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Volume 19, 1886
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Art. I.Monograph of New Zealand Noctuina.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 7th October, 1886.]

I have described the species of this group on the same method as that employed in my paper on the Geometrina,* and the remarks prefatory to that paper may be taken to apply generally to this also.

The species of Noctuina are commonly very dull coloured, and very similar in marking. It is, therefore, not surprising that those writers who classify by superficial appearance have found themselves in a frightful state of confusion; but the structural classification of the group is really not difficult. As an example of the sort of work produced, I will merely point out that fifteen described species of New Zealand Noctuina, all truly referable to the same genus, Mamestra, have been classed by these writers in eighteen different genera, under five distinct families. As the New Zealand fauna is very limited in character, it may be useful to remark that genera such as Hadena, Xylina, etc., to which several of these species have been referred, are really existing genera, quite distinct in structure, and have not been merged by me in Mamestra; I have simply corrected the erroneous reference.

The specimens described in this paper were mainly from the collection of Mr. R. W. Fereday, to whom I am greatly indebted for the loan of them. Mr. Fereday has devoted especial attention to the group, and his collection is a very valuable record of labour; but, as it was taken principally in a few limited localities, it is doubtless incomplete. I imagine that, as in the Geometrina, new species will come mainly from the alpine regions. During my last visit to the table-land of Mount

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., p. 49; xvii., p. 62; xviii., p. 184.

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Arthur I tried the effect of sugaring, with much perseverance and a total absence of result; the only species I took were found by day, but I think an attracting lamp would have been effective. The failure of sugar is probably due to the very great abundance of flowers.

Seventeen genera are recorded, of which number six are represented only by single wide-ranging species, and are not to be regarded as belonging to the true indigenous fauna; five are endemic, and represented in all by only six species; and the remaining six are wide-ranging, and probably almost cosmopolitan genera. Sixty-three species are given, of which nine are found also in Australia, several of them ranging much further; the remainder are endemic. Forty-two—that is, two-thirds of the whole number, or nearly seven-ninths of the endemic species—belong to the two closely-allied genera Leucania and Mamestra, the distinction between which is very slight. Compare with this the predominance of the two closely allied genera, Larentia and Notoreas, among the Larentiadœ (Geometrina); the analogy is so close as to suggest a common origin in time for the New Zealand fauna of both groups. I have little hesitation in asserting, though I cannot yet adduce conclusive proof, that the Larentiadœ of New Zealand approach much more nearly to those of Chili than of any other country, and perhaps the Noctuina may be found to display a similar relation.

Noctuina.

Forewings with vein 1 simple, 5 rising nearer to 4 than to 6, 7 and 8 from a common stalk. Hindwings with 1c obsolete, 8 rising out of upper margin of cell near base, frenum developed.

Separated from the Geometrina by the position of vein 5 of the forewings. The following characters are also common to all the New Zealand genera of the group, and are therefore given here, to avoid needless repetition:—Face vertical or obtusely prominent; ocelli present; tongue well-developed; palpi (unless specially mentioned) moderate, obliquely ascending, second joint densely rough-scaled or hairy, terminal joint short, smooth, cylindrical; thorax very densely hairy; tarsi more or less strongly spinose, spurs well-developed; forewings with vein 6 almost from a point with 9, 7 and 8 out of 9, 10 connected with 9 by a bar (except in Erana); hindwings with veins 3 and 4 approximately from a point, 6 and 7 approximately from a point.

The markings are assumed to consist typically of first, second, and subterminal lines, a median shade or cloudy line between first and second, and orbicular, claviform, and reniform spots; the position of all these is practically identical in all

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the New Zealand species. The first line runs from about ⅓ of costa to about ⅖ of inner margin, the second, rather curved on upper portion, from about ⅔ of costa to about ⅔ of inner margin; the orbicular and reniform successively between these above middle, the claviform immediately beyond first line below middle.

The two families represented in New Zealand differ essentially only in the structure of vein 5 of the hindwings:—

Noctuidœ. Hindwings with vein 5 imperfect, parallel to 4.

Plusiadœ. Hindwings with vein 5 well-developed, approximated to 4 towards base.

Noctuidæ.
A. Eyes hairy.
 I. Abdomen more or less crested, thorax with defined crest.
  a. Wings with transverse vein wholly absent 5. Erana.
  b. " present 4. Mamestra.
 II. Abdomen smooth, thorax without defined crest.
  a. Palpi, in male, with terminal joint greatly swollen 1. Physetica.
  b. Palpi, in male, with terminal joint not greatly swollen
   1. Antennæ, in male, strongly bipectinated to apex 3. Ichneutica.
   2. Antennæ, in male, with at least apex filiform 2. Leucania.
B. Eyes naked.
 I. Eyes with long marginal cilia.
  a. Thorax with anterior angles prominent, angularly scaled 6. Miselia.
  b. Thorax with anterior angles not prominent.
   1. Thorax sharply crested 8. Xanthia.
   2. " not " 7. Orthosia.
 II. Eyes without marginal cilia.
  a. Antennæ in male bipectinated 10. Agrotis.
  b. " filiform.
   1. Thorax strongly crested 12. Cosmodes.
   2. " not "
    i. Anterior tibiæ with horny apical hook 11. Heliothis.
    ii. " without " 9. Bityla.

1. Physetica, n. g.

Eyes hairy. Palpi with terminal joint in male greatly swollen, as broad as second, rather short, rounded, with an orifice in outer side, in female normal. Antennæ in male filiform, simple. Thorax and abdomen smooth.

1. Phys. cœrulea, Gn.

(Agrotis cœrulea, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 38.)

Male, female.—38–41 mm. Head, antennæ, and thorax slaty-grey. Palpi whitish-ochreous, laterally suffused with slaty-grey. Abdomen grey, in male mixed with yellowish, anal tuft

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ochreous-yellowish. Legs slaty-grey, ringed with whitish-ochreous; posterior tibiæ pale whitish-ochreous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin somewhat waved, slightly oblique, rounded beneath; dark slaty-grey, finely sprinkled with whitish; sub-basal first and second lines obscure, whitish, dentate, dark-margined; orbicular and reniform very obscurely indicated by pale outlines; median shade dark-grey; subterminal obscure, whitish, twice sinuate; cilia dark slaty-grey, sprinkled with whitish. Hindwings blackish-grey, becoming paler and mixed with whitish-ochreous towards base: cilia whitish-ochreous, with a faint grey line, towards tips white. Under-surface of all wings in male uniform glossy pale whitish-ochreous, in female greyish-tinged.

Blenheim and Rakaia, in October, December, and January; ten specimens; formerly very common at flowers (Fereday).

2. Leucania, Tr.

Eyes hairy. Antennæ in male with short pectinations or dentations terminating in tufts of cilia, or subdentate or filiform, evenly ciliated, towards apex always filiform. Thorax smooth or slightly crested anteriorly. Abdomen smooth.

The variations in the form of antennæ are simply specific, and not available even to form sections. The larvæ are 16-legged, probably generally feeding on grass. The genus is probably cosmopolitan, but is as well represented in New Zealand as anywhere.

A. Forewings with black longitudinal streak from base B.
" without " D.
B. Hindwings rather dark grey 5. atristriga.
" not " C.
C. Forewings with dark fuscous longitudinal streak in disc 6. propria.
Forewings without dark fuscous longitudinal streak in disc 7. acontistis.
D. Forewings with defined oblique fuscous streak from apex 16. extraneea.
Forewings without defined oblique fuscous streak from apex E.
E. Orbicular tolerably defined 2. moderata.
" imperceptible F.
F. Forewings with posterior series of dots absent G.
" more or less distinct H.
G. Forewings whitish-ochreous 13. sulcana.
" light brownish-crimson 4. purdii.
H. Cilia of forewings conspicuously darker 15. blenheimensis.
" not " K.
K. Hindwings dark grey L.
" not dark grey N.
L. Forewings reddish fuscous 9. alopa.
" pale whitish-ochreous M.
M. Cilia of hindwings white 12. arotis.
" dark grey 11. aulacias.
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N. Forewings with darker submedian streak from base 14. semivittata.
" without " O.
O. Forewings with scattered white and black scales on veins 8. phaula.
Forewings without scattered white and black scales on veins P.
P. Forewings with first line indicated by black dots on veins 10. unica.
Forewings with first line not indicated by black dots on veins 3. nullifera.

2. Leuc. moderata, Walk.

(Agrotis moderata, Walk., Suppl., 705; Mamestra griseipennis, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cix., 22; Chera virescens, Butl., Cist. Ent., ii., 489; Spaelotis inconstans, ib., 545.)

Male, female.—35–38 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax ochreous-grey, sometimes suffused with dark grey; antennæ in male with moderate transverse triangular dentations, terminating in tufts of long cilia. Abdomen pale ochreous-greyish. Legs dark grey, suffusedly irrorated with whitish-ochreous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; fuscous-grey, yellowish-tinged, densely strewn with whitish scales; hairs at base of inner margin, white; two blackish dots near base, on costa and in middle, followed by pale dots; first and second lines blackish, dentate or interrupted, second followed by a series of whitish points; median shade dark grey; orbicular and reniform indistinctly outlined with pale and then with blackish; subterminal whitish, irregular, interrupted, anteriorly suffusedly margined with dark grey; a hind-marginal row of blackish dots: cilia grey, mixed with ochreous-whitish. Hindwings dark grey, lighter towards base; cilia ochreous-white.

Var. α. Thorax and forewings without ochreous tinge, with numerous white scales tending to form suffused spots and margins to lines; cilia distinctly barred with darker; hindwings grey, with dark grey irregular hind-marginal band.

Christchurch, Lake Coleridge, Rakaia, Akaroa, and Lake Guyon; a single specimen of the variety on Mount Arthur at 4,700 feet; from November to March, very common.

3. Leuc. nullifera, Walk.

(Agrotis nullifera, Walk., Noct., 742, Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 5; Alysia specifica, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 3.)

Male, female.—55–58 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and legs light brownish-ochreous, in female more greyish; antennæ in male with moderate transverse triangular dentations terminating in tufts of cilia; abdomen pale greyish-ochreous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex

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obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; light brownish-ochreous or fuscous; sometimes two faint dentate darker lines visible, approximated on inner margin; a posterior curved series of cloudy darker dots, followed by pale points: cilia pale ochreous or fuscous, tips whitish. Hindwings pale brownish-ochreous or fuscous; cilia pale ochreous, tips whitish.

Larva stout, glabrous; yellow-ochreous, minutely speckled with white; dorsal obscurely fuscous; a very fine fuscous subdorsal line, edged beneath with white; an obscure fuscous shade above spiracles, darker posteriorly; head yellow-ochreous. Feeds within stems of Aciphylla colensoi (Umbelliferœ).

Christchurch, Rakaia, and Mount Arthur (3,500 feet); from November to March, common.

4. Leuc. purdii, Frdy.

(Leucania purdii, Frdy., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1882, 195.)

Male.—46 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ferruginous, thorax between patagia posteriorly grey-whitish. Antennæ whitish-ochreous, with moderate triangular transverse dentations, terminating in tufts of cilia. Abdomen greyish-ochreous, slightly reddish-tinged. Legs dull fuscous-crimson mixed with dark grey. Forewings moderately dilated, costa slightly sinuate, apex obtuse, hindmargin obliquely rounded; light dull brownish-crimson, with a few whitish scales; costa narrowly deep yellow, more broadly near base; a narrow deep yellow suffusion along basal half of inner margin; a moderately broad deep yellow suffusion below middle from base to middle; a moderately broad deep yellow suffusion above middle from ⅓ to ⅔: cilia yellowish-white, basal half pale reddish-ochreous. Hindwings dark grey; cilia pale ochreous-yellowish, tips whitish.

Dunedin; one specimen, sent by Mr. Purdie.

5. Leuc. atristriga, Walk.

Xylina atristriga, Walk., Suppl., 756; Mamestra antipoda, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cix., 23.)

Male, female.—33–36 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ and thorax pale fuscous, tinged with ochreous or reddish, sometimes irrorated with whitish; antennæ in male filiform, subserrate towards base, moderately ciliated. Abdomen and legs greyish-ochreous, spurs branded with blackish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex abtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; light reddish-fuscous, towards inner margin broadly mixed with whitish-ochreous, towards costa paler and irrorated with whitish, especially near base; a black median streak from base to one-third, extremities attenuated; first and second lines very faintly indicated, on costa marked by two black dots, second with a series of inconspicuous minute black dots; all spots tolerably defined by pale margins partially

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surrounded with dark fuscous, claviform elongate, orbicular oval, reniform with posterior margin concave, followed by a yellow-ochreous spot; subterminal obscurely indicated by a cloudy costal mark; a hind-marginal series of minute black dots: cilia pale reddish-fuscous. Hindwings rather dark fuscous-grey; cilia greyish-ochreous, apical, half white.

Nelson, Christchurch, Lake Coleridge, and Dunedin, from January to March; very common.

6. Leuc. propria, Walk.

Leucania propria, Walk., Noct. iii., Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 2, Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 4.)

Male, female.—32–36 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs whitish-ochreous, slightly brownish or reddish-tinged; antennæ in male with moderate transverse triangular dentations, terminating in tufts of cilia; thorax slightly crested anteriorly, with a blackish anterior transverse line; spurs dark fuscous, except towards apex. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hind-margin slightly waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; whitish ochreous, sometimes more or less suffused with light brownish-ochreous; a black median streak from base to ⅖; a minute black dot above it towards base, and another towards inner margin at ⅓; a dark fuscous longitudinal streak in disc, suffused beneath with reddish-fuscous, from above apex of basal streak to near hind-margin; orbicular sometimes indicated, reniform tolerably defined, pale-margined, posteriorly edged with dark fuscous, sometimes intersecting discal streak; a posterior curved series of minute black dots; a hind-marginal series of larger black dots: cilia whitish-ochreous or pale ochreous, indistinctly barred with greyish. Hindwings light grey, sometimes tinged with whitish-ochreous; a dark grey interrupted hind-marginal line; cilia ochreous-whitish.

Mount Arthur (3,800 feet), Blenheim, and Mount Hutt, from January to March; common.

7. Leuc. acontistis, n. sp.

Male.—36 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs whitish-ochreous, slightly brownish tinged; antennæ with strong triangular transverse dentations, terminating in tufts of cilia; collar with an imperfect blackish transverse line. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin rather oblique, rounded beneath; whitish-ochreous, brownish-tinged; a slender attenuated black streak below middle from base to ⅖: cilia ochreous-whitish. Hindwings light grey, tinged with whitish-ochreous; cilia ochreous-whitish.

Castle Hill; one specimen, sent by Mr. J. D. Enys.

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8. Leuc. phaula, n. sp.

Male.—38 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs light brownish-ochreous; antennæ with moderate triangular longitudinal dentations, terminating in tufts of cilia. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; rather light fuscous, ochreous-tinged; veins marked with scattered white and black scales; an obscure white dot at each extremity of transverse vein; a minute black dot towards inner margin at ⅓; a posterior series of obscure minute black dots, bent above middle: cilia fuscous, base more ochreous, tips whitish. Hindwings fuscous-grey, base somewhat lighter; cilia whitish-ochreous, with a faint grey line, tips more whitish.

Christchurch, in November; two specimens; bred from tussock-grass.

9. Leuc. alopa, n. sp.

Male.—41 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax reddish-fuscous, mixed with ochreous-whitish; face whitish-ochreous; thorax, posteriorly between patagia, grey-whitish. Antennæ ochreous-whitish, flatly subdentate, moderately ciliated. Abdomen light grey, anal tuft whitish-ochreous, mixed with reddish. Legs reddish-ochreous, mixed with grey. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; reddish-fuscous, slightly ochreous-tinged; costa somewhat irrorated with whitish; a black dot towards inner margin at ⅓; reniform represented by a subcrescentic whitish-ochreous mark, bordered beneath by a cloudy dark-grey spot; a posterior curved series of obscure black dots: cilia reddish-fuscous, tips white. Hindwings dark grey; cilia ochreous-whitish, slightly reddish-tinged.

Lake Coleridge and Lake Guyon, in March; two specimens.

10. Leuc. unica, Walk.

(Leucania unica, Walk., Noct. 112, Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 9; Nonagria juncicolor, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag., v. 2.)

Male, female.—34–35 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs whitish-ochreous, slightly brownish-tinged; antennæ in male moderately bipectinated, pectinations strongly ciliated. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; whitish-ochreous, slightly brownish-tinged, sometimes with a few scattered black scales; first line represented by three pairs of obscure black dots; a posterior curved series of black dots: cilia whitish-ochreous. Hindwings grey, more or less tinged with whitish-ochreous; cilia pale whitish-ochreous.

Blenheim and Rakaia, in November; nine specimens.

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11. Leuc. aulacias, n. sp.

Male.—41 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-ochreous; palpi externally mixed with blackish; thorax with a slender black transverse line on each side of back, anteriorly. Antennæ whitish, flatly subdentate, moderately ciliated. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs whitish, outer spurs black, except apex, two apical joints of anterior tarsi black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; pale whitish-ochreous, faintly brownish-tinged in disc; a black basal dot below middle; veins posteriorly and in disc lined with blackish, and interneural spaces with central brown lines leaving pale marginal lines but somewhat suffused near hindmargin; a cloudy blackish dot towards inner margin at ⅖; a short very obscure longitudinal streak of blackish scales beneath middle; a posterior curved row of black dots: cilia fuscous, mixed with ochreous-whitish. Hindwings dark grey; cilia dark grey, mixed with whitish.

Dunedin, in March; one specimen.

12. Leuc. arotis, n. sp.

Male, female.—39–42 mm. Thorax tolerably crested anteriorly; submedian streak not traceable; cilia of forewings whitish-ochreous, sprinkled with fuscous and blackish, of hindwings white, with indications of a grey line: all else as in L. aulacias.

Blenheim, Christchurch and Rakaia, in November and December; nine specimens. This may eventually prove to be a form of the preceding species, but at present it is easily distinguishable by the different cilia of the hindwings.

13. Leuc. sulcana, Frdy.

(Leucania sulcana, Frdy., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1879, 267, pl. ix.)

Male, female.—40–42 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and legs whitish-ochreous, partly tinged with brownish-ochreous; palpi mixed with blackish; antennæ in male flatly sub-dentate, moderately ciliated; two apical joints of anterior tarsi black; outer spurs with median black band. Abdomen dark-grey above, anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa slightly arched, apex rectangular, hindmargin almost straight, rather oblique; whitish-ochreous, with a few scattered black scales; costal edge slenderly bright ochreous from base to ⅔; a slender ochreous-brown streak along submedian fold from base to ¾, posteriorly very indistinct, towards base somewhat mixed with black; a slender ochreous-brown suffused median streak from end of cell to hindmargin; indications of darker lines posteriorly between veins; a distinct black dot above middle at 1/ [ unclear: ] , another at 1/ [ unclear: ] , and a third, sometimes

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obsolete, towards inner margin at ⅓; a rather large black dot between origins of veins 3 and 4, and another on middle of vein 6; a hind-marginal series of minute black dots: cilia whitish-ochreous. Hindwings blackish-grey; cilia pale ochreous, with a cloudy dark-grey line.

Akaroa and Dunedin, in February; ten specimens.

14. Leuc. semivittata, Walk.

(Leucania semivittata, Walk., Suppl. 628.)

Male, female.—36–40 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs pale whitish-ochreous; antennæ in male serrate, shortly ciliated; outer spurs with median black band. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly sinuate, apex obtuse, hindmargin slightly waved, rather oblique, rounded beneath; pale whitish-ochreous; space between veins posteriorly sometimes pale brownish, veins sometimes marked with black scales; a slender pale ochreous median streak, irrorated with black, from base to ⅖; a black dot above middle at ⅙, sometimes another at ⅓, and one towards inner margin at ⅓, a fourth between origins of veins 3 and 4, and a fifth between veins 6 and 7, near origin; a curved posterior series of black dots; a hind-marginal series of minute black dots: cilia pale whitish-ochreous. Hindwings grey, in female more or less suffused with pale whitish-ochreous; cilia white, base ochreous-tinged.

Christchurch, Mount Torlesse, and Dunedin; common.

15. Leuc. blenheimensis, Frdy.

(Leucania blenheimensis, Frdy., Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1882, 196.)

Male.—40 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs whitish-ochreous, slightly brownish-tinged; palpi externally suffused with blackish; antennæ subserrate towards base, moderately ciliated; anterior legs suffused with dark grey, all tarsi and spurs banded with blackish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly sinuate, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; whitish-ochreous, tinged with pale brownish-ochreous along hindmargin; veins partially white, irregularly irrorated with black; first line represented by three minute black dots; a cloudy black dot between veins 3 and 4 at origin; a posterior curved series of obscure black dots: cilia blackish-grey, irrorated with whitish. Hindwings fuscous-grey, towards base tinged with whitish-ochreous; cilia grey-whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Napier and Blenheim; three specimens.

16. Leuc. extranea, Gn.

(Leucania extranea, Gn., Noct. v., 77, Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 2.)

Male, female.—32–42 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs pale brownish-ochreous, sometimes sprinkled

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with dark fuscous; antennæ in male filiform, rather shortly ciliated; thorax somewhat crested anteriorly; outer spurs banded with black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin rather oblique, rounded beneath; light brownish-ochreous, with numerous scattered short fuscous strigulæ and black scales; orbicular and reniform indistinct, roundish, more yellow-ochreous, dark-centred; a white dot, sometimes very obscure, on lower margin of reniform, preceded and followed by dark scales; a curved posterior series of black dots; a straight oblique slender fuscous streak from apex to this series; a hind-marginal series of black dots: cilia pale brownish-ochreous, apex whitish. Hindwings grey-whitish, towards hindmargin broadly suffused with dark-grey, especially on upper half, veins dark-grey; cilia whitish, sometimes with an indistinct grey line.

Napier, Wellington, Nelson, and Christchurch, from January to April; not uncommon. Occurs also in Australia, Java, India, and North and South America.

3. Ichneutica, n. g.

Eyes hairy. Antennæ in male strongly bipectinated throughout. Thorax and abdomen smooth.

17. Ichn. ceraunias, n. sp.

Male.—41 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs brownish-ochreous; palpi externally suffused with dark fuscous; stalk of antennæ white above. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin rather oblique, rounded beneath; whitish-ochreous, brownish-tinged; a pale yellow-ochreous gradually dilated streak from base above middle to ⅗, where it separates abruptly into two strong remote branches, nearly reaching hindmargin, upper acutely pointed, lower with two acute points; space between and beyond these, and on a broad streak beneath them, reaching from ⅓ to hindmargin but acutely attenuated anteriorly, ochreous-brown, sprinkled with black on margins; a small blackish spot between branches at origin, and an irregular black divided streak from base beneath median streaks to middle: cilia whitish-ochreous (imperfect). Hindwings light fuscous-grey; cilia whitish-ochreous (imperfect).

Mount Arthur (4,700 feet); I took a single specimen, flying by day in January; it is in rather poor condition, but could not be mistaken.

4. Mamestra, Tr.

Eyes hairy. Palpi with terminal joint rarely elongate. Antennæ in male dentate or filiform, ciliated evenly or with fascicles, or moderately bipectinated, apex always filiform.

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Thorax more or less strongly crested anteriorly and often posteriorly. Abdomen more or less distinctly crested towards base.

Probably cosmopolitan, but relatively much more numerous in New Zealand than elsewhere. Larvæ 16-legged, feeding on grasses and low plants.

Abdomen partly rosy A.
" not " B.
A. Hindwings rosy 25. pictula.
" grey 26. rhodopleura.
B. Forewings distinctly green 21. plena.
" not " C.
C. All veins conspicuously pale 18. disjungens.
" not " D.
D. A distinct short blackish median streak from base E.
No black basal streak K.
E. A dark brown interrupted discal patch from first line to hindmargin 19. paracausta.
No such patch F.
F. A black dash above anal angle G.
No black supra-anal dash H.
G. Black dash broadly suffused with dark fuscous 20. polychroa.
" slender, defined 23. mutans.
H. Orbicular and reniform very small or obsolete I.
" large J.
I. Lower edge of reniform forming a white semi-annular mark 33. composita.
Lower edge of reniform not defined 34. steropastis.
J. Orbicular conspicuously pale-margined 38. stipata.
" not " 36. omoplaca.
K. A conspicuous interrupted dark fuscous dash above anal angle 41. ustistriga.
No such dash L.
L. Subterminal with two long teeth below middle reaching hindmargin M.
Subterminal without teeth reaching hindmargin O.
M. Costa suffused with white 35. arachnias.
" not suffused with white N.
N. Markings grey 40. lignana.
" reddish-brown 39. rubescens.
O. Orbicular oblique, suboval P.
" roundish or obsolete S.
P. Reniform marked posteriorly with an oval white or yellowish spot 29. vitiosa.
Reniform not marked posteriorly with an oval white or yellowish spot Q.
Q. A sharply-marked dark fuscous triangular mark above anal angle 37. dotata.
No such defined mark R.
R. Reniform followed by a dark fuscous spot 31. tartarea.
" not " 30. ochthistis.
S. Forewings brown T.
" grey U.
T. Antennæ of male shortly bipectinated 24. agorastis.
" filiform 28. pelistis.
U. Orbicular white W.
" not white V.
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V. Median shade conspicuously darker 44. cucuflina.
"nearly obsolete X.
W. Terminal joint of palpi elongate 43. temperata.
" short 22. lithias.
X. Lines very strongly dentate, tending to form longitudinal streaks 42. prionistis.
Lines normal Y.
Y. First line preceded and second followed by white dots 32. homoscia.
First line without white dots 27. sistens.

The following rough analysis may also be of use in helping to fix the identity of species:—

A. Antennæ of male shortly bipeotinated sp. 18–24.
B. " subdentate or filiform.
  1. Subterminal with two much stronger teeth below middle sp. 33–40.
  2. Subterminal without much stronger teeth.
     a. Terminal joint of palpi rather elongate sp. 43, 44.
     b. " short sp. 25–32, 41, 42.

18. Mam. disjungens, Walk.

(Heliophobus disjungens, Walk., Noct., 1681, Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 1; Hadena nervata, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 40.)

Male, female.—35–37 mm. Head whitish-ochreous, mixed with fuscous, with a dark fuscous band on face. Palpi whitish-ochreous, externally suffused with dark fuscous. Antennæ whitish-ochreous, in male moderately pectinated. Thorax slightly crested, ochreous-whitish, with a central dark fuscous line, collar and patagia with submarginal dark fuscous rims, an ochreous transverse band behind collar. Abdomen ochreous-grey-whitish. Legs dark fuscous, mixed and ringed with ochreous - whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; brownish-ochreous; all veins conspicuously whitish; spots moderate, margined first with white and then with black except on veins; orbicular round, claviform elongate, reniform oblong; lines black, waved, interrupted on veins; subterminal white, obscurely blackish-margined on both sides, with two acute teeth touching hindmargin below middle; a hind-marginal row of black lunules: cilia whitish-ochreous, mixed with fuscous. Hindwings fuscous-grey, lighter towards base; veins sometimes whitish; a dark fuscous hind-marginal line; cilia whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Rakaia; November to January, formerly very common, now scarcer.

19. Mam. paracausta, n. sp.

Male, female.—37 mm. Head whitish, mixed with reddish-ochreous above, with two blackish transverse lines on face. Palpi whitish, externally somewhat mixed with reddish-ochreous and black. Antennæ whitish, in male moderately pectinated

– 16 –

(4). Thorax and abdomen grey mixed with white and black, collar mixed with reddish-ochreous, and with a transverse blackish line, outer edge of patagia blackish. Legs ochreous-whitish, suffusedly mixed with blackish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa slightly sinuate, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, rather oblique, rounded beneath; pale ochreous, towards costa irrorated with dark fuscous and whitish, in female more whitish; lines slender, dentate, obscure, dark fuscous; first anteriorly whitish-margined, second posteriorly white-margined on lower half; spots hardly perceptible; a slender black sinuate streak from base to middle, margined beneath rather broadly with dark ochreous-brown to first line, terminating beneath a rather broad posteriorly dilated dark ochreous-brown discal patch extending from first to second line, between which and inner margin the ground-colour is irrorated with white; the discal dark patch is continued beyond second line to hindmargin, where it is dilated and extends over lower ¾, becoming blackish-fuscous, cut on veins 3 and 4 by light streaks terminating in whitish arrow-headed spots extending into cilia, and containing a double whitish mark on anal angle: cilia pale ochreous mixed with whitish and dark fuscous. Hindwings dark grey mixed with white; an irregular obscurely marked darker post-median line; a dark fuscous interrupted hind-marginal line; cilia whitish mixed with grey.

Castle Hill; two specimens, taken by Mr. J. D. Enys.

20. Mam. polychroa, n. sp.

Male, female.—34–36 mm. Head and palpi dark fuscous mixed with grey-whitish. Antennæ fuscous, in male moderately pectinated. Thorax with angles subprominent, small anterior, median, and posterior crests; fuscous irrorated with whitish, with black angulated anterior and sinuate lateral lines. Abdomen grey, and tuft ochreous-whitish, sometimes reddish-tinged. Legs dark fuscous, irrorated with white. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate or waved, obliquely rounded; light reddish-fuscous, densely suffusedly irrorated with grey white-tipped scales, discal space darker; a short black median streak from base; a short suffused black very oblique streak from inner margin near base, connected with apex of basal streak by a dull green spot; sometimes a dull green dorsal suffusion before middle; spots outlined first with dull green and then with black; orbicular rather large, roundish, claviform roundish, incomplete, reniform oblong, posterior half paler and sometimes clear white; lines slender, dentate, indistinct, black; subterminal very slender, whitish, anteriorly margined with greenish and partially with black, preceded towards inner margin by a triangular blackish spot,

– 17 –

posteriorly suffusedly margined with black except towards extremities, with two acute teeth below middle almost touching hindmargin: a hind-marginal row of black dots: cilia fuscous, obscurely and slenderly barred with paler. Hindwings fuscous; cilia whitish, with a fuscous line.

Blenheim and Christchurch; from April to June, very common. This species appears in some collections to stand for Agrotis admirationis.

21. Mam. plena, Walk.

(Erana plena, Walk., Suppl., 744; Mamestra sphagnea, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cix., 17; Dianthoecia viridis, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii., 547.)

Male, female.—33–34 mm. Differs from M. polychroa only as follows:—Head, thorax, and forewings wholly suffused with green; no black streak from base; sub-basal line double, well-defined; first and second lines and a median shade tolerably distinct; triangular supra-anal spot fuscous.

Christchurch and Mount Hutt; November to May, very common.

22. Mam. lithias, n. sp.

Male.—33 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax white, densely irrorated with black and fuscous; patagia with two obscure black longitudinal streaks. Antennæ grey, with strong triangular transverse dentations (1), terminating in tufts of cilia. Abdomen grey. Legs dark grey, irrorated with white, banded with black and white, spurs white with median black band. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; fuscous, irregularly suffused with grey; veins coarsely and broadly irrorated with black and white; lines white, slender, subdentate, irregularly blackish-margined; a dark median shade; orbicular small, round, white, fuscous-centred, black-margined; claviform very small, but conspicuous, round, black, minutely white-centred; reniform oblong, white, fuscous-centred, blackmargined; subterminal more obscure, nearly touching hindmargin beneath costa, with two indistinct, rather more acute, teeth below middle: cilia rather dark grey, slenderly barred with white. Hindwings grey; a darker hind-marginal line; cilia white, with a pale grey line.

Castle Hill; two specimens, taken by Mr. J. D. Enys.

23. Mam. mutans, Walk.

(Hadena mutans, Walk., Noct., 602; H. lignifusca, ib., 603; Mamestra angusta, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cix., 18; M. acceptrix, ib., pl. cix., 19; Hadena debilis, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 385, pl. xlii., 6.)

Male, female.—34–39 mm. Head and palpi light reddish-ochreous, or white mixed with fuscous and blackish. Antennæ

– 18 –

grey, in male moderately bipectinated. Thorax with angles subprominent, moderate anterior and small posterior crests; light reddish-ochreous, or light grey irrorated with white, with a black angulated anterior line, patagia with obscure black submarginal lines. Abdomen and legs whitish, irrorated with ochreous or grey. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; pale reddish-ochreous, or grey, more or less ochreous-tinged, more or less suffusedly irrorated with white; veins irrorated with blackish; a short black sinuate median streak from base; spots black-margined, orbicular roundish, claviform semicircular, reniform curved oblong, not margined with black on posterior edge; lines indistinct; subterminal pale or whitish, hardly waved, suffusedly margined with dark fuscous, except at extremities and on a single tolerably acute dentation below middle, preceded on submedian fold by a short longitudinal black streak; an interrupted black hindmarginal line: cilia ochreous or grey, mixed with white and black. Hindwings grey, base somewhat lighter; a dark grey hind-marginal line; cilia whitish, with a grey line.

Wellington, Christchurch, Rakaia, Lake Guyon, probably everywhere; from August to March, very common.

24. Mam. agorastis, n. sp.

Male, female.—35 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax reddish-fuscous; thorax with small anterior and median crests. Antennæ fuscous, in male with rather short strongly ciliated pectinations. Abdomen grey, anal tuft light reddish. Legs reddish-fuscous, irrorated with ochreous whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; rather dark reddish-fuscous, lines greyish-tinged, edged with dark reddish-fuscous, tolerably defined; claviform small, obscure, greyish; orbicular and reniform dark grey, margined with white and then with dark reddish-fuscous, orbicular round, reniform oblong: a tolerably distinct median shade; subterminal whitish-ochreous, obscure, waved; a hind-marginal series of black lunules: cilia reddish-fuscous. Hindwings fuscous; cilia whitish, with a fuscous line.

Akaroa and Lake Guyon, in February and March; three specimens.

25. Mam. pictula, White.

(Dianthoecia pictula, White, Tayl. New Zeal., pl. i., 3; Meterana pictula, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 386, pl. xlii., 1.)

Male, female.—36 mm. Head and palpi blackish-grey, face with a yellowish-green band. Antennæ grey, in male submoniliform, moderately ciliated. Thorax with angles subprominent, small anterior, median, and posterior crests; blackish-grey, with sinuate anterior and curved sublateral yellowish-green streaks.

– 19 –

Abdomen light rosy, with dorsal and lateral streaks, anal tuft and ventral surface towards apex dark grey. Legs blackish-grey, apex of tarsal joints whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; dark grey; markings yellowish-green, suffusedly black-margined; orbicular roundish, grey-centred; claviform roundish, grey; reniform irregular, clear white except anterior edge; lines tolerably distinct; subterminal evenly waved; a submarginal series of green lunules: cilia grey, mixed with blackish, with greenish bars and a basal row of white dots. Hindwings pale crimson-rosy; a grey discal lunule, postmedian series of cloudy dots, and rather broad hind-marginal band; cilia grey.

Lake Coleridge, in March; three specimens.

26. Mam. rhodopleura, n. sp.

Male, female.—35 mm. Only differs from M. pictula as follows:—Head and thorax with ground-colour brownish; forewings with ground-colour pale ochreous, becoming grey in disc; median shade distinct, black; reniform not white; cilia blackish, barred with pale ochreous, without white dots. Hindwings grey, with a postmedian series of indistinct darker dots followed by pale dots. Abdomen in male with very large dense tuft of ochreous-whitish hairs from base beneath.

Napier and Wellington; three specimens.

27. Mam. sistens, Gn.

(Eumichtis sistens, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 39.)

Male, female.—32–33 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs light greyish-ochreous; antennæ in male with short triangular transverse dentations (½), strongly ciliated; thorax with very slight crests. Forewings moderately dilated, costa slightly sinuate, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; light grey, with a slight irregular greenish-ochreous suffusion; lines tolerably distinct, blackish-margined; spots obscurely dark-margined; orbicular small, reniform tolerably distinct; median shade perceptible; subterminal hardly defined, hind-marginal space somewhat darker grey; a hindmarginal series of black lunules: cilia light ochreous-grey, with faint slender paler bars. Hindwings grey; a dark-grey hindmarginal line; cilia whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

The crests appear very slight, and it is therefore possible that this species ought to be transferred to Leucania; it bears a close resemblance to L. moderata, from which it may be distinguished by the grey line of the cilia of hindwings, and by the subterminal not being defined by a darker anterior marginal shade.

Rakaia, in February; eight specimens.

– 20 –

28. Mam. pelistis, n. sp.

Male, female.—34–35 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs pale whitish-ochreous, partially suffused with pale brownish, and mixed with reddish-fuscous; antennæ in male submoniliform, moderately ciliated; thorax with moderate anterior and small posterior crests; anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; whitish-ochreous, tinged with fuscous; disc and hindmargin wholly suffused with reddish-fuscous; lines tolerably defined, margined with dark reddish-fuscous; median and subdorsal veins irrorated with blackish and white; orbicular rather small, round, margined with ochreous-whitish; claviform small, roundish, grey, black-margined; reniform oblong, grey, lower part dark grey, margined with ochreous-whitish, and then laterally with dark reddish-fuscous; subterminal ochreous-whitish, with two acute, sometimes undefined, dentations below middle: cilia dark grey, mixed with whitish and reddish fuscous. Hindwings dark fuscous; cilia grey-whitish, with a cloudy dark grey line.

Akaroa and Lake Coleridge, from January to March; nine specimens.

29. Mam. vitiosa, Butl.

(Apamea vitiosa, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 384, pl. xlii., 3.)

Male, female.—32–35 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark reddish fuscous; thorax with moderately large anterior and small posterior crests. Antennæ dark grey, in male serrate, rather strongly ciliated. Abdomen and legs dark grey, anal tuft whitish-ochreous, reddish-tinged. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; dark reddish-fuscous, disc and hindmargin blackish-tinged; lines somewhat paler, dark-margined, very indistinct; orbicular oblique oval, sometimes pale-margined, externally black-margined; claviform semicircular, black-margined; reniform oblong, margined obscurely with blackish and sometimes partially with pale, marked with a whitish-ochreous or white dot at each posterior angle, and a small oval clear white or whitish-ochreous spot lying between these; subterminal obscure, with two moderately acute dentations below middle: cilia dark reddish-fuscous, with a basal series of white dots on veins. Hindwings and cilia rather dark fuscous.

Christchurch, in May and June; very common.

30. Mam. octhistis, n. sp.

Male, female.—34–36 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax reddish-fuscous, mixed with dark fuscous; thorax with angles subprominent, rather large anterior and small posterior crests,

– 21 –

with a small black posteriorly whitish-margined spot on each side of back anteriorly. Antennæ dark grey, in male filiform moderately ciliated. Abdomen grey, sides and anal tuft light reddish-ochreous. Legs reddish-fuscous, base of tarsal joints sharply black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; reddish-fuscous, veins suffusedly dark fuscous; lines dark-margined, tolerably defined; orbicular oblique-oval, margined with pale and then sharply with black; claviform subtriangular, black-margined; reniform curved oblong, rather narrow, margined anteriorly with black and posteriorly with white, with a grey middle line; median shade blackish-fuscous, tolerably defined; subterminal ochreous-whitish, suffusedly dark-margined, with two moderately acute dentations below middle: cilia reddish-fuscous, mixed with blackish, with a basal series of white dots on veins. Hindwings rather dark grey, base paler; a tolerably distinct central darker lunule; cilia ochreous-whitish, with a cloudy reddish-grey line.

Christchurch, from November to April; very common.

31. Mam. tartarea, Butl.

(Graphiphora tartarea, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 384, pl. xlii., 2.)

Male, female.—36–37 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax reddish-fuscous, mixed with dark fuscous; thorax with rather small anterior and posterior crests. Antennæ grey, in male subdentate, moderately ciliated. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish - ochreous. Legs reddish - fuscous, tarsi dark grey. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; reddish-fuscous, sometimes wholly suffused with dark fuscous except a hind-marginal band; lines paler, dark-margined, tolerably defined; claviform semicircular, dark fuscous, black-margined; orbicular and reniform laterally margined with ochreous-whitish and then with black, orbicular oblique-oval, reniform oblong, preceded and followed by a dark reddish-fuscous spot; a dark reddish-fuscous spot preceding second line on fold, forming a dentation inwards; subterminal sinuate, not waved or dentate: cilia reddish-fuscous, obscurely barred with darker. Hindwings dark grey; cilia grey-whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Christchurch, in April; common.

32. Mam. homoscia, n. sp.

Male.—38 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs grey; antennæ with short triangular transverse dentations (½), strongly ciliated; thorax with moderate anterior crest; anal tuft ochreous-tinged. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded, grey; veins irrorated with black and white, marked

– 22 –

with two tolerably distinct series of white dots, preceded and followed by black marks, before first and beyond second lines; lines dark-margined, tolerably defined; orbicular and claviform hardly traceable; reniform indicated by whitish lateral margins; subterminal faintly paler, not dark-margined, waved: cilia grey. Hindwings grey, darker posteriorly; cilia grey-whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Wellington; one specimen, given me by Mr. G. V. Hudson, who has taken others.

33. Mam. composita, Gn.

(Cloantha composita, Gn., Noct. vi., 114; Auchmis composita, Walk., Noct., 616; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 12; Mamestra maori, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cix., 24; Leucania dentigera, Butl., teste Skellon, but reference not found.)

Male, female.—32–36 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs ochreous-whitish; face with a dark fuscous band; palpi more or less mixed with dark fuscous; antennæ in male serrate, moderately ciliated; thorax with moderate double anterior and posterior crests, tinged with brownish-ochreous, with a black posteriorly white-margined anterior line, and a sometimes indistinct blackish streak on patagia; abdomen in male reddish-tinged; legs irrorated with fuscous, anterior tarsi with two apical joints black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; pale whitish-ochreous, towards disc and hindmargin brownish-tinged; subcostal and subdorsal spaces more or less suffused with white; a fine black median streak from base to ⅓; a fine black line, bordered above with white and beneath suffusedly with fuscous, from first to second lines above middle, interrupted by a small semiannular white mark representing lower edge of reniform; first line obsolete; second fine, dark fuscous, very strongly dentate; subterminal fine, obscure, dark fuscous, preceded by a whitish suffusion, extremely strongly and very irregularly dentate, receding widely from hindmargin above middle and towards lower extremity, but with two long dentations touching hindmargin below middle: cilia greyish-ochreous barred with white. Hindwings grey, ochreous-tinged, becoming dark-grey posteriorly; cilia white, with a pale grey line.

Larva longitudinally striped with dark and light, feeding on grasses; sometimes occurs in great profusion.

Napier, Wellington, Christchurch, and Lake Coleridge, in February and March; sometimes abundant. Occurs also in South-East Australia and Tasmania.

34. Mam. steropastis, n. sp.

Male, female.—40–43 mm. Head ochreous, mixed with whitish, and irregularly marked with dark reddish-fuscous.

– 23 –

Palpi dark reddish-fuscous, mixed with whitish. Antennæ fuscous, in male subdentate, rather shortly ciliated. Thorax with moderately large double anterior and small posterior crest; reddish - fuscous, with a black posteriorly whitish-margined anterior line; patagia with two black internally whitish-margined streaks on each. Abdomen grey, and tuft pale reddish-ochreous. Legs ochreous-whitish, mixed with reddish-fuscous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; reddish-fuscous; veins dark fuscous, margined with whitish or ochreous-whitish; a short black median streak from base; a slender dark reddish-fuscous longitudinal streak in disc from above apex of this to ⅗, posterior extremity somewhat dilated; a minute white discal dot near beyond its extremity; a very oblique short blackish streak from inner margin near base; second line hardly indicated; subterminal hardly traceable except by two very long whitish dentations touching hindmargin below middle: cilia reddish-fuscous, slenderly barred with whitish. Hindwings dark grey; cilia white or ochreous-whitish, with a grey line.

Napier, Blenheim, and Christchurch, in November and February; seven specimens.

35. Mam. arachnias, n. sp.

Female.—37 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax reddish-fuscous, slightly irrorated with white; forehead with two black transverse lines; collar with a slender white line; thorax with strong anterior double tuft. Antennæ white. Abdomen light reddish-grey. Legs reddish-fuscous irrorated with whitish, anterior tibiæ and tarsi white, all tarsi with two apical joints black except apex, spurs banded with black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa slightly sinuate, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; reddish-fuscous, slightly irrorated with whitish-ochreous, except on a suffused somewhat darker median streak from base to ⅔; an obscure moderately broad white costal streak from base to ⅔, posteriorly suffused, sharply defined near base only, containing several very oblique ill-defined blackish strigulæ; orbicular moderate, narrow-oval, longitudinal, very finely margined with white and then with black; claviform obsolete; reniform only indicated by two white dots representing its lower angles; lines very acutely dentate but hardly traceable; subterminal indicated only by three very acute slender whitish-ochreous dentations, one below apex, two touching hindmargin below middle: cilia reddish-fuscous mixed with whitish. Hindwings dark grey; cilia whitish-ochreous, with a faint grey line, tips white.

Napier and Blenheim; only one specimen seen, sent by Mr. Skellon.

– 24 –

36. Mam. omoplaca, n. sp.

Male, female.—40–41 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark reddish-fuscous, sometimes blackish-tinged; thorax with rather large double anterior crest, an anterior black anteriorly ochreous-margined angulated line, apex of anterior angles ochreous-whitish. Antennæ fuscous, in male submoniliform, moderately ciliated. Abdomen grey, and tuft reddish-whitish. Legs reddish-fuscous mixed with blackish, anterior pair ochreous-whitish, with three apical joints of tarsi black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hind-margin waved, obliquely rounded; reddish-fuscous; a short black median streak from base, margined above with ochreous-white; space between this and costa marked with suffused ochreous-whitish lines; in one specimen a blackish suffusion extending from base of inner margin obliquely to orbicular and reniform, space between this and subterminal line suffused with pale whitish-ochreous; orbicular and reniform blackish-fuscous, black-margined, connected by a blackish-fuscous spot; orbicular large, roundish; reniform with outer edge white; claviform small, suboval, blackish-fuscous; lines indistinct; subterminal obscurely paler or hardly traceable, with two somewhat acute dentations below middle; hind-marginal space mixed with blackish-fuscous: cilia reddish-fuscous mixed with blackish. Hindwings fuscous-grey; cilia grey-whitish, with a grey line.

Lake Coleridge and Rakaia, in December, February, and March; three specimens.

37. Mam. dotata, Walk.

(Dasypolia dotata, Walk., Noct., 522.),

Female.—42 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and legs dark fuscous, somewhat mixed with reddish, whitish-ochreous, and black. Antennæ dark fuscous. Abdomen fuscous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenulate, obliquely rounded; dark fuscous, reddish-tinged; a blackish suffused spot on inner margin at ⅓; lines somewhat paler, obscurely blackish-margined; orbicular large, obliqueoval, partially finely margined with whitish and then with black; claviform moderate, triangular, black-margined; reniform oblong, partially white-margined, posteriorly strongly, then with black, containing a cloudy reddish-whitish median line; a tolerably distinct median shade; space between second and subterminal lines paler, mixed with reddish-whitish, cut by an acute triangular dark fuscous mark on submedian fold; subterminal cloudy, whitish-ochreous, dark-margined, waved, regular; a fine black waved submarginal line, anteriorly finely margined with obscure pale ochreous marks; a hind-marginal series of minute ochreous-whitish dots on veins: cilia dark

– 25 –

fuscous mixed with ochreous-whitish. Hindwings rather dark fuscous; cilia reddish-fuscous, with a dark fuscous line, tips whitish.

One specimen, without note of locality.

38. Mam. stipata, Walk.

(Xylina stipata, Walk., Suppl., 753.)

Male, female.—46–47 mm. Head and palpi whitish-ochreous mixed with reddish-fuscous. Antennæ ochreous-whitish, in male filiform, shortly ciliated. Thorax with angles subprominent, large double anterior and small posterior crests; reddish-fuscous, obscurely streaked with whitish-ochreous and darker. Abdomen grey, mixed with reddish-fuscous and whitish-ochreous. Legs reddish-fuscous, mixed with ochreous-whitish, anterior pair with tibiæ suffused with ochreous-whitish, base of tarsal joints black. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenate, obliquely rounded; reddish-fuscous, suffusedly mixed with whitish-ochreous, especially towards costa and on a band beyond second line; lines paler, dark-margined, tolerably distinct; a short blackish-fuscous median streak from base, interrupted by a whitish-ochreous mark; orbicular large, oblique-oval, conspicuously margined or almost wholly suffused with pale whitish-ochreous, and then narrowly with dark fuscous; claviform semicircular, black-margined; reniform oblong, margined laterally with ochreous-whitish, and then with dark fuscous; a series of pale dots margined by dark fuscous dots on veins beyond second line; subterminal ochreous-whitish, suffusedly margined with dark reddish-fuscous except towards costa and below middle, with two acute suffused dentations touching hindmargin below middle; hindmarginal space mixed with blackish-fuscous; a hindmarginal row of black dots: cilia reddish-fuscous, mixed with blackish and ochreous-whitish. Hindwings dark grey; cilia ochreous-whitish, with a fuscous-reddish line.

Christchurch, from October to May; common.

39. Mam. rubescens, Butl.

(Xylophasia rubescens, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii., 489.)

Male, female.—40–42 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-ochreous, irrorated with reddish-ochreous; palpi externally mixed with blackish; thorax with moderate anterior and small posterior double crests, with a few scattered black scales, crests suffused with blackish. Antennæ ochreous-whitish, in male subdentate, moderately ciliated. Abdomen grey, mixed with whitish-ochreous, reddish-tinged. Legs whitish-ochreous, mixed with reddish-ochreous, middle tibiæ with two blackish bars, spurs with black bands. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely

– 26 –

rounded; whitish-ochreous, slightly reddish-tinged; lines margined with reddish-ochreous, sharply dentate, very indistinct; orbicular moderate, round, margined with reddish-ochreous, containing a blackish dot near anterior edge; claviform suboval, margined with reddish-ochreous; reniform oblong, margined first with blackish, then with whitish-ochreous, then reddish-fuscous; a faint median shade; a series of dark fuscous dots on veins beyond second line; subterminal very obscure, with two distinct very acute dentations touching hindmargin below middle, above and below which is a reddish-fuscous patch on hindmargin; a hind-marginal row of dark fuscous lunules: cilia reddish-fuscous, barred with whitish-ochreous. Hindwings grey, reddish-tinged; cilia whitish, basal half reddish.

Castle Hill and Lake Wakatipu, in January and February; five specimens.

40. Mam. lignana, Walk.

(Hadena lignana, Walk., Noct., 758; ? Xylophasia morosa, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii., 543.)

Male, female.—38–39 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs whitish, irrorated with ochreous-grey and a few black scales; face with a dark fuscous band; palpi externally mixed with blackish; autennæ in male filiform, moderately ciliated; thorax with moderately large anterior and small posterior crests; anterior tarsi with two apical joints black, spurs with black bands. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; ochreous-grey, densely and suffusedly irrorated with whitish; lines dark-margined, indistinct; spots obscurely dark-margined laterally; orbicular roundish, claviform semicircular, reniform oblong, marked beneath with a roundish blackish-grey spot; an obscure median shade; subterminal suffusedly dark-margined, except beneath apex and below middle, with two acute dentations touching hindmargin below middle; a hind-marginal row of black dots: cilia ochreous-grey, barred with ochreous-whitish. Hindwings grey, darker posteriorly; cilia white, with a cloudy grey line.

Wellington and Mount Hutt, in March; five specimens.

41. Mam. ustistriga, Walk.

(Xylina ustistriga, Walk., Noct., 630; X. lignisecta, ib., 631.)

Male, female.—40–45 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax grey, sometimes more or less suffused with fuscous-reddish; thorax with moderate anterior and slight posterior crests. Antennæ grey, in male with short triangular transverse dentations (½), moderately ciliated. Abdomen whitish-grey or whitish-ochreous, reddish-tinged. Legs reddish-grey, irrorated with whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex

– 27 –

obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; grey, sometimes strongly reddish-tinged, suffusedly irrorated with white; lines hardly traceable: orbicular large, roundish, margined first very obscurely with pale, and then finely with black; claviform triangular, black-margined; reniform curved-oblong, margined very obscurely with whitish, and then anteriorly with black; a cloudy median shade; a short curved blackish line marking anterior margin of a dentation of second line opposite claviform; a black streak, suffused with fuscous or reddish-fuscous, connecting second and subterminal lines opposite this; subterminal waved, whitish, indistinct, margined with dark fuscous on a spot above middle: cilia whitish, with reddish-fuscous or grey basal and median interrupted lines. Hindwings fuscous-grey, darker posteriorly; cilia white, with a grey line.

Blenheim, Christchurch, and Lake Coleridge, from February to May; common.

42. Mam. prionistis, n. sp.

Male.—45 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and legs grey-whitish; crown with two brown lines meeting in front; palpi with second joint externally brown; thorax with large anterior crest, two brown dorsal lines meeting in front, diverging and very indistinct posteriorly. Antennæ grey, filiform, moderately ciliated. Abdomen grey, sides and anal tuft paler, and ochreous-tinged. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hind-margin crenulate, obliquely rounded; pale ochreous-grey, densely and suffusedly irrorated with white, tending to form longitudinal streaks; inner margin suffused with brownish; lines hardly traceable, strongly dentate; reniform narrow, white, anteriorly suffused, posteriorly edged with an interrupted blackish line; subterminal indicated by a posterior brownish dentate margin, diverted to hindmargin below apex: cilia ochreous-grey, mixed with white. Hindwings rather dark grey; cilia whitish, with a grey line.

Rakaia, in February; three specimens.

43. Mam. temperata, Walk.

(Bryophila temperata, Walk., Noct., 1648; Xylina inceptura, ib., 1736; X. deceptura, ib., 1737.)

Male, female.—38–39 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and legs grey, irrorated with white; terminal joint of palpi elongate; antennæ in male filiform, very minutely ciliated (⅕); thorax with rather small anterior crest. Abdomen grey, mixed with ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex subacute, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; grey, densely irrorated with white; lines dark-margined, more or less indistinct; a tolerably distinct median shade; orbicular roundish, wholly white, including a faint greyish ring;

– 28 –

claviform obsolete; reniform oblong, margined with white and then with black; subterminal indicated by suffused dark-grey subdentate anterior margin throughout; a hind-marginal series of dark grey lunules: cilia white, irrorated with grey. Hindwings grey, slightly ochreous-tinged; cilia whitish, with a very faint grey line.

Christchurch and Lake Coleridge, in December, February, March, and June; six specimens.

44. Mam. cucullina, Gn.

(Xylocampa cucullina, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 40; Agrotis mitis, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 383, pl. xlii., 5.)

Male, female.—31–32 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs dark grey irrorated with white; terminal joint of palpi rather elongate; antennæ in male filiform, shortly ciliated (½); thorax slightly crested. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; grey, irrorated with white; lines whitish, dark-margined, very indistinct; a rather conspicuous darker median shade; spots margined first obscurely with white and then with black; orbicular round, claviform very small, semi-oval, reniform curved oblong; subterminal indicated by a posterior suffused darker grey subdentate margin; a hind-marginal row of blackish lunules; cilia ochreous-grey mixed with white. Hindwings grey, darker posteriorly; cilia whitish, with a grey line.

Rakaia, in March; three specimens.

5. Erana, Walk.

Eyes hairy. Antennæ in male filiform, simple, with scattered single cilia. Thorax with anterior and posterior crests. Abdomen with strong dorsal crests towards base. Forewings in male beneath with a very long dense tuft of scent-giving hairs from base; transverse vein absent, 7 and 8 out of 9, 10 free. Hindwings with transverse vein absent, costa in male broadly dilated.

45. Eran. graminosa, Walk.

(Erana graminosa, Walk., Noct., 605; E. vigens, ib., Suppl. 743.)

Male.—30–33 mm. Head and thorax yellowish-green; thorax with small anterior and larger double posterior crest. Palpi whitish-ochreous, externally mixed with blackish. Antennæ fuscous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, back towards apex suffused with grey. Legs pale whitish-ochreous, greenish-tinged, spotted with black. Forewings narrow, moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; light yellowish-green mixed with olive-green; lines whitish-tinged, partially black-margined, distinct; reniform margined with white and then with black; three clear white

– 29 –

dots on costa posteriorly; subterminal suffused with white towards apex; a submarginal waved whitish line: cilia olive-greenish; tuft of under-surface pale whitish-ochreous. Hindwings with rounded costal dilation, twice as broad as forewings; light fuscous-reddish, suffused with grey towards hindmargin; costa broadly ochreous-whitish; a small apical spot and three others on hindmargin towards middle greenish; cilia ochreous-whitish, suffused with greenish on upper half of hindmargin and with pale reddish on lower part.

Larva (according to Mr. Purdie) light green, with white dorsal and subdorsal lines, spots black; feeds on Melicytus ramiflorus, in February and April.

Wanganui, Masterton, and Wellington, in February and March; four specimens. The large tuft of the forewings is the source of a very strong vanilla-like perfume, which scents the box in which the specimens are contained for more than a week after their death; the scent is excited more strongly, even in the dead specimen, by stirring the tuft with a pin.

6. Miselia, Stph.

Eyes naked, margins strongly ciliated. Antennæ in male filiform, moderately ciliated. Thorax with anterior angles projecting, somewhat crested. Abdomen not crested.

46. Mis. pessota, n. sp.

Male.—26 mm. Head, palpi, and antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous, slightly irrorated with white, collar ochreous-brown, with a black transverse line. Abdomen greyish, anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, ringed with whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin crenate, rather obliquely rounded; dark fuscous, slightly purplish-tinged, with a few scattered ochreous-whitish scales; lines obscurely paler; a blackish acutetriangular spot towards base of inner margin, containing a hooked ochreous-whitish mark; orbicular moderate, round, whitish-margined; claviform represented by a short ochreous-whitish mark; reniform connected with orbicular by a quadrate blackish-fuscous spot, ochreous-white, anteriorly margined first with dark fuscous and then with pale ochreous; subterminal hardly traceable; a hind-marginal row of obscure whitish dots: cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings rather dark fuscous; cilia fuscous, tips whitish. Christchurch, in December; two specimens.

7. Orthosia, Tr.

Eyes naked, margins ciliated. Antennæ in male subdentate or filiform, moderately ciliated. Thorax without defined crest. Abdomen not crested.

– 30 –

47. Orth. comma, Walk.

(Mamestra comma, Walk., Noct., 239; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 6; Graphiphora implexa, Walk., Noct., 405; Hadena plusiata, ib., Suppl. 742; Nitocris bicomma, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 4.)

Male, female.—31–40 mm. Head fuscous, crown more or less ochreous-whitish. Palpi dark fuscous, terminal joint and apex of second ochreous-white. Antennæ fuscous, in male subdentate. Thorax fuscous or dark fuscous, collar with two black lines, space behind it sometimes ochreous-whitish. Abdomen fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, anterior tibiæ and tarsi whitish-ochreous, tarsi with three apical joints blackish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin hardly waved, rather obliquely rounded; ochreous-brown, suffusedly irrorated with grey and sometimes with dark fuscous; lines not paler, blackish-margined, tolerably distinct; a slender dark fuscous angulated median shade; orbicular minute, dot-like, ochreous-white, very minutely fuscous-centred, dark-margined; claviform obsolete; reniform narrow, oblong, almost occupied by strong whitish-ochreous or yellowish-white lateral margins, lower posterior angle sending an acute short white projection towards hindmargin; subterminal indicated by suffused darker somewhat irregular almost straight anterior margin, sometimes blackish on upper half: cilia dark grey, irrorated with whitish, with a fine pale ochreous basal line dotted with blackish. Hindwings fuscous; cilia white, with a cloudy fuscous line.

Wellington, Blenheim, Christchurch, and Rakaia, from December to February; common.

48. Orth. immunis, Walk.

(Tœniocampa immunis, Walk., Noct., 430; Cerastis innocua, ib.,1710 (locality probably erroneous); Agrotis acetina, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cix., 6.)

Male.—34 mm. Head and thorax light reddish-fuscous, sprinkled with whitish, face suffused with white. Palpi reddish-ochreous, terminal joint and apex of second white. Antennæ whitish (?). Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous, and tuft whitish-ochreous. Legs reddish-fuscous irrorated with white, anterior tarsi white. Forewings moderately dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin slightly waved, rather obliquely rounded; light reddish-fuscous, irrorated with pale grey; lines obscurely darker-margined; orbicular moderate, roundish, laterally margined with darker; claviform small, suboval, indicated only by posterior darker margin; reniform oblong, outer edge indented, with lateral yellowish-white margins coalescing in centre, posterior followed by a dark fuscous margin; subterminal yellow-whitish, nearly straight, slightly sinuate: cilia light reddish-fuscous, irrorated with whitish. Hindwings pale grey; cilia whitish-ochreous, reddish-tinged, tips white.

Blenheim; two specimens.

– 31 –

8. Xanthia, Tr.

Eyes naked, margins ciliated. Antennæ in male filiform, moderately ciliated. Thorax with sharp compressed anterior and small posterior crest. Abdomen not crested.

49. Xanth. ceramodes, n. sp.

Male.—35–36 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark reddish-fuscous, terminal joint and apex of second of palpi sometimes whitish-ochreous. Antennæ dark fuscous. Abdomen reddish-fuscous. Legs dark reddish-fuscous irrorated with pale ochreous. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; dark reddish-fuscous; lines ochreous-whitish, very ill-defined; orbicular and reniform very small, margined with ochreous-whitish, open beneath, connected by a semi-oval black spot margined with ochreous-whitish beneath, reniform followed by a very small black spot; subterminal somewhat sinuate, very indistinct: cilia reddish-fuscous. Hindwings rather dark fuscous, with a darker discal spot, conspicuous on under-surface; cilia rather dark fuscous, tips whitish.

Dunedin and North Island; two specimens.

9. Bityla, Walk.

Eyes naked. Antennæ in male filiform, shortly ciliated. Thorax not crested, collar suberect. Abdomen not crested.

50. Bit. defigurata, Walk.

(Xylina defigurata, Walk., Suppl. 756; Bityla thoracica, ib., 869.)

Male, female.—38–39 mm. Head and antennæ dark fuscous. Palpi dark fuscous, terminal joint and apex of second ochreous. Thorax fuscous, collar dark fuscous. Abdomen fuscous-grey. Legs dark fuscous, apex of joints ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; brown, glossy; lines dark-margined, tolerably defined; spots and subterminal line not traceable: cilia brown. Hindwings rather dark fuscous-grey, glossy; cilia white, basal half suffusedly fuscous.

Blenheim, Christchurch, Lake Coleridge, and Dunedin, from January to March; eight specimens.

51. Bit. sericea, Butl.

(Bityla sericea, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 387, pl. xlii., 12.)

Male, female.—35–36 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax brown. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, apex of joints ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded; glossy, greyish-fuscous; first line indicated

– 32 –

by an obscure darker margin; median shade thick, faintly traceable; second line cloudy, very obscure, grey-whitish, anteriorly obscurely dark-margined; spots and subterminal line absent; a conspicuous waved whitish hind-marginal line: cilia grey, suffusedly mixed with whitish. Hindwings fuscous-grey, lighter towards base; cilia whitish, base suffused with pale fuscous.

Wellington, Christchurch, and Lake Guyon, in February and March; six specimens.

10. Agrotis, Tr.

Eyes naked. Antennæ in male moderately bipectinated, towards apex filiform, simple. Thorax and abdomen without defined crests.

A large cosmopolitan genus, but little represented in New Zealand. The larvæ are frequently subterranean, feeding on roots.

A. Claviform produced to base 53. admirationis.
" not " B.
B. Costa of forewings somewhat concave 56. ceropachoides.
" not concave C.
C. Forewings brown 52. ypsilon.
" grey D.
D. Cilia of hindwings male wholly white 55. inconspicua.
" with a grey line 54. sericea.

52. Agr. ypsilon, Rott.

(Noctua ypsilon, Rott.; Agrotis suffusa, Hb.)

Male, female.—40–42 mm. Head reddish-fuscous. Palpi and antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax greyish fuscous, somewhat mixed with reddish, with a strong black angulated anterior line. Abdomen light-grey. Legs blackish, mixed with whitish, anterior pair ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin slightly waved, obliquely rounded; fuscous, reddish-tinged; basal area and a band beyond second line suffused with whitish-ochreous except towards costa, median space blackish-tinged towards costa; lines dark-margined, distinct, second straight on lower half; spots outlined with black; orbicular round, dark-centred; claviform elongate; reniform followed by a short black longitudinal mark; a cloudy median shade; subterminal whitish-ochreous, with two strong dentations nearly reaching hind-margin below middle, anteriorly fuscous-margined and with two short dark fuscous dashes above middle, hind-marginal space suffused with dark fuscous: cilia pale ochreous mixed with dark-grey. Hindwings grey-whitish, becoming grey posteriorly, veins and a hind-marginal line dark-grey; cilia white, with a grey line.

Larva feeding on roots of grass.

– 33 –

Napier, Christchurch, and Lake Coleridge, from January to March; very common. Also occurs in Australia, China, India, Africa, Europe, North and South America.

53. Agr. admirationis, Gn.

(Agrotis admirationis, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 38.)

Male, female.—32–34 mm. Head, antennæ, and thorax in male whitish-ochreous, brownish-tinged; in female fuscous mixed with whitish. Palpi whitish, second joint externally dark fuscous except apex. Abdomen grey-whitish, anal tuft ochreous-whitish. Legs ochreous-whitish, anterior tarsi black towards base of joints. Forewings moderately dilated, less in female, costa straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin straight, rather oblique, rounded beneath, hardly waved; in male whitish-ochreous, in female fuscous mixed with whitish; costa mixed with blackish towards base and sometimes posteriorly; lines obsolete; claviform suffusedly outlined with blackish-fuscous, elongate and produced as an obscure streak to base; orbicular narrow-oval, dark-fuscous, margined with whitish-ochreous, and then imperfectly with dark-fuscous, posterior extremity of whitish-ochreous margin produced to touch reniform, and margined below by a dark fuscous spot; reniform irregular, dark fuscous, obscurely pale-margined; subterminal indistinct, with two strong dentations below middle, margined anteriorly by several small dark fuscous triangular marks, and posteriorly by a suffused dark fuscous hind-marginal space above middle; a hind-marginal row of small black triangular spots: cilia whitish-ochreous. Hindwings in male grey-whitish, in female slightly greyer; a hind-marginal row of dark-grey lunules; cilia white, with a faint grey line.

Christchurch, at roots of tussock-grass on sand-hills; very common.

54. Agr. sericea, Butl.

(Chersotis sericea, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii., 490.)

Male, female.—33–35 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax grey, fuscous-tinged; palpi with second joint suffused with dark fuscous externally. Abdomen grey, and tuft ochreous-tinged. Legs dark grey, apex of joints whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, somewhat oblique, rounded beneath; grey, fuscous-tinged; lines obscurely paler and dark-margined, or obsolete; spots blackish-margined; claviform elongate; orbicular roundish, dark-centred, connected with reniform by a dark fuscous spot; reniform containing a darker inner ring; subterminal obsolete; a hind-marginal row of black dots: cilia ochreous-whitish, with three cloudy grey lines. Hind-

– 34 –

wings grey, paler and whitish-tinged towards base; cilia whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Christchurch, in October and November.

55. Agr. inconspicua, Butl.

(Chersotis inconspicua, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii., 545.)

Male, female.—33–35 mm. Differs from A. sericea as follows:—Head, thorax, and forewings sometimes suffusedly irrorated with white; abdomen in male grey-whitish. Forewings with sub-basal line black-margined, first and second lines blackish-margined on discal side; no distinct dark fuscous spot between orbicular and reniform; subterminal sometimes tolerably defined, with three acute dentations below middle. Hindwings in male suffused with grey-whitish; cilia wholly white.

Christchurch and Rakaia, in December and January.

56. Agr. ceropachoides, Gn.

(Agrotis ceropachoides, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v., 39.)

Male.—33–34 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax and abdomen grey-whitish; second joint of palpi banded with blackish. Legs white, irrorated with black, tarsi black, with apex of joints white. Forewings moderately dilated, costa subconcave, apex obtuse, hindmargin entire, obliquely rounded; dark grey, very densely irrorated with whitish, slightly greenish-tinged; lines and spots paler, dark-margined, almost obsolete; a hind-marginal row of black dots: cilia ochreous-grey, apical third clear white. Hindwings grey; cilia as in forewings.

Rakaia, in July, August, and September.

11. Heliothis, Tr.

Eyes naked. Antennæ in male filiform, shortly ciliated. Thorax and abdomen not crested. Anterior tibiæ with apical hook.

57. Hel. armigera, Hb.

(Heliothis armigera, Hb.; H. conferta, Walk., Noct. 690.)

Male, female.—36–37 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, and legs whitish-ochreous, slightly tinged with reddish-ochreous. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin slightly waved, obliquely rounded; whitish-ochreous, tinged with pale reddish-ochreous; lines margined with reddish-ochreous, distinct, second marked with grey and a series of white dots; orbicular indicated by a dot; claviform obsolete; reniform very small,

– 35 –

mixed with blackish-grey; a reddish-ochreous line representing median shade; subterminal absent; a hind-marginal row of very minute black dots: cilia reddish-ochreous, with a fine grey line. Hindwings ochreous-whitish, reddish-tinged; a moderately broad blackish-grey hind-marginal band, reddish-tinged: cilia white, base ochreous-tinged, with a fine reddish line.

Larva feeding in various flowers and seeds. Christchurch, Rakaia, Wellington, and Waimarama; December to March; abundant, but in some localities less so than formerly. Occurs also in Australia, Samoa, India, Ceylon, Madagascar, Africa, Europe, North and South America, thus practically cosmopolitan.

12. Cosmodes, Gn.

Eyes naked. Antennæ in male filiform, shortly ciliated. Thorax with strong transverse anterior and posterior crests. Abdomen strongly crested towards base. Hindwings with veins 6 and 7 short-stalked.

58. Cosm. elegans, Don.

(Phalaena elegans, Don., Ins. N.H.; Cosmodes elegans, Gn., Noct. vi., 290.)

Male, female.—29–30 mm. Head grey-whitish, with two dark ferruginous bands. Palpi dark ferruginous, mixed with reddish-whitish. Antennæ dark fuscous. Thorax whitish-reddish, crests posteriorly dark ferruginous, anterior crest mixed in front with black. Abdomen grey-whitish, crest dark ferruginous. Legs grey, anterior and middle tibiæ reddish. Forewings moderately dilated, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin oblique, with strong broad triangular projection below middle; dark ferruginous, mixed with blackish-fuscous; four pale green spots margined with white; first large, irregularly elongate, extending almost from base to middle, curved downwards in middle; second moderate, oval, above and touching posterior extremity of first; third moderate, subtriangular, beyond second; fourth moderate, trapezoidal, above anal angle; centre of disc between these lighter, with veins whitish; a transverse light ferruginous streak towards hindmargin in middle, anteriorly white-margined, representing subterminal line: cilia fuscous-reddish mixed with black. Hindwings whitish; posterior half suffused with fuscous-reddish: cilia whitish, with a fuscous-reddish line.

Napier, Christchurch, and Governor's Bay, in March and April; several specimens. Occurs also commonly in Eastern Australia.

– 36 –
PlusiadÆ.
A. Eyes with marginal cilia 13. Plusia.
B. " without cilia.
  1. Antennæ in male bipectinated 17. Rhapsa.
  2. " filiform.
    a. Tarsi in male strongly thickened with dense scales 16. Dasypodia.
    b. Tarsi in male not thickened.
      i. Terminal joint of palpi rather long 14. Ophideres.
      ii. " short 15. Achaea.

13. Plusia, Tr.

Eyes naked, margins ciliated. Antennæ in male filiform, very shortly ciliated. Thorax with large double posterior crest. Abdomen with dorsal crests towards base.

Larva 12-legged, feeding externally; pupa in a silken cocoon.

A cosmopolitan, yet not very large genus.

59. Plus. eriosoma, Dbld.

(Plusia eriosoma, Dbld., Dieff. N. Zeal. 285, Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. x., 1, 2; P. argentifera, Gn., Noct. vi., 352.)

Male, female.—32–36 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous, mixed with darker and ferruginous. Antennæ greyish-ochreous. Abdomen grey, in male with whitish-ochreous lateral tufts of long hairs beyond middle, and apical tuft black beneath. Legs grey, irrorated with whitish-ochreous. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa almost straight, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, obliquely rounded, anal angle slightly prominent; fuscous; sub-basal line straight, golden-white, not reaching inner margin, followed by a blackish-bronze spot in disc; first line straight, golden-white, angulated and interrupted beneath costa; median space suffused with deep bronze on dorsal half, containing a golden-white ?-shaped longitudinal mark and small oval spot beyond it beneath middle of disc; second line nearly straight, obscurely paler, dark-margined; an oblique sub-apical streak terminated by a straight sub-marginal line before upper half of hindmargin, and a spot on anal angle deep bronze: cilia grey, irrorated with whitish. Hindwings fuscous grey, darker posteriorly; cilia ochreous-whitish, with a cloudy grey line.

Var. a. Golden-white discal spots wholly absent.

Larva polyphagous, on various garden plants.

Taranaki, Napier, Wellington, and Nelson; rather common. Also occurs commonly in Eastern Australia. P. chalcites, Esp., from Europe, India, and Madagascar, appears to differ in having the hindwings yellowish anteriorly, but is otherwise almost exactly similar.

– 37 –

14. Ophideres, Hb.

Eyes naked. Palpi with terminal joint rather long, slender. Antennæ in male filiform, simple. Thorax and abdomen not crested. Forewings with tooth of scales on inner margin towards base.

An Indo-Malayan genus.

60. Oph. fullonica, L. (?)

(Noctua fullonica, L.S.N. 812, Cl. Icon., pl. xlviii., 1–4; Noctua pomona, Cr. 77c; Ophideres fullonica, Gn., Noct. vii., 111.)

100 mm. Forewings brown, marked with lighter and darker and greenish; hindwings orange, with large lunule and broad hind-marginal band black.

A single greatly-damaged specimen of what may be this species was taken in Christchurch and brought alive to Mr. Fereday; but as it is too fragmentary for identification, I give only a rough diagnosis from an Australian specimen; the species must not be quoted as from New Zealand without further proof, but in any case it is probably only a stray immigrant. The principal reason for supposing the New Zealand specimen to be referable to this species is its geographical range, which includes Samoa, Australia, India, Ceylon, and South Africa.

15. Achaea, Hb.

Eyes naked. Antennæ in male filiform. Thorax and abdomen not crested.

61. Ach. melicerte, Drury.

(Noctua melicerte, Drury, Ins. Exot. i., 46, pl. xxiii., 1, Cr. 323, C.D.; Achaea melicerte, Gn., Noct. vii., 247.)

Female.—64 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and legs light greyish-ochreous. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, costa posteriorly arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin slightly waved, straight, somewhat oblique, slightly rounded beneath; pale greyish-ochreous irrorated with fuscous; lines darker; two dark fuscous discal dots on extremities of transverse vein; second line preceded by a fuscous band, containing a paler suffused subdentate line near its anterior edge; subterminal cloudy, fuscous, preceded by a narrow suffused reddish-ochreous band: cilia ochreous-whitish, with a cloudy dark-grey line. Hindwings blackish, becoming grey towards base; a straight cloudy white fascia from middle of costa to anal angle, gradually attenuated beneath; a moderate white sub-quadrate spot on hindmargin above middle, and an irregular white spot on hindmargin below middle; cilia whitish.

Wellington; one specimen. Occurs also in Australia, Fiji, Celebes, Ceylon, and India.

– 38 –

16. Dasypodia, Gn.

Eyes naked. Palpi with terminal joint very slender. Antennæ in male filiform, hardly pubescent. Thorax and abdomen not crested. Tarsi in male very much [ unclear: ] thickened, with dense scales (teste Guénée).

62. Das. selenophora, Gn.

(Dasypodia selenophora, Gn., Noct. vii., 175.)

Female.—75 mm. Head dark fuscous. Palpi dark fuscous, second joint ochreous-yellowish beneath, terminal joint ⅔ of second. Antennæ whitish-ochreous, base dark fuscous. Thorax, abdomen, and legs ochreous-brown, anterior edge of collar, under-surface, and hairs of femora ochreous-yellowish. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa posteriorly moderately arched, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, slightly rounded, oblique; brown, slightly purplish-tinged, on median fascia paler and tinged with pale ochreous; first and second lines hardly indicated by darker margins in disc; a rather large crescentic dark grey spot in disc, margined first with whitish-blue, then black, then orange, then black again, concavity filled with a circular black spot; a median series of three fine dark-brown lines near beyond this, innermost sending three very acute teeth inwards beneath discal ocellus; a marginal series of bluish-white crescentic dots: cilia brown. Hindwings brown, lighter and ochreous-tinged towards base; a median series of three waved lines obscurely indicated; marginal dots and cilia as in forewings.

Napier, Richmond and Christchurch, in January; apparently not common. Occurs commonly in Eastern Australia.

17. Rhapsa, Walk.

Eyes naked. Palpi very long, obliquely ascending, loosely rough-scaled throughout, second joint with dense long projecting tuft above towards apex, terminal joint moderate. Antennæ in male moderately bipectinated, apex simple. Thorax and abdomen not crested. Forewings in male beneath with large broad costal fold on anterior half.

63. Rhaps. scotosialis, Walk.

(Rhapsa scotosialis, Walk., Suppl., 1150; Herminia lilacina, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, pl. xlii., 11.)

Male, female.—32–37 mm. Head, palpi, antennæ, and thorax fuscous or greyish-ochreous. Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, apex of joints ochreous-whitish. Forewings very elongate-triangular, costa arched posteriorly, apex obtuse, hindmargin waved, rather obliquely rounded;

– 39 –

greyish-ochreous, suffusedly irrorated with fuscous; lines darker fuscous, tolerably distinct or obsolete; orbicular very small, round, varying from orange to whitish, black-margined; claviform absent; reniform moderate, whitish-ochreous, outer edge indented, anterior half margined with black and ferruginous, posterior half containing a curved transverse fuscous line; a series of dark fuscous dots beyond second line; subterminal pale, dark-margined, rather irregular, terminating in a pale triangular costal blotch; a hind-marginal row of blackish dots: cilia fuscous, irrorated with grey-whitish. Hindwings pale greyish-ochreous; a faint discal dot, slender postmedian line, and very obscure submarginal band darker grey; sometimes a hind-marginal row of dark grey dots; cilia pale greyish-ochreous.

Auckland, Napier, Wellington, Christchurch, Nelson, Akaroa and Invercargill, April to February; generally common.

Appendix.

The following names represent unidentified descriptions; probably they are synonymous with some of the preceding. I do not quote the descriptions, which are of little value:—

64. Xylina spurcata, Walk., Noct., 631.

65. Orthosia infensa, Walk., Noct., 748.

66. Xylina provida, Walk., Noct., 1737; X. canescens, ib., Suppl. 757.

67. Orthosia communicata, Walk., Suppl. 716.

68. Xylina turbida, Walk., Suppl. 754.

69. Xylina vexata, Walk., Suppl. 755.

70. Euplexia insignis, Walk., Suppl. 724.

Walker and Butler quote two other species, Agrotis munda and Heliothis peltigera, but there is no reason to doubt that these records are erroneous, and founded on a mistaken identification.

Index of Genera.
Achaea, Hb. 15
Agrotis, Tr. 10
Bityla, Walk. 9
Cosmodes, Gn. 12
Dasypodia, Gn. 16
Erana, Walk. 5
Heliothis, Tr. 11
Ichneutica, n. g. 8
Leucania, Tr. 2
Mamestra, Tr. 4
Miselia, Stph. 6
Ophideres, Hb. 14
Orthosia, Tr. 7
Physetica, n. g. 1
Plusia, Tr. 18
Rhapsa, Walk. 17
Xanthia, Tr. 8
– 40 –
Index of Species. Names italicized are synonyms.
acceptrix, Feld. 23
acetina, Feld. 48
acontistis, n. sp. 7
admirationis, Gn. 53
agorastis, n. sp. 24
alopa, n. sp. 9
angusta, Feld. 23
antipoda, Feld. 5
arachnias, n. sp. 35
argentifera, Gn. 59
armigera, Hb. 57
arotis, n. sp. 12
atristriga, Walk. 5
aulacias, n. sp. 11
bicomma, Gn. 47
blenheimensis, Frdy. 15
caerulea, Gn. 1
canescens, Walk. 66
ceramodes, n. sp. 49
ceraunias, n. sp. 17
ceropachoides, Gn. 56
comma, Walk. 47
communicata, Walk. 67
composita, Gn. 33
conferta, Walk. 57
cucullina, Gn. 44
debilis, Butl. 23
deceptura, Walk. 43
defigurata; Walk. 50
dentigera, Butl. 33
disjungens, Walk. 18
dotata, Walk. 37
elegans, Don. 58
eriosoma, Dbld. 59
extranea, Gn. 16
fullonica, L. 60
graminosa, Walk. 45
griseipennis, Feld. 2
homoscia, n. sp. 32
immunis, Walk. 48
implexa, Walk. 47
inceptura, Walk. 43
inconspicua, Butl. 55
inconstans, Butl. 2
infensa, Walk. 65
innocua, Walk. 48
insignis, Walk. 70
juncicolor, Gn. 10
lignana, Walk. 40
lignifusca, Walk. 23
lignisecta, Walk. 41
lilacina, Butl. 63
lithias, n. sp. 22
maori, Feld. 33
melicerte, Drury. 61
mitis, Butl. 44
moderata, Walk. 2
morosa, Butl. 40
mutans, Walk. 23
nervata, Gn. 18
nullifera, Walk. 3
ochthistis, n. sp. 30
omoplaca, n. sp. 36
paracausta, n. sp. 19
pelistis, n. sp. 28
pessota, n. sp. 46
phaula, n. sp. 8
pictula, White. 25
plena, Walk. 21
plusiata, Walk. 47
polychroa, n. sp. 20
pomona, Cr. 60
prionistis, n. sp. 42
propria, Walk. 6
provida, Walk. 66
purdii, Frdy. 4
rhodopleura, n. sp. 26
rubescens, Butl. 39
scotosialis, Walk. 63
selenophora, Gn. 62
semivittata, Walk. 14
sericea, Butl. 51, 54
sistens, Gn. 27
specifica, Gn. 3
sphagnea, Feld. 21
spurcata, Walk. 64
steropastis, n. sp. 34
stipata, Walk. 38
suffusa, Hb. 52
sulcana, Frdy. 13
tartarea, Butl. 31
temperata, Walk. 43
thoracica, Walk. 50
turbida, Walk. 68
unica, Walk. 10
ustistriga, Walk. 41
vexata, Walk. 69
vigens, Walk. 45
virescens, Butl. 2
viridis, Butl. 21
vitiosa, Butl. 29
ypsilon, Rott. 52
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To accompany Paper by W. M. Maskell.