth of 2 inches, but no worms were observed moving on the surface during this time. At Christchurch, heavy rains fell almost continuously from July 28th to August 11th, and the Canterbury Times of August 13th had the following note on worms:—

“An extraordinary number of worms were observed on August 9th, in the side-channels in Gloucester Street. The little creatures, who had evidently been washed out of the earth at various points, seemed to have called meetings of the homeless poor at various points along the road. Just below the

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Public School, there must have been a barrow-load of wrigglers in a heap—a large and excited meeting. Further on, by Latimer Square, there was a more thinly-attended meeting, at which those present seemed to have given it up as a bad job, and decided to take no action.”

At Oamaru, heavy rains fell from 10th August to the 22nd. During the afternoon of the 17th, the rain abated for several hours. Large numbers of weakly and apparently healthy worms were then observed moving in all directions on the surface, while some parts of the fields and public roads were literally strewn with the dead bodies of others; but all were of the three smaller species which inhabit open lands. The intestines of nearly all I examined were quite empty. A few only contained minute quantities of clay, which showed that they had burrowed into the clayey subsoil. At the end of the month many of the lakes and pools formed by the heavy rains had subsided. The bottoms of some were covered thickly with the dead bodies of earth-worms in a putrifying state. The drift weeds clinging to wire fences and gorse hedges through which the floods had passed also contained numbers of dead worms. On the hills and downs where they rose to surface they were instantly swept down the slopes, or scoured out of the earth by the numerous small streams formed by the heavy and incessant rains. The weather during the whole period being exceedingly mild, I think their deaths were not in any way accelerated by cold, although vast numbers of both weakly and healthy worms perished by drowning.

I am not sufficiently versed in the anatomy of earth-worms to discuss the subject fully; but I think that, were a number of them collected under the circumstances I have described, and forwarded to some specialist to report on them, it would doubtless settle the question, and explain the cause of their death. Although severe droughts or excessive moisture may generate disease among some species of worms, I am of opinion that more perish from exhaustion during droughts, or from the effects of it, than any other known cause. At Dunedin and other parts of Otago the rainfall for the month of August varied from 16·12 inches to 19·52 inches, and the destruction of worms during the same period was prodigious. These facts are of great interest in illustrating the effects of extremes in seasons on the actions and mortality of earth-worms.

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Art. XIII.—A Description of the curiously-deformed Bill of a Huia, (Heteralocha acutirostris, Gould), an endemic New Zealand Bird.

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 9th August. 1886.]

Plate IX.

A short time ago I received from a kind correspondent, a settler dwelling in the interior forest-land, the head of a Huia in a fair state of preservation, which he had then recently obtained from a Maori. This head is that of a female bird; the upper mandible of its bill being greatly and strangely deformed. From about 1 inch, or one-fourth of the normal length of the upper mandible from its base, it suddenly rises and remains at an angle of 45°, forming a regular ascending and suberect spiral of two large and equal curves, each being of ¾-inch open interior diameter; not unlike a gigantic corkscrew, and reminding one of the horn of the Strepsiceros. (See Plate IX.)

The total length of this deformed mandible, following the curves, is just 6 inches; its breadth at the widest part about the middle is 4 lines, which part is also flat above, and is devoid of nostrils; and its end or tip is sharply pointed, and vertical upwards; throughout its whole length it is much thicker, rounded, and very obtuse on the right side or edge, while the left edge is thin and sharp; the lower thin marginal base of the right edge of the mandible is also much produced and sharp, evidently larger than ordinary, arising from, I think, not having been worn away in use; while the corresponding opposite edge is much worn, being almost the only part of the upper mandible that could possibly be brought into serviceable contact with the lower mandible; its colour, too, is not that sure ivory-white of the healthy and normal bill, but more like that of common whitish horn.

The lower mandible is 2 ¾ inches long, being very much shorter and not so much curved as this portion of the bird's bill is in the normal state. The tip, too, is much more blunt, and is slightly worn or broken; on the left edge near the base is a tolerably large, worn depression or notch, where the upper mandible must have closed upon it in the efforts of the bird on receiving its food.

There is not the least indication of the upper mandible ever having been broken or bruised, and afterwards, in healing and using, grown out of its common natural form, and thenceforward assuming its present shape. The inference, therefore, is

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that this bird must have been hatched with this peculiarly aberrant upper mandible; and, while we may reasonably suppose the parent birds assiduously fed it for some considerable time beyond the usual period of their young remaining unfledged, still, how it afterwards could have managed to exist and grow up seems truly wonderful! Especially when we consider the usual native food of the Huia, which consists of the larvæ of some of our largest beetles, (e.g., Prionoplus reticularis,) obtained by the bird industriously pecking and probing rotten logs and wood, much after the manner of the common Woodpecker. Besides, from its very strange configuration, it appears to have been far worse than merely useless, for it must have been always an obstacle in the way, and the means of keeping the bird's mouth always open.

From the general appearance, as well as from the extreme length, of this upper mandible, I should infer the bird to have been an aged one; for, according to Dr. Buller, the length of the bill of the female bird is from 4 to 4 ½ inches; but this upper distorted and unused mandible is no less than 6 inches long, while the lower one, which should correspond as to length, is only 2 ¾ inches! So, here we have two patent facts: 1, that the upper amorphous mandible grew continually, without being worn away through use; and, 2, that the lower one, having extra and constant work to perform, was consequently worn down and made defective far beyond its normal state and its natural power of growth-producing horn.

I have said that this head had belonged to a female bird: this is known by the greater length of the bill of the female bird, which is also narrower and much more curved than that of the male. For, while the bill of the female ordinarily measures about 4 ¼ inches, that of the male is only 2 ¼ inches, and is much more stout and strong, more wedge-shaped, and, consequently, less curved. Indeed, so great is the difference existing between the male and female birds in the form and length of their bills, that formerly, and for some considerable time, owing to their rarity and the scarcity of good specimens, the two birds were by our first ornithologists at Home believed to constitute two distinct species, and were consequently published as such.

I have already remarked that it seems almost a mystery how a bird with such a strangely deformed and all but useless bill could have managed to obtain its native food, so as to subsist and grow. We may, however, obtain a little light on this somewhat dark subject from an interesting paper on the Huia, written by Dr. Buller some 15 years ago for the Wellington branch of this Institute, and published in the third volume of their “Transactions;” Dr. Buller having had the peculiar and almost unique advantage of observing for more

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than a year the habits of these birds while living in confinement; and from his pleasing paper I shall quote a few passages bearing more particularly on this part of my subject.

In the beginning of his paper, Dr. Buller observes:—“Their peculiar habits of feeding, which I have described from actual observation, furnish to my own mind a sufficient ‘reason’ for the different development of the mandibles in the two sexes, and may, I think, be accepted as a satisfactory solution of the problem. In the summer of 1864 I succeeded in getting a pair of live birds. I kept these birds for more than a year; and when the male bird was accidentally killed, the other, manifesting the utmost distress, pined for her mate and died ten days afterwards.”

“The readiness with which these birds adapted themselves to a condition of captivity was remarkable. Within a few days after their capture they had become perfectly tame, and did not appear to feel in any degree the restraint of confinement; for, although the window of the apartment in which they were kept was thrown open and replaced by thin wire netting, I never saw them make any attempt to regain their liberty.”

“They were fully adult birds, and were caught in the following simple manner. The Maori who had caught them attracted the birds, by an imitation of their cry, to the place where he lay concealed; then, with the aid of a long rod, he slipped a running knot over the head of the female and secured her. The male, emboldened by the loss of his mate, suffered himself to be easily caught in the same manner. On receiving these birds, I set them free in a well-lined and properly—ventilated room, measuring about 6 feet by 8 feet. After feeding freely on the huhu grub, a pot of which the Maori had brought with them, they retired to one of the perches I had set up for them, and cuddled together for the night.”

“It was amusing to note their treatment of the huhu. This grub, the larva of a large nocturnal beetle (Prionoplus reticularis), which constitutes their principal food, infests all decayed timber, attaining at maturity the size of a man's little finger. Like all grubs of its kind, it is furnished with a hard head and horny mandibles. On offering one of these to the Huia, he would seize it in the middle, and, at once transferring it to his perch and placing one foot firmly on it, he would tear off the hard parts, then, throwing the grub upwards to secure it lengthwise in his bill, would swallow it whole. … I sent to the woods for a small branched tree, and placed it in the centre of the room: it was most interesting to watch these graceful birds hopping from branch to branch, displaying themselves in a variety of natural attitudes, and then meeting to caress each other with their ivory bills, uttering at the same time a low affectionate twitter.”

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“But what interested me most of all was the manner in which the birds assisted each other in their search for food, because it appeared to explain the use, in the economy of nature, of the differently formed bills in the two sexes. To divert the birds, I introduced a log of decayed wood infested with the huhu grub. They at once attacked it, carefully probing the softer parts with their bills, and then vigorously assailing them, scooping out the decayed wood till the larva or pupa was visible, when it was carefully drawn from its cell, treated in the way described above, and then swallowed. The very different development of the mandibles in the two sexes enabled them to perform separate offices. The male always attacked the more decayed portions of the wood, chiselling out his prey after the manner of some Woodpeckers, while the female probed with her long pliant bill the other cells, where the hardness of the surrounding parts resisted the chisel of her mate. Sometimes I observed the male remove the decayed portion without being able to reach the grub, when the female would at once come to his aid, and accomplish with her long slender bill what he had failed to do. I noticed, however, that the female always appropriated to her own use the morsels thus obtained. For some days they refused to eat anything but huhu, but by degrees they yielded to a change of food, and at length would eat cooked potatoe and raw meat minced up into small pieces.”

Dr. Buller also goes on to say that “Dr. Dieffenbach, in forwarding his specimens of the Huia to Mr. Gould in 1836,” [error, lege, 1839–41] “wrote:— ‘These fine birds can only be obtained with the help of a Native, who calls them with a shrill and long-continued whistle, resembling the sound of the Native name of the species. After an extensive journey in the hilly forest in search of them, I had at last the pleasure of seeing four alight on the lower branches of the trees near which the Native accompanying me stood. They came quick as lightning, descending from branch to branch, spreading out the tail and throwing up the wings.” (l.c.). From Dr. Dieffenbach seeing four on that occasion, I have little doubt of their being two pairs.

Moreover, and in further confirmation of much of the foregoing, I may briefly add what have at various times in past years, while travelling, come casually under my own notice respecting this bird. In some year in the decade of 1850 (I forget the exact one), I was, as usual, returning on foot from my annual journey to Wellington by the coast line, when one morning early, on the beach by the side of a small stream near Cape Turakirae (the west head of Palliser Bay), I suddenly came upon a single Maori, who had just then taken six of these birds, three males and three females; some were dead, killed in the capturing, and some were still alive. He told me that he

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had seen them there on the low-stunted karaka trees (Corynocarpus lœvigata) the day before; and so, having prepared his materials, had returned thither early that morning, and had succeeded in taking them.* I am, however, not certain (now) that he had captured all. I might have bought them from him for a small sum, but I was too far away from my home in Hawke's Bay, with a long and heavy journey before me, and had no means at hand for preserving their skins. At that time (before, and for many years after), there lived at Mataikona, near Castle Point, a very curious eccentric old Maori chief named Pipimoho—a true type of the skilled old Maori tohunga, or knowing-man! Pipimoho was the only one in these parts who knew how and where to capture these birds; and this for a long time was his annual occupation, once or twice in the year to go to the inland forests from the East Coast, (to Puketoi and its neighbourhood), to snare the Huia; and this was done to supply the principal chiefs of Hawke's Bay—Puhara, Te Hapuku, and Hineipaketia, his superiors in rank. This quaint old man only died about three years ago. From him I have received many a curious and interesting relation, always wishing I had more spare time at command to obtain more.

I have also seen this bird in captivity with the Maoris, kept in a large light cage of network for the sake of its tail-feathers (rectrices), which were plucked as they arrived at maturity; the Maoris fed them with cooked potatoes, and other similar soft vegetable food.

Dr. Buller, in the same paper, also mentions, and gives the figure of, a larger and more highly curved form of the bill of the female bird than is usually met with. (Loc. cit., tab. iii., fig. 3.)

Further, I may also briefly state that, among the Parrots, the Maori Kaka, (Nestor meridionalis, Gml.), which I have formerly seen kept in confinement by the Maoris, I have noticed a few with very deformed upper mandibles; those birds had been kept by them for several years, and were aged, and being fed only (and sparingly!) on soft vegetable food, generally cooked potatoes, their bills, from want of their regular natural attrition on the harder substances of the forest, became overgrown and deformed. Indeed, the poor prisoners had not the common chance allowed them of biting and tearing their perch, or any wood (and this from mere thoughtlessness and carelessness, or long-continued custom, on the part of their Maori owners), for they were invariably kept fastened by a bone ring or carved

[Footnote] * The finding of those birds here, far away from the forests and close to the sea-beach, is opposed to Dr. Buller's statement as to their narrow restricted mountain-forest habitat. (loc. cit., p. 24.)

[Footnote] † See “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xiv., p. 54, for a pleasing anecdote concerning him.

Picture icon

Curiously Deformed Bill of Huia.

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circlet around one leg, and thus tied securely, but loosely, with a strong short cord to a slender polished cylindrical hard-wood spear, up and down which, for the space of 2 or 3 feet, the poor bird ran and danced and flapped his wings, always without water, and frequently in the hot burning sun, without any shade. These birds, however, were of great use to their owners for decoying other parrots for food, which through their means were often at set seasons slaughtered in large numbers.

Now, from all those interesting facts and observations relative to the habits and economy of the Huia, we may, I think, gather:—1. That these birds are quiet and social. 2. That they keep together in sexual pairs, and are therefore likely to be monogamous. 3. That the cock and hen are greatly attached to each other. 4. That they naturally and mutually help in their search after their own proper food. 5. That they can and do, without difficulty, make a thorough change in their diet or food, from animal to vegetable substances. And so, I think, we may reasonably conclude that the unfortunate female bird, to whom belonged this unnaturally distorted and almost useless upper mandible of her bill, was helped throughout a long life by her kind and attentive mate.

Art. XIV.A Description of a large and new Species of Orthopterous Insect, of the Genus Hemideina, Walker.

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 9th August, 1886.]

Fam. Locustidæ.

Genus Hemideina.
Hemideina longipes, sp. nov.

Male.—Body smooth, legs and palpi hairy; general colour dark red-brown clouded with black. Head, rather small elliptic-globular, slightly wider than prothorax; eyes large, sub-lunate, gibbous, broadest above, horny integument filled with minute quadrangular facets; clypeus ochraceous, transversely rugulose above; labrum large, longitudinally ridged in the centre, minutely pitted and creased, yellowish spotted with dark-brown, with a few small vibrissæ; maxillary palpi very long, about 1 inch, slender, finely pubescent, three last joints nearly equal, last the longest, tip slightly clavate, hollow (? or extreme point wanting), pale coloured; labial palpi rather short, stoutish, second and third joints of equal length, colour pubescence and hollow tips as in maxillary palpi; antennæ, etc. … Thorax shining: prothorax 5 lines wide, slightly

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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

concave, dark-brown mottled with black, and a black transverse band within each margin, edges thickened, brown; mesothorax and metathorax each 2 ½ lines wide, dark-brown with blackish mottlings; sternum of thorax, coxæ, trochanters, and femora below light-chocolate brown and very glossy, coxæ slightly pubescent. Abdomen short, rather narrow, sub-compressed, about ½ inch long, seven rings slightly arched, smooth above, sides minutely muricated, dark brown transversely banded with black and mottled with black above; anal appendages two, 5 lines long, slender, subulate, obtuse, curved, light-brown, very hairy almost shaggy. Legs: posterior pair very long; femur 2 inches long, straight, smooth, largely clavate, outer side convex, unarmed, inner side very deeply grooved, and armed with a row of spines on each edge, edges sharp, glossy, also the spines; 12 spines, distant, in the inner row, and 21 spines, smaller and closer in the outer row; upper part of thigh 4 lines wide, stout, thick, of a light dull-brown colour, smoothish, shaded with darker wavy lines that are minutely hairy (sub lente), the lower end dilated laterally into two thin auricled processes, with a minute black spine on each; tibia 2 ½ inches long, slightly curved, slender, piceous, studded with numerous minute short hairs, giving it a semi-muricated appearance, the inner side convex, the outer deeply grooved and armed on the edges with two rows of acute spines, 16 in the outer row, the uppermost very small, increasing in size downwards, the lower 6 the largest, 12 spines in the inner row, the lower 7 very large and rather slender; at the lower end of tibia 8 spines around the joint, 2 of them small, close above, 2 on each side, one of them being very large, 1/10th inch long, and 2 smaller below; tarsus 1 inch long, slender, unarmed save 2 small spines at the lower end of each joint, the upper joint longest, 4 ½ lines long, the third very small, and the last 3 lines long, the inner side deeply and narrowly grooved, ending on each joint in a long ovate loop with raised margins and no pulvilli (and so the other two pairs); ungues small, curved, divergent: middle pair, femur and tibia each 1 inch long, slender, each having 3 pairs of lateral, small, sub-opposite distant spines, with minute intermediate denticulaitions or points, and 4 small spines at the lower end of tibia, and two of the same at lower end of femur; tarsus 7 lines long, unarmed, very slender, upper joint longest, 3 lines long; tarsi and tibiæ light-brown, clouded: anterior pair, femur and tibia each 13 lines long, grooved; femur slender, unarmed on outside save minute tubercles or blunt denticulations on the outer edge of groove, and 4 small slender spines on the inner edge with similar minute tubercles, and 1 small spine on the lower auricled end on the inside; tibia, 3 pairs small alternate distant lateral spines, and 4 small spines at the

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lower end of joint, the lower half pale-brown, clouded; tarsus 8 lines long, slender, unarmed, pale ochraceous-yellow with darker joints.

Hab. In trees, totara timber (Podocarpus totara, A. Cunn.), forests, Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1885.

Obs. This is a very remarkable species, from the comparative shortness of its body and great length of its stout posterior pair of legs, which are nearly four times the length of its body and head! being considerably longer than those of the two very large species—H. gigantea, Col.,* and Deinacrida heteracantha, White.dagger Unfortunately, my only specimen is imperfect, wanting the upper part of the head, antennæ, maxillæ, and prosternum; it got crushed in capturing by the workmen at the sawmill, and I only obtained the major part of the insect (that had been preserved for me) a few days after. Luckily, however, the legs and body were perfect, and so was a portion of the head, containing the clypeus, labrum, and maxillary and labial palpi. It must certainly be a rare species, as none of the workmen at the mill, nor of the villagers, (who subsequently saw it), long-used as they have been to forest work, had seen one like it before, although they very well knew the commoner and smaller kinds: it was also quite unique to me.

I may here repeat what I remarked before, in describing another rare and allied species, Deinacrida armiger, Col., that this insect appears to possess characters belonging to those two closely allied genera (Deinacrida and Hemideina), and that I doubt those two genera being naturally distinct.

Art. XV.Further Notes and Observations on the Gestation, Birth, and Young of a Lizard, a Species of Naultinus.

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 9th August, 1886.]

In a former paper, read here before you in the session of 1879, I gave some “Notes and observations on the animal economy and habits of one of our New Zealand Lizards, supposed to be a new species of Naultinus;” sectthat paper also contained an

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xiv., p. 278.

[Footnote] † Zool. “Ereb.” and “Terror,” Ins., p. 24; Hutton's Cat. N.Z. Orthopt., &c., p. 79.

[Footnote] ‡ “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvii., p. 156.

[Footnote] § “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xii., p. 251, etc.

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account of some young lizards (4), that were brought forth in my house, two of which I succeeded in rearing. At that time, however, I knew nothing of the manner of their being brought forth or expelled by their parent (as I have pretty fully related in that paper); and now, having very recently gleaned a few more particulars respecting the same, which may prove both interesting and curious, and perhaps unique, I propose to bring the same before you in this paper.

Early in this year, 1886, I received from Mr. J. Stewart, of Takapau (a member of this Society), a fine specimen of our green lizard, in good condition and very lively. I suspected at the time it was a female, and probably pregnant. Mr. Stewart informed me that it had been very recently captured—viz., on the 29th December, 1885. It was some time, however, before I could get it to eat, although I supplied it with flies, much as I did my former ones. In time it ate them, but sparingly; and although I often watched it, I never once detected it doing so, or seeking to capture them! in this respect so very different to those I formerly had. Yet it ate them, that was certain, without leaving a wing or a leg, for they were not to be found in its house (or glass case), out of which they could not possibly get; and the fæces of the reptile further proved it. It also differed widely from my former ones in not drinking; for, although I often tried to induce it to drink, it never once took any water, while the others were frequently lapping water, and licking wet spots on leaves, etc.; and I did not keep any water with this lizard in its house. It would, however, swim very well and strongly when I put it into a large basin of water. As the weather became colder in this present autumn—in May—it ceased taking any flies, and I had supposed it was about to hibernate, as the others did; so I set it aside, but kept looking at it occasionally. The last time that I did so, on the 8th of June, it seemed much as usual, only thinner from its long fasting, and not torpid, but rather lively. I therefore gave it a couple of flies, which, however, it would not eat. On my looking at it again on the following day, the 9th of June, I found that it had given birth to two young ones—curious-looking little things and fully formed, but both dead. The following is a description of them:—

They were both nearly alike, in size, shape, appearance, colour and weight; each one distinct, lying separate in the case, and closely enwrapped in its own proper semi-transparent chorion or secundine, which was entire around one, and slightly broken about the snout of the other below its eyes, so that the front part of its little head appeared. Each was closely doubled up—one with its tail coiled tightly around its snout, and the other with its tail bent round and downwards beneath its chin; their shape was broadly oblong, one end much rounded, and

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the other (containing the head) more produced; measuring, the one 8, and the other 9 lines in length, and 5 lines in width, compressed, with the surfaces smooth and flattened, but somewhat uneven owing to the prominencés of the limbs, etc., and bearing a general resemblance to the smaller seed of the common garden bean (Faba vulgaris). Each fetus weighed 15 grains, their colour darkish-green on the back, shaded off in spots to lighter green and almost to white in some of the little knobs and slight hollows; the eyes bright and yellow, with dark pupils, as in the adult. The chorion, or enveloping membrane, was excessively thin and white, and filled with minute capillary branching flexuous veins of a bright florid red colour, a few of the main ones being tolerably large, presenting a pleasing appearance. The fetus that had its enwrapment broken at its snout, had its mouth slightly open, showing the little notch in the tip of its tongue. From their very fresh, damp, and glistening appearance, they appeared to have been very recently expelled.

From these circumstances here related, three facts in the history of these little animals seem to be established:—1. That their young are brought forth alive, and not within an egg (as is the case with many of the Saurians); this I had formerly supposed (loc. cit., p. 264); 2. That their time of gestation must be at least 5 ½ months; 3. That they bring forth two at a birth—this, also, I had before observed (l.c., pp. 251 and 264).

A brief description of this adult lizard may also be here given, seeing it varies a little from the species described. Extreme length 6 ½ inches, of which the tail is 3 ½ inches; colour a uniform bright green above, (which is particularly vivid on casting its old skin or epidermis), inclining to darkish-green as it grows older, and much paler beneath; head rather small, slightly concave between the eyes, and scales flattish; tongue darkish plum-coloured; two large blunt semi-transverse scales on the side of the base of the tail near the vent, and three similar ones on the opposite side; a patch of pre-anal pores singly on larger scales in 4–5 short rows; toes slender, long; tail cylindrical, very slender, much elongated, its scales not imbricated.

In some of its characters this lizard resembles N. grayii, Bell,* especially in the shape of its head with flattened scales, the few large convex scales near the base of the tail, (which, however, in that species are said to be “four on each side,”) elongated toes, and uniform green colour. It has, also, a few characters in common with the species described by me—N. pentagonalis (loc. cit.)—as in its pre-anal scales with pores, elongated toes, and the colour of its tongue; still it seems different in other characters, and has certainly shown widely

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. iii., pp. 7 and 8.

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different habits. It agrees still less with the other described species of green Naultini. It may be a variety of N. grayii, Bell, but certainly not of N. punctatus, Gray, which species Professor Hutton has subsequently stated to be identical with N. grayii.*

Addendum.—Since writing the above, and very recently, I have received a letter from Mr. D. P. Balfour, of Glenross, a member of this Society, dated 16th July, 1886, informing me of a green lizard, a species of Naultinus, and believed by him to be of the same species as N. pentagonalis, Col., which he had in confinement, having produced two young ones on the 14th of July. One of them was born alive, and the other dead, and then only after some considerable difficulty, Mr. Balfour largely assisting the mother; for when he saw her on this occasion, this second young one was half expelled, tail foremost, the other having been first born. Mr. Balfour also says that the living one measured 3 inches at its birth.

This is the third known instance of the birth of these green lizards, and all of them happened about mid-winter, (a strange season !) when they should be in their natural semi-torpid hibernating state. This additional circumstance, now confirmed, seems very peculiar, and is worthy of being noted. The living young lizard, mentioned by Mr Balfour, seems to be of an extraordinary large size, “3 inches long when born:” those four born here with me, in 1878, were only a little over 1 inch in length when first seen, (loc. cit., p. 263), and those described in this paper (although still uncoiled in their fetal membranes), cannot be much more.

Art. XVI.Remarks on Palinurus lalandii, M. Edw., and P. edwardsii, Hutton.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 10th August, 1886.]

Plate X.

In Miers's “Catalogue of the Stalk- and Sessile-eyed Crustacea of New Zealand,” two species of Palinurus are assigned to this country—one, P. lalandii, M. Edw., identical with a species found in Cape Colony; and the other, P. edwardsii, Hutton,

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. iv., p. 171.

[Footnote] †. See “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xii., p. 251, for the first.

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peculiar to New Zealand. In his account of the latter form, Miers remarks: “The specimens from New Zealand, in the collection of the British Museum, that have been referred to P. lalandii, belong to this species [P. edwardsii]; and hence I am in doubt whether P. lalandii be also an inhabitant of the New Zealand seas. It was formerly considered a common New Zealand species.”

This remark, and the fact that I constantly found myself unable to distinguish the supposed two species from one another by the diagnostic characters given by Hutton and by Miers, induced me to make a special study of the question, and to this end I have obtained a series of specimens of the undoubted P. lalandii from the Cape of Good Hope. For these, I have to thank Mr. R. Trimen, F.L.S., Curator of the South African Museum, Cape Town, who kindly sent me more than a dozen examples belonging to both sexes, and of very various sizes. With these I have carefully compared about an equal number of Palinuri from the Dunedin market, as well as Hutton's type specimens in the Otago University Museum, of which one is labelled P. lalandii, and two P. edwardsii.

The diagnostic characters of P. edwardsii relied on by Hutton are best given in his own words: “This species differs from P. lalandii in its much smaller size, in the shape of the beak, in having no spine on the penultimate joint of the anterior legs, and in having a small spine at the distal extremity of the third joint of the last four pairs of legs.”*

a. Size.—In this respect there is a perfect gradation between the largest and the smallest crayfishes brought to the Dunedin market.

b. Characters of the rostrum.—The rostrum of P. lalandii is thus described by Miers: “Rostrum with the lateral spines smooth above and below, and not projecting nearly so far as the small median spine, below the base of which are two small spines.” That of P. edwardsii is described in the same words, both by Miers and by Hutton: “Beak small, compressed, curved upwards, and with two small spines at its base.” From this it would appear that it is the compression and the upward curvature of the rostrum of P. edwardsii which distinguishes it from that of P. lalandii, since the two small basal spines are common to both species.

As I have elsewhere pointed out,dagger the above description of the rostrum is wanting in exactness. The two small spines at its base have nothing to do with the rostrum proper, being given off from what I have called the “clasping processes” (figs. 7–11, cl.p1), pedate structures arising from the præstomial plate,

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. vii. (1874), p. 279.

[Footnote] † “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi. (1883), p. 298.

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(= epimeral plate, Huxley = the area to which the eye-stalks are attached), and ascending one on each side of the rostrum (r), to the base of which they are closely applied, although quite free from it. Each clasping process consists of a forwardly-directed or anterior limb (cl.p1), and of an upwardly-directed or dorsal limb (cl.p1). The anterior limb usually terminates in a true spine—i.e., is sharp, of a brownish-yellow colour, and horny appearance: more rarely it is pointed, but devoid of a true spine, and occasionally it terminates bluntly. The dorsal limb is sometimes blunt Fig. 9, sometimes bi-lobed Fig. 10, sometimes sharp Fig. 11, and occasionally terminates in a true spine. The rostrum itself may be nearly horizontal Fig. 7, 10, or slightly upturned Fig. 11, or strongly upturned Fig. 9, and usually terminates in a true spine. All these variations are found both in the South African and in the New Zealand specimens, and are therefore in no way diagnostic, but mere matters of individual variation.

c. Propoditic spine of anterior leg.—The presence or absence of this spine is a mere question of age. It is present in all the larger specimens, both from the Cape and New Zealand, absent or rudimentary in the smaller examples.

d. Meropoditic spines of legs 2–5.—The dorsal surface of the distal extremity of the meropodite, or third segment, of one of the four posterior legs of a New Zealand crayfish, is shown in Fig. 12 The segment is seen to present a somewhat crescentic elevation (cr), at its distal end, and proximad of this to be produced into a longitudinal ridge (l.r), which projects distalwards over the crescentic elevation, ending in a sharp spine (sp. 1): This is the spine acknowledged by Hutton and Miers to be common to the two species under discussion. The horns of the crescentic elevation, which are directed forwards, are sometimes both blunt Fig. 12, sometimes each terminates in a spine Fig. 14, while sometimes the anterior only Fig. 13 and sometimes the posterior only is spinose. It is the presence of one, the anterior, of these small spines (sp. 2,) which is held to be diagnostic of P. edwardsii, in which species, therefore, the formula of the meropoditic spines is considered to be i.I.o., while in P. lalandii it is said to be o.I.o. I find, on the contrary, that the presence or absence of these small lateral spines is a matter of individual variation, the formulæ o.I.o., i.I.o., i.I.i. occurring both in African and in New Zealand specimens, and sometimes in the different legs of the same specimen.

One cannot but conclude, therefore, that, putting aside P. tumidus, Kirk,* which I have not examined, there is but one species of Palinurus hitherto discovered in New Zealand; and the question next arises, should this be called P. lalandii or

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xii, p. 313.

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P. edwardsii; or, in other words, the diagnostic characters hitherto relied upon having broken down, are there sufficient differences from the Cape species to entitle it to retain a distinct specific name?

After a careful comparison, by means of drawings and measurements, of the series of New Zealand and African specimens, I find that there is one constant and reliable difference between the individuals from the two localities: It consists in the greater complication of the sculpturing or tuberculation of the abdominal segments in the Cape form.

The difference to which I refer will be apparent from a comparison of Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, which represent the first and third abdominal segments of a New Zealand specimen, with Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, which show the corresponding somites of a Cape specimen of about the same size.

In both cases, the first segment is marked by a strong transverse groove (g), which divides it into a larger anterior and a smaller posterior portion, the former being covered by the carapace in the extended condition of the abdomen. In all the Cape specimens which have come under my notice the segment in question shows a double row of tubercles (Fig. 3, t) anterior to the groove; while in New Zealand specimens the anterior section of the somite is either wholly devoid of tubercles Fig. 5, or presents one or two very small detached ones Fig. 1. Further, in the Cape crayfishes, the posterior section of the same segment bears two rows of flattened squamiform tubercles; while in the New Zealand form there is only a single row of imperfectly-formed tubercles.

Similar differences are found in the remaining abdominal segments, which show the same separation into anterior and posterior areas, the groove Fig. 2 and Fig. 4 being, however, less clearly marked than in the first. In the Cape specimens Fig. 4 the tubercles on the anterior division are very numerous, only a small portion of the segment being without sculpturing; in New Zealand specimens Fig. 2 and Fig. 6, there are only two or three rows, so that fully half the tergum is left bare. In the posterior area of the 2nd–5th segments there is a close agreement with the corresponding region in the first, the Cape specimens Fig. 4 having about two rows of tubercles; the New Zealand specimens Fig. 2 and Fig. 6, a single row of imperfectly-formed tubercles.

The figures show at a glance the practical identity in these respects between the two supposed New Zealand species, (“P. lalandii,” Fig. 1 and Fig. 2; P. edwardsii, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 and the marked difference of both from the true P. lalandii, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, from the Cape.

The carapace in the South African specimens is usually broader in proportion to its length than in New Zealand

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examples, the proportion of length to breadth being from 100–72 to 100–65 in the former, 100–65 to 100–60.5 in the latter. The pleura of the abdominal segments, measured from the hinge (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, h) to the terminal spine, are also, as a rule, proportionately shorter in the African than in the New Zealand specimens. But in both these characters the examination of a large series of individuals shows a complete gradation between those from the two localities.

The Cape specimens were not in a sufficiently good state of preservation to allow of a careful examination of the internal organs. But I find that there is no difference of any importance from the New Zealand form in the gills, the gastric skeleton, the mouth parts, or the microscopic structure of the branchial setæ.

In the sculpturing of the abdomen, on the other hand, the examination of about a dozen specimens of all sizes and both sexes from each locality has shown no intermediate stages.

I conclude, therefore, that there are constant though slight differences between the common New Zealand Palinurus and P. lalandii from the Cape of Good Hope, and that Hutton's name, P. edwardsii, should be retained for the New Zealand species, P. lalandii being no longer considered as an inhabitant of our coasts.

The differences relied upon are, however, so small, that but for the wide separation of the two localities one would hardly consider them as of more than varietal importance. Mr. Trimen informs me that P. lalandii “is confined to the western (Atlantic) shores of the Cape, and does not occur even in False Bay, immediately east of the Cape of Good Hope itself,” and it would certainly be a remarkable fact to find the identical species reappear so far east as New Zealand. Haswell* states, however, that P. edwardsii occurs both in Tasmania and St. Paul's Island, two localities which help to bridge over the distance between South Africa and New Zealand, and it is quite possible that specimens from these places may be found to furnish intermediate steps, and thus to necessitate the merging of P. edwardsii in P. lalandii.

In any case, the existence of a single species, or group of closely-allied geographical sub-species, in South Africa, St. Paul's, Tasmania, and New Zealand, is a strong argument in favour of Hutton's theory of an antarctic continent, from which the great Southern land-masses were stocked.

[Footnote] * Cat. of Australian Stalk and Sessile-eyed Crustacea.

[Footnote] † “N.Z. Journ. of Science,” vol. ii., p. 1.

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Description of Plate X.

Fig. 1 First abdominal somite of Hutton's type specimens of the supposed New Zealand Palinurus lalandii; g, groove; h, hinge.

Fig. 2 Third abdominal somite of the same.

Fig. 3 First abdominal somite of P. lalandii from the Cape of Good Hope; t, anterior group of tubercles.

Fig. 4 Third abdominal somite of the same.

Fig. 5 First abdominal somite of Hutton's type specimen of P. edwardsii.

Fig. 6 Third abdominal somite of the same.

Fig. 7 Rostrum and clasping process of Hutton's type specimen of the supposed New Zealand P. lalandii, from the left side; r, rostrum; cl. p, anterior, and cl. p', dorsal limb of clasping process.

Fig. 8 Rostrum and clasping process of Hutton's type specimen of P. edwardsii.

Fig. 9 Rostrum and clasping process of a specimen of the supposed New Zealand P. lalandii.

Fig. 10 Rostrum and clasping process of P. lalandii, from the Cape of Good Hope.

Fig. 11 Rostrum and clasping process of another specimen of the same.

Fig. 12 Distal end of meropodite and proximal end of carpopodite of the 3rd left leg of Hutton's type specimen of the supposed New Zealand P. lalandii; sp. 1, the principal spine; l.r, longitudinal ridge; cr, crescentic elevation.

Fig. 13 Rostrum and clasping process of the corresponding leg of a large specimen of P. lalandii from the Cape of Good Hope; sp. 2, the anterior accessory spine.

Fig. 14 Rostrum and clasping process of the 4th left leg of a specimen of the supposed New Zealand P. lalandii; sp. 3, the posterior accessory spine.

All natural size except Fig. 8 and Fig. 10, which are slightly magnified.

Art. XVII.—On a new Species of Giant Cuttlefish, stranded at Cape Campbell, June 30th, 1886 (Architeuthis Kirkii).

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 19th July, 1886.]

Cape Campbell and the adjacent coasts seem to be places of favourite resort for these great Cephalopods during the winter months, a year seldom passing without one or more of them being cast on shore, usually during the months of June and July. The greater number, however, of these, owing to the attacks of sharks, dogfish, and porpoises, are stranded in such a mutilated condition as to be of little value to the naturalist; but I am quite satisfied, from the examination of a number of imperfect and of two perfect specimens, that they are all Decapods. None of the Octopods which have come under my notice have a solid heavy body like the Decapods, and they all seem when cast on shore to be able to return to the water

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without difficulty. This a Decapod is unable to do; both the perfect specimens of the latter obtained by me at this place were, when first observed, alive and uninjured, and, though close to the sea, the one on a shingle beach and the other on smooth papa rock, neither was able to return to its native element. Mr. T. W. Kirk, in a paper read before this Society, October 10th, 1879, mentions an Octopus stranded at Kaimarama, in Hawke's Bay, but I am greatly disposed to believe it to have been a Decapod which had lost its tentacular arms.

About ten years ago I obtained a fine Decapod on shore in Clifford Bay, Cape Campbell, having a body 7 feet long, and a total length of 20 feet, a large and powerful creature, but not nearly so formidable a monster as that which I now desire to bring under your notice. As it lay upon the rocks it presented from a distance the appearance of a mass of raw beef, or of having been covered with dried blood. On a closer inspection this was found to be owing to a great number of minute specks of a bright red-brown colour with which the epidermis was covered. Under this the flesh was firm and white, presenting the appearance of blanc mange made from corn-flour. The body was slender, cylindrical, the sides nearly straight, having a small caudal fin, or fins, for they did not extend quite to the end of the tail or unite across the body, and were mere lateral expansions of the mantle. The outer edges of these fins, if produced so as to meet, would have formed a perfect oval. The head was short and thick, with large eyes furnished with a lid, the mouth being armed with a large and powerful beak. The eight sessile arms were of equal length, 6 feet 6 inches, but not of equal thickness, though all were thick and strong; two, those next the tentacular arms, were much stouter than the other six, being as large at the base as an average man's leg eight inches above the knee. All the sessile arms were furnished with stalked suckers, having a row of incurved teeth, and varying in size from those at the base, with a diameter of 1 ½ inches to that of a small pea at the point. The tentacular arms were long and slender, almost exactly similar to those of Architeuthis verrilli, as figured by Mr. T. W. Kirk.* They had also the same arrangement of small tubercles and suckers, at intervals of 2 feet from the club to the base. The club, as will best be seen from inspection of the specimen forwarded, differed from that of A. verrilli chiefly in having small suckers on very long stalks placed along the margins between the large ones. The internal shell was lanceolate, rather broad, transparent, and brittle when first taken from the body. It was in several pieces, owing probably to its having been broken during the animal's struggles to regain the water.

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xiv., p. 36.

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This Decapod is not similar to any which I have previously met with, or of which I have seen descriptions; it differs chiefly in the shape of the caudal fin, in the large size of two of the sessile arms, in the arrangement of the suckers on the clubs, and in the unusual size of the beak, which, with the tongue, etc., is forwarded with the club. As it is probably a new species, provisionally I venture to dedicate it to Mr. T. W. Kirk, who has done so much good work in describing our Cephalopods.

The following measurements were taken:—

Ft. in.
Body, from anterior margin of mantle to end of tail 8 3
Head, from margin of mantle to base of arms 1 9
Sessile arms 6 6
Tentacular arms 18 10
Extreme length 28 10

It is to be regretted that a swiftly incoming tide prevented me from obtaining the greatest circumference, which must have been about 8 feet, or the number of suckers on the sessile arms, which I estimate at over 50.

Art. XVIII.—On the Anatomy of the Limpet (Patinella radians, Quoy).

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 7th October, 1886.]

Plate XI.

The following paper is an attempt to compare the structure of the New Zealand Limpet (Patinella radians) with that of the European Patella vulgata, L., as described in Cuvier's “Memoires,” page 15.

Patinella was made a genus by Professor Dall. The genus was founded upon Patinella magellanica (Gmelin), but that definition has been slightly extended, and made to include all the Patellas of New Zealand.*

It will be seen that the most important differences (as they will be shown in their proper places), between Patinella radians and Patella vulgata are—

1. That in Patinella radians the branchiæ do not extend all the way round the head, as they do in Patella vulgata, but

[Footnote] * “Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 1884,” p. 374.

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end at the sides of the head, in about a straight line with the disc of the mouth.

2. The convolutions of the intestine are somewhat different to those shown by Cuvier, Fig. 12; but I have not been able to distinguish any expanded part of the intestine representing the stomach, further than that containing the coils of the odontophore.

3. The nervous system in Patella vulgata consists of a large ganglion, as shown in Cuvier, Fig. 16, from which nervefibres go off to all parts of the body. In Patinella radians it will be shown that there are three separate ganglia, connected to one another by thick commissures. There are the pedal ganglia, consisting of two thick masses on the upper surface of the foot. There are two parieto-splanchnic ganglia connected by a commissure going over the back, and by two other commissures connecting them with the pedal ganglia. These ganglia give off nerves to the somatic cavity, mantle, and branchiæ. The cerebral ganglia are situated in the head, and are connected with the parieto-splanchnic ganglia by commissures, and there are small ganglia on their course where the nerves go out to the tentacles. This nervous system shows that our southern species (as most southern forms are) is a more primary and older form than the northern species. This, I think, is the distinguishing characteristic of Patinella radians.

The shell is ovate and moderately convex; the apex is situated about a third of the length of the shell from the anterior end. The ribs in it are small, slightly rounded, and radiate out from the apex to the margin of the shell. They are intersected round the margin with short ribs extending only about half-way up the shell. The ribs are of a dark-brown colour, and the interspaces are of an ash colour. In the interior of the shell, the upper part, above the circular muscle, is of a dark-brown colour; below the circular muscle it has a nacreous appearance, having small grooves corresponding to the ribs on the outside, which at the margin are slightly flattened out, giving the rim of the shell a slightly serrated appearance.

The head consists of a large fleshy mass (shown in Fig. 2, a, b,) slightly narrowed at the neck; at the sides of the head are two well-marked tentacles, thick at their bases and tapering towards the points, very much of the shape of horns (x, y, Fig. 3). I have not been able to recognise the eyes, at the bases referred to by Woodward, page 278. The mouth opens on the lower surface of the body (it is shown, c, Fig. 1), it is simply a large oval-shaped sucking-disc.

The foot is a large olive-coloured oval disc, covering the lower surface of the body; by means of this muscular foot, the animal attaches itself to rocks; the free edge of the mantle hangs down round it.

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The odontophore is armed with four tooth-like processes arranged in a series. Those of the inner series are of a brown horny colour at the apex, and transparent round the base.

The odontophore is about four times the length of the body of the animal, it is shown in position, (d, e, Fig. 2), after removing the foot. The teeth in the body of the coil are much sharper than those near the mouth, showing that they are replaced from behind as fast as they are worn out by friction in triturating the food. The muscular system round the odontophore is shown in Fig. 2

The branchiæ are numerous lamellar processes like ampullæ, lying between the fringe of the mantle and the foot; they do not extend all the way round the edge of the mantle, but only up to the sides of the neck; in Patella vulgata, figured by Cuvier, they extend round the whole body.

Nervous System.—As the nervous system seems to be the distinguishing feature between Patinella radians and Patella vulgata, I have dissected it out with great care. In P. vulgata the nervous system is simply a ganglionic ring, giving out nervefibres to the whole body. But in P. radians there are three different pairs of ganglia: (1.) Pedal ganglia are two ganglionic masses on the surface of the foot, connected together by a short thick commissure (ab, Fig. 5); they are connected to the parietosplanchnic ganglia by two very short commissures (ca, and bd, Fig. 5), and to the cerebral ganglia by two long commissures (ae, and bf, Fig. 5). These pedal ganglia give off two nerve-fibres to the surface of the foot (ah, and bh, Fig. 5), nearly meeting at their posterior ends. (2.) The parieto-splanchnic are not so large as the pedal ganglia; they are situated outside of and above the pedal, and connected to them by short commissures, to one another by a long commissure passing round the neck (cd, Fig. 5), and to the cerebral ganglia by two commissures (df, and ce, Fig. 5). These ganglia give off nerves (m, m, Fig. 5), to the mantle, and nerves (k, k', Fig. 5), to the sides of the somatic cavity, and the nerve g, Fig. 5, to the visceral cavity. (3.) The cerebral ganglia are situated in the top of the head at e,f, Fig. 5; they give off nerves to the tentacles, and one going round the top of the head (erf, Fig. 5).

Reproductive Organs.—There is a large ovary shown in Fig. 2 (lm), but I have not been able to trace the openings to the surface. I noticed that this ovary is much larger in summer time.

Muscular System.—The chief muscular organ is the foot; it covers the whole of the lower surface of the body, and acts like a sucker, attaching the animal to a rock. The circular muscle attaches the mantle to the upper rim of the foot. Its position is shown in Fig. 2 (pq). From this muscle the mantle hangs free round the foot. The muscles surrounding the head, and

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working the odontophore, are shown in Fig. 2 (ab); they end in two globular-ended rods.

Alimentary System.—The mouth is situated on the lower surface at the anterior end of the body; it is simply an oval-shaped sucking-disc, and has a serrated appearance. It opens into a large œsophagus, surrounded by strong muscles; in it lies the odontophore with its three coils lying on the left side of the body when examined from below (shown Fig. 2, de). I have not been able to distinguish clearly an enlarged part, representing the stomach. The intestine has a great number of coils. I have traced them all out; they are shown in Fig. 4 (a to b). The coils differ from those in the European P. vulgata. The rectum is slightly swollen, and the anus opens on the left side of the head, under the mantle (shown k, Fig. 3, and b, Fig. 4). The liver is very large, occupying nearly the whole of the body cavity; it covers the whole of the intestines (shown Fig. 2, xy, and Fig. 3, fg).

I have not been able to make out the salivary glands referred to by Professor Ray Lankester in the “Annals of Natural History.”

Explanation of Plate XI.

Fig. 1 Represents the animal, seen from below; ab, the foot; c, mouth; de, fringe of the mantle round the shell; fg, branchiæ.

Fig. 2 A drawing of the animal after removing the foot; ab, muscles round the head; de, odontophore (in situ); f, g, h, k, parts of the intestines; pq, circular muscle; lm, ovary; st, free fringe of the mantle; xy, liver, filling up the interspaces.

Fig. 3 A drawing of the animal after removing the shell and outer coverings, seen from above; abc, coils of the intestine; d, anal end; e, oral end; fg, liver; pq, circular muscle; lm, mantle; xy, nerve commissure.

These three figures are enlarged six times.

Fig. 4 The coils of the intestines, magnified about eight times; a, oral end; b, anal end.

Fig. 5 Represents the nervous system; ab, are pedal ganglia; cd, the parieto-splanchnic ganglia; ef, cerebral ganglia; h, h1, pedal nerves; k, k1, nerves of somatic cavity; g, nerve going to the intestines.

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Ratinella Radians

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Art. XIX.—On the Mollusca of the Vicinity of Auckland.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 20th September, 1886.]

Some years ago, I prepared a catalogue of the Mollusca of Auckland Harbour, which was printed in vol. viii. of the “Transactions of the N.Z. Institute.”* Although as complete as the materials at my command would permit, it contained many faults, both of omission and commission. I now propose to correct these mistakes: to give a complete list of the species observed in the harbour, with notes on their habitats, etc.; and to add thereto a similar catalogue of the land and fresh water species inhabiting the Auckland Isthmus and its vicinity. I am in hopes that the paper may be useful in two ways. First, in giving to the local collector a catalogue of the species which can be obtained near Auckland, together with some information as to where to look for them. Secondly, as a contribution to a knowledge of the distribution within the Colony of the New Zealand Mollusca, a matter which it is important should be worked out, for it will give some assistance in solving many questions connected with the geology and physical history of the country.

For the purposes of this paper, I shall consider Auckland Harbour to extend in a northerly direction as far as Lake Takapuna and Rangitoto Reef; and to the eastwards, to the Tamaki-Heads and Motutapu Island. Its western boundary would be formed by a line drawn from Kauri Point to the mouth of the Whau River. By the term Auckland Isthmus and its vicinity, I mean not only the isthmus proper, extending from the Whau portage to Penrose, but also that portion of the North Shore to the south of a line drawn from the head of Lucas' Creek to a point on the sea-coast a little to the north of Lake Takapuna. The whole district would have a greatest length of about ten miles, with a greatest breadth of nine. The land area is probably over 60 square miles.

In my previous paper I have given a sketch of the chief physical features of the harbour, and some general remarks on the local distribution of the Mollusca found therein. It would be useless repeating this here; more especially as in the appended catalogue I have attempted to give some information as to the special localities and relative frequency of each species.

[Footnote] *“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. viii., art. xxxvii.

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The total number of species observed in the district is 242. Of these, 37 are land Mollusca; 12 fluviatile; and the remaining 193 marine. They fall in the following classes:—Cephalopoda, 3; Gastropoda, 177; Lamellibranchiata, 61; Brachiopoda, 1. Further search will probably add materially to the number of land-shells, for they have not been collected with the same care as the other families. Our land Mollusca are so small and inconspicuous, and so many of the species closely resemble one another, that it is no easy matter to exhaust a small district like the Auckland Isthmus. I do not anticipate that any additions of numerical importance will be made to the marine or fluviatile species, although discoveries will doubtless be made from time to time.

If the necessary material had been collected, it would have been interesting to have compared the molluscan fauna of the Auckland District with that of similar areas in other portions of the Colony, and to have worked out some general results as to the range of the species. But this cannot be done at present. Wellington is the only other locality for which a tolerably complete list has been prepared, and even there the marine species are alone catalogued. When carefully compiled lists have been published for at least a dozen stations on the coast line of both Islands, then the distribution of our Mollusca will be better understood, and some advance may be made towards determining the range and relative frequency of the species.

Catalogue of the Species of Mollusca Observed in the Vicinity of Auckland.

Class I.—Cephalopoda.
Order I.—Debranchiata.


1. Octopus maorum, Hutton. Hiding in crevices of rocks at or below low water-mark. North Shore, and Rangitoto Island.


2. Sepioteuthis bilineata, Quoy et Gaim. An occasional summer visitant.


3. Spirula perouii, Lam. Dead shells are occasionally cast up on the sandy beaches, although never so plentifully as on the exposed coasts.

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Class II.—Gastropoda.
Order II.—Pectinibranchiata.
Sub-Order 1. Toxoglossa.


4. Pleurotoma zealandica, E. A. Smith. Sandy bays between the North Head and Lake Takapuna, at or below low water-mark.

5. P. albula, Hutton. A few worn specimens, doubtfully referred to this, have been dredged in Rangitoto Channel.

6. Drillia maorum, E. A. Smith (P. buchanani, Hutton). Dredged in Rangitoto Channel.

7. D. novæ-zealandiæ, Reeve. Rare. Two specimens obtained on the sandy beach near Lake Takapuna.

8. D. protensa, Hutton. Rare. Sandy beach near Lake Takapuna.

9. Clathurella sinclairii, E. A. Smith. Dead shells are cast up in great abundance on all the sandy beaches in Auckland Harbour, but I have never been able to obtain a living specimen.

10. Daphnella lymneiformis. Living specimens are occasionally thrown up after storms.


11. Terebra tristis, Desh. Muddy and sandy places below halftide, not uncommon.

Sub-Order 2. Rhachiglossa.


12. Marginella muscaria, Lam. Common. Living specimens can often be obtained crawling about near low watermark in sandy places.


13. Valuta (Alcithoe) pacifica, Lam. Rare in Auckland Harbour, although common enough in many other places.


14. Fusus australis, Quoy et Gaim. Rare.

15. Taron dubius, Hutton. An abundant shell between tide marks, in rocky places, under stones, etc.


16. Turricula (Pusio) rubiginosa, Hutton. Not uncommon under stones near low water-mark.

– 164 –


17. Siphonalia dilatata, Quoy et Gaim. Not uncommon on rocky ground, usually concealing itself under ledges when the tide recedes.

18. S. nodosa, Martyn. Worn specimens are occasionally washed up.

19. Pisania lineata, Martyn. Common on rocky ground between tide-marks. A very variable shell.

20. P. vittata, Quoy et Gaim. Most abundant on rocky ground. The coloured bands are often quite absent, and the shell varies much in shape.

21. Cominella maculata, Martyn. Common between tide-marks. Appears to feed on Paphia and Venus.

22. C. maculosa, Martyn. Not uncommon.

23. C. testudinea, Chemn. Very plentiful, especially on rocky ground between tide marks.

24. C. virgata, Adams. The same remarks apply.

25. C. huttoni, Kobelt. Can be dredged plentifully in any part of the harbour, but is seldom seen in a living state above low water-mark.

26. C. lurida, Phil. A most plentiful shell on mud-flats, Zostera beds, etc.


27. Ancillaria australis, Sow. Sandy bays near low water-mark. Covers itself with sand when the tide recedes.


28. Murex octogonus, Quoy. Under stones near low water-mark. Not common.

29. Trophon ambiguus, Phil. Dredged in Rangitoto Channel. Apparently not common.

30. T. stangeri, Gray. Not uncommon on rocky ground. I am not sure that Prof. Hutton is correct in referring his T. retiaria to this species.

31. Kalydon plebeius, Hutton. Most abundant.

32. Purpura succincta, Martyn. In crevices of rocks between tide-marks. Rare.

33. P. textiliosa, Lam. In crevices of rocks. Abundant.

34. Polytropa scobina, Quoy et Gaim. Faces of rocks between tide-marks. Abundant.

35. P. albo-marginata, Desh. In similar situations as the preceding, but not quite so abundant.

36. P. (Lepsia) haustrum, Martyn. Clefts of rocks between tide-marks. Not common in Auckland Harbour.

– 165 –


37. Columbella choava, Reeve. Under stones and on seaweeds near low water-mark. A variety, nearly or altogether black, is almost as common as the type.

Sub-Order 3. Tœnioglossa.


38. Realia egea, Gray. Sheltering under decaying leaves of Brachyglottis, etc. Mt. Wellington and Mt. Eden lava streams; gullies near St. John's College; Rangitoto. Fast becoming scarce.

39. R. turriculata, Pfeiffer. With the preceding, but much rarer.


40. Cyclophorus cytora, Gray. On fronds of ferns, but apparently very rare.


41. Rissoina annulata, Hutton. On corallines and other seaweeds in tide-pools.

42. Rissoa rugulosa, Hutton. Under stones near low watermark. Abundant.

43. R. nana, Hutton. With the preceding, and also on seaweeds.

44. R. flammulata, Hutton. Dead shells are not uncommon on the sandy beaches near Lake Takapuna.

45. R. limbata, Hutton. On seaweeds.


46. Potamopyrgus cumingiana, Fischer. Lake Takapuna, One-hunga Springs, etc. Abundant.

47. P. corolla, Gould. With the preceding, but not quite so plentiful.

48. P. antipodum, Gray. Abundant in both fresh and brackish water.

49. P. pupoides, Hutton. Brackish water. Not uncommon, but easily overlooked.


50. Littorina cincta, Quoy et Gaim. Very scarce near Auckland. Faces of tidal rocks on the coast near Lake Takapuna.

51. L. mauritiana, Lam. Abundant everywhere on the faces of rocks and cliffs near high water-mark.

– 166 –

52. Fossarina varius, Hutton. In similar situations to the preceding, but much less abundant.


53. Turbonilla zealandica, Hutton. Dead specimens can be occasionally picked from shell-sand near high water-mark.

54. Odostomia lactea, Angas. A few specimens have been dredged in Rangitoto Channel.


55. Bittium terrebelloides, Martens. Can be dredged in considerable numbers in the deeper parts of the harbour.

56. B. exilis, Hutton. In tide-pools, on seaweeds, etc.

57. Cerithidea bicarinata, Gray. On mud-flats and Zostera beds; plentiful.

58. C. subcarinata, Sow. Rocks and tide-pools; common.


59. Siliquaria australis, Quoy et Gaim. At the roots of seaweeds in deep water; not common.


60. Turritella rosea, Quoy et Gaim. Not uncommon on rocks near low water-mark.

61. T. fulminata, Hutton. With the preceding.

62. Eglisia plicata, Hutton. Under stones near low water-mark; rare.


63. Trichotropis inornata, Hutton. Dredged in Rangitoto Channel; and specimens are occasionally washed up after storms.


64. Galerus novœ-zealandiæ, Less. Common under loose stones between tide-marks.

65. G. scutum, Less. With the above, but much less plentiful.

66. Crepidula costata, Sow. Under stones, at and below low water-mark, near the roots of seaweeds, etc.

67. C. monoxyla, Less. Commonly affixed to Turbo smaragdus.

68. C. unguiformis, Lam. Affixed within the aperture of Turbo smaragdus; rare.


69. Struthiolaria papulosa, Martyn.} Not common within the harbour.

70. S. vermis, Martyn.} Not common within the harbour.

– 167 –


71. Coriocella ophione, Gray. Under loose stones at low water-mark; not common.


72. Natica zealandica, Quoy. A few worn specimens have been picked up near Lake Takapuna.

73. N. australis, Hutton. Dredged in Rangitoto Channel.


74. Triton nodiferus, Lam. One specimen obtained on Rangitoto Reef.

75. T. spengleri, Lam. Under rocky ledges near low water-mark; not common.

Sub-Order 4. Ptenoglossa.


76. Ianthina communis, Lam.

77. I. iricolor, Reeve.

78. I. exigua, Lam.

Dead shells of all these species are often drifted into Auckland Harbour after a succession of north-easterly gales. The last species is much more abundant than the others.


79. Scalaria zelebori, Frauenf.

80. S. jukesiana, Forbes.

81. S. tenella, Hutton.

Among shell-sand, near high water-mark. I have not seen living specimens within the harbour, but they can be obtained by dredging at Waiwera and other places to the north.

Order II.—Rhipidoglossa.

Sub-Order 1. Podopthalma.


82. Nerita saturata, Hutton. Under stones and in clefts of rocks between tide-marks.


83. Rotella zealandica, Homb. and Jacq. A few worn specimens only.

– 168 –


84. Turbo smaragdus, Martyn. Very abundant. Tide-pools, mud-flats, mangrove swamps, etc.

85. Cookia sulcata, Martyn. Outlying reefs at the North Shore and Rangitoto; not common.


86. Euchelus bellus, Hutton; var. iricolor. Under stones at low water-mark.

87. Trochus viridis, Gmel. On rocky ground near low water-mark; not common.

88. T. (Cœlotrochus) tiaratus, Quoy et Gaim. On Zostera beds; moderately plentiful.

80. Zizyphinus selectus, Chemn. Rocky ground near low water-mark; scarce.

90. Cantharidus purpuratus, Martyn. Coast near Lake Takapuna; on seaweeds at low water-mark.

91. C. tenebrosus, Adams. A most abundant shell on Zostera beds.

92. C. rufozona, Adams. A few specimens dredged in Rangitoto channel.

93. C. simulatus, Hutton. On seaweeds near low water-mark; scarce.

94. Gibbula oppressa, Hutton. Under stones near low watermark; scarce.

95. Monilea egena, Gould. In sandy places below low watermark; not common.

96. Monodonta (Diloma) æthiops, Gmel. Under stones, etc., near high water-mark; plentiful.

97. M. (Diloma) subrostrata, Gray. Abundant on Zostera beds.

98. M. (Diloma) sulcata, Wood. Reefs near Lake Takapuna.

99. M. (Latona) mimetica, Hutton. On Zostera; scarce.


100. Minos rimata, Hutton. A few dead specimens only.


101. Haliotis iris, Martyn. Reefs off Rangitoto, and near Lake Takapuna.

Sub-Order 2. Edriopthalma.


102. Parmophorus unguis, L. Under stones between tide-marks; not common.

103. P. (Tugalia) intermedia, Reeve. In similar situations as the preceding.

– 169 –

Order III.—Docoglossa.


104. Acmæa pileopsis, Quoy et Gaim. Faces of tidal rocks; not common.

105. A. flammea, Quoy et Gaim. Faces of tidal rocks, and under stones; plentiful.


106. Patinella denticulata, Martyn. Rocky places between tide-marks; scarce.

107. P. radians, Gmel. On rocks between tide-marks; plentiful.

Order IV.—Polyplacophora.


108. Chiton pellis-serpentis, Quoy. Rocks between tide-marks; abundant.

109. C. sinclairii, Gray. Faces of exposed rocks; not common.

110. C. sulcatus, Quoy. Under stones between tide-marks; abundant.

111. C. glaucus, Gray. Under stones; plentiful.

112. Lepidopleurus longicymbus, De Blain. Under stones between tide-marks; very abundant.

113. Tonicia undulata, Quoy. Under stones in tide-pools; rare.

114. Acanthopleura cœlatus, Reeve. On tidal rocks, Rangitoto Island.

115. Chætopleura nobilis, Gray. On rocks near low water-mark, Rangitoto Island; not common.

116. Acanthochites zealandicus, Quoy et Gaim. Tide-pools; plentiful.

117. A. porphyreticus, Reeve. A few specimens, dredged in Rangitoto Channel.

118. A. violacea, Quoy et Gaim. Under stones in tide-pools; rare.

119. Cryptoconchus porosus, Burrow. On rocks, roots of sea-weed, etc., at and below low water-mark.

Order V.—Pulmonata.

Sub-Order Geophila.

Section Agnatha.


120. Elæa coresia, Gray. Under bark, rotten logs, etc.

121. E. jeffreysiana, Pfeiff. With the preceding.

– 170 –

122. Rhytida greenwoodii, Gray. Formerly existed on the Mount Eden lava streams, and dead shells may still be occasionally found.

123. Testacella vagans, Hutton. Gardens in the vicinity of Auckland; rare. I cannot help thinking that this will prove to be the European H. mangei, and that it is only naturalized in New Zealand.

Section Elasmognatha.


124. Janella bitentaculata, Quoy et Gaim. Plentiful. It can usually be found in some quantity at the bases of the leaves of Phormium tenax.

Section Goniognatha.


125. Carthæa kiwi. Gullies at Northcote, and near Lake Takapuna; rare. The leaf-sheaths of the nikau palm (Areca) are a favourite hiding-place for this species.

Section Holognatha.


126. Tornatellina novo-zeelandica, Pfeiffer. Crawling on ferns and shrubs. Not uncommon, but very easily overlooked.

127. Patula coma, Gray. Shelters under bark or logs, or under decaying leaves of Brachyglottis. Common.

128. P. buccinella, Reeve. Not uncommon. Often frequents the leaf-sheaths of Astelia and Freycinetia, etc.

129. P. corniculum, Reeve.} Under bark, or amongst decaying leaves, etc.

130. P. bianca, Hutton.} Under bark, or amongst decaying leaves, etc.

131. P. anguicula, Reeve.} Under bark, or amongst decaying leaves, etc.

132. P. timandra, Hutton. Not uncommon, especially among decaying Brachyglottis leaves.

133. P. tapirina, Hutton. Rare.

134. P. egesta, Gray. Among decaying leaves in dark and gloomy places.

135. Fruticicola pilula, Reeve. Common in shady gullies.

136. Microphysa caput-spinulæ, Reeve. Under stones, etc.

137. Endodonta leimonias, Gray.} Under bark or decaying leaves, or crawling on ferns or shrubs.

138. E. pœcilosticta, Pfeiff.} Under bark or decaying leaves, or crawling on ferns or shrubs.

139. E. marina, Hutton.} Under bark or decaying leaves, or crawling on ferns or shrubs.

140. E. nerissa, Hutton.} Under bark or decaying leaves, or crawling on ferns or shrubs.

– 171 –

141. Phrixgnathus maria, Gray. Not uncommon.

142. P. erigone, Gray. Under decaying leaves.

143. Amphidoxa cornea, Hutton.} Under bark, logs, etc., or among dead leaves.

144. A. chiron, Gray.} Under bark, logs, etc., or among dead leaves.

145. Otoconcha dimidiata, Pfeiff. Rare. Hiding in the leaf-sheaths of Astelia, or in similar situations.


146. Charopa ida, Gray. Common under bark, logs, etc.

147. Psyra dimorpha, Pfeiff. Rare. Usually found under bark, or in sheaths of Areca or Astelia leaves.

148. Therasia celinda, Gray. Among decaying leaves, etc.

149. T. tamora, Hutton. With the preceding.

150. T. thaisa, Hutton. Under stones on the cone of Rangitoto.

151. Thalassia portia, Gray. Common.

152. T. zealandica, Gray. Common.


153. Vitrina kermadecensis, Pfeiff. Formerly existed in several gullies near Auckland, but I think has now died out.

Section Ditremata.


154. Onchadella nigricans, Quoy et Gaim. Crawling over tidal rocks. Very plentiful.

Sub-Order 2. Basommatophora.


155. Limnea arguta, Hutton. Lake Takapuna. Rare.

156. Bulinus variabilis, Gray. Lake Takapuna; streams and ditches at Panmure. Rare.

157. Planorbis corinna, Gray. On Azolla, Onehunga Springs.


158. Latia neritoides, Gray. Lake Takapuna. Abundant.


159. Ophicardelus costellaris, Adams. Brackish-water swamps, mangrove swamps, etc. Common.

160. Marinula filholi, Hutton. Dead shells are occasionally picked up on the beaches, but up to the present time I have not been able to ascertain its habitat when living.

161. Leuconopsis obsoleta, Hutton. Under stones, near high water-mark; local.

– 172 –


162. Siphonaria australis, Quoy et Gaim. Faces of tidal rocks; not uncommon.

163. S. zealandica, Quoy et Gaim. With the preceding.


164. Amphibola avellana, Chemn. Mud-flats and sheltered tidal inlets; abundant.

Order VI.—Opisthobranchiata.

Sub-Order 1. Tectibranchiata.


165. Philine angasi, Crosse. Occasionally dredged on sandy flats in Rangitoto Channel.

166. Melanochlamys cylindrica, Cheeseman. Tide pools at the Tamaki Heads; rare.


167. Buccinulus albus, Hutton. A few worn specimens have been dredged in the harbour.


168. Cylichna striata, Hutton. Dredged in Rangitoto Channel.


169. Bulla quoyi, Reeve. On corallines near low water-mark.

170. Haminea zealandica, Kirk. On Zostera beds; very abundant in some localities.


171. Aclesia glauca, Cheeseman. Sandy flats; not uncommon.


172. Pleurobranchus ornatus, Cheeseman. Under stones in rock-pools; scarce.

173. Pleurobranchæa novo-zealandica, Cheeseman. On sandy flats; not uncommon.

Sub-Order 2. Nudibranchiata.


174. Doris wellingtonensis, Abr. Occasionally seen in sheltered places on rocky ground, but far from being common.

175. D. rubicunda, Cheeseman. On seaweeds near low water-mark; common.

– 173 –

176. D. flabellifera, Cheeseman. On corallines near low water-mark; scarce.

177. D. luctuosa, Cheeseman. On seaweeds; two or three specimens only.

178. Chromodoris aureo-marginata, Cheeseman. On seaweeds near low water-mark; a few specimens only.


179. Doridopsis citrina, Cheeseman. On seaweeds and corallines; the most abundant Nudibranch in Auckland Harbour.

180. D. mammosa, Abr. Zostera beds, but not common.

Class III.—Lamellibranchiata.

Order I.—Dimyaria.


181. Teredo antarctica, Hutton. Boring in piles, etc.; much too abundant.


182. Barnea similis, Gray.} Boring in sandstone rocks; plentiful.

183. Pholadidea tridens, Gray.} Boring in sandstone rocks; plentiful.


184. Saxicava australis, Lam. At the roots of Ecklonia radiata and other sea-weeds; not common.


185. Corbula zealandica, Quoy et Gaim. Can be dredged in great abundance in the deeper parts of the harbour.


186. Myodora striata, Quoy et Gaim. Sandy places below low water-mark.

187. Anatina angasi, Sow. Muddy places below low watermark; rare.


188. Mactra discors, Gray. Not common.

189. Hemimactra ovata, Gray. Deep mud by the side of tidal channels.

190. H. notata, Hutton. A few specimens picked up on the beach near Lake Takapuna.

191. Zenatia acinaces, Quoy et Gaim. Mud-flats below low water-mark; not uncommon.

– 174 –


192. Paphia novæ-zealandiæ, Chemn. Sandy flats between tide marks; common.

193. P. spissa, Reeve. Sandy flats near Lake Takapuna.


194. Psammobia stangeri, Gray.} Sandy or muddy banks below low water-mark, but often washed up by gales.

195. P. lineolata, Gray.} Sandy or muddy banks below low water-mark, but often washed up by gales.

196. Hiatula nitida, Gray.} Sandy or muddy banks below low water-mark, but often washed up by gales.

197. Tellina alba, Quoy et Gaim. Very rare near Auckland,

198. T. glabrella, Desh. Near and below low water-mark; not uncommon.

199. T. subovata, Sow. Frequently dredged in the deeper parts of the harbour.


200. Venerupis reflexa, Gray.{Either hiding in the old burrows of Pholas, or burrowing for themselves in the softer rocks.

201. V. elegans, Desh.{Either hiding in the old burrows of Pholas, or burrowing for themselves in the softer rocks.


202. Venus oblonga, Hanley. Not common.

203. V. yatei, Gray. Not common, but sometimes washed up by gales.

204. V. stutchburyi, Gray. Sandy and muddy banks, between tide-marks. Abundant.

205. V. costata, Quoy et Gaim. Occasionally washed up after storms.

206. V. mesodesma, Quoy et Gaim. Banks below low water-mark. Not rare.

207. Dosinia australis, Gray.} All occasionally thrown up after gales.

208. D. subrosea, Gray.} All occasionally thrown up after gales.

209. D. lumbata, Gould.} All occasionally thrown up after gales.

210. Tapes intermedia, Quoy et Gaim. Near low water-mark. Not rare.


211. Pisidium lenticula, Dunker. Among chra and Nitella, Lake Takapuna, but not common.


212. Cardium striatulum, Sow. A few odd valves have been picked up after gales.

– 175 –


213. Chamostrea albida, Lam. Affixed to rocks near low water-mark. Scarce.


214. Lucina dentata, Wood. Sometimes picked up after gales.


215. Mysia zealandica, Gray.} Mud-banks at or below low water-mark.

216. M. striata, Hutton.} Mud-banks at or below low water-mark.


217. Kellia citrina, Hutton. In crevices of rocks between tide-marks. Tamaki Heads.

218. Pythina stowei, Hutton. Dredged in Rangitoto Channel.


219. Solemya parkinsonii, Sm. Often washed up after easterly gales, and a few living specimens have been found buried in mud near low water-mark.


220. Cardita australis, Lam. Not common.

221. C. compressa, Reeve. Can be dredged in abundance in the deeper parts of the harbour.


222. Unio menziesii, Gray. Lake Takapuna and St. John's Lake; abundant.

223. U. depauperatus, Hutton. Lake Takapuna, Hutton. I am not acquainted with this species.


224. Nucula nitidula, Adams. Muddy places below low water-mark; plentiful.

225. N. lacunosa, Hutton. With the preceding, and equally plentiful.

226. Solenella australis, Quoy et Gaim. A single living specimen dredged in Rangitoto Channel.


227. Arca decussata, Sow. Rangitoto Reef, near low water-mark.

228. Pectunculus laticostatus, Quoy et Gaim. Reef off Lake Takapuna, near low water-mark.

229. P. striatularis, Lam. Dead shells are occasionally washed up.

– 176 –
Order II.—Heteromyaria.

230. Mytilus magellanicus, Lam. A few dead shells picked up near Lake Takapuna.

231. M. latus, Ch. Abundant on exposed rocks, and on the piles of wharves.

232. M. ater, Frauen. Rocks near high water-mark; plentiful.

233. Modiola australis, Gray. Not common.

234. M. fluviatilis, Hutton. Brackish water near Lake Takapuna.

235. Lithodomus truncatus, Gray. Boring in rocks between tide-marks. Abundant.

236. Crenella impacta, Hermn. Under overhanging ledges near low water-mark, spinning a nest for itself among Tunicata and seaweeds.

Order III.—Monomyaria.

237. Pinna zealandica, Gray. Muddy bays near low watermark; not uncommon.


238. Pecten zealandica, Gray. Near low water-mark, under stones, or at the roots of seaweeds.

239. P. laticostatus. Sand-banks, at and below low water-mark.


240. Placunanomia zealandica, Gray. Under stones near low water-mark, Rangitoto Reef; rare.


241. Ostrea glomerata, Sow. On rocks between tide-marks; common.

Class IV.—Brachiopoda.

242. Terebratella rubicunda, Sol. Rangitoto Island; under stones near low water-mark; not uncommon.

– 177 –

Art.. XX.—The Land Mollusca of the Thames Goldfields.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 14th November, 1886.]

It will surprise many of those who spend a large part of their lives in the forests of New Zealand to learn that there are a great number of land-shells in the bush. These shells, however, are in general so small and so inconspicuous that they are only found after a careful search, although every forest has, perhaps, thousands of at least forty different species. They are not only overlooked on account of their small size, but they hide also under leaves, or under the bark or in the crevices of the trees.

A few of the larger ones are, of course, well known in the localities where they are numerous—such as Paryphanta busbyi, and Rhytida greenwoodii—but the greater number range in size from that of a pea to a pin's head. Indeed, one of them, and not the smallest, has a Latin cognomen that means “pin's head.” There are at present known to science about one hundred and twenty of the Land Mollusca of New Zealand, and these have been classified and described by Captain Hutton in a paper in the sixteenth volume of the “Transactions.”*

It occurred to me, when collecting land-shells for him and for my friend Mr. Cheeseman, that it might be useful to make a list of the species found in the Thames District, and to mention at the same time the most favourable localities for searching for them. In one respect the land-shells are deserving of more than a passing attention, and that is the surprise that every one must experience in finding them at all in New Zealand.

They are easily drowned in fresh water, and salt water is sudden death to them. They cannot bear exposure, as they quickly disappear from even rude clearings; and yet our land-shells have their nearest relations in Tahiti, Samoa, and the Solomon Islands. Countless ages must have elapsed while such slowly-moving animals gradually spread over the intervening space between such distant countries. Indeed, their great antiquity is confirmed by the fact of finding fossil land-shells on a fossil tree in the Palæozoic rocks. It may be supposed that, when forests flourished on the oldest sedimentary rocks of New Zealand, the ancestors of the present land-shells swarmed under the dead leaves and on the tree trunks.

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., art. viii.

– 178 –

One vast forest extended, perhaps, from New Zealand to Queensland on the west, and to Tahiti on the east. It may be significant that this very ancient form of fauna is abundant on the nikau (Areca sapida), and on the kiekie (Freycinetia banksii), both of which belong to the most ancient forms of flora. The nikau is a favourite for land-shells in any situation, but they are found more numerously on it in deep shady valleys near the banks of streams. The shells usually found are Carthæa kivi, Patula buccinella, P. corniculum, Phrixgnathus maria, Amphidoxa chiron, and Thalassia neozelanica. A couple of years ago, after an unsuccessful search for land-shells on the main range of this peninsula, I cut down a nikau (Areca sapida), and by examining each leaf right into the heart I found twelve different species, chiefly of the genera Patula, Phrixgnathus, and Psyra.

The kiekie (Freycinetia banksii) usually contains the same kinds of land-shells as those found on the nikau; but, as a rule, the less number of nikaus in the locality, the greater number and greater variety of shells the kiekie affords. There is a species of Phrixgnathus, mentioned in the list appended, that appears peculiar to this tree.

The tree-fern is another very ancient type of flora, and here also a successful search for land-shells can be made; but they are easily overlooked in the brown scales and decaying fronds, except such conspicuous shells as Patula corniculum.

I have made a special trial of how many kinds of land-shells can be gathered in and about the black tree-fern (Cyathea medullaris), and the silver tree-fern (Cyathea dealbata) that formed a grove, and there were found 19 different species. Of these, 6 were species of Patula, 3 of Phrixgnathus, 2 of Endodonta, 2 of Therasia, 1 Elæa, 1 Amphidoxa, 1 Fruticicola and Thalassia neozelanica.

The land-shell last mentioned is the commonest found in the bush. It is generally the first to meet the eye when the day's search begins. This search is of course delayed until the real bush track is entered on, that leads through the groves of pukapuka (Brachyglottis repanda) that usually form the outskirts of the forest.

The large leaves accumulate in hollows, or near the roots of the mahoe (Melicytus ramiflorus), or the pukatea (Atherosperma novæ-zealandiæ), or the taua (Beelshmeidia taua), and these piles of damp decaying leaves become a favourite haunt for Rhytida greenwoodi, Thalassia neozelanica, and Phrixgnathus maria. Many other shells are also frequently found, but they are usually dead ones.

On advancing further, or rather climbing higher into the bush, a place must be sought on the slope of a ridge, where small stones are covered with black mould and decaying leaves; and, by patient search, small live land-shells will be found,

– 179 –

such as Psyra planulata, Phrixgnathus erigone, Patula buccinella, Therasia celinde, and Amphidoxa chiron.

The handsome hairy shell, Thalassia portia, is very local, and though four or five may be found in one place, the vicinity may be searched in vain for any more.

Many land-shells are found under the bark of dead trees, especially in damp places. The rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum) is best for several kinds of Patula, and under the loose bark of the taua (Beelschmeidia taua), Phrixgnathus conella, Elæa jeffreysiana and Endodonta pœcilosticta are not uncommon.

On cushions of moss growing on dead trees, or on patches of Hymenophyllum, Endodonta leimonias can be found, but this minute shell is very inconspicuous.

The fleshy tubers of Earina autumnalis may harbour Otoconcha dimidiata; but this shell is more likely to be found under the outer decaying fronds of the nikau (Areca sapida) in damp situations.

The eggs of land-shells are found chiefly under the fronds of the nikau, or within the leaves of kiekie or of Astelia solandri. That the land mollusca and their eggs have many enemies, appears evident to me, but to write on this subject would require much closer observation than I have been able to devote to it.

Freshwater Mollusca.

The freshwater mollusca are represented in every stream and in every swamp, and though very plentiful, there are very few species. In the Kaueranga River, about half a mile from its mouth, there is an abundance of a Mytilus which resembles M. ater, but it may be a new species. In the upper course, Melanopsis bifasciata is not uncommon on pieces of dead wood, and some tributary rivulets abound in Potamopyrgus corolla.

Planorbis corinna, and Pisidium neozelanica, appear to occur in only one place, but they are both inconspicuous and easily overlooked. The one is found on Azolla rubra, and the other on the muddy bottom at the roots of Cyperus ustulatus. I append a list of the Mollusca found in the district, which may probably be increased by the addition of a few more species.

Catalogue of the Land and Freshwater Mollusca observed in the Thames District.

I.—Land Mollusca.

1. Carthæa kivi, Gray. On leaves of nikau, kiekie, and kawa-kawa.

2. Tornatellina neozelanica, Pfeiffer. On fronds of ferns,

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3. Patula coma, Gray. Under the bark of dead trees; chiefly rimu and taua.

4. P. buccinella, Reeve.

5. P. corniculum, Reeve. On fern trees and leaves of nikau.

6. P. brauca, Hutton.

7. P. anguicula, Reeve.

8. P. timandra, Hutton. Under bark of dead rimu.

9. P. tapirina, Hutton.

10. P. biconcava, Pfeiffer.

11. Thera stipulata, Reeve. Under leaves in stony places.

12. Fruticicola pilula, Reeve. On nikau.

13. Microphysa caput-spinulæ, Reeve. On kiekie.

14. Strobila, sp.

15. Endodonta leimonias, Gray. On Hymenophylla, in dense bush.

16. E. pœcilosticta, Pfeiffer. Under dead leaves.

17. E. marina, Hutton.

18. E. nerissa, Hutton.

19. Phrixgnathus maria, Gray. Very common in all places where shells are found.

20. P. conella, Pfeiffer. On nikau and kiekie.

21. P. regularis, Pfeiffer.

22. P. erigone, Gray.

23. P. celia, Hutton. Under the leaves of kiekie.

24. Amphidoxa cornea, Hutton. On nikau leaves.

25. A. chiron, Gray.

26. A. costulata, Hutton.

27. A. perdita, Hutton.

28. Otoconcha dimidiata, Pfeiffer. Under nikau leaves or moss, in very damp places.

29. Charopa ida, Gray. On nikau.

30. Psyra dimorpha, Pfeiffer. Under dead leaves of pukapuka.

31. P. planulata, Hutton. Very common, but chiefly under decaying nikau leaves.

32. Psyra, sp.

33. Therasia celinde, Gray. On fern-trees.

34. T. tamora, Hutton. Under dead leaves.

35. T. decidua, Pfeiffer.

36. Thalassia portia, Gray. Under dead branches of wood in stony places.

37. T. neozelanica, Gray. Very common.

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38. Janella bitentaculata, Quoy and Gaimard.

39. Elæa coresia, Gray. In dead trees.

40. E. jeffreysiana, Pfeiffer.

41. Rhytida greenwoodi, Gray. Under damp leaves, near the roots of pukapuka or pukatea.

42. Leptopoma, sp. Under dead leaves in forest ranges.

II. Freshwater Mollusca.

43. Limnæa arguta, Hutton. On leaves in swamps.

44. Bulinus variabilis, Gray. In running streams.

45. Planorbis corinna, Gray. On leaves of swamp plants.

46. Melanopsis trifasciata, Reeve. In the Kaueranga River.

47. Potamopyrgus cumingiana, Fischer. On cress in rivulets.

48. P. corolla, Gould.

49. P. antipodum.

50. P. pupoides.

51. Pisidium neozelanica. At the roots of swamp plants.

52. Mytilus ater ? In the Kaueranga River.

Art.. XXI.—Description of the Little Barrier or Hauturu Island, the Birds which inhabit it, and the Locality as a Protection to them.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 14th November, 1886.]

Having heard the practical and beneficial proposals to science and agriculture made by Judge Fenton at the last meeting of this Institute, I thought it might be useful to give a brief and general description of Hauturu Island, which I have visited five times, spending in all about ten months, searching and cutting tracks in various directions. Hauturu Island is situated 12 miles in a north-easterly direction from Rodney Point. The island is, in a straight line from north to south, 4 ¼ miles, from east to west 3 ½ miles, in extent, and rises about 2,383 feet above sea-level. It is very broken, except on the south-eastern portion, where there is a small flat, and a few slopes grown over with grass, ferns, and small ti-tree; these places were cleared by cutting firewood. A main range runs across the island from west to east, which in places is very narrow and steep. The Island is well timbered, and there are some very fine kauris in the interior.

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The general bush consists of—

Manuka Rewarewa Rata
Puriri Nikau Taridi
Tawa Maire Punga
Rimu Miro Pohutukawa

The Pohutukawa about Christmas-time gives this island the appearance of a large rose garden, when these trees are covered with their red blossoms, on which the honey-eaters delight themselves from early morn till late in the evening, climbing about from one blossom to another to suck the honey. The korimoko may also sometimes be seen chasing a tui, making various evolutions in the air, and, on returning, making the place ring with their powerful whistle. On the heights are numerous shrubs similar to the vegetation on the New Zealand Alps. Some of the gullies are very dense with creepers, such as supplejack, “lawyers,” and a large variety of ferns and moss. There are several creeks: four have their outflow north, one northeast, two south, three west. There are some minor ones, but in summer most of them get dry, except one north, one south, and one west, which always have water, especially the one in the centre of the island. There are some large and deep water-holes, and in some places the creeks are narrow. The mountains are nearly perpendicular and of various shapes and forms, some bare, others grown over with low vegetation; the scenery is wild, but very romantic: some places are so broken that I was obliged to use a rope for pulling up and letting down my provisions and dog. In one locality, I could not find a place to camp without the risk of rolling over the cliffs, and had to tie myself to a tree. The formation is mostly conglomerate, and dark rock similar to basalt.

Having described the island, I will now bring before you the advantages Hauturu Island possesses over others for protecting and preserving the birds. Firstly, there are only three landing-places; two are known to the coasting vessels: one on the south-western side, where the Maori settlement is, the other is half-a-mile west, where I had my camp; but even these places have boulder shores, and the landing is dangerous, as a heavy surf rolls in constantly, except when the weather is north or north-east and there is no swell on. On the south-western side, on top of the hill, one can overlook both landing-places. Here the land is not so broken, and could be cultivated. The third landing-place, a boulder beach on the eastern portion of the island, is very rough. I had a boat smashed into fragments by the surf at this place. There is no fresh water near it in summer. One good man, who took a delight in his duty, could act as overseer on the whole island.

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The high slopes would be a favourable resort for kakapo (Stringops), crow (Glaucopis), saddle-back (Creadion), New Zealand titmouse (Orthonyx ochrocephala), creeper, and Certhiparus novæ-zealandiæ. The lower ridges would be suitable for kiwi (Apteryx), the deep gullies for wrens (Xenicus), thrushes (Turnagra), robins (Petroica), etc. The above-mentioned localities are well suited for all the specimens named, by my own observations in various places. Appended is a list of the birds which inhabit Hauturu Island, viz.:— Hieracidea ferox
Circus gouldi
Athene novæ-zealandiæ
Halcyon vagans
Pogonornis cincta
Prosthemadera novæ-zealandiæ
Anthornis melanura
Zosterops lateralis
Acanthisitta chloris
Orthonyx albicilla
Gerygone flaviventris
Petroica toi-toi
P. longipes
Anthus novæ-zealandiæ
Rhipidura flabellifera
Creadion carunculatus
Platycercus novæ-zealandiæ
P. auriceps
P. alpinus
Nestor meridionalis
Eudynamis taitensis
Chrysococcyx lucidus
Carpophaga novæ-zealandiæ
Apteryx mantelli
Hæmatopus unicolor
Larus dominicanus
L. scopulinus
Sterna frontalis
Puffinus gavius
P. assimilis
P. tristis
Procellaria cookii
P. parkinsoni
P. gouldi
Prion turtur
Haladroma urinatrix
Dysporus serrator
Phalacrocorax brevirostris
P. varius
Eudyptula minor.

The following are foreign birds which have migrated to Hauturu Island:— Coturnix pectoralis
Turnix varius
Passer domesticus
Fringilla chloris
Turdus merula
T. musicus.

The Natives assured me that these last-named birds were not brought there.

The above list of 40 different specimens of New Zealand birds will show that the locality is more favourable than the mainland. There also exist several specimens which are nearly extinct, or very rare, on the mainland. I agree with Judge Fenton that bees are destructive to birds, from my personal observations—viz., to the honey-eaters (Nectarinea) and Psittacidæ, which breed in hollow trees. Honey-eaters are deprived of their food by the bees at a time when they most need it—when they have young—and, being insectivorous, they catch the bees and

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sometimes get stung and die. Furthermore, the bees occupy the breeding resorts of Psittacidæ. Settlers and Natives told me they found kaka eggs, and young parakeets, in the honey-comb of wild bees on the mainland.

On Hauturu Island there are no bees: the chief, Tenetahi, would not allow them to be landed, as he wished to protect the birds. There is one drawback—viz., wild pigs and cats, which are very destructive. The former root all the ground-birds out, and devour them; the latter watch night and day for their prey. But these two pests a good marksman with well-trained dogs could soon put a stop to. If the members of this Institute are in favour of obtaining Hauturu Island for preserving and protecting the Native birds, from my knowledge, and after many years studying the habits of New Zealand birds, I could not recommend a more favourable place. It would be of great benefit to science and agriculture to have such a means of preventing the extinction of these remarkable birds, which, as they multiplied, could easily be transferred to the mainland for the purpose of checking the insect pests; and if my aid in the project is of any use, I will be most happy to procure (gratis) live specimens of both sexes of Apteryx (kiwi) and Stringops (kakapo), if the Committee will provide me with cages and arrange for the transport, before or when I am again on the West Coast, about December next. The insectivorous birds and honey-eaters could be fed during transport on mashed potatoes, and common biscuits soaked in water, with sugar, and a few meal-worms or ant-eggs. As I expect to be away on another expedition, I have asked Professor Thomas if he would kindly read this paper for me; and if members wish to ask any questions in reference to these observations, I will be most happy to reply.

The above is written from my personal observations and facts.

Art.. XXII.—Notes on Ornithology.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 18th October, 1886.]

Petroica toi-toi—Pie-tit (Miro-miro).

This beautiful little bird is a native of the North Island, but on the mainland is becoming scarce. I found a few pairs in the Tangahuia Ranges in 1879, in the Tokatea and Waitakerei Banges in 1880, and in Pirongia, Rangitoto and Mokau Ranges in 1882. They are more plentiful, however, on certain islands

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in the Hauraki Gulf. When I visited Morotiri Island in 1880, and also Taranga Island in 1888, they were rather rare. On Hauturu Island, in October, 1880, I found this bird very common, but on my second trip in 1882 they seemed to have diminished.

The sexes differ considerably in plumage: the male bird has upper part black, a white spot on the top of the bill, a white, bar across the wings; throat, breast, and abdomen white: the female, upper part greyish-brown, white spot on top of the bill, yellowish-white bar on the wings, and greyish-white on the throat, breast, and abdomen. The young birds are spotted. The pair build the nest together, of moss, spider-webs, and rotten wood, lining the inside with the down of seeds taken from the various flowers. The nest is always flattened in the fork of a tree. I never found it more than 8 or 10 feet above the ground, and in very thick scrub. The female lays in October from 3 to 4 eggs, and male and female breed and rear the young together twice a year. In the beginning of December the young birds are full-grown, and the parents leave them. On Hauturu Island, in 1880, I found a nest containing two white-brownish speckled eggs. About the end of December, 1882, I found a nest with 4 eggs, near our whare. In 14 days the young birds came out of the shells. Every morning and evening, while the female was sitting, the male came and serenaded her. The song consists of six notes, as “ti, oly, oly, ho,” which he always repeats twice. One male came several successive mornings near my whare, I threw him some bread crumbs, which he picked up; a week after he brought a female and three young ones, feeding them in front of the whare. After a time the male got so bold that he actually came to the door and called for food. They stayed about the whare till I left it. Through its boldness, I think, this bird is becoming scarce. They prefer clearings, where they hop about on low branches with the wings slightly drooped, the tail always erect, and uttering a sweet whistle of one note, as “see;” the male sometimes five notes. The female is of a most retiring disposition, and is not so often seen as the male. Their food consists of insects and larvæ. On the morning of the 10th December, 1883, (after a severe thunderstorm and rain in the night), I went up the ranges, and in a very thick gully I heard a twitter; on approaching, 1 perceived a pair of Petroica toi-toi hopping about very excitedly; after watching them for a time, I went closer and looked into the nest, where I saw three eggs covered with water. On my taking away the nest, the birds did not show any anxiety for their loss. They are very useful in destroying insects, with which the New Zealand forests swarm. I often saw them carrying insects over an inch long to their nests.

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Petroica Longipes, Less.—Wood Robin (Tototowai).

This species is confined to the North Island, where it was formerly plentiful, but is now only to be found in a few localities, and is very rare, and will soon become extinct like so many other New Zealand birds. Dr. Buller told me that he could not get a pair even at a high price.

On the north-western slope of Hauturu Island, in October, 1880, I shot one female. In November, 1882, I went to the centre of the island, where I saw several pairs. It prefers secluded gullies, near creeks, and hops about on the ground or in low scrub. The male sings very early in the morning, and late in the evening. Only on one occasion have I observed this bird singing on the top of a high tree, which it did for a quarter of an hour. The song is very sweet and powerful, and, when undisturbed, the bird is very tame. When I was digging out various specimens of Procellaria, this robin always came round and picked up the worms and other insects from under my hoe. On one occasion, when I was sitting on a stump watching a long-tailed cuckoo devouring a large weta, with my gun across my knees, one of these robins came and perched on the barrel. Often when at lunch, one or a pair came and picked up the crumbs at my feet. If I threw a piece of biscuit or meat, it was taken away a short distance and eaten, and the recipient returned for more. At the commencement of the breeding season, which begins in October, the female lays from 3 to 4 eggs; each pair occupies a certain limit, and if interfered with by others, the weaker is obliged to retreat. Their food consists of insects and their larvæ. I never met this bird on my southern expeditions, and the only pair on the mainland were those I saw on the Tohua Ranges. Early in December, 1883, during my stay on Hauturu Island, the Natives found a nest with four young birds (Petroica longipes), but when I reached the spot the birds had flown. The nest, which had evidently but recently been disturbed, was built of moss, grass, etc., and in the niche of a tree. This bird reminds me very much, in its movements and habits, of the European robin (Rubicula sylvestris), and I felt it an act of vandalism to shoot some for specimens. They are very useful birds, and deserve every protection.

Anthornis Melanura.—Bell-bird (Korimako).

This bird is very common in the South Island of New Zealand, also on several small islands on the east coast. At Whangarei Heads, in the North Island, I saw one specimen which was blown in a gale from Morotiri Island, and was in such a state of exhaustion that it could hardly move, and died in a few moments. On skinning, I found it very thin, the crop being quite empty. I searched all the northern forests from

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the Mokau to the Bay of Islands, and across from one coast to the other, but never again observed it. I attribute its disappearance to cats, rats, bees, and bush-fires. The first time I saw this bird in the South Island was in the forests on Banks Peninsula, in 1877, and again in the same year on my trip to the west coast, where I found it common. In the North Island I could not discover it on the mainland, but on visiting Morotiri Island, April, 1880; Hauturu Island, October, 1880; and Taranga Island in November, 1880, I found them plentiful. In December, 1880, on my second visit to Morotiri Island, I found that the birds had materially decreased in number. On my second trip to Hauturu Island in October, 1882, at the centre of the island, I found the bird at home, morning and evening. I had a concert near my nikau whare, from 10 to 20 birds of both sexes sitting on the trees and singing in chorus together. The morning and evening song differs from that during the day, the morning and evening notes consisting of three distinct sounds resembling the chimes of bells, from which I suppose the bird derived its name. The song during the day is more of a warbling sound. One gives the signal to begin, with a snap of the bill, and all the birds join in the chime, keeping perfect time together until the leader, with another snap, gives the signal for a rest. After a few minutes rest, the chiming song is repeated.

In September, male and female begin to build the nest, of small branches and moss, lined with feathers, in thick branches of trees from 20 to 50 feet above the ground; and I have also found nests in hollow trees. In October the female lays from 4 to 5 white eggs with light-red spots, which they hatch together, and both parents feed the young brood. When leaving the nest, the male looks after his family till they are able to take care of themselves. At the approach of danger I have seen a male knocking a young bird from a branch when it would not listen to his call.

This bird is very bold and tame; it lives on insects, berries, and honey from trees and flowers, especially the flax blossoms (Phormium tenax), which in some places grows in great abundance, and has a quantity of honey in the calyx, into which the Bell-bird inserts his bushy tongue to suck out the honey. On the Little Barrier, on the 10th December, 1883, I found three nests under a bunch of tussock (a parasite growing on a tree), completely sheltered from wind and rain, 20 feet above the ground. In each nest there were 4 birds; I took one nest, to ascertain if the bird could be kept in confinement. After having them in my care for several days, during which I fed them on soaked biscuit mixed with honey, and cooked potatoes, they got on well; but, through the carelessness of my assistant, they escaped.

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I made a stay at the West Coast Sounds in the South Island, in 1884, where the Bell-bird is not so common, the specimens which I procured in Dusky Sound being considerably larger, darker, and softer in plumage than those of the North Island. Male and female differ in size and plumage, the latter being smaller and duller. I feel sorry that these birds have also disappeared, in some localities, as they brighten the melancholy stillness of New Zealand forests by their powerful song, and are very useful in destroying numerous insects.

Art. XXIII.—Ornithological Notes.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 20th September, 1886.]

Creadion carunculatus.—Saddleback (Tieke).

This bird derives its popular name from a peculiarity in the distribution of its two strangely contrasted colours, uniform black, back and shoulders ferruginous, the shoulders of the wings forming a saddle. In structure it resembles the starling (Sturnidæ); it has also the wedge bill. In December, 1877, on my expedition in the South Island, I found this bird on the chain of high ranges along the left bank of the Teremakau River, but it was rather scarce. I have seen it frequently near Lake Brunner and on Greenstone Hill, also on Mount Alexander, and in April, 1879, on Mount Alcidus, Rakaia Fork.

During my researches in the North Island, in 1880, I found this bird on Hauturu Island, but rare, and again in October, 1882, when I went to the centre of the island, but it was still scarcer. On my visit to Taranga Island, in November, 1880, I was greatly pleased to find the saddleback in abundance; and on a later trip, in February, 1883, it was still more numerous. On my first trip, in 1880, to this island, I found a saddleback's nest about 10 feet from the ground in a manuka tree; this nest was made of moss, twigs, and fine grass, with one white brownish-spotted egg in it. In February, 1883, on exploring in a north-easterly direction, I heard a peculiar whistle, which differed from that of any other New Zealand bird. On going closer I perceived five birds, and, concealing myself, in order to watch them, to my surprise I saw male, female, and three young Creadion carunculatus. The female was feeding the young birds, which had just left the nest. I first shot the parents; the young, which had never moved from the branch, I gave to Dr. Buller, F.R.S., with a description, and

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he read a paper before the Philosophical Society, Wellington. After this, I procured several specimens of adult and young birds, which had the same plumage as the old birds, black and ferruginous, only a little duller; their wattles are either invisible or very small. I measured the wattles of adult males, and found them half-an-inch long, and of a deep orange colour; those of the female are smaller, and of a citron hue.

Strange to say, in the South Island I only saw this bird on the higher ranges, where it prefers steep thickly-wooded gullies, but on Taranga Island, in the North, I found them everywhere, both on the ranges and near the seashore, especially on the flax blossom, from which they suck the honey. I also observed it on the Great Barrier in June, 1882, and on Rangitoto Ranges in the King country in March, 1882.

The female lays from two to three eggs in November; male and female hatch and rear their young together. The saddleback is a very noisy bird. The whistle consists of three and four notes—the first three, like “vi, zi, o,” he repeats twice, and then the four notes in succession, like “te, te, te, te.” In the breeding season, when the female is hatching, the male generally sits near her on a branch, singing. The notes are not so harsh as the former ones. If this bird observes anything unusual, he hops in a very excited manner, with the wings close to the body, head bent downward, and stopping and listening at intervals, through the trees to examine the object. When satisfied, he flutters to a distance, the flight being very feeble, as the wings are very short. They are very active in climbing, hopping from one branch to another, picking in decayed wood, or crevices in the bark, in a similar manner to the woodpecker, searching for insects and their larvæ, of which they destroy a number, thus being useful. They also feed on berries and honey. During all this time they keep up a continual whistling.

Curious to say, during five years' observation, in which I have procured a series of specimens of Creadion carunculatus, adult and young in all stages, I never noticed any difference in plumage; they were always black, with a ferruginous saddle.

This bird is very rare on the mainland in the North Island. On dissecting their crops, I found insects and minute seeds.

Creadion Cinereus, Buller.—Saddleback (Tieke).

This bird is distinct from Creadion carunculatus; the body is smaller, the bill longer and thicker, the tail also is longer, and the plumage different. Its colour is a uniform olive-brown, the wings and tail darker, with a reddish tint on the upper and lower tail-coverts. The wattles are smaller, about a quarter of an inch long, and of light yellow colour. I first saw this bird in December 1877, at Greenstone Hill, near Lake Brunner, and subsequently in February, 1878, at Mount Alexandra.

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I have observed them in pairs, along with the yellow-head (Orthonyx ochrocephala), and with Creadion carunculatus, also the brown creeper (Certhiparus novæ-zealandiæ), hopping about from branch to branch in search of food. I shot a series of specimens of Creadion cinereus, and on skinning them I found the reproductive organs of both sexes well-developed. On my return to Christchurch, when speaking of this variety or species, I was told that this is the young of Creadion carunculatus. When I pointed out the difference in size and plumage, I was informed that the plumage would become the same, in the third year, as that of Creadion carunculatus—i.e., a uniform black, with back and shoulders ferruginous. Being at this time a new arrival in the colony, I did not contradict my informant; I corresponded with Dr. Buller, who agreed with me that Creadion cinereus is a distinct species from C. carunculatus. But determined to find out the truth, I followed up the subject until February 7th, 1883, and on my trip to Taranga Island my efforts were crowned with success, for I observed the first pair feed their young, which I gave to Dr. Buller to enable him to bring forward his lost species, on which he read a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society. After that, I procured a few more specimens of Creadion carunculatus, feeding their young, which were just out of the nest, the plumage being exactly like that of the parents, only a little duller, uniform black and ferruginous on the back and shoulders; the wattles are either invisible or very small. I have observed a series of Creadion carunculatus in all stages, and never saw any difference in their plumage.

Through all the northern forests, I have never met with Creadion cinereus. In 1884, during my researches on the West Coast Sounds, I saw Creadion cinereus up the ranges, in low scrub, male and female together in pairs. I shot one pair in Dusky Sound, in June 1884, a second pair in August of the same year, and a third pair in Milford Sound in October 1884. I never observed in any of the Creadion cinereus which I shot at different seasons the slightest difference in plumage. Their food consists of insects, their larvæ, and small berries, which I have found in their crops when dissecting. I only found this bird in the South Island, and even there they are scarce near settled districts. I have met them frequently on the West Coast in uninhabited places. The whistle of Creadion cinereus consists first of three notes, “te, a, r,” which he repeats several times, then four, like “te, te, te, te.” Their movements are quick in hopping and climbing, but feeble in flying; they prefer thickly-wooded and steep gullies.

Glaucopis wilsoni, Gray.—Crow (Kokako).

This remarkable bird, the natives told me, was once common on all the ranges of the North Island forests, but now it only

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frequents the higher ranges, away from habitations, where it appears at the end of April and stays till September. It is confined to the North Island. Early in the morning, and in the evening, the traveller will hear some very sweet notes, like a flute. The call of the male and female is alike, consisting of two notes, like “vio,” but the song of the male bird is different, and composed of five pleasing notes, like “vio, ku, ku, ku,” which sound near, though the bird is generally a considerable distance off. They are very tame, but when they are much disturbed it is very difficult to detect them without a dog. When approached, they hide in the thick crowns of trees, peeping through the branches at intervals to see if the intruder has disappeared, in which case they begin to whistle. Should the bird be disturbed a second time, it hops away with marvellous swiftness through the branches, from one tree to another, so that it requires a very quick shot to procure it. The birds always go in pairs, male and female together; and if the call be imitated, they come hopping along, often so near that I could almost touch them. In October, they retreat to very thickly-wooded gullies, between the highest ranges, where they breed, and are seldom seen. The plumage is slate-colour, with a brownish tinge on the wings, back, and tail, a small black bar on top of the head, near the root of the bill; wattles blue in the adult, pink, and smaller, in the young bird. My belief is that they breed twice a year, and have two or three young at a time. Early in April, 1880, on the Tokatea Ranges, near Castlehill, I found in a tussock on a tree a nest with three young half-fledged birds, one of which I secured; the others escaped. The nest was built very carelessly of dry branches, ferns, and moss, and about 30 feet from the ground. In February, 1882, I shot two full-grown young birds in the Pirongia Ranges. I also observed this bird in September, 1879, in the Tangahuia Ranges; in 1880, in Maungataroto; near Ngunguru in 1882, and on the Great Barrier and Waitakerei Ranges. It is strange I never met with this bird on any of the islands off the east coast except the Great Barrier, where most of the New Zealand birds are more plentiful than on the mainland. This bird feeds on berries and the young leaves of various plants, which I have found in their crops. It uses its wings, which are short and small for its size, very seldom, and only to flutter down, but is very active and quick in climbing. In December, 1885, I observed three young birds sitting outside a nest, which was in the crown of a very thick miro, in the Waitakerei Ranges. They disappeared into the nest when I approached, and in a few days went away with their parents. In the pairing season, when not disturbed, the male makes various evolutions by drooping and spreading the wings, erecting the tail, with bent down head and outstretched neck, in a similar way to the

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capercailzie (Tetrao urogallus), and whistles to the female, who sits still and seems to admire her companion's movements.

Their limits are growing narrower, owing to ravages of bushfires and of cats and rats.

Orthonyx albicilla.—White-head (Popokatea).

This bird is found in the North Island, in both the lower and higher ranges. The first pair I saw was on the Tokatea Ranges near Castlehill, in April, 1880; the second on Hauturu Island, where they are plentiful, in October, 1880. I shot a pair on the Pirongia Ranges in February, 1882, and about the end of April I saw another pair at the Mokau. I never saw this bird on the mainland north of Auckland. Mr. T. Cheeseman, F.L.S., told me that eight or ten years ago these birds were quite common about Auckland, but they have now completely disappeared. Strange to say, on my second trip to Hauturu Island, in 1883, I was agreeably surprised to find that since my visits in 1880 and 1882 the white-head had increased in numbers. Its movements are similar to those of the European cole titmouse (Parus major), hopping and climbing about, and sometimes hanging by the feet under the branch of a tree, picking into the bark for insects and small seeds. It is a lively inquisitive little bird, any noise in the bush attracts a flock of them, which come near with a shrill whistle, stopping a little while to see what it is, and then flying away again. It prefers certain localities, and there are always several pairs together. In December, 1882, I noticed that the same pairs came in the morning and evening near one of my whares, and they were so tame that I could observe them feeding their young from the door. The male and female build the nest (which is very neat) together, out of twigs, moss, and grass, and line it with feathers, from 8 to 16 feet above the ground, in very thick trees, manuka. At the end of October the female lays four eggs, of a pinkish colour, with light-brown spots. I have also found this bird's eggs in December, so they must breed twice a year. This they do together.

One evening, at the Little Barrier, hearing a noise, I cautiously approached, and from my concealment saw a morepork following a white-head, near a nest. The male immediately tried to divert and allure it away, which he succeeded in doing by hopping further and further, calling the whole time, and on being pursued darted into the thickest scrub, where it was impossible for his larger enemy to follow. I then lost sight of him, but, on going back, to my surprise I found he had already returned, and was hopping round the nest, on which the female was sitting on eggs, which I forwarded to Dr. Buller.

I found a few specimens of the white-head in the Rimutaka Ranges, near Wellington, in October, 1884. There are also some

Picture icon

Map of the Great Barrier Island

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on the Great Barrier Island, but none on the Hen and Chickens, or any other nearer islands. The females and young birds are duller in plumage than the adult males: Head, breast, and abdomen white, with a very slight brownish tinge; wings, back, and tail light-brown. Their call consists, first, of three notes, like “viu, viu, viu,” then four, like “zir, zir, zir, zir.” They are useful, as they destroy a number of insects, which I have found in their crops, with minute seeds. This bird resembles in structure, habits, and call, the Parus major. In my opinion a more suitable name for it would be the “New Zealand Titmous.”

Art. XXIV.—Notes on some Moa Remains found at the Great Barrier Island during February, 1886.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 18th October, 1886.]

Plate XXII.

Before going to the Barrier, in August, 1885, I was told by Mr. G. A. Martin, of the Survey Department, that, when at the island in 1881, he had found some Moa bones close to the Owana River, and not far from the beach. So when we were camped near there at the beginning of the present year, I asked my party, who were in the habit of walking on the beach on Sundays, to look out for Moa bones, which they kindly did, Sunday after Sunday, but without success, until shortly before we left, when Mr. George Malcolm, who had been with Mr. Martin, succeeded in finding some bones, supposed to be those of the Moa. These I brought to town, and submitted to Mr. Cheeseman, who pronounced them to be Moa and Seal bones, which was so far satisfactory, as establishing the fact that Moa bones had for the first time—as I learn from Mr. Cheeseman—been found off the mainland.

These bones comprise—

  • 1 Femur,

  • 2 Tibiœ,

  • 1 Metatarsus.

  • A portion of a rib;

and belonged, I am informed by Mr. Cheeseman, to one of the smaller species; the leg bones measuring in all about 22 inches, so that the bird must have been about 4 feet in height.

They were found near the surface of the drift sand, about 30 yards distant inland from and 20 feet above high water-mark, spring tides, and almost directly opposite to the mouth of the Owana River, as shown on the plan (Plate XXII.), from which

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it will be seen that the river, when within eight chains of the coast, turns almost at right angles and runs parallel with the coast for about 40 chains before joining the sea. On this narrow strip of land, which rises to a height of 330 feet above the sea, a most picturesque, and what must have been an almost impregnable, pa stands, having a perpendicular rock face towards the sea, and a very steep slope inland towards the river. From this fact, and the one that the only dry flat on the island is there, it is reasonable to suppose that it was a favourite camping-ground of the Natives, and that much feasting must at times have been indulged in. Therefore, I think we may conclude that these bones, associated as they were with those of the Seal, formed, with them, in all probability, the remains of a repast.

The most interesting question to decide is whether the bird was found on the island, or taken there, and it is one upon which I cannot venture to express an opinion; but, from the very precipitous, broken, and rocky nature of the island, coupled with the fact that it must, at the time of the Moa, have been almost entirely covered with dense forest, I am inclined to think that if it existed there at all, the Moa would have considerable difficulty in travelling, and would be compelled to come down on to the beaches for a “constitutional,” where it would easily be captured by a Moa-hunter.

In conclusion, I may mention that Mr. Malcolm, who found these bones, is of opinion that they are not as large as those found by Mr. Martin's party. If this is so, it is obvious that more than one Moa was eaten there; and should remains be found at different parts of the island, there will be some foundation for the belief that the bird existed there.

Art. XXV.—On a New Species of Alpheus.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 18th February, 1887.]

Plate VId.
Alpheus Halesii.

Carapace smooth, long, somewhat compressed, one and a half times as long as broad, the portions over the eyes very prominently arched; rostrum small, extending back beyond the base of the eye arch; total length one-fourth that of carapace.

Internal antennœ, second joint twice the length of the first; the basal scale terminates in an acute point.

External antennœ, basal scale stout, larger than the peduncle, very thick on outer edge, curved outwards, terminating in sharp point.

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Large hand, sometimes right, sometimes left; three-fourths the length of the animal (from tip of rostrum to end of telson); quadrate, superior inner angle keeled, with a line of hairs on the anterior two-thirds of the length; outer angle also keeled, but not so prominently, no hairs. A very pronounced keel runs down the centre of the back (outer face) of hand, terminating in a swelling at the insertion of the mobile finger. Inferior outer angle keeled but hairless, keel does not reach to the base of the immobile finger. Inferior inner angle not keeled, but with a row of stout hairs running the whole length, and continued on to the immobile finger, a line of minute tubercles at the base of these hairs.

Immobile finger stout, with strong and curved claw, rather swollen in the middle, with five or six bristles at equal distances along the outer margin, but inside the line of hairs mentioned as running along the inferior margin of hand. On the inner margin of this finger, and about the centre, is a deep oval pit, on the posterior margin of which is a bunch of stout hairs. A pair of stout hairs placed just at the curve of the claw.

Mobile finger stout, compressed, with a large oval tubercle corresponding with and fitting into the pit on the immobile finger; upper edge sharp, a line of hairs along the margin; closes well within the curved hook of the other finger.

Wrist short, swollen, anterior edge sharp but not toothed; a short stout spine, directed backwards, at the inner and outer posterior margins.

Arm triangular; superior angle with a stout spine directed forwards, situate one-fourth of the distance from the anterior margin, with a few stout hairs in front and behind. Internal margin terminates anteriorly in a spine, with a tubercle close above its base; four stout spines placed at equal distances along the margin behind, the spines being flanked by a line of hairs; external margin sharp and very finely serrated along the entire length.

Smaller hand, fingers long, curved, hairy, meeting at the tips, but not touching at any other part of their margins. Wrist of second pair of legs with first joint longest. Terminal joint of other legs flattened for swimming and shaped like a spear-head.

Size of largest Specimen.
From tip of rostrum to end of telson 1 7/20
Length of carapace 9/20
Greatest width of carapace 5/20
Length of largest hand (inclusive of fingers) 1.0
Width " 5/20
Thickness " 3/20
Length of immobile finger 4/20
" mobile " 3/20
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Locality: East Coast of Wellington Province.

This species approaches A. rubrum, from Europe. It is named in honour of Mr. Hales, on the coast of whose sheeprun it was obtained.

Description of Plate Vid.

Fig. 1 Animal, showing inside of large hand.

Fig. 1 Back of large hand, showing keel, etc.

Art.. XXVI.—Notes on some Foraminifera, from the Hauraki Gulf.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 21st February, 1887.]

During my first visit to Auckland, I took the opportunity of collecting and examining large quantities of sand and mud along the shores of the Hauraki Gulf, which proved to be very rich in Foraminifera and other minute organisms. The material was taken at low water in creeks and pools, and on the sandy beaches, and washed in the ordinary simple way, by which a fairly pure residuum of Foraminifera, Diatoms, Crustaceans, Polyzoa, etc., was obtained.

After my return from the King Country, I hope to be able to devote some time to the study of the Rhizopoda, and to give a detailed description of the numerous varieties, with illustrations of the principal types, a list of synonyms, and tables of geological and geographical distribution. In this short paper, I merely intend to give a general idea of the rhizopodal fauna from the littoral zone, and a list of species or types. The slides containing the enumerated forms will be left at the Auckland Museum.

The general appearance of these washings remains very uniform. The characteristic features are the extraordinary abundance of the porcellaneous and some of the higher vitreous types, the scarcity of arenaceous and the lower vitreous forms. The Miliolidœ form over 90 per cent. of the whole fauna, as in various other shore-gatherings from the northern seas. The only new varieties belong, as far as I can judge, to this extensive group, but it is not unlikely that other forms new to science will be found after further researches, especially in the shallow creeks facing the open sea. With the exception of these varieties, all the species found near Auckland occur in the same cathymetrical zone of almost every latitude,

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and in many tertiary and even older formations of Europe. The specimens are, as a rule, of good size, and even the most delicate tests remarkably well preserved. They can easily be picked out with an ordinary pocket-lens, and examined with a 1-inch objective.

In the porcellaneous group, the genus Miliolina is best represented, while the allied genera, Nubecularia, Biloculina, and Spiroloculina occur only in isolated individuals. Ribbed and otherwise ornamented species are exceedingly rare. The Miliolines are very variable, and run so gradually into each other that no distinct lines of demarcation can be drawn. Monstrous specimens are frequent, and difficult to determine.

The second large group is almost entirely absent. It is evidently in deeper water that we must look for arenaceous forms of the families Astrorhizidœ, Lituolidœ and Textularidœ. The most interesting species from these shores is Thurammina papillata, of which one of the slides contains two small spherical specimens.

The Lagenidœ, belonging to the third group (Hyalinea), are also exceedingly rare. The most beautiful, delicately ornamented, Lagena squamosa is the most abundant. The higher rotaline forms are well represented, and belong to geographically widely diffused types.

1. Gen. Nubecularia.

No good specimen, but small fragments of a variety of N. lucifuga, Defr.

2. Gen. Biloculina.

Rare specimens of B. ringens, Lam.

3. Gen. Miliolina.

With the typical forms, numerous abnormally developed shells were obtained, which can be considered as intermediate forms between the quinqualoculine and triloculine Miliolinœ and the symmetrical Biloculinœ and Spiroloculinœ, and the different dimorphous groups.

It is an easy task to construct long series which show almost every conceivable deviation with regard to general form, arrangement and relative size of chambers, shape and position of the aperture, and colour, which prove clearly how little value we have to attribute to morphological characters, which are often considered of greatest importance for the systematical arrangement of species, and even whole genera. Some specimens are almost symmetrical, others show different modes of growth at different ages. Frequently the final chamber does not follow the general plan of growth. A careful comparison of numerous specimens is necessary to ascertain the relationship between the widely different modifications of the simplest types.

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Innumerable mutations of the following species are met with:—Miliolina circularis, Born.; M. seminulum, Lin.; M. oblonga, Mont.; M. labiosa, D'Orb.; M. secans, D'Orb.; M. bicornis, W. and T.; M. linnœana, D'Orb. To which we can add, as distinct varieties:—M. aucklandica and M. polymorpha.

4. Gen. Spiroloculina.

Small specimens, occupying an intermediate place between Miliolina (Quinqueloculina) and Spiroloculina.

5. Gen. Rhabdammina.

Fragments of monothalamous arenaceous tubes, belonging, probably, to a large species of the Astrorhizidœ group (var. of Rh. abyssorum?).

6. Gen. Reophax.

Irregular, dentaline modifications of R. scorpiurus, Mont., with dark grey, calcareous cement.

7. Gen. Haplophragmium.

Small, finely arenaceous, colourless, and ochreous forms of H. canariense, D'Orb., and H. globigeriniforme, P. and T., similar to those found in the North Atlantic and in some mesozoic strata (zone of Ammonites transversarius, etc.).

8. Gen. Thurammina.

Delicate, spherical tests of Th. papillata, Brady, with short papillæ distributed regularly all over the surface, resembling the passage forms of Th. albicans and Th. papillata from the upper jurassic strata.

9. Gen. Valvulina.

Finely arenaceous, much compressed specimens of V. conica, P. and T., almost isomorphous with Trochammina squamata.

10. Gen. Bolivina.

Very rare, delicate, glassy modifications of B. punctata, D'Orb.

11. Gen. Lagena.

Four species of the groups Lœvigatœ and Reticulatœ. The absence of the cosmopolitan L. globosa, L. lœvis, L. marginata, and L. sulcata, so common in British littoral deposits, is a curious fact.

12. Gen. Globigerina.

Small ash-grey specimens of G. bulloides, D'Orb.

13. Gen. Patellina.

Two young shells of P. corrugata, Will.

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14. Gen. Discorbina.

This group is well represented along the whole coast, and numerous fine specimens were obtained, the largest near the pier of North Shore. When the surface is much worn, or the aperture filled up or damaged, it is difficult to distinguish them from the other rotaline forms with which they are always associated. The following species were recognized:—D. rosacea, D'Orb.; D. turbo, D'Orb.; D. globularis, D'Orb.; D. valvulata, D'Orb.; D. orbicularis, Terq.

15. Gen. Truncatulina.

A few doubtful specimens, probably of T. lobatula, were found at Cheltenham Beach.

16. Gen. Carpenteria?

A single fragment from the same locality appears to belong to this curious group.

17. Pulvinulina.

Fine large specimens of Pulv. repanda, F. and M., are frequently met with; also, P. elegans, D'Orb.

18. Gen. Rotalia.

Two distinct varieties, of very different size, of the common R. beccarii.

19. Nonionina.

Numerous beautiful tests of at least three species are found everywhere—N. depressula, W. and T.; N. scapha, F. and M.; N. asterisans, F. and M.?

20. Gen. Polystomella.

Several varieties of these beautifully-marked forms were obtained. They belong to P. striatopunctata, F. and M.; P. crispa, Lin.; P. macella, F. and M.

List of Species.


Nubecularia, lucifuga, Defr., v.r.


Biloculina ringens, Lam., v.r.


Miliolina circularis, Born., r.


M. seminulum, Lin., v.c.


M. oblonga, Mont., v.c.


M. labiosa, D'Orb, c.r.


M. secans, D'Orb., c.r.

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M. bicornis, W. and T., v.r.


M. linnœana, D'Orb., r.


M. aucklandica, sp. nov.


M. polymorpha, sp. nov.


Spiroloculina, sp. ind.


Rhabdammina abyssorum, Sass.


Reophax scorpiurus, Mont.


Haplophragmium canariense, D'Orb.


H. globigeriniforme, P. and T.


Thurammina papillata, Brady.


Valvulina conica, P. and T.


Bolivina punctata, D'Orb.


Lagena apiculata, Reuss.


L. squamosa, Mont.


L. hexagona, Will.


L. striatopunctata, P. and T.?


Globigerina bulloides, D'Orb.


Patellina corrugata, Will.


Discorbina rosacea, D'Orb.


D. turbo, D'Orb. (?)


D. globularis, D'Orb.


D. valvulata, D'Orb.


D. orbicularis, Terq.


Truncatulina lobatula, W. and T.


Carpenteria (?)


Pulvinulina repanda, F. and M.


P. elegans, D'Orb.


Rotalia beccarii, Lin.


Nonionina depressula, W. and T.


N. scapha, F. and M.


N. asterisans, W. and T.


Polystomella striatopunctata, F. and M.


P. crispa, Lin.


P. macella, F. and M.

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Art.. XXVII.—On the Occurrence of Junonia vellida and Deopeia pulchella in New Zealand.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 18th February, 1887.]

Plate VIc.

During the present summer a new butterfly has appeared in the Wellington District, which I have every reason to believe has not previously been met with in New Zealand. On December 26th, while collecting on the sea-beach near Paremata, I noticed a large butterfly, which I at first thought was Vanessa cardui, but on capturing the insect was surprised to find it quite distinct. By careful searching I procured four more specimens, one of which I forwarded to Mr. Olliff, of Sydney, for identification, who has kindly informed me that it is Junonia vellida, a very common Australian insect. Since that time I have taken two more specimens at Wainuiomata, and the insect is very abundant at Paikakariki, where I saw a great number last week, but was unable to take any owing to their great timidity, and the rough nature of the ground.

I think there can be little doubt that this insect is a true native of New Zealand, which has been previously overlooked, as it is quite impossible that so many specimens could have been accidentally introduced by artificial means.

I have also to announce the capture of Deopeia pulchella at Wainuiomata, another welcome addition to our fauna. It is a very wide-spread species, but this is, I think, the first specimen which has been taken in New Zealand.

The beautiful Painted Lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui), has also been more abundant this year than I have known it since my arrival in 1881.

Art.. XXVIII.—Descriptions of New Spiders.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 17th November, 1886.]

Fam. Lycosidæ.

Genus Lycosa, Latr.

Lycosa virgata, sp. n.

Mas.—Length, 8 mm. The sexes do not differ greatly in size.

Cephalothorax brown, with a brownish-yellow stripe extending on each side from the posterior margin to the middle row of eyes, and a median line of the same hue extending

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from the base of the posterior slope to the hindmost row of eyes, behind which it is widest. On each lateral slope there are a few dark-brown triangular flecks. Falces and sternum pale-brown; legs, palpi, and spinners brownish-yellow, flecked with brown; abdomen dark-brown above, with a narrow median band of pale-yellow extending from the base to a point about a third of the length of the abdomen from the spinners, and on each side of this band runs, from the base to the spinners, a line of rather indistinct dark flecks. The colouration and markings are similar in the female, but of a lighter shade.

Cephalothorax about 1 mm. longer than broad at its broadest part, somewhat longer than the patella and tibia of a leg of the fourth pair, about twice as broad at the third pair of legs as at the caput, rounded at the sides; posterior slope very and lateral slope moderately steep, not convex above; ocular area very hairy, and slightly sloping forward from the posterior to the central pair of eyes.

Front row of eyes curved backwards and shorter than the middle row, which is shorter than the posterior row; eyes of anterior row very small, and about equally distant from one another; those of the posterior row smaller than those of the middle row.

Falces slightly convex near the base, only slightly diverging towards the extremities, groove toothed on each side: on the under-side 3 teeth, 2 large and 1 small, and on the upper side 1 large tooth, with a very minute one on each side of it; claw short and slender.

Maxillœ slightly inclined to the lip, small at the base and gradually becoming larger towards the extremities; rounded in front on the outer side, and having a dense fringe of fine hair on the inner side.

Lip only slightly convex, more than half as long as the maxillæ; constricted at the base, broadest near the middle, and slightly rounded in front.

Sternum ovate-cordate, with a median groove extending from the anterior to the posterior margin.

Abdomen ovate, about as long as and slightly narrower than the cephalothorax, densely hairy; spinners somewhat divergent, inferior pair longer and stouter than the superior pair; anus prominent.

Legs 4, 1, 2, 3; no spines on the tarsi, nor on the under-side of the femora and patellæ. The patellæ of the first and second pairs are without spines, but those of the third and fourth pairs have one or two slender spines on the superior surface. The femora of all the legs are spinous above, and the tibiæ and metatarsi above and below.

Palpi armed with spines above only; humeral joint thickest at the fore extremity, bent outwards and laterally compressed;

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cubital joint somewhat longer than the radial, but not so strong; digital joint beak-like; bulbus genitalis brown, situated in a hollow at the base of the digital joint, globular, deeply cleft at the anterior surface; from the inner lobe spring two corneous processes, the one nearest the middle of the bulbus being long, bent outwards at right angles near its middle part, and having its exposed surface somewhat plane and its end divided; the other short, conical, straight, and directed downwards and slightly towards the centre of the bulbus; bulbus marked transversely by a sinuous shallow groove with brown margins. The vulva of the female consists of two semicircular orifices separated by a high narrow septum; posterior margin highest opposite the septum.

Hab. Otago: very common in open country. P.G.

Lycosa canescens, n. sp.

Mas.—Length, 7 mm. The sexes do not differ greatly in size.

Cephalothorax of a brown ground-colour, densely covered with a yellowish-grey pubescence; falces, sternum, lip, and maxillæ brown (the two latter of a paler hue than the two former); legs and palpi brownish-yellow, flecked and annulated with brown; abdomen of the same ground-colour, and furnished with the same kind of pubescence as the cephalothorax, having on its dorsal surface a narrow medial band of whitish hair extending from the base to the middle, and from this point on each side and at the same distance from the centre a line of pale coloured spots; spinners brownish-yellow. The colour and pubescence of the female resemble those of the male, but the abdominal markings are either very indistinct or wholly absent.

Cephalothorax about 1 mm. longer than broad at its broadest part, about as long as the patella + tibia of a leg of the 4th pair, nearly three times as broad at the 3rd pair of legs as at anterior angle of the caput, rounded at the sides, posterior and lateral slope moderately steep, not convex above, and slightly sloping forwards from the posterior to the central pair of eyes.

Anterior row of eyes curved backwards, only very slightly shorter than the middle row, which is shorter than the posterior row; eyes of anterior row small, not differing greatly in size, centrals nearer to the laterals than to each other; eyes of middle and posterior rows large, and not differing greatly in size.

Falces slightly convex, and slightly diverging towards the extremities; groove-toothed on each side; on the under side 3 teeth, and on the upper side 2 teeth; claw short, and very strong at the base.

Maxillœ slightly convex, smaller at the base than at the fore extremities, rounded on the outside and in front, where on the inner side there is a very dense fringe. Lip convex, about half

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as long as the maxillæ, widest near the middle, the fore extremity slightly rounded in the female, and almost truncate in the male.

Sternum ovate-cordate, glossy, and slightly convex.

Abdomen ovate, of the male about as long as but slightly narrower than the cephalothorax, of the female longer than the cephalothorax and about as broad. Spinners prominent, inferior pair longer and stouter than the superior pair.

Legs 4, 1, 2, 3; all the joints armed with spines except the tarsi, and the patellæ and femora have no spines on their inferior surface.

Palpi furnished with spines on the superior surface only; humeral joint thickest at the fore extremity, bent outwards and laterally compressed; cubital and radial joints not differing greatly in length and strength; digital joint beak-like; bulbus genitalis brown, situated in a hollow at the base of the digital joint, resembling that of L. virgata, except that the shorter spine is much less distinct, and directed towards the base of the larger one.

Vulva of female not so long as, and more rounded posteriorly than that of L. virgata; and the exterior orifice is only partially divided by a deep lobe extending from the centre of the anterior margin half-way across it.

Hab. Otago. P.G.

I have never found this spider anywhere but in river-beds, and from the density of its pubescence I think it highly probable, though I have never seen it in water, that it seeks its prey in water as well as on land.

Lycosa taylori, n. sp.

Mas.—Length, 11 mm.

Cephalothorax brown, with a brownish-yellow central area of highly irregular and ornamental outline, and a longitudinal band of the same hue on each side; the tibial, metatarsal, and tarsal joints of the legs brown, the other joints brownish-yellow flecked with brown; digital joint of palpi brown, the other joints of the same hue as the femoral and patellar joints of the legs; falces reddish-brown; lip brown; maxillæ brown at the base, and passing into brownish-yellow towards the extremities; sternum dark brown, with a medial longitudinal band of brownish-yellow which dilates towards the posterior extremity, where it covers the whole surface; abdomen, above dark brown mottled with black and yellow, below brown-yellow, sparingly flecked with black: at the base of the dorsal surface there is a large T-shaped yellow fleck, and towards the spinners on each side a large oval fleck of the same hue; spinners brownish-yellow.

Cephalothorax 1 mm. longer than broad at its broadest part, about as long as the patellar + the tibial joint of a leg of the

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4th pair, moderately constricted at the caput; posterior and lateral slopes moderately steep, not convex above, rounded at the sides, fovea very distinct.

Front row of eyes somewhat bent backwards, very small, centrals larger than the laterals and nearer to those than to each other; eyes of middle row distinctly larger than those of the hinder row, and distant from the laterals of the front row by about the diameter of a fore-central eye: the hind row is the longest, and the middle somewhat longer than the front row.

Falces convex, and slightly diverging towards the extremities; groove toothed, 2 teeth, one much larger than the other, on the upper side; and 3, 1 small and 2 large, on the lower; claw moderately long, and strong at the base.

Maxillœ convex, smallest at the base and gradually increasing in breadth towards the extremities, rounded on the outside and truncated on the inside in front, where there is a dense fringe, and somewhat inclined to the lip.

Lip half as long as the maxillæ, convex, narrowest at the base and broadest towards the middle, very slightly rounded in front, and having immediately behind its fore-margin two distinct dents.

Sternum cordate, and somewhat convex.

Abdomen oblong-ovate, slightly narrower and about 1 mm. longer than the cephalothorax; spinners not prominent, superior and inferior pairs not differing greatly in length.

Legs 4, 1, 2, 3 (1 and 2 almost equal); all the joints of 3 and 4, except the tarsi, armed with spines, and also all those of 1 and 2, except the tarsal and patellar joints; but only the tibiæ and metatarsi have spines on the inferior surface.

Humeral joint of palpi bent outwards, laterally compressed, stouter at the extremities than elsewhere, and armed with numerous spines on the superior surface; cubital joint longer than but not so strong as the radial; digital joint beak-like, about as long as radial + cubital; bulbus genitalis situated in a hollow at the base of the digital joint, brown, globular in outline, hollowed out in front, cleft at the sides, having two corneous processes in front, both springing from near the centre of the bulb, and directed outwards; the inner the longer, much bent, deeply grooved on the inner side of the basal half, and near its extremity suddenly contracted on the posterior side; the outer legs bent, having the same general direction as the inner, and lying partly under it. There is a transverse groove at the base of the bulb, and the largest lobe is crossed by a sinuous brown band.

Female: Not seen.

Hab. Leith Valley, near Dunedin; under stones. P.G.

A very handsome spider, and named in honour of Wm. Taylor, Esq., Inspector of Schools, to whom I am indebted for several rare spiders.

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Lycosa œrescens, n. sp.

Mas.—Length, 9 ½ mm.

Cephalothorax greenish-brown, with a pale-yellow fleck on the caput behind each posterior eye, and a heart-shaped fleck of the same hue behind the junction of the caput with the thorax; lateral margins pale-yellow, with a fleck or two of brown; thoracic fovea reddish; falces reddish-brown; lip and maxillæ palish-brown; sternum brown; legs and palpi yellow, with brown extremities, and a few brown flecks on the femora, patellæ and tibiæ; abdomen above of the same hue as the cephalothorax, with a median longitudinal band of palish-yellow, bordered on each side by an irregular streak of brown, and extending from the base to a point somewhat beyond the middle, where the brown borders diverge, and thence towards the spinners crossed by short bars of brown; at the sides greyish mottled with brown; below reddish-brown, with two longitudinal rows of very minute brown spots, extending from behind the genital aperture to near the spinners. These spots are due to minute bald depressions in the integument. The whole body is rather densely covered with a fine pale pubescence.

Cephalothorax about 1 mm. longer than broad at its broadest part, not quite so long as the patella + tibia of a leg of the 4th pair, less than 2 mm. wide at the inferior margin of the fore part of the caput, and considerably narrower than this at the top in front.

Front row of eyes slightly bent backwards, small, centrals slightly larger than the laterals, and nearer to those than to each other; eyes of middle row distinctly larger than those of the hind row, and separated from the fore-laterals by about the diameter of one of the latter. The hind row is the longest, but the fore and middle row do not differ much in length. The eyes of the hind and middle row and the laterals of the front row are placed on black spots.

Falces long, somewhat convex and slightly diverging towards the extremities; groove toothed on both sides—on the underside 3, and on the upper side 2 teeth, the posterior one being the smallest on each side. Claw moderately long and slender.

Maxillœ convex, increasing gradually in width from the base to the anterior extremities, slightly rounded on the outside, and almost truncate in front, where there is a very dense tuft of hair on the inner angle of each. Lip about half as long as the maxillæ, tumid at the base, then slightly constricted, then widening to near the middle, then becoming slightly narrower towards the anterior extremity, which is truncate.

Sternum cordate, glossy, and convex.

Abdomen ovate, about as wide as and about 1 mm. longer than the cephalothorax; spinners compact and moderately prominent,

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superior and inferior pairs not differing greatly in length and strength.

Legs 1 and 2 almost equal, 4th pair the longest and the 3rd the shortest; no spines on the tarsi; metatarsi and tibiæ spinous above and below; patellæ and femora spinous above only (patellæ of 1st pair with only 1 spine above, or none).

Palpi spinous above, but without spines below; near the anterior extremity of the humeral joint 4 spines, and behind these, at considerable intervals, 1, 1; humeral joint about equal in length to the radial + the cubital joint, bent, laterally compressed, thickest at the anterior extremity; cubital joint slightly longer than the radial, but not quite so strong; digital joint much shorter than the radial and cubital together, beak-like in shape; bulbus genitalis situated at the base of the beak, globular in outline, deeply cleft from the middle to the anterior surface. From the inner lobe of the bulbus springs a curved horny process, the direction of which is outwards and backwards, and the exposed surface of which is almost plain.

I have but one example of the female of this species. It does not differ much in size from the male, and resembles it in colours and markings as well as in other essential specific characters. The vulva is brown, semicircular in outline, with sharp ends directed backwards, and consists of two roundish apertures separated by a septum, anteriorly very slightly and posteriorly greatly dilated.

Found under stones in the Valley of the Waitaki. P.G.

The species of Lycosa described above are easily distinguished by their colours and markings alone.

Fam. Theraphosoidæ.

Genus Hexathele, Ausserer.

Hexathele petreii, n. sp.

Fem.—Length, 20 mm.

Cephalothorax brown-yellow, somewhat darker at the pars cephalica than at the pars thoracica; falces dark-brown; lip brown, becoming paler towards the anterior extremity; maxillæ yellow-brown; sternum, legs, and palpi brownish-yellow. The abdomen above of the same hue as the cephalothorax, with a fleck of brown at the base, and a median longitudinal dark knotted band commencing at a small distance behind this basal fleck, and extending towards the spinners to a point beyond the middle, from which point to the spinners the abdomen is crossed obliquely by a double row of 2 to 4 bands of the same hue. In some examples there are faint indications that at some stage of the animal's existence a pair of oblique dark bands is thrown off from each knot of the median band. On the ventral

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surface the abdomen is brown, mottled with brown yellow; posterior side of spiracular plates whitish; spinners of the same colour as the legs. The whole body, except the cephalothorax, is copiously furnished with dark hair.

Cephalothorax as long as the patella + tibia of a leg of the fourth pair; about 1 mm. longer than broad at its broadest part, and rather more than 1 mm. narrower at the fore-part of the caput than at its broadest part; truncated in front and behind; slightly rounded at the side; pars cephalica high; pars thoracica low; thoracic fovea deep, broad and rounded behind, and narrower and somewhat angular in front; lateral furrows well-marked; caput and thorax distinct.

The eyes in two rows, the anterior row bent backwards, and the posterior forwards, the latter longer than the former; the fore-centrals round, and the fore-laterals largish, round, and posited somewhat obliquely, the centrals about as distant from each other as from the laterals; eyes of posterior row longish, round, and posited obliquely, the centrals much smaller than the laterals and almost contiguous to them, and about as distant from the fore-centrals as these are from the fore-laterals; the hind-laterals nearer to the fore-laterals than these are to the fore-centrals; a few bristly hairs behind the ocular area, and a tuft in front of the fore-centrals.

Falces very long and strong, projecting 5 mm. beyond the clypeus, strongly convex, almost glabrous on the outer side, and abundantly furnished with bristly hairs on the inner side and in front; claw long and moderately strong; groove with a large number of teeth on each side, those on the inner side large, and those on the outer side minute.

Maxillœ strongly diverging, in shape resembling the exinguinal joints of the legs and not differing greatly in length from them, the basal half furnished with short black spines, and the fore-margin with a fringe of fine reddish hair. Lip triangular in outline, about as broad as the base is long, convex, separated from the sternum by a semicircular groove, and armed in front with very short blunt spines.

Sternum broadly elliptical, emarginated at the anterior and somewhat pointed at the posterior extremity, the sides somewhat projecting opposite the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd pairs of legs, and behind each projection there is a roundish bald dent.

Abdomen broadly ovate, narrowest towards the base, 12 mm. long and 9 mm. broad at its broadest part, and projecting over the thorax.

The spinners of each fore-pair near each other; the outer short and truncated, the inner nearly as long again as the outer and rounded towards the extremity; the posterior pair very long, about 6 mm.

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Palpi about as long as cephalothorax + falces; humeral joint much bent outwards, and laterally compressed; cubital joint thickened towards the fore-extremity and shorter than the radial joint, the latter not differing much in length from the digital joint; all the joints armed with spines, but the two anterior ones much more copiously than the rest, and the humeral and cubital have them above only, and the other joints at the sides and below only; digital joint terminated by a single pectinated claw.

Legs, 4, 1, 2 and 3 about equal; tarsi of 1st and 2nd pairs without spines, those of the 3rd and 4th pairs armed with spines below only; metatarsi of 3rd and 4th pairs armed with spines above and below, those of the 1st and 2nd pairs below and at the sides; tibiæ of all the legs furnished with spines at the sides and below, and those of the 3rd pair sometimes have one or two spines above; patellæ spinous at the sides only; femora all armed with spines above, but not below. At the fore extremity of the coxal joint there is a fringe of fine spines, and a few spines are found at the fore extremity of the exinguinal joint. Claws 3, long and strong; superior pectinated, inferior much bent but without teeth.

Mas.—The male resembles the female in colour and markings, except that the palpi and the 1st pair of legs are reddish-brown. The dimensions of the cephalothorax and its appendages—except the falces, which are much smaller—do not differ much from those of the female; but the abdomen, though its length and breadth have about the same ratio to each other, is much smaller. The tibiæ and metatarsi of the 1st pair of legs differ greatly in shape and armature from those of the corresponding pair in the female. The tibiæ are very turgid, and, in addition to the ordinary spines below and at the sides, furnished with two very stout bent spines at the fore-extremity, the inner of which is longer and stouter than the outer. The basal half of the metatarsi is bow-shaped, with the are directed upwards and outwards; the joint is much thickened at the anterior end of the are, and furnished with one spine in the middle and one at the anterior end, on the outside of the are, and two on the underside at the fore-extremity of the joint. Bulbus genitalis directed backwards, turbinate, and drawn out into a long, thin, slightly bent, sharp-pointed spine.

Hab. Interior of Otago, D. Petrie: P.G.

Named in honour of D. Petrie, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., by whom it was discovered, and to whom I am greatly indebted for a large number of interesting spiders and much assistance in botanical work.

The tube is circular, very large and deep, not differing much in diameter throughout its whole length, and, like that of Nemesia, though less thickly, lined with web, but without a lid.

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For an inch or two round the mouth there is spun a loose, coarse web, for the purpose, probably, of entrapping beetles and other insects that its occupant preys upon. This web appears to be more or less continuous with the lining of the nest, and makes the mouth of the tube appear slightly funnel-shaped. When the spider is absent on a foraging expedition, the nest is left quite open, but when it re-enters the nest it generally spins a few threads of web across it, at or near the top.

Genus Migus, Kirk.

Migus distinctus.

Mas.—Length, 9 mm.

Pars thoracica brownish-yellow, with the anterior and lateral margins of the fovea dark brown; pars cephalica greenish brown-yellow; sternum pale, and maxillæ brownish-yellow; lip of a greenish hue at the basal half, and of the same hue as the maxillæ towards the front; falces greenish brown-yellow with a bright reddish brown fang; the exinguinal and coxal joints of the legs pale yellow, the other joints and the palpi of the same colour as the falces. The abdomen above dark brown, minutely speckled with pale brown spots, and having two longitudinal rows of elongate, obliquely posited, spots of the same hue; below pale yellow towards the base, and of the same hue as the dorsal surface towards the spinners; spinners pale yellow. The cephalothorax is glabrous, except at the lateral margins, where there is a fringe of dark hairs directed upwards, and between the eyes and the fovea where there are a few dark bristly hairs directed forwards. The rest of the body and its appendages are furnished with hair.

Cephalothorax shorter than the patella + tibia of a leg of the 4th pair, rounded at the sides, about half as wide at the fore-angle of the caput as at its broadest part between the 2nd and 3rd pairs of legs, highest at the fore-central eyes, from whence it slopes gradually to the posterior margin; lateral slope not very steep; fovea semi-hexagonal in front and low and rounded behind; lateral indentations moderately well marked; caput distinct from the thorax, somewhat rounded in front; clypeus high, and slightly sloping forwards.

Both rows of eyes slightly bent forwards, and not differing much in length, the posterior bent more than the anterior; the fore-centrals each in a black tubercle, round, and rather less distant from each other than from the fore-laterals; the latter posited obliquely, longish, round, and somewhat larger than the former; eyes of posterior row sub-equal, slightly elongated, smaller than the fore-centrals; the laterals near the centrals but not contiguous to them; the laterals of both rows and the centrals of the hind row on a common black spot. The fore-centrals are the darkest in colour, and the fore-laterals are

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darker than the hind-laterals, and these again darker than the hind-centrals, which are of a brilliant pearly lustre.

Falces moderately strong, prominent, knee-shaped, shorter than the patella of a leg of the 1st pair; groove-toothed, 4 small teeth on the outer and 3 large ones on the inner side; the basal half glabrous, the fore part sparingly furnished with hairs; claw moderately long and strong.

Maxillœ strongly diverging, sides parallel, at the fore end slightly rounded, on the outer end produced to a subconical point on the inner side; no spines on any part.

Lip triangular, rather longer than broad at the base, convex, and separated from the sternum by a semicircular groove.

The sternum ovate in outline, broadest behind, emarginated at the anterior and somewhat pointed at the posterior extremity; the sides projecting slightly opposite the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd pairs of legs.

Abdomen ovate, longer than the cephalothorax and about as broad. Inferior spinners short and slender, superior more than twice as long as the inferior, and very stout.

Palpi considerably longer than the cephalothorax, armed with spines on the superior side of the humeral joint, and on the inferior side of the radial joint, and with two longish slender ones near the fore-extremity of the digital joint; humeral joint bent, laterally compressed, and nearly as long as the cubital and radial joints together; radial joint much longer and much stouter than either the cubital or the digital joint; bulbus genitalis directed backwards, turbinate, and produced into a long, slender, sharp-pointed spine.

Legs 1, 4, 2, 3, the 1st and 4th not differing much in length; armed with hairs, bristles, and spines, the last most numerous on the femora and stoutest at the sides of tibiæ and at the fore-extremity, below, of the patellæ of the first pair. The other joints have few or no spines. The metatarsi of the first pair are only slightly bent at the basal half, but the tibiæ of the same pair are considerably stronger than those of the other pairs.

The female of this species has been described by Cambridge; but, as the male differs very considerably from the female, I have given a detailed description of it here.

Found at Ravensbourne, near Dunedin, by Mr. Petrie and myself. I have traced it from Portobello nearly to Oamaru. It is never found many feet from the sea beach. The male is very sprightly, but the female is very sluggish, and invariably simulates death upon being touched. It is able to live a long time without food. I kept a female in a corked tube without food for nearly two months, and at the end of this time it appeared not to have suffered the least from its long fast.

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The nests, strongly resembling those of Nemesia, though many times shallower and much smaller, are built in clay banks, and at all angles between the horizontal and the vertical, but generally at an angle vertical, or nearly so, to the earth's surface.

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Gastrodia Hectori. Buch.


Art. XXIX.On some New Native Plants.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 19th January, 1887.]

Plates XIV.-XVIII.
Erigeron bonplandii, Buch.

A small shrubby very viscid plant, 10–12 inches high. Leaves numerous, linear obovate, obtuse, obscurely serrate, 2–4 inches long, ¾-inch at the broadest part, bright-green on the upper surface, and covered with close, white, shining tomentum beneath. Scapes 4, in the axils of the upper leaves. Stem bracts numerous, diminishing in size upwards. Heads nearly 2 inches in diameter, involucral scales in few series, long, linear, upright. Rays long, linear; anthers tailless. Pappus of few short hairs; achene with short rigid hairs on margins.

This very showy Erigeron was collected by Mr. Martin, on Mount Bonpland; there is a fine robust specimen growing in his nursery at Green Island. The large flower-heads of this species make it very attractive, and it is worthy of cultivation. This species is allied to Erigeron novœ-zealandiœ, figured in vol. xvii. “Trans. N.Z. Institute,” but-differs much from that species in its large leaves and numerous scapes.

Celmisia martini, Buch.

Rhizome stout. Leaf sheaths ½ inch in diameter. Leaves 12 inches long, ½ inch broad, obscurely serrate, linear-oblong, and tapering to an acute point at top, narrowing near the bottom to 1 inch, then spreading downwards into a broad villous sheathing petiole; under-surface covered with closely appressed white or very pale-buff tomentum; central vein dark-purple, dividing near the bottom into nine dark-purple veins; back of leaf covered, when young, with a white silvery pellicle, which afterwards breaks away, exposing the dark-green leaf. Scape stout, scarcely longer than the leaves. Bracts few, narrow, linear, 4 inches long, diminishing in size upwards. Head nearly 2 inches in diameter. Florets numerous, long, narrow, linear.

Hab. Mount Bonpland, 4,000 feet.

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This fine Celmisia was collected by Mr. Martin on Mount Bonpland, and has succeeded well with him at his nursery at Green Island, where it was planted out, and bids fair to become a permanent plant of cultivation.

Aciphylla kirkii, Buch.

A rigid shining plant, 8–12 inches long. Leaves 8–9 inches long, ¾–1 inch broad. Leaves chiefly bifoliate, bifurcation 3–6 inches from top, obtuse, apiculate, finely marked with anastomosing striæ, and with a stout marginal nerve on both sides of the leaf, sheath at bottom membranous. Flowers diœcious. Male scape nearly straight, bracts long, 3-foliate. Female scape and bracts flexuose. Umbels numerous.

This well-marked species was collected on Mount Alta, in 1883, but as the only specimen then procured arrived at Dunedin in a very fragmentary state, it was laid aside. On a recent examination the material proved sufficient for a restoration, when carefully put together. Another species of Aciphylla may be looked for in the Wanaka District, of which I have only a fragment. The leaves are 12 inches long, smooth and shining, with the striæ only marked, and the serrations on the edges of the leaves scarcely felt.

Gastrodia hectori, Buch.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Root tuberous, stem and spike of flowers 18 inches high, closely sheathed for ⅔ of its length by a long leaf, ⅓ of the leaf being free, a short outer sheath at bottom encloses the base of the sheathing leaf. Scales none. Racemes 3 ¼ inches long. Flowers 13, close-set, brownish-yellow, 2/10 of an inch in length, seed-vessel black, or dark brown, orbicular.

The present species was collected several years ago in Marlborough district, near Picton, and has also been seen on the Conway River. The species of Gastrodia are probably abundant, but their dark habitats, in dense bush country, prevent them from being easily seen.

Ourisia montana, Buch.

A small erect hispid plant, 1–2 ½ inches high. Stems creeping; leaves few, linear, ovate, or obovate, entire, 1–1 ¼ inch long, ⅓–½ inch broad. Petiole one-third as long as the leaf. Scape 1 ¼ inch, with one very small bract. Flowers solitary, large for the size of the plant, pedicels slender, springing from the base, and with the flower topping the leaves. Corolla large, white, oblique, limb 5-fid., ¾ inch diameter. Calyx 5-partite.

The large entire leaves, long pedicels, and large flowers, distinguish this species from Ourisia uniflora and Ourisia colensoi. Collected on Mount Alta Range, at 5,000 to 6,000 feet altitude.

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Ranuculus Muelleri. Buch.

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Aciphylla Kirkii. Buch.

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Celmisia Robusta. Buch.

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Olearia alpina, Buch.

A small ornamental alpine tree, 8–12 feet high, trunk 6–8 inches in diameter; branches, and leaves below, covered with pale buff tomentum. Leaves 5–6 inches long, ¼ inch broad, linear, entire on the margins, midrib very stout, veins close, diverging at right angles, thus forming a series of lacunæ on both sides of the midrib. Heads numerous, in large panicles, with diverging branches, involucres turbinate, flowers not seen; pappus reddish, whole inflorescence covered with brownish tomentum.

Common on the Tararua Mountains, and mountains towards Wanganui. A remarkable plant, closely allied to O. excorticata, Buch.; stems covered with thin brownish bark, which peals off in large papery sheets. This small tree is worthy of attention for ornamental shrubbery, although cultivation might rob it of much rugged beauty. Though closely allied to O. excorticata, Buch., the oblong leaf of that species presents when compared with the long linear leaf of this species a marked distinction.

Celmisia robusta, Buch.

A small robust branching species, 4–6 inches high. Leaves 1–1 ½ inch long, ½ inch broad, coriaceous, ovate-oblong, acuminate or rounded at the tip, and broadly sheathing at the base, finely toothed, greenish-white above and covered with closely appressed white tomentum beneath. Scape 4–5 inches long, with 6–10 linear bracts. Head 1 inch diameter; involucral scales numerous, subulate, tapering, often recurved. Pappus orange colour, ¼ inch long, achene pubescent.

The affinity of this hardy mountain plant is with C. hectori, but the large obovate olive-green leaves of this plant necessitate the formation of a new species.

Haastia montana, Buch.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Closely tufted, branches erect, and covered with soft fulvous wool over the whole plant. Leaves loosely imbricating, rounded on top, obovate, erect or recurved, veins of the leaves irregular, indistinct. Heads small, 6/10ths of an inch diameter, involucral scales reduced to fine black lines.

A very distinct plant from any of the other species of this genus. From H. recurva it may be distinguished by its large up-right soft leaves, and from H. sinclairi by the absence of the large black involucral scales, and altogether different foliage from either.

This addition to the genus Haastia was discovered on Mount Alta Range, Lake Wanaka.

Ranunculus muelleri, Buch.

A stout, robust, fulvous and villous plant, 5–6 inches high. Root-stalk stout, rootlets numerous. Leaves all radical, round,

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crenate-lobed, 2 inches diameter, petioles 2 inches long. Peduncles few, 4–5 inches long. Flowers, 2–3 large, white, each flower with a broad linear bract underneath, and a flower-bud in the axil.

The present fine plant adds another species to the already large family of New Zealand Ranunculus. It was collected on the Tararua Mountains, the only specimen seen in flower, and has been since overlooked. I am indebted to Mr. Kirk for pointing out its claim as a new species.

Cassinia rubra, Buch.

A small delicate shrub, 2–4 feet high, with bright olive-green foliage. Leaves very small, erect, or decumbent, linear-oblong, obtuse, ¼–⅕ inch long, margins nearly flat. Heads of flowers dense, in close rounded corymbs. Flowers very small, numerous. Involucral scales in 3–4 series, bright pink or red.

This beautiful little plant was reported as collected on the Wanganui River, inland. No doubt such a beautiful shrub would prove a valuable addition to the gardens, if young plants could be procured and established.

Geum alpina, Buch.

A small, prostrate, hairy, mountain plant, with stout prostrate rhizomes. Leaves alternate, closely arranged, ½–¾ inch diameter, rounded, lobed, and with fine crenate serratures. Flowers minute, yellow, on numerous branches towards the end of the stems.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

In extremely small forms of this plant, the leaves are much reduced in size, and the numerous little yellow flowers scarcely exceed the calyx, a head of flowers not exceeding 2/10 inch. No doubt this is a reduction of size entirely due to severe climatic influence.

Pachycladon elongata, Buch.

A small glabrous, open-branched, alpine plant. Root long, fusiform, elongate. Leaves few towards the bottom, ¾-inch long, with 5–7 deep serratures. Upper and largest portion of plant composed of flowering racemes, which are afterwards replaced by long slender siliqua or pods, 1 inch long.

It would appear that a gradation of form can be traced in the genus Pachycladon, from Hooker's Pachycladon novœ-zealandiœ, through P. glabra, Buch., to the present attenuate form, which may be named Pachycladon attenuata, Buch. The gradation of form in this case cannot be ascribed to climatic influence, as the three species were all collected at the same altitude and locality, Three Kings Mountain, 5,000 feet altitude.

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Hemitelia Smithii.

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Stem Sections of Hemitelia Smithii.

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Art. XXX.On a remarkable branching Specimen of Hemitelia smithii.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 19th January, 1887.]

Plates XII., XIII.

The visitor to the slopes of Mount Cargill, near Dunedin, may have noticed the marked abundance of that beautiful tree-fern Hemitelia smithii, which often attains there a height of 20–30 feet; and he may also have noticed a strong tendency in this species to divide at the top of the stem into two, and sometimes three, branches. But a remarkable departure, however, from this limited terminal branching has been discovered, which forms the subject of the present paper. The accompanying sketch, drawn from measurements, proves the tree to have been 16 feet in height, and that it has 16 branches, as also several buds. The budding and branching may proceed from any part of the stem, and the specimen has several branches diverging in various directions, which again divide, as in dicotyledonous trees. The accompanying drawings (Plates XII. and XIII.) have been sketched by measurements taken from the fallen tree, it having recently been cut down by some boys.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

The transverse sections are intended to illustrate the method of branching in this specimen of tree-fern; they are all drawn one-third natural size, except diagram A B, which is 1/135 natural size.

There is one remarkable feature in connection with the true or inner stems and branches of tree-ferns: that is, the point of attachment of the branch with the inner or true stem does not increase much in diameter for several inches from the parent stem; it then gradually enlarges in an upward direction, and becomes covered by the fibrous mass. A weakness in branches might be suggested from this; but the great strength of tree-ferns is due to the strong fibrous matter enveloping them, which is remarkably strong, and would prove as reliable for a transverse strain as many timbers; they have often been used for short bridges, both as stringers and flooring.

In the diagrammatic section, A B, is shown the method of branching in this tree-fern: a branch is produced from a small bud, which pushes its way through the woody inner or true stem of the tree, and also the close fibrous outer covering. (See longitudinal section of A 1, where a transverse and longitudinal section is shown of the method of branching.) The large sections (B B and B 3) are cut 3 feet above A, showing the increase of size in 3 feet of the central core.

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Art. XXXI.On the New Zealand Species of Coprosma.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 18th October, 1886.]

Next to Veronica, the genus Coprosma is the most puzzling in the New Zealand Flora. Not only are the species highly variable in their mode of growth, foliage, and vegetative characters generally, but the flowers are so small and inconspicuous, and so uniform in their structure, as to offer few distinctive characters of importance. It is thus no easy matter to identify the species even when they are examined in a fresh state, while in the case of dried specimens, it requires the utmost care to arrive at any satisfactory conclusions.

For a considerable time I have made the New Zealand Coprosmas a subject of special attention. Most of the species I have seen living in their native stations, and have thus had opportunities of tracing the variations due to differences in soil, altitude, and exposure. I have been enabled to collect large suites of specimens from all parts of the colony, and, in addition, have been favoured with others made for me by friends. Through the kindness of Sir Joseph Hooker, sets of my specimens have been compared with the types of the species described by Cunningham and others, and now preserved in the Kew Herbarium, so that my identifications have been rendered more certain. The information and materials that I have collected I now propose to make use of in drawing up a systematic account of the species, with the view of rendering their determination more easy, and of supplying, as far as I can, the admitted deficiencies existing in all previously published accounts.

The genus Coprosma belongs to the Rubiaceœ, or Madder family, represented in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere by a sub-tribe (Stellatœ) of low-growing herbaceous plants, comprising, among others, the well-known Madder, Woodruff, Cross-wort, etc. It is, however, in the tropics and in the south temperate zone that the more typical members of the family are found. Many of these are highly ornamental, and are often seen in our gardens and greenhouses, as the various species of Bouvardia, Ixora, Gardenia, etc. Two well-known economic plants are also included—the Coffee shrub, and the quinine-producing Cinchona. The close alliance of these plants to Coprosma has led to the suggestion that its bark should be examined for quinine, or the allied alkaloids, and the berry for caffeine. I believe that no exhaustive chemical examination has yet been made, but some preliminary investigations that have been made by Mr. Skey and others do not warrant very favourable expectations.

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The first species of Coprosma were collected in 1769 by Banks and Solander, during Cook's first voyage. Specimens of six species were brought home to England, and are now preserved in the Banksian Herbarium in the British Museum. In the manuscript account of the plants of New Zealand, drawn up by Dr. Solander, but which, for some unexplained reason was never published, although made quite ready for the press, even to the preparation of the engravings, the name Pelaphia was proposed for the genus; and the species were also fully and clearly described. However, as Dr. Solander's names were never actually published, they can have no standing in botanical works.

During Cook's second visit to New Zealand, in 1772, he was accompanied by Forster, the well-known naturalist. Plants were collected at Queen Charlotte Sound and Dusky Bay, and many of them were subsequently described by Forster in his “Prodromus.” The term Coprosma was now for the first time applied to the genus, and two species described—C. lucida and C. fœtidissima. For many years these remained the only species actually published from New Zealand.

Nothing more was added to our knowledge of Coprosma until Allan Cunningham made his two visits to New Zealand in 1826 and 1838. In his “Precursor to a Flora of New Zealand,” which contains the results of these journeys, ten species are enumerated. Three of these are mere synonyms; and two more were already known. The remaining five are good and distinct forms. Cunningham's descriptions, however, are extremely imperfect, and in many respects faulty and misleading. The types of his species are now preserved at Kew; but, according to Sir Joseph Hooker, (“Handbook,” p. 111), the specimens have been much intermixed by himself.

In 1846, M. Raoul published in his “Choix de Plantes de la Nouvelle Zelande,” a description of Coprosma robusta, perhaps the most widely distributed of all our species, but which seems to have been confounded with C. lucida by previous botanists. About the same time Mr. Colenso contributed to the Tasmanian “Journal of Natural Science” a paper entitled “A Tour in New Zealand,” in which several additional species were made known. This was afterwards reprinted in Hooker's “Journal of Botany;” but, unfortunately, I have been unable to obtain a copy. I much regret this, as it is possible that some of Mr. Colenso's species may be identical with some of those described by later writers; and, if so, his names should take precedence.

Hooker's “Flora Antarctica,” which appeared in 1845, contains an account of the Coprosmœ collected by the author in the Auckland and Campbell Isles in 1840. Seven species were enumerated, six of which were considered to be new. But of these C. affinis has since been referred by its author to C.

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fœtidissima; C. myrtillifolia, which was based on barren specimens, has been abandoned, and is probably identical with C. parviflora; while it is doubtful whether there is any real distinction between C. repens and C. pumila.

In 1854, Sir Joseph Hooker brought out his “Flora Novæ Zealandiæ.” Botanists resident in New Zealand, especially Mr. Colenso and Dr. Sinclair, had sent large collections to Kew to be used in the preparation of this work, and among them no small number of Coprosmœ. The material thus brought together, though still imperfect, was much more extensive than that at the disposal of any of Hooker's predecessors, and it is needless to say that it was worked up with his customary care and accuracy, with the result of producing the first intelligible and comprehensive account of the genus. Nineteen species were described, of which five were new. The principal mistake made was in confusing a number of distinct and dissimilar species under the head of C. myrtillifolia, C. divaricata, and C. propinqua; but probably the specimens were not good enough, or complete enough, to show the distinction existing between them.

The arrangement followed in the more recently-issued “Handbook,” differs slightly from that given in the “Flora,” but there are no changes of any importance. The species confused with C. propinqua and C. myrtillifolia (= C. parviflora) are separated and put into their proper places, but no less than four distinct species are still included in C. divaricata. The disadvantage of working entirely on dried specimens is shown by the fact that in the specific descriptions hardly any use is made of the shape of the fruit, whereas it often gives good distinctive characters. The total number of species admitted in the “Handbook” is 24. Since its publication, no memoir treating of the genus as a whole has appeared, although from time to time new species have been described by Mr. Kirk, Mr. Petrie, Mr. Colenso, and myself.

The following summary sketch of the range of variation in the vegetative and floral characters of the genus may be useful to those who have not previously studied the species in detail:—

Habit, etc.—The greater number of the species are closely-branched shrubs, varying from 6 to 12 or 15 feet in height. Some attain the stature of small trees, the largest being C. arborea, which is, sometimes 30 feet in height, with a trunk 18 inches in diameter. C. baueriana is remarkable for its great range in size, according to situation and exposure. When growing on black maritime rocks it is often under 2 or 3 feet; while in sheltered places, on rich sandy soil, specimens 25 feet in height have been measured. C. areolata, C. propinqua, and C. fœtidissima occasionally reach 15 or 20 feet, although usually less than that. C. serrulata is the smallest of the large-leaved

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species, and is generally under 4 feet in height. C. spathulata and C. rhamnoides have an average height of from 4 to 6 or 8 feet. C. acerosa has long and flexuous branches, often (in the typical form) much and closely interlaced, forming a dense bush 2 to 4 feet high; but some states of it are prostrate and sparingly branched. C. depressa is prostrate or sub-prostrate, and often under 1 foot in height. C. repens and C. petriei are the smallest species of the genus. They have prostrate and rooting, almost herbaceous, stems, closely appressed to the ground, and frequently only a few inches long.

The arrangement and disposition of the branches occasionally afford characters of importance: thus C. areolata can be at once distinguished from its nearest allies (C. tenuicaulis and C. rotundifolia) by its comparatively narrow and almost fastigiate outline. The mode of branching of C. propinqua, C. parviflora, C. acerosa, and others is characteristic of the species, and gives important aid in their identification.

Leaves.—In Coprosma, as in so many Rubiaceœ, the leaves are invariably opposite, entire, petiole, or sub-sessile, and connected by interpetiolar stipules. In size there is considerable range. C. grandifolia often has them as much as 9 inches in length, while in C. repens and C. petriei they are frequently under ⅛ inch. The large-leaved species C. grandifolia, C. lucida, C. robusta, C. baueriana, etc., have a well-developed many flowered inflorescence, and thus form a fairly well-characterized section of the genus. In the small-leaved species the flowers are either arranged in few-flowered fascicles or are solitary. As to shape, the leaves may be orbicular, ovate, oblong, lanceolate, or even linear. In the same species there is often considerable diversity of shape, and in C. rhamnoides leaves varying from orbicular to linear may be observed on the same bush. C. serrulata has the margins of the leaves minutely serrulate. All the other members of the genus have them quite entire when mature, but in some the very young leaves are obscurely incised. This is well seen in C. robusta. The texture varies considerably—from very coriaceous in C. lucida, C. robusta, and C. crassifolia to comparatively thin and membranous in C. rotundifolia and C. tenuifolia. The venation is pinninerved, at any rate in the great majority; but some of the small-leaved species have few lateral veins, although the midrib is always conspicuous and well developed. The veins frequently anastomose, in some forming copious minute reticulations, as in C. tenuifolia; in others larger areoles, as in C. areolata and C. tenuicaulis. All the species have a stout vein running round the whole of the margin of the leaf, and often giving it a thickened appearance.

In nearly all the species, except a few of the smaller-leaved ones, curious little pits exist on the under-surface of the leaves,

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in the axils formed by the union of the primary veins with the midrib. They are never more than ⅛ inch in length, and are usually much less. Inside they are lined with numerous stiff white hairs, which, on being treated with caustic potash, are seen to be composed of two or three cells. So far as I have observed, the pits do not secrete anything, and I am quite unable to guess at their function. They are often inhabited by a minute yellow acarid, which makes use of them as a home. Sometimes two or three acarids may be found in the same pit, and they crawl freely about the young leaves and branches.

Stipules.—All the species possess interpetiolar stipules. They are more or less triangular in shape, often with minute denticulations towards the apex. The margins, or the whole surface, are frequently ciliated or puberulous. At their bases they are generally connate with the petioles, thus forming a short sheath round the branch. In C. linariifolia, especially on the young leafy branches, the sheaths are elongated, and form a very conspicuous, though variable character.

At the apex of the very young stipule a gland is situated which secretes a copious supply of a viscid mucilaginous fluid. These glands are highly developed and in an active state when the adjacent leaves are in the early stages of growth, but shrivel up and cease to secrete long before the leaves attain their full size. Their office is evidently to keep the young and tender leaves and branches plentifully bathed with fluid.

Indumentum.—Many of the species have puberulous or pubescent branches, and some have the under-surface, or both surfaces, of the leaves similarly provided, C. rotundifolia, C. areolata, and C. ciliata being perhaps the most conspicuous examples. The degree of pubescence is, however, a very variable character throughout the genus, and can only be employed with considerable caution for systematic purposes.

Inflorescence.—It is not always easy to understand the arrangement and position of the flowers, especially in some of the small-leaved species. The most developed inflorescence is seen in C. grandifolia, where it consists of trichotomously-divided many-flowered cymes, springing from the axils of the leaves. These cymes are often 3 inches in length, and bear from 20–40 flowers in the males, but a much smaller number in the females. At each division of the axis is a pair of connate leaf-like bracts. The ultimate divisions terminate in little clusters of flowers, each cluster being enclosed at the base by a shallow involucel formed by a pair of depauperated leaves and their stipules. Minute bracts are also present at the base of each flower. In C. lucida the inflorescence has precisely the same structure, but through the internodes of the primary and secondary axes being shortened it is much more compact. The internodes being still further reduced in length, we reach the arrangement seen in

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C. robusta, where the flowers are congested into a dense many-flowered glomerule, or with two or three superposed glomerules. In C. baueriana, C. petiolata, and C. cunninghamii, the flowers are much less in number than in C. robusta, but their arrangement is on the same principle. In C. arborea the glomerules are rounder, and even more compact, and in addition to occupying the axils of the leaves, they often terminate the branches, which is never the case in C. robusta.

In the small-leaved species the flowers are much reduced in number, and are often solitary, especially the females. As to their arrangement, there are two main types, but they graduate insensibly into one another. In the first, the flower, or fascicle of flowers, is placed in the axil of a leaf, and is thus axillary. If, however, the pedicel of the flower is examined, it will be seen that in all cases two or three series of connate bracts are placed under the flower. The upper series forms a cup-shaped involucre, closely investing the base of the flower, and can be easily mistaken for a calyx, especially in the males, where the true calyx is either much reduced or altogether absent. These connate bracts evidently represent depauperated leaves and their stipules, so that the flowers really terminate minute arrested branchlets. This is the arrangement seen in C. rotundifolia, C. areolata, and C. tenuicaulis. In the second class the flowers quite obviously terminate leafy branchlets. In C. fœtidissima, C. colensoi, etc., they are placed at ends of the main branches, as well as on lateral branchlets, and several pairs of well-developed leaves are usually present, in addition to the bracts mentioned above. In other species (C. propinqua, C. parviflora, etc.), the flowers terminate short lateral branchlets only. As these branchlets are frequently much reduced, and often have only one pair of small leaves below the bracts, there is really not much to distinguish the inflorescence from that of the first type. This is particularly the case when the leaf at the base of the branchlet, and from the axil of which it has sprung, is persistent, as frequently happens.

Flowers.—The flowers are unisexual, and the sexes are placed on different plants. Occasionally, however, a few male flowers are intermixed with the females, and vice versâ. Some species, and especially C. robusta and C. fœtidissima, now and then produce hermaphrodite flowers, to all appearance well-developed and perfect, but which seldom mature fruit. The flowers are very uniform in shape all through the genus, and thus are of little value in the discrimination of the species.

The males are always larger and more numerous than the females. They have a broad or narrow campanulate corolla, divided half-way down, or further, into four or five lobes. The calyx, in the species in which it is present, is minute and cupular, and either truncate or obsoletely 4–5-toothed. In C.

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arborea and C. spathulata, however, it is much larger, and has well-developed linear lobes. Most of the small-leaved species do not possess even the rudiment of a calyx, so far as the male flowers are concerned, but its place is well supplied by the cupular involucel previously alluded to. This involucel is a shallow cup-shaped organ, closely investing the base of the corolla. It is usually four-lobed, two of the lobes being rather larger than the others, but sometimes is quite truncate. It corresponds so closely in shape and position to a calyx as to be readily taken for one, and, in fact, it has often been described as such by authors. But there are sufficient reasons for believing it to be composed of a pair of depauperated leaves and their connecting stipules. In the first place, a similar involucel exists in the female flowers, where the true calyx is always developed; and in the second, if a sufficient number of specimens are examined, examples can be found where the two longer lobes are better developed, and evidently answer to metamorphosed leaves. In some species, and notably in C. acerosa, it is possible to trace a gradation of forms, from instances where the two longer lobes are hardly distinguishable from ordinary leaves, to cases where they are reduced to minute prominences on an otherwise truncate involucel. It should be mentioned, too, that the long lobes of the involucel are always placed crosswise (or decussately) to the pair of undoubted leaves below, which is precisely the position they ought to occupy on the assumption that they are metamorphosed leaves.

The stamens, which are either four or five in number, have long slender filaments, and rather large oblong anthers, which hang pendulous from the mouth of the corolla, swinging about with every breath of air. The pollen is small, smooth, and elliptical, and is produced in large quantities.

The female flowers are smaller and narrower than the males, approaching tubular in shape. The calyx tube is adnate to the ovary; the limb is almost always minute, and either obsoletely 3–5-toothed or truncate at the mouth. In C. arborea, C. spathulata, and C. linariifolia, however, the limb has comparatively long linear lobes. The styles are two, very long and slender, being often several times longer than the corolla. They are free to the base, and are covered with stigmatic papillæ for their whole length. The ovary is normally two-celled, with a single ovule in each cell; but frequently it is three- or four-celled, and more rarely six-celled. In C. repens it is quite common for the ovary to be four-celled.

Fruit.—This is a drupe with two (rarely four or six) one-seeded plano-convex pyrenes, applied to each other by their flat faces. In shape it varies from oblong or ovoid to globose; and in size from ⅛–¾ inch. The colour is chiefly orange or red; but some species have a semi-transparent colourless drupe (C.

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arborea, C. cunninghamii, etc.). In others it is blueish (C. acerosa, C. parviflora), and in some black (C. spathulata, C. tenuicaulis, etc.). The shape is pretty constant in each species, and hence it is of considerable value as a distinguishing character; but the size, and to a lesser degree the colour, are very variable.

Fertilization.—All the species appear to be wind-fertilized. When a male tree in full flower is shaken, clouds of the loose incoherent pollen are driven off; and the long projecting styles of the female flowers, densely clothed with stigmatic papillæ, are well calculated to catch the pollen. As a rule, insects are seldom seen on the flowers of any of the species. A small dipterous insect occasionally visits those of C. robusta and C. propinqua, apparently to feed on the pollen; but I have never observed it on the female flowers, and consequently it cannot aid in the fertilization of the species.

Distribution of the species.—Of the thirty-one species admitted, all but three are confined to New Zealand, including in that term the adjacent groups of the Kermadecs, the Chathams, and the Auckland and Campbell Islands. The species found outside the Colony are the following:—C. baueriana, which is plentiful in Norfolk Island; C. petiolata, which occurs both there and in Lord Howe Island; and C. repens (C. pumila), which is found on the mountains of Victoria and Tasmania.

In the systematic portion of this paper the distribution of the species within the Colony is given as fully as possible, so that it is unnecessary to dwell on that point here. With respect to the character of their habitats, the species may be roughly divided into the following five classes:—


Maritime, including C. baueriana, C. petiolata, and the typical form of C. acerosa.


Lowland species of wide and general distribution, with no marked preference for any particular soil or situation, such as C. robusta, C. lucida, C. grandifolia, etc.


Lowland species preferring swampy forests or rich alluvial soils—C. propinqua, C. rotundifolia, C. areolata, and several others.


Lowland species with a local and confined distribution, as C. spathulata, C. arborea, etc.


Species confined to hilly or subalpine localities, as C. fœtidissima, C. colensoi, C. cuneata, C. repens, and a few others.

Before passing to the systematic part of the paper, I have to tender my most sincere thanks to several gentlemen for their kind assistance in its preparation. To Mr. Petrie, of Dunedin,

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I am especially indebted. From him I have received copious and well-selected suites of specimens of the Otagan species, accompanied with descriptive notes of great value. In addition to this, he has communicated to me, in the course of a correspondence extending over several years, very many original and important observations derived from his own study of the genus, and which have been of great use to me. Such liberal and generous assistance is as rare as it is valuable. I have also to thank Mr. Colenso, Mr. Hamilton, Mr. Adams, Mr. Reischek, and others for specimens of species of the genus, and for information respecting them.

There remains for me to acknowledge the very important aid afforded by Sir J. D. Hooker and Mr. N. E. Brown, of the Kew Herbarium. The latter gentleman has most kindly made a comparison of my specimens with the types preserved at Kew, drawing up a special report on all points of interest; and his conclusions have been examined and verified by Sir J. D. Hooker. My warmest thanks are due to both.

Synopsis of the Species.

Division A.—Erect trees or shrubs. Leaves large, broad, usually over 1 inch in length. Flowers fascicled on lateral peduncles, fascicles usually many-flowered.

Section I.—Peduncles long, 2–4 inches, trichotomously divided; flowers numerous, in fascicles at the ends of the divisions of the peduncle.
Leaves large, 3–9 inches long, membranous; male corolla ⅓ inch, funnel-shaped 1. C. lucida.
Leaves smaller, 2–5 inches, coriaceous; male corolla ⅕ inch, broadly tubular 2. C. grandifolia.
Section II.—Peduncles short, rarely over 1 inch; fascicles dense, many-flowered, or, more rarely, smaller and few-flowered.
Sub-alpine dwarf shrub. Leaves with serrulate margins 3. C. serrulata.
Maritime shrub. Leaves dark green, fleshy, obtuse, black when dry; branches glabrous, or slightly pubescent 4. C. baueriana.
Maritime shrub. Young leaves and branchlets minutely pubescent 5. C. petiolata.
Leaves coriaceous, oblong or elliptical, acute, 1 ½–5 inches long; drupe orange 6. C. robusta.
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Leaves coriaceous, linear or lanceolate, ½–1 inch long; drupe pale and transparent 7. C. cunninghamii.
Leaves 1–2 inches, membranous, ovate-oblong, acute, perfectly glabrous, areolation very minute 8. C. acutifolia.
Leaves 1–4 inches, membranous, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, areolation not so minute as the preceding, veins and stipules often hairy 9. C. tenuifolia.
Tree, 20–25 feet. Leaves coriaceous, ovate- or orbicular-spathulate, narrowed into winged petioles 10. C. arborea.

Division B.—Erect, rarely prostrate, shrubs. Leaves small, usually under 1 inch. Flowers in few-flowered fascicles on short lateral branchlets, or solitary. (The lateral branchlets are sometimes so much reduced that the flowers appear to be axillary.)

a. Leaves spathulate, suddenly narrowed into linear winged petioles, often longer than the blade. Small shrub 11. C. spathulata.
b. Leaves orbicular to linear-obovate or -oblong; petiole short.
* Twigs usually densely pubescent (nearly glabrous in C. tenuicaulis). Leaves orbicular, orbicular-spathulate or broad oblong (often narrow in C. rhamnoides). Drupe globose, black or red.
Height 4–10 feet. Branches widely divaricating. Leaves ⅓–1 inch, membranous, orbicular, cuspidate. Drupe often didymous, red, ⅛ inch diameter 12. C. rotundifolia.
Height 5–20 feet; branches fastigiate; bark pale; leaves ⅓–⅔ inch, membranous, orbicular-spathulate or ovate-spathulate, veins reticulated in large areoles; fruit dark-red, or nearly black, ⅙–¼ inch diameter 13. C. areolata.
Height 5–8 feet; branches widely divaricating; bark purplish; leaves ¼–½ inch, orbicular- or ovate-spathulate, rather coriaceous, veins reticulated in large areoles; fruit globose, black, ⅛–⅕ inch diameter 14. C. tenuicaulis.
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Height 2–8 feet; dense or open; branches interlaced; leaves very variable, orbicular to narrow oblong, ⅕–⅔ inch long, fruit globose, red, ⅛–⅕ inch 15. C. rhamnoides.
** Twigs densely pubescent. Leaves oblong to linear-oblong or -obovate. Drupe (unknown in C. ciliata) globose.
Height 4–10 feet; leaves oblong, ¼–⅔ inch, densely ciliate 16. C. ciliata.
Height 5–15 feet; branches slender, often spreading in a horizontal plane. Leaves obovate or linear-oblong, ⅕–¾ inch, obtuse, coriaceous 17. C. parviflora.
*** Twigs nearly glabrous. Leaves variable. Drupe oblong (sub-globose in C. crassifolia), usually yellow.
Height 4–12 feet; branches excessively rigid, interlacing; leaves orbicular, very thick and coriaceous, ¼–¾ inch; fruit sub-globose, ¼–⅕ inch 18. C. crassifolia.
Height 4–15 feet; branches stout or slender, often interlacing; leaves orbicular-spathulate to oblong, rather coriaceous, ¼–¾ inch; drupe oblong or obovoid, ⅕–⅓ inch 19. C. rigida.
Height 4–10 feet; branches divaricating, leaves rounded-oblong or orbicular, thin, ¼–¾ inch; drupe oblong, ¼ inch 20. C. rubra.
Height 4–10 feet; branches slender, interlacing; leaves ovate-spathulate or elliptic-spathulate, thin, small, ⅕–⅓ inch; drupe oblong, greenish-yellow, ⅕–¼ inch 21. C. virescens.
c. Leaves narrow-linear, ¼–⅓ inch x 1/20 inch. A rambling or prostrate bush, 1–5 feet high; branches flexuous, interlaced 22. C. acerosa.
d. Leaves narrow, linear-oblong, ¼–½ inch x 1/10 inch. A large shrub, 8–20 feet high; branches widely divaricating 23. C. propinqua.
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Division C.—Erect, rarely prostrate shrubs. Leaves small or of medium size, ⅙–2 inches long. Flowers terminating leafy branchlets, always solitary (except the males in C. linariifolia and sometimes in C. fœtidissima).

Height 6–15 feet; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, acute, ½–1 ½ inch; stipules sheathing; male flowers in terminal 3–5-flowered fascicles 24. C. linariifolia.
Slender, 6–15 feet high, extremely fœtid when bruised; leaves oblong, obtuse, rather thin, ½–2 inches; male flowers large, ⅓ inch, sometimes fascicled 25. C. fœtidissima.
Slender, 3–8 feet high; not fœtid; leaves ¼–¾ inch, oblong, obtuse or retuse, rather thin; flowers ⅙–⅛ inch 26. C. colensoi.
Stout, much branched, 4–10 feet high; leaves ¼–¾ inch, linear-obovate, obovate-oblong, or cuneate-oblong, obtuse, coriaceous 27. C. cuneata.
Slender, leafy, erect, 5–10 feet high; leaves ¼–⅓ inch, linear or linear-lanceolate, flat, thin 28. C. microcarpa.
Stout, erect or prostrate, 1–4 feet high; leaves ⅙–¼ inch, linear-lanceolate, concave, coriaceous 29. C. depressa.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Division D.—Stems short, prostrate, and rooting. Leaves small, 1/10–⅓ inch long. Flowers solitary, terminal.

Leaves linear-oblong to rounded-oblong or obovate; male corolla large, curved, tubular, ⅓–⅔ inch long 30. C. repens.
Leaves linear-oblong or linear-obovate, often hairy. Male corolla small, narrow below, campanulate above, ⅕–⅓ inch long 31. C. petriei.

1. C. grandifolia,

Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 104; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 112; C. latifolia, Col., MSS.; Pelaphia lœta et P. grandifolia, Banks et Sol., MSS.; Ronabea australis, A. Rich., Flora Nouv. Zel.

North Island.—Common throughout, from the North Cape to Wellington. Altitudinal range from sea level to 2,500 feet.

South Island.—Nelson, common in lowland districts, both in the eastern and western portions of the Province, T.F.C.

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Quoted from Otago by Mr. Buchanan (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” i., p. 43), but I have seen no specimens from thence.

A large, sparingly-branched shrub, 8–15 feet high, with dark-brown bark. Leaves much the largest of the genus, 5–9 inches long, obovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, acute, dull green, not shining or glossy, membranous, veins very finely reticulated. Peduncles 1–3 inches long, trichotomously divided. Flowers in fascicles at the ends of the divisions of the peduncle, each fascicle being enclosed in a shallow involucre formed by a pair of reduced leaves (bracts) and their connecting stipules. A distinct though minute calyx is present in both sexes. Male corolla ⅓ inch long, funnel-shaped. Female much smaller, ⅕–¼ inch, tubular, Drupe about ⅓ inch long, oblong, obtuse, yellowish-orange.

One of the most distinct species of the genus. The large foliage and well-developed inflorescence separate it from all its allies. C. lucida approaches it in inflorescence, but is at once distinguished by the much smaller more obovate coriaceous leaves, and by the stouter and more compact habit. C. tenuifolia has leaves very near in outline, colour, texture, and venation, but they are much smaller; and, judging from the fruit, the inflorescence is very different.

Mr. Colenso has very kindly favoured me with flowering and fruiting specimens (collected at Hawke's Bay) of a Coprosma labelled “C. latifolia, Col.,” and which I understand he has lately described as a new species closely allied to C. grandifolia. After a careful examination, however, I have failed to find any characters to separate his plant from C. grandifolia, even as a variety. The leaves are perhaps a trifle more obtuse than is usual, but otherwise I see no difference at all from the ordinary form common near Auckland and in many other places.

2. C. lucida.

Forst., Prodr., p. 138; D.C., Prodr., iv., p. 378; A. Rich., Flora, p. 262; A. Cunn., Prodr., ii., p. 206; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 104; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 112. Pelaphia laurifolia, Banks et Sol., MSS.

North Island.—Common throughout, from the North Cape to Wellington. Altitudinal range from sea-level to over 3,000 feet.

South Island.—Nelson, plentiful, T.F.C.; Marlborough, J. Buchanan; Westland, A. Hamilton!; Canterbury, in Banks Peninsula and lowland districts, J. B. Armstrong, T.F.C.; Otago, common on the south-east and west coasts, not so plentiful in the north or in the interior, D. Petrie!; Stewart Island, plentiful, D. Petrie.

A handsome stout leafy shrub, 4–15 feet high, perfectly glabrous in all its parts. Leaves 2–5 inches long, oblong-obovate,

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oblong-lanceolate, or elliptic-oblong, coriaceous, obtuse, apiculate or acute, gradually narrowed into short stout petioles, pale glossy-green. Peduncles 1–2 inches long, trichotomously divided. Flowers numerous, in fascicles at the ends of the divisions of the peduncle. Calyx present in both sexes, but limb very inconspicuously toothed. Male corolla ⅕ inch long, broadly tubular; female rather shorter and narrower. Drupe ⅓–½ inch long, oblong or oblong-obovoid, obtuse, yellowish-orange.

C. lucida varies considerably in habit. When growing in the open it usually forms a dense round-topped shrub; but when met with as undergrowth in the forest it is much more sparingly branched, and the branches are much longer and spread more. It is allied by its inflorescence to C. grandifolia, but is at once recognised by its very different foliage and habit. From C. robusta it is removed by its paler obovate more coriaceous leaves, which dry a yellowish-green, and not blackish-brown as in that species; and by the longer peduncles and more open inflorescence. The drupe is also much larger and much more pulpy and juicy than that of C. robusta. There is no danger of its being confounded with any other of the large-leaved species. In the “Handbook” the leaves are erroneously described as membranous, probably from becoming thin when dried. In the fresh state they are always coriaceous.

3. C. serrulata.

Hook. fil., MSS.; Buchanan, Trans. N.Z. Inst., iii., p. 212; Kirk, l.c. x., App. p. xxxv.

South Island.—Sub-alpine localities, but not very common. Nelson, slopes of Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, 3,000 to 4,000 feet, T.F.C. Canterbury, mountain districts above 2,000 feet, J. B. Armstrong!; Arthur's Pass, Waimakariri Glacier, mountains near Lake Tekapo, T.F.C. Otago: Mount Ida, 2,000 to 3,000 feet; Mount St. Bathans, 2,000 to 3,000 feet; Mount Tyndall, 4,000 feet, D. Petrie!; Dusky Bay, on the mountains, A. Reischek!

A robust, leafy, sparingly-branched dwarf shrub, 1–4 feet high, perfectly glabrous in all its parts. Branches few, stout, straggling; old bark white and papery. Leaves coriaceous, 1–2 ½ inches long, oblong-obovate, broadly obovate, or nearly orbicular, rarely narrower and elliptical-oblong, obtuse or apiculate, narrowed into a short broad petiole; margins thickened, minutely serrulate; veins reticulated, very conspicuous on the under-surface. Stipules very large, triangular, margins ciliated. Inflorescence diœcious. Males: in axillary 3–7-flowered fascicles. Calyx apparently wanting. Corolla ¼–⅓ inch long, between

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funnel-shaped and campanulate, 4–5-lobed. Stamens, 4–5. Females: solitary, or in 3–5-flowered fascicles. Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb minute, cupular, sometimes with a few irregular teeth. Corolla ⅕–¼ inch long, tubular, shortly 3–5-lobed. Styles long and stout, often 1 inch long, cohering up to the mouth of the corolla. Drupe broadly oblong or sub-globose, ¼–⅓ inch long, reddish.

A remarkably distinct plant, at once recognized by the minutely serrulate leaves. It is usually found in sheltered places on steep mountain slopes, and rarely attains a greater height than four or five feet. The bark of the stem and branches is white and papery, and is easily detached. The leaves are often very coriaceous, perhaps more so than in most of the species. The male fascicles are often reduced to three or four flowers, and occasionally to a single one. The female flowers are generally solitary, although there is no difficulty in finding specimens with fascicles of three, and, more rarely, with five flowers.

It may be remarked, in passing, that in several of the species the very young leaves have their margins minutely incised or serrate, but the character is always an obscure one, and is never present in fully mature leaves, except in C. serrulata.

4. C. baueriana.

Endl., Iconog., t. iii.; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 105; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 112. C. lucida, Endl., Prodr. Flor. Ins. Norfolk, p. 60, non Forst. C. retusa, Hook, fil., Lond. Journ. Bot., iii., p. 416. Pelaphia retusa, Banks et Sol., MSS.

North Island.—Abundant all round the coasts, on maritime rocks and sand-hills, but not found inland, save where planted by the Maoris in the cultivations, etc.

South Island.—Southern shores of Cook Strait, from Collingwood to Picton, but not common.

Chatham Island.—J. Buchanan (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vii., p. 336). Also found in Norfolk Island.

A shrub or small tree, very variable in size and habit of growth, in exposed rocky places often not more than 2–3 feet high, with almost prostrate branches; in rich sandy soils sometimes 15–25 feet, with a close head of spreading branches. Branches stout, glabrous, or the young ones minutely pubescent. Leaves bright shining green, almost fleshy, black when dry, 1–3 inches long, broadly ovate or oblong, rarely narrow oblong, obtuse or retuse, rarely sub-acute, quite glabrous; margins usually recurved, and often conspicuously so; veins finely reticulated. Stipules short and broad. Male flowers clustered in dense heads on short axillary peduncles. Calyx minute, cupular, obsoletely 4-toothed. Corolla campanulate, ⅕–¼ inch,

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4–5-lobed. Females: Peduncles smaller and more slender than in the males, and heads smaller, rarely more than 3–6-flowered. Calyx-limb minute, truncate or obsoletely 4-toothed. Corolla smaller and narrower than in the males. Drupe oblong or ovoid, ¼–⅓ inch long, yellowish-orange.

I doubt whether there is any real distinction between this species and C. petiolata. From C. robusta it is separated by its stouter and closer habit, more obtuse, and much more fleshy and glossy leaves, with recurved margins, by the smaller heads of flowers, and by the rounder fruit.

C. baueriana is more frequently seen in cultivation than any other species, chiefly on account of its very handsome glossy foliage and compact habit. States having the leaves variegated with white or yellow are not uncommon, and have been introduced into European gardens. It forms an excellent hedge, and as it is not easily affected by exposure to salt spray or drifting sand, is very suitable for planting in exposed places near the sea. Thus, at Taranaki, luxuriant garden hedges composed of it may be seen in situations open to the full force of the westerly gales.

At Maketu, in the Bay of Plenty, there exists a grove of this species, which the Maoris state had its origin from the skids which were used in pulling ashore the Arawa canoe, on its arrival in New Zealand with the first Maori immigrants. It is said that the skids were brought in the canoe from Hawaiiki, but the acceptance of this statement is rendered difficult by the fact that C. baueriana is not known to occur anywhere in Polynesia, or, indeed, out of New Zealand, save at Norfolk Island.

5. C. petiolata.

Hook. fil., Journ. Linn. Socy., i., p. 128; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 113. C. baueri, F. Muell., Fragm. Phyt. Austr., ix., p. 69, non C. baueriana, Endl.

North Island.—Tapotopoto Bay, North Cape. T. Kirk (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” i., p. 143); Castle Point, Wellington, Colenso (“Handbook”).

Kermadec Islands.—McGillivray.

Also found in Lord Howe's Island and Norfolk Island.

With this species I am imperfectly acquainted. According to Sir Joseph Hooker it is distinguished from the preceding by the leaves being less fleshy, and by the young foliage and branches being covered with a minute pubescence. But C. baueriana often has the young branches covered with a minute velvety pubescence, and the leaves vary in texture. Sir F. Mueller, in his “Fragmenta” (vol. ix., p. 69), unites both species, and probably this is the correct view to take.

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6. C. robusta.

Raoul, Choix des Plantes, 23, t. 21. Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i. p. 105; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 113.

North and South Islands.—Common in lowland districts, from the North Cape to Invercargill.

Chatham Islands.—J. Buchanan (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vii., p. 336).

A stout, leafy, glossy-green shrub, 6–15 feet high, perfectly glabrous in all its parts; bark greyish-brown. Leaves coriaceous, very variable in size and shape, 1 ½–5 inches long, lanceolate to broad elliptic-oblong, acute, rarely obtuse, narrowed into short stout petioles, dark-green and shining above, paler below. Flowers clustered in axillary many-flowered glomerules. Males: Calyx minute, cupular, minutely 4–5-toothed or quite truncate. Corolla ⅕–⅓ inch long, campanulate, shortly or deeply 3–5-lobed. Stamens, 3–5. Females: Much smaller, ⅙–¼ inch long. Calyx-limb truncate, or rarely with a few irregular teeth. Corolla tubular, shortly 3–5-lobed. Drupes densely packed, oblong to ovoid, rarely obovoid, ¼–⅓ inch long, yellowish- or reddish-orange.

C. robusta, has a very wide and general distribution. Unlike many of the other species, it is not restricted to any particular class of habitat, but is seen in all soils and situations, whether sheltered or exposed, near the sea or inland. As a rule, however, it does not ascend the mountains to a greater height than about 2,500 feet. In its ordinary state it is not at all difficult to recognize. The characters separating it from C. lucida I have pointed out under that species. From C. baueriana it is chiefly distinguished by its firm coriaceous leaves, which are not at all fleshy, by the much larger fascicles of flowers, and by the rather smaller and more pointed fruit. From C. cunninghamii it differs in the larger broader leaves, much more numerous flowers, and in the colour of the drupe, which appears to be always pale and transparent in C. cunninghamii. I have, however, intermediate forms which are difficult to place, judging from foliage and inflorescence alone. From C. acutifolia, C. tenuifolia, and C. arborea, it is at once separated by the texture and shape of the leaves, and by numerous other points.

7. C. cunninghamii.

Hook. fil., Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 113. C. fœtidissima, A. Cunn., Prodr., in part, non Forst.

North Island.—Not uncommon in the lowlands, chiefly in alluvial grounds by the banks of rivers.

South Island.—Usually near the coast. Various localities in Nelson, T.F.C. Banks Peninsula and lowlands of Canterbury,

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Armstrong, T.F.C. Otago: near Dunedin; Milton; Invercargill, etc., D. Petrie!

Chatham Islands.—Dieffenbach (“Handbook”); Buchanan (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vii., p. 336).

Altitudinal range from sea-level to 500 feet.

A large, sparingly-branched shrub, or small tree, 6–15 feet in height; bark pale. Leaves flat, coriaceous, variable in size, ½–2 inches long, usually linear or linear-lanceolate, but occasionally broader and shorter and linear-oblong, acute, gradually narrowed into short stout petioles. Inflorescence composed of 3–12-flowered axillary glomerules. Male flowers ⅙–⅕ inch long. Calyx minute, cupular, truncate, or obscurely lobed. Corolla campanulate, 4–5-lobed. Female flowers much smaller and narrower. Calyx-limb 4–5-toothed. Corolla ⅛–⅙ inch, tubular, 3–5-lobed. Styles very long and stout. Drupe broad-oblong or sub-globose, pale, and semi-transparent.

Most closely allied to the preceding species, but in its usual state differing in the more slender open habit, pale bark, much smaller and narrower leaves, smaller fascicles of flowers, and particularly in the rounder, pale, and semi-transparent fruit. Intermediate states are plentiful, and some are very puzzling to place in the absence of fruit, especially some Otago specimens sent by Mr. Petrie, and which may be referable to small and narrow-leaved forms of C. robusta. It is also related to C. propinqua, which, however, can be easily separated by its more spreading habit, dark bark, smaller and narrower leaves, fewer flowers, and more elongated drupe.

8. C. acutifolia.

Hook. fil., Journ. Linn. Socy., Bot., I., p. 128; Handbook N.Z. Flora, p. 114.

Kermadec Islands.—McGillivray (“Handbook”).

I am totally unacquainted with this species, and can add nothing to Sir J. D. Hooker's description. It seems to be allied on the one hand to C. grandifolia, and on the other to C. tenuifolia, but to be distinct from both. It is confined to the Kermadec Islands.

9. C. tenuifolia.

Cheeseman, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 315.

North Island.—Ruahine Mountains and other localities in Hawke's Bay, W. Colenso! Pirongia and Karioi Mountains, Mount Egmont Ranges, T.F.C. Forests between the Upper Wanganui and Taupo, T. Kirk!

I have already given a description of this species in the volume of the “Trans. N.Z. Inst.” quoted above, and do not

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propose to repeat it here, as I have no fresh information to offer. The plant was first collected on the Ruahine Mountains by Mr. Colenso, many years ago. In the “Handbook” Sir Joseph Hooker referred it, with some doubt, to C. acutifolia. He now considers it to be distinct, and in this view is supported by Mr. N. E. Brown, who has pointed out to me that the venation of the leaves is entirely different in the two plants, and that C. acutifolia is quite glabrous, while C. tenuifolia is more or less pubescent on the stipules, young branchlets, and midrib and petioles. The inflorescence is probably quite distinct, but as at present the male flower of C. acutifolia and the young females of C. tenuifolia are alone known, it is difficult to form an opinion; although it seems likely that the inflorescence of C. tenuifolia will prove to be more compact than that of C. acutifolia.

10. C. arborea.
Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 420.

North Island.—Not uncommon from the North Cape southwards to the Waikato and Thames Rivers. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 1,000 feet.

A closely-branched round-headed tree, 20–30 feet high, with much of the habit and appearance of Myrsine urvillei. Trunk 6–14 inches in diameter, wood yellowish. Branchlets terete, puberulous towards the tips, bark greyish-brown. Leaves coriaceous, variable in size, 1–3 inches long, ½–1 ½ inches broad, ovate-spathulate or orbicular-spathulate, obtuse or retuse, suddenly narrowed into winged petioles ⅕–¾ inch long, yellowish-green above, often reddish below; veins closely reticulate; margins flat. Stipules short, triangular, finely ciliate when young. Flowers densely clustered in many-flowered glomerules or heads, which terminate the main branches as well as short axillary branchlets. Males: calyx narrow, deeply divided into 4–5 linear or linear-oblong ciliate lobes. Corolla campanulate, ⅕-inch long, deeply 4–5-lobed, lobes broad, acute. Stamens 4–5, filaments very long. Females: glomerules smaller, usually 4–12-flowered. Calyx-limb 4–5-toothed. Corolla smaller and narrower than in the males. Drupes closely packed, globose, or more rarely broadly oblong or obovoid, colourless and semi-transparent, ¼–⅓ inch in diameter.

The largest species of the genus, and very distinct from any other. The foliage is nearest to that of C. spathulata, but is much larger, and the petioles much shorter in proportion. The male flowers are very closely packed, forming large spherical glomerules, and these are placed at the terminations of the main branches, as well as on short axillary branchlets. The calyx of the male flowers is better developed, and has deeper divisions than in any other species.

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11. C. spathulata.

A. Cunn., Prodr. ii., p. 207; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 106; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 114; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46. Pelaphoides rotundiflora, Banks et Sol., MSS.

North Island.—Abundant in forests from the North Cape to the Upper Waikato. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 1,000 feet.

A small shrub, rarely more than 5–6 feet in height. Branches few, slender and straggling, very young ones finely puberulous. Leaves rather distant, very variable in size, from ½ to 1 ½ inch long; blade orbicular or broadly oblong, obtuse, retuse, or emarginate, coriaceous, quite glabrous, suddenly narrowed into a narrow winged petiole which may be longer or shorter than the blade. Stipules triangular, cuspidate. Male flowers in 2–3-flowered axillary fascicles or solitary. Calyx deeply 4–5-lobed, invested at its base by an involucel composed of a pair of depauperated leaves and their stipules. Corolla campanulate, ⅕–¼ inch long, 4–5-lobed to the middle, lobes revolute. Stamens usually 4. Females usually solitary, but occasionally fascicled. Calyx-limb deeply 4-lobed, lobes erect, acute. Corolla rather smaller and narrower than in the males, funnel-shaped. Drupe globose, ⅕–⅓ inch diameter, black and shining when fully ripe.

Allied to C. arborea, from which it is easily separated by the small size, different habit, smaller foliage on longer petioles, fewer flowers, and by the larger black fruit. The leaves are often a bronzy colour, shining and polished on the upper surface.

12. C. rotundifolia.

A. Cunn., Prodr., ii., p. 206; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 108; Handbook N.Z. Flora, p. 114; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46. C. rufescens, Colenso, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 261.

North and South Islands.—Common in alluvial soils at moderate elevations, from the North Cape to Invercargill. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 1,500 feet.

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A large laxly-branched shrub, 6–12 feet high. Branches long and slender, widely-spreading, irregularly and sparsely branched, the young ones densely pubescent or almost villous towards the tips; bark greyish-brown. Leaves in distant opposite pairs, ¼–1 inch long, usually orbicular, but varying to broadly-oblong or ovate-oblong, cuspidate or abruptly acute, rarely obtuse, very thin and membranous, more or less pubescent and ciliate, especially on the margins and on the veins below, veins finely reticulated; petioles short, villous. Flowers in axillary few or many-flowered fascicles, rarely solitary. Males: True calyx absent, but in its place one or two membranous involucels composed of a pair of depauperated leaves and their stipules. Corolla broadly campanulate, 1/10–⅛ inch

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long, deeply 4-lobed. Stamens, 4. Female flowers smaller and narrower than the male. Calyx adnate to the ovary, invested at the base by involucels similar to those of the male; limb minute, truncate, or obscurely toothed. Corolla 1/10–1/12 inch, tubular, 3–4-lobed. Drupe variable in size, ⅛–¼ inch diameter, globose or broader than long, often didymous, red.

Distinguished from the following species by its spreading habit, large round leaves, usually densely aggregated flowers, and the smaller red drupe. From C. tenuicaulis it is removed by its coarser and more open habit, much larger and more membranous leaves, and by the colour of the drupe. C. rubra often closely approaches it in foliage; but the flowers are larger, and the drupe is oblong and yellow.

C. rotundifolia usually affects deep rich alluvial soils by the banks of rivers, and is particularly abundant in the swampy forests fringing the Northern Wairoa, Thames, Waikato, and other large streams in the North Island. The leaves are often deciduous, so that in spring the plant is usually quite bare. They are perhaps the most membranous of the genus. The fruit is frequently didymous, as described in the “Handbook,” but by no means invariably so.

13. C. areolata.
Cheeseman, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 315.

North Island.—Not uncommon in lowland districts.

South Island.—Nelson, plentiful, T.F.C. Westland, A. Hamilton! Canterbury, Banks Peninsula, T.F.C. Otago, not uncommon, D. Cetrie.

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An erect, closely branched, shrub or small tree, 6–15 feet in height. Branches slender, close, fastigiate, ultimate pubescent or almost villous with soft greyish hairs. Leaves in opposite pairs, ⅓–⅔ inch long, orbicular-spathulate, ovate-spathulate, or elliptic-spathulate, usually acute or apiculate, rather thin and membranous, flat, glabrous or nearly so above, usually pubescent on the veins below, suddenly narrowed into short hairy petioles; veins reticulated in large areoles. Flowers axillary, solitary or in few-flowered fascicles. Males: Usually 2–4 together, small, ⅛–⅙ inch. True calyx wanting, but one or two calycine involucels closely invest the base of the corolla. Corolla broadly campanulate, deeply 4–5-lobed. Females: solitary, or two together, rarely more, 1/10–⅛ inch long. Calyx-limb minute, truncate, or obscurely toothed. Corolla narrow, tubular. Drupe globose or broadly obovoid, ⅙–¼ inch diameter, reddish-black or nearly quite black.

Allied on one side to C. rotundifolia, and on the other to C. tenuicaulis. I have already pointed out its differences from the first of these, and C. tenuicaulis is at once separated by its

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smaller size, spreading branches, dark-coloured bark, more glabrous leaves and branchlets, smaller and more coriaceous leaves, and perfectly black globose fruit.

14. C. tenuicaulis.
Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 106; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 115.

North Island.—Not uncommon, especially in swampy forests. I have seen no South Island specimens. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 500 feet.

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A densely and widely branched shrub, 4–8 feet high. Branches slender, bark plum-colour or dark purplish-brown; young branchlets finely and shortly puberulous. Leaves in opposite pairs, ¼–½ inch long, orbicular or ovate-spathulate, obtuse, somewhat coriaceous, flat, glabrous on both surfaces, narrowed into a broad flat petiole; veins reticulated in large areoles. Flowers axillary, solitary or more generally in 2–3-flowered fascicles. Males: No true calyx, but the usual calycine involucre present. Corolla broadly campanulate, ⅙–⅛ inch long, 4–5-lobed. Stamens, 4–5. Females: tubular, 1/7–⅛ inch long. Calyx - limb truncate. Corolla, 3–5-lobed. Drupe globose or depresso-globose, ⅛–⅕ inch diameter, shining black.

A distinct and well-marked species, which keeps its characters well in all stations. I have already pointed out its differences from C. areolata, which is its nearest ally. It is also closely related to C. rhamnoides, some broad-leaved forms of which come very close. But C. rhamnoides always has much more pubescent branches, and usually narrower and more pointed leaves, with very different venation, and the drupe is usually red.

15. C. rhamnoides.

A. Cunn., Prodr., ii., p. 206; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 107; Handbk.N.Z. Flora, p. 116; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46. C. divaricata, A. Cunn. Prodr., ii., p. 207, not of Hook. fil. C. concinna, Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 330. C. heterophylla, Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 263. ? C. gracilis, A. Cunn., Prodr.

North and South Islands.—Abundant throughout, from the North Cape to Stewart Island. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 3,000 feet.

A small, densely-branched bush, 2–6 feet high. Branches spreading, stiff, rigid, and often interlaced in exposed places; more slender and open in shaded. Bark greyish, or reddish-brown, fissured. Ultimate branches densely pubescent, with short stiff white hairs. Leaves very variable in shape and texture, from orbicular or broadly-ovate to narrow oblong, and in some varieties lanceolate or even linear leaves are mixed with the broader ones; rounded, retuse, or acute, narrowed into a very short petiole, from coriaceous to almost membranous;

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glabrous or puberulous on the under-surface, ⅕–¾ inch long by ⅛–½ inch broad; veins reticulated and evident, except in the more coriaceous forms. Flowers axillary, or on short decurved lateral branchlets, solitary or in few-flowered fascicles. Males: True calyx wanting, but the usual cupuliform involucre composed of depauperated leaves and their stipules present. Corolla 1/10–⅛ inch long, campanulate, 4–5-lobed to below the middle; lobes often recurved. Stamens, 4–5. Females: smaller, 1/12–1/10 inch long. Calyx adnate to the ovary, its limb very short, truncate, or obsoletely toothed. Corolla tubular, 4-lobed to below the middle; lobes narrow, revolute. Drupe globose, usually bright red, occasionally black, ⅕ inch diameter.

Var. α. vera.—Leaves orbicular or broadly-ovate, obtuse, often coriaceous. C. rhamnoides, A. Cunn.

Var. β. divaricata.—Leaves broadly ovate, oblong-ovate or oblong, acute, rather thin. Narrower leaves, linear or lanceolate, often mixed with the broader ones. C. divaricata, A. Cunn.; but not C. divaricata, Hook. fil.

One of the most puzzling and variable species of the genus. Two main forms are distinguishable, as described above; but it must be borne in mind that numerous intermediates occur, which might be placed under either head. Var. α, with rounded obtuse leaves, I am informed by Mr. N. E. Brown, answers to Cunningham's type-specimens of C. rhamnoides, now preserved in the Kew Herbarium. In its extreme state it is stiff and rigid, with coriaceous leaves; but the branches often become longer and more slender, and the leaves thinner, narrower, and sub-acute. In this state it is C. concinna, Colenso, as I find from specimens kindly forwarded by Mr. Colenso himself. Var. β, Mr. Brown assures me, is identical with the true C. divaricata of A. Cunningham, a very different plant to the C. divaricata of the “Handbook;” and with this view Sir J. D. Hooker now concurs. It varies much in the shape of its leaves—from nearly round to ovate, trowel-shaped, or oblong; but as a rule, they are narrower, thinner, and more acute than in the preceding variety, into which, however, it passes by insensible gradations. Some common subvarieties of it are remarkable for having narrow lanceolate or linear leaves mixed with those of the ordinary form; these leaves being most plentiful on the younger branches. Mr Colenso has described this as a distinct species, under the name of C. heterophylla.

The flowers are very uniform in both varieties, and offer no distinctive characters of importance. They are perhaps the smallest in the genus, C. tenuicaulis, C. areolata, and C. rotundifolia being the nearest in this respect. The fruit is always globose, and usually a dark red—“port-wine” colour. Some varieties, however, have a crimson drupe, and in others the fruit becomes nearly black when decaying.

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16. C. ciliata.

(Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., i., p. 22; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 115.)

Auckland and Campbell Islands.—Abundant (“Flora Antarctica”).

I am not acquainted with this species, and can therefore add nothing to Sir J. D. Hooker's description. The flowers and fruit are unknown, and I am not sure that the plant will not prove to be a variety of C. parviflora, mountain forms of which often have ciliate leaves.

17. C. parviflora.

Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 107; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 116. C. myrtillifolia, Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., i., p. 21; Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 108 (var. α. only).

North and South Islands.—Abundant throughout, both in the lowlands and on the mountains.

Auckland Isles.—Sir J. D. Hooker.

Altitudinal range from sea-level to 4,000 feet.

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A stout, erect, leafy shrub, 4–12 feet high. Branches stout or slender, much divided; branchlets often arranged in a horizontal plane, densely pubescent, sometimes quite shaggy; bark light grey. Leaves usually close set, fascicled on short lateral branchlets, ⅕–¾ inch long, 1/10–¼ inch broad, obovate, linear-obovate, or linear-oblong, obtuse and rounded at the tip, more rarely acute, coriaceous, flat or margins slightly recurved, glabrous, or the petiole and midrib slightly puberulous, or surfaces and margins ciliate with scattered soft hairs, gradually narrowed into short petioles, veins not conspicuous. Flowers solitary or 2–4 together. Males: True calyx wanting, but two minute 4-toothed involucels present at the base of the flower. Corolla 1/10–⅛ inch long, broadly campanulate, 4–5-partite almost to the base. Stamens, 4–5. Females: Calycine involucels present as in the males. Calyx-limb minutely 4–5-toothed. Corolla 1/12–1/10 inch, much narrower than in the males, and not so deeply cleft. Drupe globose, ⅕–¼ inch diameter, white or yellowish-white, translucent.

A well-marked and distinct species, which, though varying within certain limits, can always be distinguished from its allies by its leafy habit, pubescent branches, obovate or linear-obovate coriaceous leaves, and semi-transparent globose drupe. There are three main forms: the first, which may be considered the type of the species, is rather stout and closely branched, with moderately pubescent branches and obovate or linear-obovate coriaceous leaves, which are nearly glabrous. This form is found both in the lowlands and on the mountains. The second, which is common in many places on the mountains of Nelson

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and Canterbury, has a much more slender habit, softer more pubescent branches, and rather broader much thinner leaves, which are usually ciliate on both surfaces and margins with soft hairs. This might be distinguished as var. pilosa. The third form is stiff and rigid, and very closely branched, with white bark and very small almost linear leaves. It also is montane, and occurs in several places in the Southern Alps, from Nelson to Otago.

18. C. crassifolia.
Colenso, Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science.

North Island.—Whangarei, T.F.C.; Head of Manukau Harbour, W. Colenso, T. Kirk!, T.F.C. Sand-hills between Helensville and the West Coast, T.F.C.

South Island.—Nelson, Maitai Valley, and other places, T.F.C. Otago, not uncommon throughout the Province, D. Petrie!

A compact rigid bush, 6–12 feet high. Branches divaricating, excessively stiff and rigid, often interlacing. Bark reddish-brown or greyish-brown, rough, uneven, and fissured on the branches, smoother on the twigs. Ultimate branchlets glabrous or very finely puberulous. Leaves in pairs on opposite twigs, broadly oblong, ovate, or orbicular, rounded at the tip or retuse, suddenly narrowed into a very short puberulous petiole, flat, usually very thick and coriaceous, quite glabrous, often whitish below, ⅕–1 inch long, ⅙–¾ inch broad; veins usually concealed; margins thickened. Flowers terminating short lateral often leafless branchlets (and thus appearing axillary), solitary or more rarely 2–3 together. Males: True calyx wanting, but one or more involucels present, composed of depauperated leaves and their stipules. Corolla ⅙–¼ inch long, campanulate, 4-lobed to nearly the base, Stamens, 4. Females tubular, ⅛–⅙ inch long. Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb minute, truncate or obsoletely toothed. Drupe sub-globose or broadly oblong, ⅕–¼ inch diameter, dull yellow.

C. crassifolia, which is a distinct species, though closely allied to the following, was originally discovered by Mr. Colenso nearly 40 years ago, near the head of the Manukau Harbour. In the “Flora,” and also in the “Handbook,” Sir J. D. Hooker referred it, together with the three next species, to C. divaricata, A. Cunn. But Mr. N. E. Brown, who has lately carefully examined the whole of the Coprosmas in Cunningham's herbarium, has satisfied himself that the original type of C. divaricata is only a variety of C. rhamnoides, and that the four plants placed under it by Hooker are quite distinct, both from it and from one another. I understand that Sir Joseph Hooker now

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accepts this view. As a species, C. crassifolia is best distinguished by the excessively stiff and rigid habit, almost glabrous branchlets, rounded thick and coriaceous leaves, and sub-globose yellow fruit. The next species is separated by its more slender habit, narrower spathulate leaves, and more oblong drupe; C. rubra by its larger thin orbicular leaves, and much larger oblong fruit; while C. virescens is at once removed by its slender habit and thin spathulate leaves.

19. C. rigida, n. sp.

C. divaricata, Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 107, in part; non C. divaricata, A. Cunn., Prodr.

North and South Islands.—Not uncommon throughout, in swampy forests.

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A branching shrub or small tree, 5–15 feet high. Branches divaricating, stout or slender, open or much interlaced, glabrous or the very young twigs minutely pubescent; bark reddish-brown or plum colour. Leaves in opposite pairs on short lateral branchlets, ¼–¾ inch long, obovate or oblong-spathulate, coriaceous but variable in texture, dark-green above but paler below, quite glabrous, gradually narrowed into short petioles, veins not reticulated. Stipules triangular, glabrous. Flowers solitary, or in 2–4-flowered fascicles on short lateral branchlets. Males: True calyx wanting, but one or more cupuliform involucres closely investing the base of the corolla. Corolla broadly campanulate, ⅙–⅕ inch long, divided more than half-way down into 4–5 lobes. Stamens, 4–5. Females: Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb with 4–5 minute lobes. Corolla tubular, ⅙–1/7 inch long, deeply 3–5-lobed. Drupe oblong, yellow, ⅕–⅓ inch long.

This is one of the species included by Sir J. D. Hooker in C. divaricata of the “Flora” and “Handbook.” It is very near to the preceding, but the habit is not nearly so rigid, the leaves are narrower and not so coriaceous, and the fruit is larger and more oblong.

20. C. rubra.

Petrie, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 269. C. divaricata var. latifolia, Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 107; non C. divaricata, A. Cunn.

North Island.—Colenso, in Herb. Kew, Nos. 380, 1976.

South Island.—Otago: near Dunedin; Otepopo; Palmerston South, D. Petrie!

An open or closely branched shrub, 5–12 feet high; branches slender, divaricating, ultimate ones pubescent; bark reddish-brown, smooth. Leaves varying from broadly-oblong to nearly orbicular, obtuse or sub-acute, glabrous or ciliolate, rather thin and membranous, narrowed into rather long ciliolate petioles, ¼–¾ inch long, ⅙–½ inch wide; veins reticulated. Flowers

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sometimes solitary, but more generally in twos or threes on short lateral branchlets. Males: True calyx wanting, but one or more involucels closely invest the base of the corolla. Corolla ⅛–⅙ inch long, bell-shaped, 4-lobed. Stamens, 4. Females: Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb minute, 4–5-toothed. Corolla tubular, 4-partite. Drupe oblong, ¼–⅓ inch long, yellowish-white, translucent.

This species has much resemblance in foliage and habit to C. rotundifolia, but differs altogether in the flowers and fruit, which clearly place it in the same section as the two preceding plants. It seems to have been originally discovered by Mr Colenso in some locality in the North Island; but I have myself only seen Mr. Petrie's specimens, collected in Otago. Mr. N. E. Brown informs me, however, that Mr. Colenso's specimens exactly match Mr. Petrie's.

21. C. virescens.

Petrie, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xi., p. 426. C. divaricata var. pallida, Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 107; non. C. divaricata, A. Cunn.

North Island.—Wairarapa Valley, Colenso. (No. 333 in Herb. Kew.)

South Island.—Otago: vicinity of Dunedin; Otepopo, etc., D. Petrie!

A compact glabrous shrub, 6–12 feet high. Branches numerous, slender, interlaced; bark greenish. Leaves in pairs on opposite twigs, spathulate, obtuse, glabrous, membranous, ⅕–⅓ inch long. Flowers solitary or in fascicles of two or three, terminating short lateral branchlets. Males: True calyx wanting, but the usual involucels formed of depauperated leaves and their stipules present. Corolla campanulate, deeply 4-lobed, ⅛ inch long. Females: Calyx-limb indistinctly 4-toothed. Corolla tubular, deeply 4-lobed, smaller than in the males. Drupe oblong, ¼ inch long, greenish-white or yellowish, translucent.

A very distinct species, but perhaps more closely allied to C. rubra than any other. I give the North Island locality on the authority of Mr. N. E. Brown, who informs me that Mr. Colenso's specimens agree very well with Otago ones collected by Mr. Petrie.

22. C. acerosa.

A. Cunn., Prodr., p. 207; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 109; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 118; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46.

North and South Islands.—Common throughout, from the North Cape to Stewart Island, and also in the Chatham Islands. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 4,000 feet.

A depressed, often excessively branched wide-spreading bush, 1–5 feet high. Branches numerous, spreading, trailing, or

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prostrate, tortuous and often interlaced, often zigzag, puberulous; bark yellowish-brown or dark-brown. Leaves in close or remote opposite pairs or fascicles, ⅕–⅗ inch long, 1/20 inch wide, very uniform in shape, narrow-linear, obtuse or sub-acute, sub-erect, rather rigid, veinless. Flowers apparently lateral, but in reality terminating minute arrested branchlets. Males: solitary, or in fascicles of 2–4. True calyx wanting, but one or two involucels present, composed of depauperated leaves and their stipules. Corolla broadly campanulate, ⅙ inch long, 4-lobed to below the middle. Stamens 4, rarely 5. Females always solitary, invested at the base by calycine involucres similar to those of the males. Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb minutely 4-toothed. Corolla 1/10 inch long, tubular, 4-lobed. Drupe globose, variable in size, ⅙–½ inch, pale blue.

Var. α.—Sand-dune form. Yellowish-green; branches long, slender, much and closely interlaced. Leaves close set, rather long and slender. Flowers usually solitary.

Var. β.—Inland and mountain form. Browner and darker; branches not so numerous, stouter and more rigid; leaves often short and stiff; male flowers usually fascicled.

The typical form of this species is a most abundant plant on sand-hills all round the New Zealand coast. It has long weak flexuous and tortuous branches, which are usually much and closely interlaced, thus forming a dense scrambling bush 1–5 feet high. Var. β is by no means common in the North Island, but is plentiful in the elevated central districts of the South Island. Extreme forms of it, with few prostrate branches, shorter and stiffer, much more remote leaves, look very different to the typical state; but intermediates are common. As a species, C. acerosa is at once distinguished by its peculiar habit, extremely narrow leaves, and sky-blue drupe.

23. C. propinqua.

A. Cunn. Prodr., ii., p. 206; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 109; Handbk.N.Z. Flora, p. 116; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46. Pelaphia parvifolia, Banks et Sol., MSS.

North Island.—Abundant throughout, in swampy forests or by the sides of rivers.

South Island.—Not uncommon, extending as far as Stewart Island.

Chatham Islands.—H. Travers!

Altitudinal range from sea-level to 1,500 feet.

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A large branching shrub or small tree, 6–20 feet high. Branches widely divaricating, glabrous or puberulous at the tips; bark brown, or brownish-grey. Leaves opposite or in opposite pairs, usually rather distant, ¼–½ inch long, 1/12–⅛ inch wide, narrow linear-oblong, obtuse or sub-acute, rather coriaceous,

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gradually narrowed into a very short petiole or quite sessile. Flowers terminating short lateral branchlets. Males: In fascicles of 3–4, or, more rarely, solitary. True calyx wanting; but a 4-toothed cupuliform involucre, composed of a pair of depauperated leaves and their stipules, invests the base of each fascicle and also of each flower. Corolla broadly campanulate, ⅙–⅕ inch long, deeply 5-lobed. Stamens, 4–5. Females solitary, much smaller than the males. Calyx adnate to the ovary, its limb 4-toothed or irregularly notched. Corolla tubular, 1/7–⅛ inch long, 3–4-lobed. Drupe variable in shape, oblong to globose, ⅓ inch long, blueish or blueish-black.

One of the largest of the species, being sometimes 20 feet high. It is allied on the one hand to C. cunninghamii, and on the other to C. linariifolia. From the first it differs in the more spreading habit, dark-coloured bark, smaller narrower leaves, and smaller and fewer flowers; from the last in the smaller, less acute, and more coriaceous leaves, in the stipules not being sheathing, in the inflorescence not being so distinctly terminal, and in the less-developed calyx of the female flowers. In the swampy kahikatea forests of the Thames and Waikato it is a most abundant plant, often forming the chief undergrowth over large areas. Though common in the South Island, it does not seem to attain the same size as in the North.

24. C. linariifolia.

Hook. fil., Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 118. C. propinqua var. γ. Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 109.

North Island.—Hilly and mountainous districts, and in the interior, as far north as the Thames Valley.

South Island.—Abundant throughout, especially in river valleys.

Altitudinal range, from sea-level to 2,500 feet.

A large branching shrub or small tree, 6–20 feet high. Branches slender, spreading; younger puberulous; bark dark-grey. Leaves all opposite, ½–1 ½ inch long, ⅛–¼ inch broad, linear or linear-lanceolate, more rarely oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, flat, hardly coriaceous, suddenly narrowed into rather short slender petioles, blackish when dry, veins indistinct. Stipules glabrous or puberulous, upper ones connate for some length and sheathing the branch, margins usually ciliate. Flowers terminating leafy lateral branchlets. Males: in 3–5-flowered fascicles; each fascicle enclosed in one or two involucels composed of depauperated leaves and their stipules, and each flower with minute bracts at its base. True calyx wanting. Corolla broadly campanulate, ⅙–¼ inch long, divided about half-way down into 4–5 lobes; lobes usually revolute. Stamens, 4–5. Females: always solitary, seated within one or

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two involucels similar to those of the male fascicles. Calyx limb with 4–5 large oblong erect lobes. Corolla ⅛ inch long, tubular. Drupe broadly oblong, ⅓ inch long, pale and semitransparent, with blueish streaks, crowned by the persistent calyx lobes.

The long sheathing stipules form a conspicuous, though variable, character for this species. In several respects it approaches C. propinqua and C. cunninghamii. I have already pointed out its differences from the first of these; and C. cunninghamii is easily separated by its larger paler foliage and more numerous flowers, the females of which have not the long calyx lobes of C. linariifolia. In exposed mountainous localities the habit becomes more compact, and the leaves shorter, broader, and more coriaceous, thus showing an approach to C. cuneata.

25. C. fœtidissima.

Forst., Prodr., No. 138; D.C., Prodr., iv., p. 578; A. Rich., Flora Nov. Zel., p. 261; A. Cunn., Prodr., ii., p. 206; Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., i., p. 20; Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 105; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 116; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46. C. affinis, Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., i., p. 21.

North Island.—Chiefly in hilly and mountainous localities, but not common to the north of the East Cape, although extending as far as the Thames Goldfields.

South Island.—Abundant throughout, especially in the interior.

Auckland and Campbell Islands.—Plentiful, Sir J. D. Hooker and others. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 5,000 feet.

Usually a slender, sparingly branched shrub or small tree, 6–15 feet high, but occasionally attaining a greater size, and in the Auckland Isles reaching 20 feet, with a trunk 1 ½ feet in diameter (Hook. fil., “Flora Antarctica”); intensely fœtid when bruised or while being dried. Branches slender, terete or tetragonous, glabrous or the very young ones minutely puberulous; bark pale. Leaves variable in size and shape, ½–2 inches long, ¼–¾ inches broad, usually oblong, but varying from linear-oblong or linear-obovate to rounded oblong or broad-ovate, obtuse, acute, or retuse, narrowed into rather long and slender petioles, rather membranous, or in some varieties coriaceous; margins flat; veins indistinct or few and diverging. Stipules short and broad, cuspidate, often puberulous, margins ciliate. Flowers sessile, terminating the branchlets. Males: solitary or two or three together; rather large, ⅓–⅔ inch long, often decurved. Calyx minute, cupular, irregularly 4-lobed, not always present, closely invested at its base by one or two cupuliform involucres composed of modified leaves and their stipules. Corolla campanulate, divided about half-way down

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into 4–5, rarely 8–10, lobes. Stamens the same number as the lobes. Females: always solitary, erect, ¼–⅓ inch long. Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb truncate or obscurely toothed. Corolla tubular, 3–4-lobed. Drupe ⅓ inch long, oblong or ovoid, generally pale red in southern specimens, often white and transparent in the north.

C. fœtidissima forms a very considerable proportion of the undergrowth in the mountain forests of the South Island, but is not nearly so plentiful in the North. The horribly disagreeable odour of the leaves when bruised or drying, and the large terminal flowers, render it easy to recognise. The flowers are very frequently polygamous, and when so the calyx is always well-developed, which is not always the case in the normal male flowers. Its nearest ally is the following species.

26. C. colensoi.

Hook. fil., Handbk. N.Z. Flora., p. 117. C. myrtillifolia var. linearis, Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 108.

North Island.—Thames goldfields, J. Adams! Te Aroha, Pirongia, and Karioi Mountains, altitude 1,500 to 3,000 feet, T.F.C. Mountains near Cook Strait, Colenso (“Handbook”).

South Island.—Stewart Island, D. Petrie!

A small, slender, open or closely-branched shrub, 4–8 feet high. Branches slender, terete, puberulous; bark pale, when old often loose and papery. Leaves yellowish-green, variable in size, ½–1 inch long, linear-oblong or linear-obovate to broad-oblong or obovate, obtuse, retuse, or emarginate, rarely acute, narrowed into rather slender petioles, rather membranous; margins flat or slightly recurved; veins usually indistinct. Flowers solitary, terminating the branchlets. Males: On very short decurved pedicels. True calyx wanting, but corolla seated in an involucel composed of a pair of depauperated leaves and their stipules. Corolla small, ⅛ inch long, broadly campanulate, 4-lobed. Stamens, 4–5. Females: On short decurved pedicels as in the males. Calyx-limb minute, 4–5-toothed. Corolla not seen. Drupe (unripe) oblong, ⅙ inch long.

It will be noticed that the above description, which is drawn up entirely from specimens collected by myself on Te Aroha and Pirongia mountains, hardly corresponds with that given in the “Handbook.” Sir Joseph Hooker, who has examined my specimens, is inclined to think that they represent a new species; but Mr. N. E. Brown places them under C. colensoi; stating, however, that they do not match the typical form of that plant. Not being acquainted with the true C. colensoi, I can hardly state what the differences are, for in a genus like Coprosma too much reliance cannot be placed on descriptions alone. However, the

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most prudent course is to keep the two plants under the one name until further information is obtained. Mr. Petrie's specimens from Stewart Island have very much more coriaceous leaves, with different venation, and may be true C. colensoi; but as they have neither flowers nor fruit, it is difficult to pronounce on them.

27. C. cuneata.

Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., i., p. 21, t. 15; Flora Nov. Zeal. i., p. 110; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 117.

North Island.—Mount Egmont, abundant, 3,500 to 5,000 feet altitude. Dieffenbach, T.F.C. Ruahine Mountains, Colenso, H. Tryon! Lake Taupo, and Hikurangi, Colenso.

South Island.—Abundant in mountain districts.

Auckland and Campbell Islands.—Sir J. D. Hooker.

Altitudinal range from 500 to 5,000 feet.

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A stout, densely-branched shrub, 2–10 feet high, in alpine situations becoming smaller and still more compact and rigid. Branches stout, usually densely leafy, the younger ones puberulous; bark dark-grey or brown. Leaves close set, often crowded on short lateral branchlets, variable in size, ⅕–¾ inch long, 1/10–¼ inch wide, obovate-lanceolate, linear-obovate, or oblong-obovate, more rarely cuneate-oblong, obtuse or sub-acute, patent or recurved, rigid and coriaceous, often concave above, almost veinless, margins often slightly recurved. Stipules short and broad, when young with the margins densely fimbriate or ciliate. Flowers solitary, terminating the branchlets, sessile. Males: True calyx wanting, but the base of the corolla invested by one or two involucels. Corolla ¼–⅓ inch long, broad campanulate, tube short and narrow, lobes widely spreading, 4 or 5. Females: Calyx-limb 4-lobed, lobes rather long, blunt, unequal. Corolla shorter and narrower than the males, ⅕–¼ inch long, 4-lobed to the middle or below. Drupe globose, ⅛–⅙ inch diameter.

One of the most variable species of the genus, but well-marked off from any other by its dense and leafy habit, broad fimbriate stipules, coriaceous recurved linear-obovate or cuneate leaves, which are often concave above, and by the rather large terminal flowers. It varies exceedingly in size, and when high up on the mountains is often reduced to a bush little more than a foot in height, the leaves, etc., being correspondingly reduced. It is exceedingly abundant on the slopes of Mount Egmont, near the upper limit of the forest, forming a leafy shrub 12 feet in height, or even more, and with leaves sometimes ¾ inch in length. Further up the mountain it forms a dense scrub, 2–3 feet high, with close and matted branches. North Island specimens appear to have stouter branches and broader leaves than the majority of those from the South Island.

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28. C. microcarpa.

Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 110; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 118.

North Island.—“Tops of the Ruahine Mountains, Colenso” (“Handbook”).

I am either unacquainted with this species, or have not identified it, and can consequently add nothing to Sir Joseph Hooker's description. It appears to differ from C. cuneata in its slender habit, and narrower thin and flat leaves.

29. C. depressa.

Colenso; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 110; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 118.

North Island.—Lake Taupo, and Ruahine Mountains, Colenso; Mount Egmont, T.F.C.

South Island.—Mount Arthur plateau, Nelson, altitude 4,000 to 5,000 feet, T.F.C.

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A low, densely-branched, often prostrate bush, 2–4 feet high. Branches leafy, trailing or prostrate, puberulous; bark greyish. Leaves opposite or in opposite fascicles, linear-lanceolate, about ⅕ inch long by 1/15 inch wide, acute or obtuse, rigid and coriaceous, veinless, somewhat concave, glabrous or with a few scattered hairs towards the margins, sub-erect patent or recurved, narrowed into very short stout petioles. Stipules short and broad, ciliate on the margins. Flowers terminating the branchlets, solitary, sessile. Males: True calyx wanting, but the usual calycine involucels present. Corolla 1/10–⅛ inch long, campanulate, deeply 4-lobed. Stamens, 4. Females: Invested by involucels similar to those of the males. Calyx-limb 3–4-toothed. Corolla 1/10 inch, deeply 4-lobed. Styles 2, short and stout. Drupe globose, ⅛ inch diameter, yellowish-red.

The plant described above is not uncommon on the Mount Arthur plateau, Nelson; and is, I think, identical with Colenso's C. depressa. It is principally separated from C. cuneata by its smaller size, more slender and prostrate habit, and by the smaller narrower leaves. Small forms of C. cuneata, however, approach very close to it, and it may prove to be a variety only.

30. C. repens.

Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., i., p. 22, t. 16A; Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 110; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 119. C. pumila, Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., ii., App., p. 543; Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 110; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 119.

North and South Islands.—Common in alpine localities, altitude 2,500 to 6,000 feet.

Auckland and Campbell Islands.—Common from sea-level to the tops of the mountains. Sir J. D. Hooker (“Flora Antarctica”).

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A small alpine creeping species. Branches glabrous, long or short, 4–18 inches, often closely matted together, prostrate and rooting, bark pale or dark grey. Leaves usually close-set, but sometimes distant, sub-erect or patent, bright-green, coriaceous and somewhat rigid, ⅛–⅓ inch long, linear-oblong or linear-obovate to broad oblong or broad obovate, acute or obtuse, narrowed into very short broad petioles or nearly sessile; veinless. Stipules short and broad, obtuse, often ciliate. Flowers greenish-white, solitary, terminating short erect branchlets. Males: Large for the size of the plant, ⅓–1 inch long. Calyx present, small, cupular 4–8-toothed. Corolla tubular, often curved, shortly 4–8-toothed. Stamens, 4–8; filaments often twice as long as the corolla; anthers narrow, large. Females: Much smaller, seldom more than ⅓ inch long. Calyx-limb 4–8-toothed. Corolla tubular, 4–8-lobed to about one-third way down. Styles 2–4 or 5. Drupe globose, ¼–⅓ inch diameter, red; nuts, 2–4.

C. repens is easily distinguished from all the New Zealand species of Coprosma, except C. petriei, by its small size and creeping and prostrate habit. From C. petriei it is separated by the rather larger and broader always glabrous leaves, much larger tubular male flowers, and red globose drupe. It will be noticed that I have treated C. pumila, Hook. fil., as a synonym of C. repens. This I have done on the authority of Mr. N. E. Brown, of the Kew Herbarium, who informs me that, after a careful examination of the specimens on which the species was based, he can find no sufficient characters to separate it from C. repens. As I understand that Sir Joseph Hooker accepts this view, and as I have had no opportunity of examining the types, I am inclined to follow it also. There is a probability, however, that a closely-allied species exists, differing from C. repens to a certain extent in habit, in floral characters, and in the much larger purple drupe. I understand that Mr. Kirk considers this to be the true C. pumila; but this view is not supported by the description given in the “Handbook,” where the fruit is described as orange-yellow. It does not follow that, because a species allied to C. repens probably exists, it must of necessity answer to Hooker's C. pumila.

31. C. petriei.

Cheeseman, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 316.

South Island.—Mount Arthur, Nelson, altitude 4,000 to 6,000 feet, T.F.C. Mountains near Lake Tekapo, Canterbury, 4,000 feet, T.F.C.; uplands in the interior of Otago, common, D. Petrie!

A small species, with prostrate and creeping stems. Branches 6–18 inches long, usually densely matted, creeping and rooting,

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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

glabrous or puberulous. Leaves close-set or distant, erectopatent, 1/10–¼ inch long, linear-oblong or linear-obovate, acute or obtuse, narrowed into short petioles or sessile, veinless, glabrous, or margins and both surfaces sprinkled over with short white hairs. Flowers solitary, terminating short erect branchlets. Males: ⅕–⅓ inch long. True calyx wanting; but the usual calycine involucels investing the base of the corolla. Corolla tubular at the base, campanulate above, 4-lobed. Females: smaller, 1/10 inch long. Calyx-limb irregularly toothed. Corolla short, broadly tubular, 4-lobed to below the middle. Drupe globose, ⅙ inch diameter; red in Mount Arthur specimens, but blueish in Otago, according to Mr. Petrie.

Apparently a very distinct little plant, at once separated from C. repens by the shape of the male corolla.

Art. XXXII.A few Observations on the Tree-Ferns of New Zealand; with particular Reference to their peculiar Epiphytes, their Habit, and their manner of Growth.

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 9th August, 1886.]

Plate XIX.

I.—General, or Common.

Not being acquainted with the living botany of the South Island, my remarks will be necessarily confined to the tree-ferns of the North Island: at the same time I think that many of those plants are nearly as common there as they are here.

Tree-ferns are general throughout the North Island, in forests, on the edges of woods, and on the banks of streams; they are found in dry hilly woods as well as in the low wet ones, but are more numerous and gregarious in the latter. Mostly growing singly, scattered among the trees of the forest; not unfrequently, however, in small clumps, especially on low alluvial flats or tongues of land in the woods bounded on two sides by watercourses; and, more rarely, in tolerably large and continuous groves in wet situations between hills, in forests.

The number of species at present known of tree-ferns is 11.* These are classed under 4 genera, viz., Cyathea, Hemitelia, Dicksonia, and Alsophila. Of those 4 genera, Cyathea has 5, and Dicksonia 4, species; Hemitelia possesses 2, and Alsophila

[Footnote] * Of these, 7 are described in the “Handbook, Flora of New Zealand,” and “Synopsis Filicum;” and 4 (since discovered) in “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vols. xi., xv., and xviii.

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but 1. This last fern is much more rare, and affects a higher altitude than the others, having been only met with by me in the Fagus forests of the Ruahine mountain range, 2,000 feet altitude and upwards. Of all the genera, Dicksonia is the most common, especially in the southern parts of this island. Most of the species are endemic; one or two of them are stated to inhabit Tasmania and Australia; and the most striking and distinct one of all, Cyathea dealbata (the “Silver-tree-fern”), is said to be found in Lord Howe Islands, in latitude 32° S., between the North Cape of New Zealand and Sydney.

They are usually of a single stem, erect and columnar, and devoid of branches, with a spreading crown of large regular and elegant palm-like fronds, gracefully radiating from the top and forming a living circle. In some species, especially of Cyathea, (e.g., C. medullaris, Forst., and C. polyneuron, Col.), their fronds attain to a very large size; I have measured them 15–20 feet long and proportionately broad; when large they are gracefully arched; when small are often extended, and nearly plane. Sometimes, however, their stems are inclined, others are gradually curved, and others drooping—particularly when springing from the sides of a declivity or ravine, or when over-hanging a stream. They are of various heights and thicknesses, some species being taller and slenderer than others, ranging in height from 6 to 45 feet, and in thickness from 4 inches to 2 feet: only one species, however, (Dicksonia fibrosa, Col.), attains to the maximum thickness, while Dicksonia squarrosa, D. gracilis, and most of the species of Cyathea and of Hemitelia are among the tallest. Our single known species of Alsophila is the shortest, and is sometimes stemless.

They are very rarely met with bearing branches; I have, however, seen a few 2-branched, and two specimens 3-branched; and occasionally 2, 3, or 4 springing closely together from the ground, as if fascicled below at the base.

Sometimes their trunks are quite clean, and devoid of epiphytal vegetation; more commonly, however, they are clothed with a dense mass of epiphytes; the stems of some species, when clear, often present a neat appearance throughout, from the regularity of the broken bases of their stipites, which add much to their beauty; while others show no such remains, but, instead, a dense and everincreasing mass of hardened surface rootlets, which generally assume a pretty even appearance, growing circularly around the stem after the manner of bark, but now and then shooting downwards irregularly in long shaggy masses; this last feature, however, generally pertains to the lower side of curved stems. And while on some trunks there are few or no withered fronds hanging from above beneath the living crown of the fern-tree, others are completely enveloped in their old pendulous fronds,

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the growth of many years, presenting a curious bushy spectacle, appearing in the quiet sheltered recesses of the ancient forests as if no disturbance had ever there taken place, for not one old frond had fallen from above! As a natural consequence, in such cases the stems underneath are clean and free from epiphytes.

The epiphytal vegetation common to the stems of the tree-ferns is in some respects peculiar and worthy of notice. For, while such is mainly composed of some of our smallest and most delicate ferns, (of Hepaticæ, and one or two species of mosses, and not unfrequently a small Astelia), some of the larger trees of the forest are often seen springing from their stems; these not unfrequently flourish in their peculiar situations, and sometimes grow to a large size, lofty, overtopping the fern-tree itself, and sometimes, though rarely, killing it by its close embrace; more usually, both seem to flourish and enjoy their curious reciprocal attachment. The trees that are commonly found so combined with the fern-tree are Weinmannia (sps.), and Panax arborea, and Ackama rosæfolia in the forests at the North, the peculiar locality of this genus.

The ferns that often clothe and completely hide the trunks of the tree-ferns comprise the smaller species of Hymenophyllum, as H. nitens, H. tunbridgense (and its varieties), and H. rarum; also, Trichomanes venosum, and its near ally T. venustula; indeed, such may truly be called the proper home of these two Trichomanes, as well as of Hymenophyllum tunbridgense, for nowhere else are these pretty little ferns to be found growing so luxuriantly. It is a beautiful object to contemplate the whole stem of a large tree-fern so dressed and decorated by Nature! often extending completely and closely around the trunk, and that for several feet; their little elegant glistening light-green fronds, so very regular, too, in their manner of pendulous growth, overlapping each other and imbricating like scales. Here is also the home of that highly curious fern Tmesipteris, never found growing on the earth, and rarely found on any other plant; and very recently a small and new species* of the closely-allied genus Lycopodium has been detected growing thereon; while a small elegant moss, Hymenodon piliferus, (the only New Zealand species of that genus), is sure to be found deeply ensconced between the numerous dead stipites, and growing freely in its dry abode. Two or three species of delicate small frondose Hepaticæ (e.g., Symphyogyna sub-simplex, S. brevicaulis, S. simplex, Podomitrium, Phyllanthus, etc.), are also at home there, snugly nestling deep in the crevices of the stems, from which it is a difficult matter to dislodge them without breaking; while some of the larger Hepaticæ, as the dendroid Plagiochilæ, areoften found growing

[Footnote] * A full description of this little novelty has been prepared, and will be iven in a following paper.

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luxuriantly upon their trunks, completely enwrapping them below, especially in low, wet, shaded woods.

Other and larger ferns than those mentioned are not unfrequently to be met with, depending from the trunks of the tree-ferns, as Hymenophyllum dilatatum, H. demissum, H. multifidum, Asplenium falcatum, A. flaccidum, and Polypodium (species); also Lycopodium varium; but then these are much more common and plentiful elsewhere, both on trees and on the ground.

II.—Particular, or Uncommon.

Under this heading I wish to state what I have more recently seen, which, indeed, is the main cause of my writing this paper. During the last three to four years I have noticed some extraordinary things pertaining to the tree-ferns.

1. As to their great number in one spot, and their manner of growth there.—In certain unfrequented localities in the dense forest of the Seventy-mile Bush, which I explored at different times, I suddenly came upon two or three groves of tree-ferns: one in particular I will attempt to describe. On a flat in the heart of the forest, in a deep hollow lying between steep hills, the bottom of which for want of drainage was very wet and uneven, and contained much deep vegetable mud and water even in the driest summer season, I found a large and continuous grove or thicket of very tall tree-ferns, chiefly Dicksonia squarrosa, and D. fibrosa, with a few of Cyathea dealbata intermixed, with but few forest trees and shrubs growing scattered among them. I suppose they occupied about 3 roods of ground, and I estimated their number to be from 800 to 1,000. They were all lofty, from 25 to 35 feet high, and in many places growing so close together that it was impossible to force one's way through them. Their trunks were most profusely covered with the usual epiphytal ferns (those smaller ones already mentioned). Conspicuous, however, among them, was that very rare fern in these parts, Hymenophyllum subtilissimum, Kunze, (H. frankliniarum, Col.,*) which literally clothed their trunks from top to base, intermixing below in the more humid spots with a fine dendroid Plagiochila (sp. nov.) of most luxuriant growth. The ground, too, with rotting logs and stumps below, was densely covered with various fine Hepaticæ of several genera, (as Plagiochila, Gottschea, Lepidozia, Mastigobryum, Podomitrium, Symphyogyna, etc.), while here and there among them were several lovely and rare mosses of the genera Hypopterygium, Cyatrophorum, and Hookeria; and on the higher and drier stumps and mounds grew graceful undisturbed cushions of Leucobryum candidum, plentifully in fruit, rather a rare occurrence.

[Footnote] * Hymenophyllum æruginosum, Carm., of “Handbook N.Z. Flora.”

[Footnote] † The description of this fine species will be given in a following paper.

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A few of those tree-ferns were 2-branched; one, I noticed bearing three branches; all of the branches were at some height from the ground, and rose just as high as the parent stock. Several of those tree-ferns grew in little clumps of 3, 4, or 5, arising from small mounds 2 feet high or so, with deep watery muddy holes between them; their stems were very close together, and appeared as if fascicled or springing from one root-stock below; while above they not unfrequently diverged from the perpendicular.

Familiar as I have long been with our New Zealand forests and their denizens, I gazed with astonishment in this deep and secluded grove of tree-ferns! for I had never before witnessed such a grand display of them; neither had I seen for upwards of 40 years* this pretty species of soft silky Hymenophyllum that was here so exceedingly common. Very certain I am that it does not grow in those several and many scattered parts of that same extensive forest which I have so frequently visited during these last 10–12 years.

From this wet wood I brought away several fine Hepaticæ; particularly that superb Gottschea, G. dichotoma, Col., the largest known New Zealand species. This fine plant (which I have only detected in this locality), completely and thickly covered a large old stump, hanging gracefully down around its top, reminding one of a rich-looking fringed circular cushion or hassock. The ground or mud in many places was thickly covered with long irregular patches of an erect species of Symphyogyna, which I believe to be new. This genus is mostly gregarious in small lots, but I never before saw it growing in such profusion, and so very compact and large, somewhat resembling beds of curled cress or parsley. Places and spots of botanical beauty or-novelty, however, (like all other things), have their drawbacks or opposites: the worst feature here was the very bad footing, causing much tumbling about and splashing and sinking, between slippery and hidden rotting roots and branches, into deep black vegetable mud up to one's knees; and then there was the haunting fear of some accident happening, through which I should not be able to get out of this tangled labyrinth; and, as a matter of course, in that distant and unfrequented spot, should not be easily or early found, if ever found at all!

2. As to the very peculiar growth of some tree-ferns, caused by

[Footnote] * Originally discovered in the mountainous woods of the interior, N.W. of Lake Waikare, in 1841, and published in 1842 in the “Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science,” vol. i., p. 378; also vol. ii., p. 183.

[Footnote] † See “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., p. 284.

[Footnote] ‡ Since ascertained to be such: a description of this plant will also be given in a paper to follow.

Picture icon

Sketch (Unfinished) of a Fern Tree (Cyathea Dealbata.) Encircled in Growth by A Panax Arboreum.

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their own epiphytes.—Some novel instances of this nature I have occasionally met with, a few of them being very strange.

(1.) I have already said tree-ferns are often found with young plants of Weinmannia (sps.), and of Panax arborea, springing from their stocks at some distance above the ground. These trees also grow to a considerable size—of 3, 5 and 7 feet, and are well-branched and flourishing, although their rootsdo not reach down to the earth. A few of them, however, of a much larger size, 14–16 feet high, that I have seen and examined, send down their trunks (I can hardly term them roots) from the place where they had sprung from seed on the stock of the fern-tree into the ground, (sometimes in two or three branches or ramifications), closely adhering to the fern-tree and partly intertwining its stem.

(2.) In a dry wood on the bank of the River Mangatawhainui I saw several specimens of this nature. One aged fern-tree had its base completely surrounded at the surface of the ground by a large Weinmannia racemosa, that had originally sprung from its stock, which also adhered to it above on one side for several feet. Another fern-tree had a Weinmannia embracing it on the one side, and on the opposite side a Panax arborea, (this latter very largely and closely), and both trees had originally sprung from the trunk of the fern-tree, and thence descended to the earth. I noticed one tree-fern in particular, that was wholly separated below from the earth, having its caudex closely hugged for 2–3 feet by a large branching Panax arborea, whose branches or divided stem (I cannot call them roots) descended from the original point of first growth above in the stock of the fern-tree, and enwrapping it at intervals had held it fast, wholly immovable, as if the two trees had coalesced into one. This was on the side of a dry hill, and the rains, etc., in past years, had completely washed away the soil and small vegetation from beneath and around the base of the fern-tree; the fern, however (a Cyathea dealbata), was of a large size and most luxuriant growth. I had detected two or three instances of that nature before, but those fern-trees were only partially severed from the earth at their bases, while this one was wholly separate, and from its appearance had been so for many years, as no fresh rootlets were emitted there.

(3.) Strange, however, as that instance may appear, I have still a more curious anomaly to mention, which, as far as I know, is quite unique. Four years ago, while botanising in the high and dry woods near Matamau, I came upon a fine tree-fern (Cyathea dealbata), whose caudex below was almost wholly surrounded by its former epiphytal foster-child—a stout spreading specimen of Panax arborea, from which, or out of which! the fern-tree luxuriously grew, as if it were springing from a large vase! On the one side (or, rather, speaking correctly, on three

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sides), the fern-tree was wholly enclosed; and this was all the more plainly to be seen, from the fact of the trunk of the Panax being bare of epiphytal vegetation, so that its light-coloured and clean bark showed in strong relief against that of the darker fern-tree in the few narrow interstices on the one side where it still slightly appeared. Another great curiosity was the entire unbroken appearance of the Panax on the one side of the fern-tree, which was completely covered by it; there was no trace discernible of any cicatrices or joinings in its bark, which was even. The tree, or pair so strangely conjoined, stood in a small glade or open space among the trees of the forest that were densely thick around, which circumstance, together with the dark-green foliage of the very large leaves and sprays of the Panax, above and around the delicate pure white fronds of the fern (viewed from beneath them and looking up), with the blue sky here and there in the background seen through their branches, caused the two trees to be seen to a great advantage. The tout ensemble was both unusual and charming, and served to bring to mind portions of Ovid's metamorphoses of trees.

Another pleasing thought arose from the consideration of this tree (Panax), in its so clasping and sending out and down its root-like branches, (which it never does when growing in the earth in its native woods), thus showing its real natural affinity in latent habit to those other genera of that same natural order in which it is placed, (e.g., Hedera, Gunnera, etc.), which so largely and constantly grow and adhere by their climbing root-lets; and yet the ivy (Hedera helix) sometimes grows as a standard.

I visited that spot on several occasions during two years, and always with feelings of admiration; and was so much surprised and pleased with my “find,” that on two of those visits, having taken my portfolio with me, I attempted to take a drawing of it; (in one of those times, however, being caught in heavy rain!) but, owing to the loss of drawing and writing power in my thumb, I made a poor job of it. Still, such as it is, and unfinished, I bring it before you, as by it you may be the better able to know somewhat of the relative sizes and appearances of the two curiously-entwined and coalesced plants.

I took accurate measurements of this botanical phenomenon, and the following is the result:—


Height of caudex of Cyathea from the ground to the springing of its living fronds, 7ft. 6in.


Height of Panax, about 18ft.


Girth of both, taken together at base, 6ft.


At 5ft. 3in. from the ground the Panax tree forked into two stout, erect main branches.


Girth of both plants under the forking of the Panax, 5ft. 3in.

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Girth of main branch of Panax, 2ft. 10in.; of the other, 2ft. 3in.


Girth of Cyathea, immediately under its crown of fronds, 5ft.


Breadth of the narrow interstices of the stem of the fern-tree not yet covered by the Panax: at the base, 2in.; above, in the widest part, 3in.


The fronds of the fern extended about 9ft. each way, forming a flattish arch.


The lower horizontal branches of the Panax extended nearly equal with the fronds of the fern.


The trunk of the Panax below was quite bare of epiphytal vegetation (only a small young creeping plant of Metrosideros scandens just climbing up at one corner), but large fronds of Polypodium billardieri and other ferns hung pendulous from between the two upright limbs of the Panax and the Cyathea.


The longitudinal edges of the root-like descending lower limbs of the Panax showed exactly the appearance of the back of a healthy tree from which a limb has been clean cut off, growing-in with thick round advancing margins over the wound.

Art. XXXIII.A Description of some newly-discovered and rare indigenous Phænogamic Plants, being a further Contribution towards making known the Botany of New Zealand.

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 11th October, 1886.]

Class I.—Dicotyledons.
Order I.*Ranunculaceæ.

Genus 1. Clematis, Linn.

1. C. aphylla, sp. nov.

A slender prostrate trailing plant. Stems 2–4 feet (or more) long, cylindrical, very narrow, 1 line diameter, green, glabrous, striate, few-branched; nodes at pretty regular distances, 5–6 inches apart. Leaves, O. Peduncles slender, hairy,

[Footnote] * The numbers in this paper attached to both orders and genera are those of “The Handbook of the New Zealand Flora.”

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1 ½–2 inches long, a 2-lobed connate densely hairy bract at base, and another about the middle; hairs brown. Flowers hermaphrodite, axillary, opposite, single, small, greenish with a brown tinge, about 1 inch diameter, (?) monœcious; sepals 4, broadly-lanceolate, or sub-ovate lanceolate, sub-acute, 6 lines long, conniving, very silky on both surfaces, many nerved (6–7), nerves branching; margins uneven at tips, sub-ciliate. Stamens 10, sub-lanceolate-linear, rather broad, green; anthers long, linear, very narrow, with a minute blunt connective; achenes (immature) slightly silky; styles shorter than sepals, green, silky, tips recurved.

Hab. Trailing and hanging down on cliffy spots, Puketapu, near Napier; 1885–6: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. This is a very peculiar plant, widely differing from the other New Zealand species of this genus, as well as from those of Australia and Tasmania. We have now known it for two years, and it always presents the same appearance—long trailing slender green stems, no leaves, and single 4-sepaled hermaphrodite flowers. I have examined several specimens, and they do not vary; only one of them had three flowers, all on separate peduncles and with separate basal bracts springing from one axil, as if fascicled but distinct. It would have been described by me last year, but I had a suspicion that it might prove to be identical with C. fœtida, var. β depauperata, or a variety of it; which, however, I do not now believe, after re-examining several fresh specimens.

Order IV.—Violarieæ.

Genus 2. Melicytus, Forst.

1. M. microphyllus, sp. nov.

A tall, slender shrub or small tree, 12–15 feet high, trunk 5 inches diameter; bark pale drab-brown, much and densely mossed, etc.; branches long, slender; branchlets many, sub-erect, pubescent. Leaves small, numerous, sub-coriaceous, glabrous, scattered, single and sub-fascicled 2–4 together, 1–3 (rarely 4) lines long, oblong-orbicular, sub-panduriform, and orbicular, reticulately and coarsely veined, green, margin purple, sinuate, acutely toothed with a small red curved tooth at extremity of each primary vein (usually 6 on a leaf); apex very broad, obtuse, and retuse, with a small central tooth; base tapering; petiole short, under 1 line long, slightly puberulous, with small scarious stipellæ at base. Flowers pretty numerous, rather small, orbicular, 1 ½–2 lines diameter, axillary and lateral, solitary, sometimes in pairs; peduncle longer than petiole, 1–1 ½ lines long, stout, slightly puberulous, bracteate; bracts generally above, rarely below. Calyx purple, glabrous, veined,

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acutely 5-lobed, lobes spreading, tips sub-laciniate. Petals (sometimes 6) sessile, rather large, spreading, broadly ovate and sub-orbicular, with a single middle vein, pale, streaked and tipped with purple; tips slightly erose or sub-laciniate, sub-apiculate and recurved. Anthers (sometimes 6) sessile, large, gibbous, didymous, with a large thickish clavate connective a little higher than the anther. Stigma very small, sessile, conical, slightly sub-trifid. Fruit O.

Hab. Forests, banks of River Mangatawhainui, near Norse-wood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. This species certainly approaches very near to M. micranthus, Hook. fil., but it differs in several characters, as well as in its much larger size, with larger flowers and smaller leaves. I suspect this plant is diœcious, and the above description of the male flowers only. I first detected it in full flower in March; and on again visiting the same tree in May (end of month), hoping to obtain fruit, there was not a berry to be found, but the plant still bearing a few flowers. I have for many years noticed young plants of upright growth, and 5–7 feet high, in those woods, but always in leaf only, although frequently diligently examined by me. This tree is the only one I found bearing flowers.

Order VI.—Caryophylleæ.

Genus 3. Colobanthus, Bartling.

1. C. repens, sp. nov.

A small quite glabrous low creeping perennial plant, about ¾-inch high, forming a short densely matted turf; branches 3–4 inches long, procumbent, rooting at nodes. Leaves about ½ inch long, narrow-linear, subulate, sub-acute with acicular tips, thickish, not rigid, nerveless, green, shining, spreading, recurved; the lower dilated and largely membranous at base, the upper connate; minutely ciliate on lower margins; ciliæ fugacious. Scapes solitary, axillary, slender, erect, straight, 6–7 lines long, longer than leaves. Perianth 1 line long; sepals 4, broadly ovate, obtuse, shorter than capsule, green, concave, 3-nerved, slightly margined; margins translucent. Stigmas 4, strongly recurved, stout, papillose, brown. Capsule pale, longer than perianth, valves obtuse, tips rounded. Seeds light-brown, sub-triangular-orbicular, finely granulate.

Hab. On low alluvial banks, (growing intermixed with Pratia and Hydrocotyle), sides of River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. A species possessing affinity with C. quitensis and C. billardieri (both New Zealand plants), but differing in habit and in several particulars.

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Order XXXIII.—Umbelliferæ.

Genus 1. Hydrocotyle, Linn.

1. H. involucrata, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant procumbent, trailing. Stems 10–00 inches long, slender, glabrous, with a few weak scattered hairs; nodes 3–5 inches apart, each having a large clasping sub-orbicular-reniform stipule, the margins irregularly and minutely lobed and toothed, pellucid and highly cellular; cells large oblong. Leaves few, distant, membranous, somewhat roughish from raised bases of hairs, dull light-green, reniform, 1–1 ¼ inches broad, 6-lobed; lobes rounded, cut into one-fifth of leaf, their sinuses overlapping; margins irregular, sub-crenate-toothed; basal sinus very broad, the margins more acutely toothed; 8-veined, veins (and margins) light-reddish; hairy on both sides, but much more so below; hairs short, thickish, acute, white; petioles very long 3–5 inches, slender, weak, hairy below with long scattered weak 1-nerved reflexed hairs that increase in density upwards towards the apex. Peduncle one-third length of leaves, 1–1 ½ inches long, hairy. Umbels 8–14-flowered, in a compact sub-globular head. Involucre in 2 rows, composed of 10–12 convex incurved membranous leaflets with darkish-brown centres and pellucid margins; the outer, ovate, margins laciniate; the inner, linear-oblong, margins entire. Flowers rather large, pale-brown, pedicelled; pedicels erect, glabrous, 1 line long, with sometimes a small bracteole near the apex; petals valvate, broadly ovate, 1-nerved; tips sub-acute and obtuse, their margins finely crenulate-toothed (sub lente); stamens largely exserted, curved; anthers orbicular (a little broader than long), pale; styles stout, long, at first converging, afterwards very divergent. Fruit rather large, pale-greenish-brown, nearly orbicular, 1/10 inch broad, straight below, apex very slightly notched, flat, glabrous, shining, thickest at centre, intermediate ribs obscure, dorsal edge of carpels obtuse; seed narrow, linear-ovate, obtuse.

Hab. Low wet spots in forests, hilly country north of Napier, County of Wairoa; 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. A species having some affinity with H. novæ-zealandiæ, D.C., H. pterocarpa, F. Müell., and H. vagans, Hook. fil., (an Australian species), but differing from them (and from all the species described in the “Handbook, Flora N.Z.,”) by its involucral leaflets; in this respect, however, it approaches a few of the Australian species; also, the two newly-described species (mihi), H. colorata and H. alsophila,* in their floral bracteoles.

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.” vol. xviii., pp. 260–261.

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Order XXXVIII.—Rubiaceæ.

Genus 1. Coprosma, Forst.

1. C. autumnalis, sp. nov.

Plant, a small tree, or tall slender shrub, erect, 12–16 feet high, few-branched; trunk 3–5 inches diameter, clear of branches; branches distant, slender, long, drooping; bark thin, light-brown, with a fine scaly silvery-white epidermis; inner bark orange. Leaves large, membranous, not numerous, sub-terminal on branchlets, 1–1 ¼ inches apart, broadly lanceolate, 5–6 ½ inches long, 2 ½–3 ½ inches broad, acute, narrowly margined; margins sub-crenulate, especially towards tips; dark-green and shining above, much paler below, coarsely reticulated on both sides, deeply and largely foveolate in main axils; foveolæ ciliate; petioles stout, 1–1 ¼ inches; stipules large, sub-conical, cuspidate, hard, black, glossy. Peduncles axillary; (fem.) stout, sub-compressed, 1–1 ½ inches long, trichotomously branched; the 3 sub-peduncles fascicled, each ½ inch long; stipules at base 4-fid. Flowers—Male: Peduncles ½–¾ inch long, rather slender, 3- sometimes 5-branched, with a pair of small leafy bracts at base; sub-peduncles 4–5 lines long; heads of flowers large, densely compact, outer heads each 6–9, middle head 8–16 flowers; calyx small, cup-shaped, with 5–6 stoutish teeth; corolla campanulate, 3 lines long, 5-lobed; lobes rather large, one-third length of corolla, sub-acute, erect; anthers 6 (sometimes in outer flowers 5), large, stout, 2 lines long, linear, obtuse, purple-tipped, base much hastate, very pendulous; stamens ½ inch long, filiform, minutely papillose. Female: outer 2 sub-peduncles, each 3–4, and the central one 6–9 flowers; involucral or floral bract large, with 6–8 coarse teeth; calyx greenish, purple spotted, sub-urceolate, with 5–6 stout teeth; teeth conniving; corolla pale green, infundibuliform, 2 ½ lines long, 5-sometimes 6-lobed; lobes large, obtuse, spreading, sub-recurved; stigmas 2, ½ inch long, stout, divergent, much crumpled, very pubescent. Fruit 3–4, sometimes 5–6 (rarely 9), drupæ, clustered, sessile, broadly elliptic, 4–4 ½ lines long, bright red (red-currant-colour), very glossy. Seeds large, oval, sub-acute, 3 ½ lines long, 2 lines broad, convex on the outside, flat within, white, somewhat silvery.

Hab. Forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1881–6: W.C. Flowering in May and June.

Obs. I. The near affinity of this fine species is with C. grandifolia, Hook. fil., from which, however, it differs in several characters: as the larger number of its flowers in heads, both male and female, in its corollas, anthers, and large elliptic fruits. It is a curious and novel sight to see in the autumn the female plant loaded with both ripe fruit and the

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new opening flowers of the coming spring-summer season; at such time, too, the ground is covered with the glossy red fruits, which are also juicy and sweet. The pleasing phenomenon served to remind me of the poet Thomson's ideal of vegetation in the beginning—the Golden Age of man,—

“Great Spring before
Green'd all the year; and fruits and blossoms blush'd
In social sweetness on the self-same bough.”

Seasons: Spring, 1. 319.

The male flowers likewise, at the same time, are really handsome, with their large heads of fringe-like anthers.

Obs. II. I have long known this plant in fruit only; this, however, was owing to its autumnal flowering (different to the other species of this genus), for which I was not prepared.

Order LIII.—Scrophularineæ.

Genus 4. Gratiola, Linn.

1. G. concinna, sp. nov.

Plant procumbent, creeping, matted, sub-ascending. Stems 7–10 inches long, stout, purple-spotted, simple or slightly branched, puberulous with long white flattish-jointed glandular hairs. Leaves distant, sub ½ inch apart, orbicular and orbicular-elliptic, 2 lines long, membranaceous, of a pleasing green, glabrous, reticulately veined, with 4–5 small obtuse teeth each having a coloured spot at its base, petioled; petioles short, broad. Flowers rather few, axillary, solitary, peduncled; peduncles 1–2 lines long, stoutish, hairy. Calyx coloured, hairy, leafy, 5-parted to base; lobes long, unequal, 3-nerved, pellucid-dotted, toothed, recurved, tips obtuse; with two long similar bracts at base. Corolla 4 lines long, white, somewhat hairy; tube slightly curved, much veined; veins purple and branched above; limb spreading, 4-lobed; upper lip large, sub-bilobed, thickly clothed with yellow glandular hairs; lower lip 3-fid, each lobe emarginate. Stigma sub-rhomboid, dilated, flattish. Capsule sub-orbicular, turgid, green, glabrous, shining. Seeds brown, conical, very obtuse, a little curved.

Hab. Edges of a swamp in forest, south bank of the River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa, where it thickly covers the ground in large spreading patches, presenting a very pleasing and neat appearance; March, 1886: W.C.

I have not noticed it anywhere else.

Obs. This species is evidently allied to G. nana, Benth., but it is a much larger plant, and is very distinct in several of its characters.

Genus 10. Euphrasia, Linn.

1. E. tricolor, sp. nov.

Plant perennial, sub-shrubby, 8–12 inches high; erect, com-

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pact, branched above. Stems and peduncles densely puberulous. Leaves numerous in opposite pairs, mostly small, under 3 lines long (a few scattered lower ones 8–9 lines long), sub-rhombicovate, or obovate, impressed underneath as if stamped (sunk) within margin and between veins, once or twice toothed, the smallest entire. Flowers rather numerous, showy, solitary, axillary in opposite pairs; peduncle 1 line long. Calyx 2 ½ lines long, glabrous, sub-campanulate, 4-lobed; lobes large, obtuse, coarsely and prominently veined. Corolla ringent, inflated, pilose without, 9 lines long; white, with straight dark-pink veins (usually 8 above and 9 below), with a large orange spot at base of lower lip, and also of filaments; tube rather short; lower lobes large, spreading, sub-rectangular, with straight lateral margins; apices deeply emarginate and sinuous; upper lip recurved, lobes notched. Anthers glabrous, very obtuse, dark-umber; edges of valves largely ciliate with stiff white hairs; spurs of posterior pair equal, white, acute. Stigma sub-globose and (with style) finely pilose. Capsule oblong, 3 ½ lines long, obtuse, sub-compressed at top, with base of style persistent, puberulous. Seeds white, membranaceous; testa very lax, winged above, produced below, striate with minute transverse bars.

Hab. Bases of high wooded cliffs forming the banks of the River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. I. This plant is nearly allied to E. cuneata, Forst., but differs from that species in several particulars: as in its larger lobes to both calyx and corolla, the latter spreading, richly coloured, with straight lateral margins; in its glabrous and coloured and largely ciliated (almost crested) anthers, with equal spurs, etc. But, as both Hooker and Bentham have each separately remarked (the former on our New Zealand, and the latter on the Australian species), “the several species are very variable”; and this I have also often proved.

II. A small variety of this plant (a. microphylla) is found 20 miles further south, in the open plains between Tahoraiti and Woodville; it closely resembles this one, only it is very much smaller in all its parts, its numerous leaves being only 1–1 ½ lines long; E. tricolor, var. microphylla, Col.

Class II.—Monocotyledons.
Order VII.—Liliaceæ.

Genus 5. Astelia, Banks and Solander.

1. A. hastata, sp. nov.

Leaves very long, sub-coriaceous, linear-acuminate, 4 feet long, 1 ½ inches broad at middle, tip filiform; many nerved, with 2 very prominent and coloured narrow ones; upper surface

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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

glabrous, thickly pubescent underneath, as if minutely and regularly pitted (very apparent under a lens), sharply keeled; base much dilated and clasping, 4 ½ inches broad, black, shining, margins thin; veins spreading laterally, largely and coarsely reticulate. Male: Scape 2 feet long, stout, triquetrous, 1 ¾ inches circumference at base, composed of 7 nearly equal equidistant long single drooping racemes, the lowest 9 inches long, ¾ inch wide, each about 3 inches apart on scape; peduncles 1 inch long, each with an excessively long bract at its base, ovate, very acuminate, caudate, drawn out into a very long narrow tip, the lowest being 2 feet 6 inches long and 3 inches wide at the broadest; the upper portion light-green, sub-coriaceous and glabrous, the lower white, soft, and densely silky on both sides; the pubescence adpressed in stippled dots. Flowers yellow-brown, numerous, crowded, spreading, above 1 inch diameter; segments cut to base, narrow, linear, obtuse, ½ inch long, much longer than anthers, reflexed, with 1 central nerve running to tip and 2 lateral nerves ending half-way; all shaggy below on the outside (with pedicels and bracteoles), but the 3 inner have only a narrow central shaggy line to tip, with membranous glabrous margins, the 3 outer being hairy, with ciliated edges; pedicels 2 lines long, each with a small linear 1-nerved bracteole the length of pedicel. Stamens 3 lines long, spreading, rumpled; anthers, 1/10; inch long, triangular, obtuse, emarginate, largely hastate, their basal extremities curved and divergent, corrugated, somewhat bladdery. Stigma rather large, slightly produced, 3-fid. Female: Scape 15–18 inches long, very stout, composed of seven long narrow cylindrical simple flaccid racemes; much more compact on scape than male, each 9–10 inches long and ½ inch wide; peduncles very short, 2–4 lines, but the lowest 1 ½ inches; bracts much as in male, very silky below, the lowest 2 feet 6 inches long, and 2 inches wide at base. Flowers light-brown, exceedingly numerous and compact, very small, scarcely 2 lines long including ovary; segments not split to base, very small, about ½ line long, somewhat linear-ovate, reflexed from middle, the 3 outer more shaggy and ciliate, 1-nerved to tip; tips obtuse; the lower part of perianth forming a cup around the base of ovary; pedicels about 3 lines long, erect, close, but not crowded, sub-verticillate, patent, very shaggy, each with a narrow-linear bracteole at base the length of the pedicel; hairs flat, membranous, glossy, sub-ovate-lanceolate, nerved, white. Ovary (immature) ovate, beak produced; stigma, large, spreading, very pubescent; anthers (abortive) minute, triangular, acute, hastate, adhering closely to ovary, and with a part of the stamen appearing above the reflexed segment.

Hab. Forests, hilly country north of Napier, County of Wairoa; January, 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.

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Obs. This very fine species is naturally allied to A. solandri, A. Cunn., and to A. microspermum, Col.,* but differing largely from them both in several important characters, particularly in size, length, and shape of sub-panicles (racemes), in its extraordinarily long bracts, its different yellow-brown flowers, its very peculiar large corrugated and hastate anthers, and its curiously flattened broad and nerved hairs.

2. A. graminifolia, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant slender, few (7–8) leaved; apparently of simple distinct habit of growth. Leaves sub-membranaceous, largely drooping, 15–21 inches long, ¼ inch wide, linear-acuminate, tips filiform; the upper surface glabrous, dull greyish-green; the lower pubescent-hoary; hairs small, greyish, very closely adpressed; many nerved, with small distant transverse veinlets between them, and 2 very prominent narrow equidistant reddish nerves on the upper surface; margins slightly recurved and ciliate with fine shaggy white hairs; the base spreading, gradually dilated, 1 inch wide, very membranous, with fine silvery shining hairs thick on both surfaces. Scape (female) 6–7 inches long including panicle, erect, densely shaggy with white shining hairs, as also pedicels and outsides of floral bracts and bracteoles; panicle loose, 2 inches long, composed of 2 distant erect racemes and 3 intermediate solitary flowers; flowers in racemes close-set, pedicelled; pedicels 1/10th inch, patent; the upper raceme of top about ½ inch long, composed of 17 flowers; the lower raceme, distant about 1 ½ inches from the upper one, about ¾ inch long, composed of 20 flowers, with peduncle ½ inch, and a long leaf-like membranaceous and very acuminate bract, 6 ½ inches long at base; each of the solitary flowers having a long bract at base of pedicel. Flowers: perianth rather large, reddish-brown, glabrous, somewhat scarious, forming a very loose globular cup around ovary; segments free, ⅖th of perianth, narrow, linear-ovate, acuminate, 1-nerved, the nerve extending to base of perianth; a long very narrow linear sub-erect reddish 1-nerved bracteole at base of each pedicel. Ovary (immature) broadly ovoid-acuminate, rather suddenly contracted towards apex in forming a long beak; style O; stigma 3-lobed, puberulous; anthers (abortive) opposite segments, arising from segmental nerve at edge of cup, minute, long, filiform, sub-hastate.

Hab. Woods, hilly country north of Napier, County of Wairoa; 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. A very peculiar species, unlike all others of the genus known to me; yet possessing near affinity to A. spicata, Col.,

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvii., p. 251.

[Footnote] † “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xiv., p. 335.

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from which it differs in habit, length of leaves, panicle, pedicelled flowers, large loose perianth, and shape of ovary. Unfortunately I have had only one female specimen (all that was collected) to examine; this, however, was perfect and in good condition, except its immature fruit.

3. A subrigida, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant epiphytal, perennial, densely cæspitose. Leaves, about 20 to a single tuft or plant, rather short, equitant, diverging fan-like regularly and distichously from the base, which is sub-cylindrical, not triquetrous, linear-acuminate, 9–11 inches long, 4 lines wide, erect, sub-rigid, tips sharp, sub-coriaceous, glabrous, yellowish-green, striate, 10–12-nerved; nerves strong; the upper portion of the under-surface closely appressed with short greenish-grey glossy hairs, having a minutely pitted appearance; dark-brown, gradually dilated and largely clasping at base, with white shining hairs at the extreme base only. Female: Scape (including panicle) 12–14 inches long, rather slender, trigonous, woody, hard, thickly pilose above with appressed hairs, and shaggy at the base; hairs white, glossy; panicle very compact, short, sub-ovate, 5 inches long, composed of 7 sub-panicles; the lower three being compound, each containing 3 small racemes, the middle one longest, 2 ½ inches long, and the two laterals short, about 1 inch; the upper four being short simple racemes; each sub-panicle with a long membranous bract at base, the lowest one being 7 inches long, broad below, but soon very narrow, and much acuminate. Flowers very compact, brownish; pedicels stout, short, about 1/10 inch; perianth rather small, spreading, 6-fid to base, the three outer lobes larger than the three inner ones. Fruit small, globular, 1 ½ lines diameter, dull glaucous-green; style short, thick; stigmas 3, large, coalescing; seeds small, 12–18, sub-lunate-pyriform, thickest at apex, black, shining, minutely and thickly tuberculate (sub lente), gibbous on one side, slightly obtusely angled on the other, testa produced at funiculus end, sub-trifid.

Hab. High up in the upper forks of large forest trees, where the plant forms large dense masses; woods near Norse-wood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. This species of Astelia I have long known in its leafing state, but failed (until this year) in obtaining it in flower and fruit, and then only perfect female scapes; the male scapes being similar in size, etc., but old, or too long past flowering for accurate description. From the great quantity of barren plants that I have seen and examined at various seasons, I should suppose this species to flower but rarely. It seems to be widely different from all known and described species; approaching,

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however, on the one hand A. spicata, Col.,* (which also very rarely flowers), and serving to unite that small species in a natural and progressive series with the larger species of the genus. I yet hope to succeed in obtaining the perfect male flowers during the approaching summer.

Order IX.—Junceæ.

Genus 1. Juncus, Linn.

1. J. luxurians, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant perennial; stout, tall, dark-green, forming thick bushy tufts and patches, that are sub-erect, drooping, and prostrate; rhizome creeping, with many small scale-like bracts, and sending up numerous new shoots every year; roots fibrous. Culms terete, leafless, 6–8 ½ feet long, 2 lines diameter below, smooth, minutely striate, upper portions soft and tender; tips very acuminate and sharp; the bases brown, glossy, with 3–4 adpressed sheathing bracts, the longest about 12 inches long; tips of bracts thin, very obtuse, sometimes acute; pith soft, woolly, and not continuous, yet not regularly broken or jointed. Panicle lateral, 8–12 inches from tips, large, effuse, pale-green, fascicled, sub 20 branchlets mostly compound; 1–3 being very large, stout, compressed, 2–3 inches long, each bearing at tip sub 10 compound branchlets; involucral bracts 1 ½ lines long, ovate-acuminate, very acute, membranous, white with a brown central nerve. Flowers 1/10 inch long, bibracteolate at base; bracteoles ovate, acute, membranous, white; pedicelled, pedicels long slender; perianth segments lanceolate-acuminate, very acute, rather longer than capsule, their centres bright green with broad white membranous margins. Stamens, 3; anthers small, yellow, oblong, with a minute connective; filaments short, rather broad. Stigmas 3, long and spreading, rumpled, plumose, dark-red. Capsule sub-prismatic, turgid, obtuse, very light brown, or dirty-white, shining, less than 1 line long. Seeds small, numerous, bright yellowish-brown, convex, oblong, sub-clavate; testa not produced.

Hab. In wet swampy hollows between hills, in a dense forest south of Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1885–6, W.C.

Obs. This remarkably fine rush is found growing in middlesized tufts, and also in very large and dense patches, with the ground thickly strewed with them in a prostrate state, forming several layers, all living and dark-green. It is rather difficult to force one's way through a large sub-erect patch, owing to their height, their very close growth, and their being so greatly

[Footnote] * Vide “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xiv., p. 335 (female); and vol. xvi., p. 340 (male).

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entangled. Its extreme softness and tenderness (for a rush), its great length, and its prostrate habit, led me to suspect its being a species nova when I first saw it; but at that time (winter) I could not procure any good specimens. Through its being so soft and tender it is much browsed on and trampled by cattle, so that it is rather difficult to obtain whole and perfect specimens. Hitherto I have only noticed it growing in that one undisturbed forest swamp, where, however, it is plentiful.

Order XI.—Cyperaceæ.

Genus 13. Uncinia, Persoon.

1. U. polyneura, sp. nov.

Plant perennial, clear green, densely cæspitose, forming large bushy tufts, with numerous brown ovate bracts at base, deeply costate. Culms erect, 20 inches long, smooth, unequally triquetrous, the upper portion channelled on the two narrower sides; usually with 4 sheathing leaves nearly together at base, Leaves sub-erect and drooping, linear, long and narrow, 22 inches long, 2 lines wide, very acuminate; tips obtuse, thickened and very closely serrulate; their bases much sulcated; striæ broad, smooth, dark-brown; the upper surface glabrous, regularly striate, many and finely nerved (sub 24), with 3–5 stout whitish nerves equidistant between mid-rib and margin on each side; the lower surface finely scabrid; mid-rib narrow, smooth, slightly keeled in upper portion but very prominently so in the lower; margins closely serrulate; vagina entire, crescent-shaped, membranous; ligula small, sub-lunate, extending from midrib to margin. Spikelet 5–6 inches long, rather slender, lax; the upper 1 ½ inches male, dark-brown, cylindrical and narrow; the denticulation of rhachis very deep, with raised and thickened edges; bract O. Glumes closely imbricate, nearly 2 ½ lines long, narrow, ovate-acuminate, obtuse, margin of tip irregular (sub lente), dark-brown, obscurely striped, striate and prominently so at sides. Utricle 2 ½ lines long, a little longer than the glume, narrow, spindle-shaped, dark blackish-brown, glossy; bristle 2 lines long, slender, pale, much thickened and rugulose at the curve, tip of hook reflexed. Stigmas 3, long, lax, very shaggy, dark-brown.

Hab. Edges of forests and glades near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. This plant in its general appearance has some affinity with U. alopecuroides, Col.,* but differs in the culms being twice as long, differently angled, smooth, and bractless; in the leaves not being scabrid on both surfaces, and the midrib smooth; in

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xv., p. 335.

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the spikelet being much more slender; in the glume being shorter than the utricle, and dissimilarly coloured and marked; in the utricle being longer than the glume and very dark brown; and in the bristle being shorter than the utricle.

Art. XXXIV.A Description of some newly-discovered Cryptogamic Plants, being a further Contribution towards the making known the Botany of New Zealand.*

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 11th October, 1886.]


On this occasion, the last night of ordinary meeting of our Society for this year, I am again permitted to bring you our usual annual botanical offering, in a small basket of Crytogamic plants obtained from our inland woods and glens.

I have called it “our” offering; and this may require a few words in explanation. This plural pronoun is here used in a double sense: (1) To let you know that I have again been largely assisted by kind and liberal, hearty and active, coworkers in this part of the botanical field, who all work con amore in this matter: among them I would particularly mention with thanks three of our active members—Messrs. H. Hill, A. Hamilton, and D. P. Balfour—to whom not only myself and our local branch auxiliary Society, but the New Zealand Institute as a scientific body, are largely indebted. And (2) that this offering or tribute is one made by, as well as from, our New Zealand woods. For, privileged as I am to present and make known this, their free gift, and thus for a short time briefly occupying the position of their herald or ambassador unto you—coming hither directly from them, and from long and oft-repeated sojournings in their homes and company, and understanding their thoughts and quiet reasonings, and silent yet the more expressive language—I would beg permission to say a few words respecting them.

Among the many and varied congenial homes of the great Crytogamic family, in those deeply secluded glens and mountain woods, far away from the busy life of towns, and even the solitary haunts of the isolated “bush” woodman, is the place par excellence for the disciple of Nature to study, to admire, to learn, to know; and so learning, so knowing, to hold converse with her and her beauties; and, through their teachings, with

[Footnote] * In continuation of paper on same subject, read in the previous year. See “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., pp. 219–255.

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the one Great Mind and Author of all I One of our esteemed British classical poets, Thomson, in writing on this subject, has truly said,—

“Here wandering oft,
I solitary court
Th' inspiring scene: and meditate the book
Of Nature ever open.”

For (as I have said to you on a former occasion) I believe in the universal language of Nature: and it is with feelings such as those that I have not unfrequently detected new and hitherto hidden and unknown novelties; and when thankfully gathering them have sometimes said, solus, or spoken out to them: “Come out of your obscurity, and be seen in society. Come and be introduced to science. Come and add your tribute also, however small, to the further display of the many great and wonderful perfections of Nature; and, in so doing, more openly fulfil the imperative injunction made to you two thousand years ago, in the words of that very ancient song: ‘Benedicite universa germinantia in terra Domino; laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.”‘And then, at such times, I have further thought: How many thousands of years—may be, myriads of ages—since this wee little wondrous delicate and frail yet perfect form first appeared, whether created or evolved; and how, in spite of all opposing and powerful elemental influences, and cataclysms, and volcanic eruptions, has this little microscopical plant held its own, fructifying, and shedding its tiny seeds in their proper season, and so overcoming and riding triumphant over all opposition and every adverse power? Moreover, when I have also occasionally found a little Cryptogam which I knew to be also a denizen of another part of the globe—it may be of the Antarctic islets furthest South, or of Tasmania, or Australia, or the Islands of Polynesia; or of the far-off specks in the vast Southern Ocean, the Crozets, or Kerguelen's Land; of the Cape of Good Hope, or Cape Horn; of the Peruvian Andes, or of the European Alps; of the riparian banks of the Amazon, the Thames, the Tweed, or the Shannon; of the summits of our own Ruahine Mountains, or of the Scottish Highlands—what a further theme for thought! Where the commencement, the outset, the Alpha, the origin? or were there originally more than one such? And, if so, did such embryos, situated at the antipodes of each other, commence life together?

Possibly, or rather very likely, some of the younger portion of my audience here this evening may think these remarks of mine strange, aberrant, or at all events peculiar; pertaining, it may also be thought, to the garrulity of old age, and following as a fitting sequence to my expressed belief in the universal language of Nature. To all such, (if there be any), I would merely reply that thoughts like those I have touched on are (1)

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not unreasonable; (2) are eminently pleasing, illuminating, and informing; (3) are qualified to raise our human nature; and (4) to lead us on to more correct views of the Great Father and Author of all. Once more will I quote a few highly expressive lines from my favourite poet Thomson:—

“Nature, attend! join every living soul,
Beneath the spacious temple of the sky,
In adoration join; and ardent raise
One general song—to Him!
Soft-roll your incense, herbs, and fruits, and flowers,
In mingled clouds to Him, whose sun exalts,
Whose breath perfumes you, and whose pencil paints.”

But to leave the mountain-tops, first gilded by the sun, and the purer air of the balmy pine forests and heights, not to mention their kindred poetical musings, and to descend to the plains—to the technical and prosaic facts and descriptions of our few little Crypts.—I have to observe that four of the orders of the great Linnæan class Cryptogamia are here represented—viz., Filices, Lycopods, Musci, and Hepaticæ. Of the first order, or ferns, I have only one novelty, a species of Lomaria; of the second, or Lycopodium, I have also but one new species; of the third, or mosses, I have five new species, belonging to three genera—viz., Polytrichum, Hypopterygium, and Hookeria, all fine mosses and well represented here in New Zealand; and of the fourth, or liverworts, I have 40 species, pertaining to no less than 11 genera, some of which, as Jungermannia, Plagiochila, Mastigobryum, and Frullania, were already remarkably large and cosmopolite. In the “Synopsis Hepaticarum,” published 40 years ago, Plagiochila possess 189 species, Jungermannia 195 species, Mastigobryum 64 species, and Frullania 155 species; and these large numbers of species have been subsequently increased with many more; indeed, out of this present small collection there are no less than 5 species of Plagiochila, 16 species of Mastigobryum, and 6 species of Frullania; while others of those smaller and rarer genera now added to by me are still very limited, both as to the number of their known species and their area.

The total number of Cryptogamic novelties described in this paper is 47; and while all will prove interesting to the working botanist and devoted disciple of Nature, some of them, it is believed, will prove no less so to the cultivated and cursory, though less technically skilled, observer.

Lastly, and in conclusion, (as I do not wish to repeat my former observations over again, though equally applicable here), I would respectfully beg my hearers, being members of the Institute, to read and note what I have said in my introduction in my paper of last year on this subject, in connection with this present paper.

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Class III.—Cryptogamia.
Order I.—Filices.

Genus 16.* Lomaria, Willdenow.

1. L. intermedia, sp. nov.

Plant small; caudex ½–¾ inch, indistinct, formed of the bases of old stipites and wiry roots; tufted, few fronded; fronds sub-erect and spreading, pinnate; stipes rather slender, blackish-brown, glabrous, succulent, somewhat brittle, deeply channelled above, as also is the rhachis. Sterile fronds, 7–8 inches long, (including short stipe, ¾ inch), 1 inch wide, linear-lanceolate, rachis, flexuous, green; pinnæ 16–18 pairs, alternate, distant, membranous, light-green, glossy, thickly dotted beneath with minute red scales, oblong, sides straight, very obtuse, margins crenate, adnate, the lower base much excised and sub-truncate, the upper base slightly sub-auriculate or produced, but not extended on rhachis, 3–4 lobes at top confluent, the uppermost lobe broadly ovate, obtuse; the lowermost 5–6 pairs of pinnæ small, sub-orbicular, and sometimes opposite; veins 4–5-jugate, obscure, the lower forked, upper simple, extending nearly to margin, tips clavate, the lowest basal vein always 3-branched, and proceeding from the rhachis, not the midrib: fertile fronds much longer and more slender, 9–11 inches (including stipe, 2 inches), pinnæ 16–18 pairs, alternate, very distant, sub ½ inch, narrow linear almost filiform, 6–7 lines long, ½ line wide, obtuse, margins sub-crenulate, presenting a regular knobbed or beaded appearance, arising from the clavate tips of the veins, adnate, slightly decurrent, ultimate lobe long and very narrow, the lowermost segments exceedingly small; rich red-brown; margin of indusium finely lacerate, as obtains in L. filiformis, A. Cunn.

Hab. Scattered in damp shaded localities, Seventy-Mile Bush, County of Waipawa; 1880–86: W.C. In forests near Palmerston, County of Manawatu; 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. I. This species is allied to several of our smaller Lomariæ,—as, L. lanceolata, Spr., L. pumila, Raoul, L. membranacea, and L. oligoneuron, Col.,—but more closely to L. membranacea, from which species it differs in its larger size, its crenate (not “dentato-serrate”) sterile pinnæ, which are also of a different shape, more obtuse and distant, excised at their lower and produced at their upper bases, much fewer veined, and minutely dotted with red scales beneath; while the fertile

[Footnote] * The numbers attached to the orders and genera in this paper are those of them in the “Handbook Flora of N.Z.”

[Footnote] † Vide “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., p. 346.

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pinnæ are also very much narrower, and adnate, with sub-crenulate margins. Those four species form a compact little natural group.

II. After long search, I found 4 small scales at the bases of 2 stipites. These are very short, about 1 line long, black, subulate, with a broad membranous and entire base, and large black oblong cells.

Order II.—Lycopodiaceæ.

Genus 2. Lycopodium, Linn.

1. L. novæ-zealandicum, sp. nov.

Plant small, dependent, lax, soft; main stem slender, 3–4 inches long, single, leafy to base, once forked at top; forks ½–1 inch long, cylindrical. Leaves sub-trifarious, glabrous, shining pale-green, spotted with brown dots, lowermost rather distant, loose, spreading, recurved, sub-linear-spathulate, 4–6 lines long, ½ line wide, transversely wrinkled, narrowed at base and slightly decurrent; tips sub-acuminate, obtuse, thickened, nerve broad and strong; margins entire, pale, sub-cartilaginous; upper leaves much smaller, closer, imbricate, sub-appressed, nerve obsolete. Capsules axillary in upper leaves of main stem and on forks, large for plant, orbicular with a deep sinus, broader than base of leaf, yellow; valves gaping, thickened at margins; spores sub-orbicular, minutely roughish. Scale—or capsule-leaves on forks, sub 2 lines long, subulate, erect, very obtuse at tips, much dilated at base, clasping.

Hab. Epiphytical on fern-trees, open marshy glades in low forest, bank of River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. I. Of this little plant I obtained five specimens from three fern-trees, two of them in full fructification and nearly alike in size and shape; two of the barren specimens were a little larger (4–5 inches, main stem), but much the same in form; their colour greener.

II. This is a small species of the Selago section; apparently pretty closely allied to L. taxifolium, Sw., (ap. fig. Hook. et Grev. Gen. Filicum, tab. Ixxxviii.), a Jamaica and St. Helena species; but that plant is much larger, and its leaves are sub-sexfarious, rigid, and acute, and its capsules reniform. This plant is also nearly allied to L. gnidioides, Linn., a Cape and Mauritius species. It differs much from its nearest New Zealand congener, L. varium, Br., in its much smaller size, in its narrower leaves of a different shape, being more lax and remote, and not so thickly set around the stem, in the total absence of quadrangular spikes, its differently-shaped capsules, and its softness. Sir J. D. Hooker has given no less than five drawings of different forms of that variable species in his “Flora

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Tasmaniæ,” (tab. clxx.), but all without fructification. Another drawing of that species, with fruit and dissections, is also given by Sir W. J. Hooker, (Ic. Filicum, tab. 112), which is more in accordance with the New Zealand states of L. varium; but all differ widely from this plant.

Order IV.—Musci.

Genus 46. Polytrichum, Linn.

A. Calyptra nearly glabrous.

IV. Polytrichadelphus, C. Müell. (Cyphoma, Hook. fil. and Wilson.)

1. P. polycarpum, sp. nov.

Stems erect, 2 inches high, rather stout, once forked, bare at base. Leaves 3 ½ lines long, thickly set from near base, sub-patent, spreading and decurved below on stem, subulate, acute, glabrous, flat on upper surface not canaliculate, sub-rigid, opaque, narrowly margined, serrate, nerved throughout, darkgreen with brown tips, lurid in age; bases broad, sub-quadrate, 1 line wide, amplexicaul; cells very minute, sub-orbicular distinct and transverse in the margin of leaf near contraction, narrow linear-oblong in the basal portion; perichætial shorter than stem-leaves. Fruit-stalks lateral, slender, erect, 1 ½ inches long, slightly flexuous, twisted at top, light-red, shining, 4–5 to a branch. Capsule broadly oblong, a little contracted at mouth, sub-horizontal and inclined, 2 lines long, somewhat strumous, flat and slightly concave above, conspicuously 2-angled at the sides (sometimes obscurely 4-angled), semi-terete below; light-brown (becoming darker in age), shining, mouth orbicular; teeth 64, rather short, hyaline, acute, sinuses broadly rounded; the circular epiphragm radiate, margin uneven. Spores circular, transparent at centre. Calyptra longer than capsule, narrow linear, 2 ½ lines long, straight, red, glabrous, tip obtuse, hirsute at extreme apex; hairs very short and thick; membranous and lacerate at base.

Hab. Hilly woods, east bases of Ruahine Mountain Range, County of Hawke's Bay; 1885: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. This species will range under Polytrichadelphus, C. Müell., and is allied to P. magellanicum, Hedw. It differs however, from that species in its more simple stems, in its leaves being margined and more serrate, with much larger sub-quadrate bases, (resembling those of P. giganteum, Hook., as given by Schwaeg., tab. cccxxv.), and in their not being canaliculate and lamellate; also, in its slender seta, the sub-strumous form of its capsule with circular mouth, its shorter and more acute teeth with broader sinuses, and its longer calyptra.

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Genus 67. Hypopterygium, Bridel.

1. H. hillii, sp. nov.

Plant closely cæspitos in small tufts. Stems about ½ inch high, thickly tomentose throughout with dark brown tomentum. Frond sub-deltoid-orbicular, pale yellowish-green, 5–6 lines broad, the lower branches 2-pinnate, the upper simple. Leaves: on the stem, deltoid-acuminate, nerveless, margins entire slightly uneven, cells long and narrow; on the primary branches, distichous, spreading, close and slightly imbricate, broadly ovate, much apiculate, dimidiate, very thin almost pellucid, stoutly margined; margins serrate; nerve extending about three-fourths of leaf; cells small and sub-orbicular at tips, larger and oblong at centre and base with minute interstitial cellules; dorsal leaves orbicular, very largely apiculate, the mucro stout and acute and nearly half the length of the leaf, margined, slightly denticulate near apex; nerve stout, extending beyond middle; cells as in those of the primary branches; perichætial narrow-ovate, much acuminate, acute; cells very long and narrow. Fruit-stalk, 5–7 to each plant, about ½ inch long, reddish, erect, tip slightly curved. Capsule a little drooping, oblong, red, minutely and regularly papillose, broadest and tubercled near base; cells large, sub-orbicular-quadrate; outer teeth dark-brown, subulate, acuminate, with no median line but a dark line at margins, transversely sulcate; the inner teeth nearly as long as the outer, pale, subulate, acuminate, bifid, tips almost capillary, dark jointed. Calyptra as long as the capsule, dimidiate, narrow, subulate, acute, a little curved, whitish below, tip brown.

Hab. Forests, Daneverke, County of Waipawa; 1885; Mr. H. Hill: forests near Norsewood, same county; 1886: W.C.

Obs. This elegant little fern-like moss is allied to the smaller species of Hypopterygium, (“Sec. I. a. Leaves not mixed with bristles; ** branches 2-pinnate;”) of which we have some half-dozen or more known and described species, but it is very different from them all. I have, with much pleasure, named it after its discoverer, Mr. Henry Hill, B.A., Inspector of Government Schools for the Hawke's Bay District, whose ready zeal and care in collecting, and kindness and liberality in imparting botanical specimens of rare plants, I have long thankfully experienced, as my published botanical papers will abundantly testify.

2. H. pachyneuron, sp. nov.

Plant, rhizome stoutish, creeping, 2–3 inches long, brown, slightly hairy. Stems single, distant on rhizome, erect, 1 inch high, rather slender, glabrous, leafy and green above, bare and brown below. Frond sub-orbicular-cordate in outline, ½ inch

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long, green, inclining to pale-green at tips of branches; branches bi-pinnate throughout, very close set and overlapping. Leaves: lateral, distichous, spreading, imbricate, ovate, acute, slightly and distantly serrate at tips, margined; nerve very stout and broad at base and extending beyond middle; cells rhomboidal, larger at base; the dorsal leaves broadly orbicular, apiculate, margined; margins entire, slightly uneven; nerve vanishing beyond middle; cells oblong, small at tip and margins, larger at centre and base; stem leaves similar to dorsal; perichætial narrow oblong-lanceolate, very acuminate, entire; cells narrow oblong rectangular. Fruit-stalk: 8–9 on one plant, each singly arising from the base of a branch on the main stem, or from a fork of the primary branches, slender, erect, red, 5 lines high, shorter than frond; base very filiform, vaginant; vagina large, cylindrical, dark-brown. Capsule sub-erect and horizontal, about 1 line long, oblong, reddish, smooth, slightly rugose at base; outer teeth dark-brown, subulate, with a dark median line, very closely transverse-sulcate, edges much roughened (sub-denticulate) with numerous dark teeth, greatly acuminate, tips flexuous, curved; inner teeth just as long as outer, pale, remotely barred with a median line, acuminate, bifid for one-third of length from tip, with three filiform jointed ciliæ, shorter than teeth, alternate between them.

Hab. Near Wairoa, Hawke's Bay; 1885: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. This is another species of the same subsection as the preceding, and is also pretty closely allied to its known New Zealand congeners.