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Volume 19, 1886
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Genus Epeira, Walck.

Epeira corrugatum, sp. nov. Plate VII., fig. 1.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 4; broad, 4; facial index, 2. Abd., long, 8; broad, 7. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 17, 16, 14, 9 mm.

Cephalothorax chocolate-black; short, adpressed, yellowish hairs; in. length equal to genua and tibiæ of a leg of 4th pair; depressed, sides rounded, moderately constricted forwards; ocular eminence not very prominent, mammiform prominences on caput slightly developed, lateral index (i.e., length of caput from striæ to fore-angle) nearly equals space between a posterior lateral eye and the hind-central next to it; median indentation on thorax transverse, radial and caput striæ rather faint; contour of profile forms an undulating curve, rising at occiput, which slopes abruptly forwards; height of clypeus nearly equals facial space.

Fore and hind rows of eyes moderately recurved; posterior centrals separated by an interval equal to about twice their diameter, nearly twice their space from hind-laterals; anterior centrals about one-fourth larger than posterior, placed rather further from each other—nearly their diameter and a-half—than each is from the hind-central next to it; lateral eyes seated moderately obliquely on low tubercles, nearly their diameter apart.

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New Zealand Spiders

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Legs rather slender, femora dark lake-colour, suffused with brown, convex above, spines; genua and tibiæ grooved, these joints, with metatarsi and tarsi, have a dark lake-brown hue, faintly annulated with chocolate-brown, rings of white and black hairs; besides irregular spines above, tibiæ have a double row of 6, metatarsi two rows of 4 yellowish spines beneath. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 9 comb-teeth, increasing in length and strength; inferior claw, 2 close teeth.

Palpi slender, dark chocolate-brown, short yellowish bristles, palpal claw moderately curved, 9 teeth, directed forwards.

Falces conical, vertical, convex, project forwards in front, not equal to femora of first pair in stoutness, bright lake-brown.

Maxillœ nearly as broad as long, obliquely truncated, inclined towards labium, which is somewhat triangular, more than half length of maxillæ; organs chocolate-brown, light apices.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ brown-black, light hairs.

Fore part of abdomen somewhat pointed, carinate, moderately convex, projects over base of thorax; posterior half broad, semi-oval, depressed, transversely corrugated, incurvate; marginal zone directed inwards, longitudinally corrugated; anterior tubercles applanate, apex rounded, directed outwards; posterior tubercles, which project from transverse wrinkles, are broad, rounded, applanate, directed backwards; in first row are three of about equal size, beneath central tubercle there is another rather larger, beneath latter a small one; integument black-brown, base and lateral margins more or less spotted with dull creamy-buff coloured flecks; on dorsal surface is a large, slightly flecked black-brown, acute-crenate, leaf-like mark, the black, buff-margined, carinate eminence forming the petiole; sparsely clothed with very short, close, and erect hairs. On ventral surface is a large greenish-brown, transversely wrinkled, cordate mark, with two large buff spots beneath branchial opercula [ unclear: ] and two above spinners. Fore part of epigyne represents a yellowish, transversely-wrinkled, semicircular, cucullate membrane, centrally produced into a large, transversely wrinkled lip with tumid incurved margins, its greatest diameter is across centre, from whence it forms a moderately acute angle, apex produced into a clear yellow vermiform process, equal to three-fourths of lip in length; lateral margins of hood, on posterior side, involute within dark spotted concavity.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 4; broad, 3.5. Abd., long, 4.5; broad, 3. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 15, 14, 11, 8 mm.

Cephalothorax mahogany-colour, hairs sparse, yellowish; sides prominently rounded, laterally constricted at caput, which is rather depressed, ocular eminence prominent; median indentation longitudinal, oval, deep; normal grooves slight.

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Posterior central eyes separated by a space equal to their diameter and a half; anterior centrals rather more than that interval from each other, and about their diameter from hind-median eyes, separated from fore-laterals by about their space and a quarter; laterals on dark tubercles, about their radius apart.

Legs yellowish, moderately defined brown annulations; 1–2 pair rather stout; strong curved process on outer side of coxæ of 1st pair; armature sparse light hairs, spines numerous, yellowish, base dark, cluster of 8 short curved spines near apex of tibiæ of 2; 3–4 rather slender; long spines on inferior surface of femora, especially of 4th pair. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 9 teeth, 4 terminal strong; inferior claw, 2 close teeth.

Palpi yellowish, humeral joint stout, tuft of bristles project from tumid eminence on inferior surface near apex of article; cubital joint broad, somewhat spathulate, projects at apex a long strong bristle; radial joint shortest, articulated to inferior surface of cubital, produced on outer side into a large linear-oval yellowish process; digital joint broad-oval, convex and moderately hairy externally, convexities directed towards each other, base of convexity produced on outer side into a rather long, stout, curved apophysis of a dark-reddish colour; bulb, viewed from somewhat beneath, represents a series of bright red-brown dark - margined folds; terminates with several large tumid, introflexed, somewhat lip-shaped dark lobes; near apex, directed forwards, is a horizontal, dark, curved membranous apophysis, a prolongation of an upper fold, behind this apophysis there is a short process, curved backwards.

Falces slender, vertical, yellowish.

Abdomen somewhat oviform, specific pattern and coloration does not differ essentially from female.

Pairs about November. Cocoon sub-globose, composed of dark-green silk of a loose texture, about two metres in diameter; eggs pinkish, spherical, 350–645 in number.

Te Karaka, Auckland, A.T.U. Otago, F. Goyen.

Epeira pocillator, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 5; broad, 4; facial index, 2.2. Abd., long, 10; broad, 8. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 17, 15, 13.5, 9.5 mm.

Cephalothorax lake-chocolate colour, hairs adpressed, sparse, yellowish; rather depressed, sides not prominently rounded, moderately constricted at caput, sides of which are not very abrupt, lateral index equals space between a hind-lateral eye and the hind-central next to it, ocular eminence fairly prominent, mammiform eminences moderately developed; median

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indentation transverse, normal grooves not strongly marked; contour of profile horizontal above, dips moderately posteriorly and anteriorly, rising at occiput. Height of clypeus rather exceeds space between fore-central eyes.

Fore and hind row of eyes moderately recurved; four centrals of equal size; posterior pair separated by a space equal to a diameter and a half, rather less than that interval from anterior centrals, which are rather further from one another than are the former pair, nearly twice their space from fore-laterals; side-eyes seated obliquely on small tubercles at angle of caput, about radius of an anterior eye apart, latter exceeds posterior eye in size by about one-third.

Legs rather slender, femora of 1–2 lake-coloured; 3–4 suffused with brown, convex above, few spines; genua and tibiæ double-groove above, latter joints, metatarsi and tarsi have a yellowish tinge, brownish annulations; armature sparse yellowish hairs, spine at apex of genual joint, double row of 6 beneath tibiæ, and of 5 beneath metatarsi. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 10 comb-teeth, increasing in length and strength; inferior claw, 2 close teeth.

Palpi moderately slender, yellow-brown, yellowish hairs and slender spines; palpal claw 10 comb-teeth, 2 basal small.

Falces conical, vertical, convex, prominent at base in front, nearly as thick as base of femora of 1st pair of legs, brownish-lake, few yellowish hairs.

Maxillœ nearly as broad as long, obtusely pointed, inclined towards labium, which is triangular, about as long as broad; organs chocolate-brown, pale apices.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ; black-brown.

Abdomen. oviform, projects over base of cephalothorax, depressed above, sensibly convex; lateral margins rather deep, convex; fore-tubercles moderately prominent, apices rounded, directed outwards; posterior tubercles prominent; central tubercle of first row twice size of laterals, tubercle of second row exceeds first central in size, tubercle of third row nearly equals it. Sparsely clothed with short fine light hairs; integument yellowish-brown, spotted with brown; dorsal mark brownish-buff, brown flecks, from apices of fore-tubercles it tapers off, margins incurvate, round base of abdomen, brown centre of narrow band bifurcates to base of fore-tubercles; from latter, dorsal mark extends with slightly undulating margins to posterior tubercles, which have the same pale hue; in centre of specific mark is a brown, somewhat lugeniform mark, with rather slight oblique streaks beneath; almost entire length and breadth of lateral margins covered by creamy-white, lake-tinted, somewhat oval marks, with brown dentate margins on dorsal side, and series of nearly vertical streaks of similar hue. Ventral surface brown, dark-green, orange-yellow margined, shield-

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shaped mark in centre, large flecks of latter colour beneath branchial opercula, and close to spinners, which are short. Epigyne represents a yellowish, transversely wrinkled, cucullate membranous projection, depressed above, sides abrupt, margins beaded, centrally produced above into a semi-oval dark-margined lip, whose apex is prolonged into a segmented vermiform process, nearly equal to lip in length.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 5; broad, 3.5. Abd., long, 4.5; broad, 3.2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 17, 15, 13, 9 mm.

Cephalothorax light mahogany colour; hairs sparse, yellowish; moderately depressed, constricted at caput, which projects over falces; ocular eminence prominent, somewhat oblique; angular depression in centre of caput; median indentation longitudinal, dark colour, normal grooves rather faint; profile line forms a slight curve from thoracic junction to occiput.

Posterior central eyes separated from anterior centrals by a space about equal to their diameter, rather closer to one another than are the latter pair; lateral eyes placed within a slight concavity at angle of caput, fore-eye rather larger than posterior, separated by an interval equal to radius of anterior eye.

Legs yellowish, reddish-brown annulations; armature sparse light hairs, numerous strong spines, yellowish, base brown; coxæ of 1st pair projects a short curved process; 1–2 much the stoutest, femora clouded with chocolate-brown; tibiæ of 2nd pair tumid, 7 stout dark spines at extremity; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 10 comb-teeth; inferior claw, 2 short close teeth.

Palpi yellowish, humeral joint short, stout, strong tuft of long yellowish bristles project from near centre of inferior surface; cubital joint about half length of humeral, some-what spathulate, broad, projects from apex a long, strong bristle; radial joint short, produced on outer side into a large, yellowish, linear oval process; digital joint large, oval, at apex of hairy convexities—which are directed towards each other—there are prominent, somewhat conical tubercles, base of convexities produced on outer side into a long, stout, black-brown apophysis, sharply bent inwards at extremity; bulb has rich red and yellow - brown tints; on crown of bulb is a black tumid crescent-shaped eminence, centrally constricted into acute points; beneath the convex transversely striated upper fold are a series of dark lobes, mostly pointed, concave above, apices directed forwards; near apex is a dark pointed apophysis, which projects forwards; about centre of bulb, on lower side, is a short, stout apophysis, curved backwards.

Falces vertical, conical, yellowish.

Maxillœ somewhat spathulate, about as broad as long,

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brownish, pale apices, inclined towards lip, which is somewhat triangular, everted, dark-brown; apex light.

Sternum cordate, dark-brown.

Abdomen oviform, tubercles moderately developed; integument light-brown, thickly mottled with creamy-coloured flecks, specific mark yellowish-brown; margins between anterior and posterior tubercles acute-crenate; series of brown marks on median line, impressed spots well marked.

Pairs about November. Cocoon somewhat globose, composed of dark-green silk; comprised within are 350 or more pinkish eggs.

Auckland, A.T.U.

Epeira oblitera, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 6; broad, 5; facial index, 2.5. Abd., long, 8; broad, 6.5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 21, 19, 17, 10.5 mm.

Cephalothorax yellowish, faintly suffused with brown, moderately clothed with coarse light hairs; rather depressed, sides rounded, constricted forwards; caput squarely truncated, sides low, convex, lateral index nearly equals interval between a hind-lateral eye and the hind-central next to it; mammiform eminences well-developed; caput and radial striæ rather faint; semicircular indentation on thoracic slope. Contour of profile rises at an angle of 40°, moderately arched across caput, synclinal dip behind occiput. Height of clypeus nearly equals depth of facial space.

Fore and hind rows of eyes sensibly recurved; ocular eminence prominent; eyes small; anterior centrals separated by a space equal to twice their diameter, rather less than that interval from hind-pair, which are further from each other than they are from anterior centrals; laterals seated obliquely on very low tubercles, encircled by black rings, nearly their breadth apart.

Legs moderately strong, yellowish, sparsely furnished with light hairs; femora convex above, few spines; genua of 1–2 two-thirds length of tibiæ, two grooves on former and latter articles, spines yellowish. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, strong, 10 open comb-teeth; inferior claw, 2 teeth.

Palpi as long as cephalothorax, yellowish, light hairs, palpal claw straighter than tarsal, 10 similar teeth.

Falces yellow-amber colour; as long as genua, and as broad as femora of 1st pair of legs; somewhat conical, vertical, project at base in front.

Maxillœ broad, obtusely pointed, inclined towards labium, which is triangular; organs chestnut-brown, yellowish margins.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ; chestnut-brown colour.

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Abdomen oviform, depressed above, sides abrupt, convex; anterior tubercles very small, conical; posterior rather small, central tubercle of first row shortest of three. Yellow stone-colour, faintly mottled with brown; specific mark almost obliterated, leaf-like, mottled with creamy-coloured flecks, margins brown, faint, three somewhat angular brown marks on median line, impressed spots, well-defined, form a trapezoid. On ventral surface is a large dark-green shield-like mark, margins buff, double row of four foveola. Epigyne represents a cucullate, transversely wrinkled, membranous eminence, depressed above, sides abrupt, centrally produced into a broad, transversely wrinkled, yellowish lip, margins tumid, apex forms an obtuse angle, terminates in a clear yellowish, segmented, vermiform process, as long as lip.

Whangarei Harbour, T. Broun.

Epeira tri-tuberculata, sp. nov. Plate VII., fig. 2. Plate VIII., fig. 1.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 2.5; facial index, 1. Abd., long, 5.5; broad, 5. Legs, 1, 2–4, 3 = 11, 10, 6.5 mm.

Cephalothorax reddish-amber colour, few small blackish spots, hairs short, sparse, whitish; rather depressed, sides rounded, laterally constricted forwards; caput squarely truncated, lateral index equal to interval between a fore-lateral eye and the hind-central furthest from it; sides nearly vertical, slight constriction behind posterior row of eyes; median indentation longitudinal, radial and caput striæ moderately marked; contour of profile rises at an angle of 45°, slightly curved across caput, rising a little at occiput. Clypeus in height equals two-thirds diameter of a fore-central eye.

Posterior row of eyes sensibly recurved, median pair rather more than their breadth apart, their space and an eye's diameter from hind-laterals; anterior row recurved, centrals rather larger than hind-pair, separated by their diameter and a half, less than that interval from posterior pair; lateral eyes separated by a space equal to their radius, placed obliquely on tubercles; anterior tubercles prominent.

Legs moderately slender, yellow-amber colour, faint reddish-lake annuli, clouded with similar hue; sparsely furnished with short light hairs; femora convex above, numerous short spines; genual joint of 1st pair more than half length of tibial, two grooves, continued on latter joint; besides upper spines, tibiæ has double row of 6, metatarsi two rows of 4. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair long, free end rather sharply bent, 13 teeth, 5 basal, small, terminal strong, somewhat form of free end; inferior claw sharply bent, 2 points.

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Palpi resemble legs in colour and armature; palpal claw, partially broken, apparently like tarsal claw.

Falces vertical, conical, moderately strong, yellowish.

Maxillœ somewhat spathulate, inclined towards lip, which is pointed, nearly twice as broad as long; organs reddish-brown, light margins.

Sternum cordate, broad as long, eminences opposite coxæ, yellowish, shaded with reddish-brown.

Abdomen somewhat obtusely pointed, from anterior tubercles, which are mammiform with yellow nipple-like apices, abdomen tapers moderately off to small posterior tubercle; depressed above, sides convex; from apex of fore-tubercle profile line forms a rather sharp angle; hairs light, short, sparse; dorsal mark leaf-like, coarsely acute-crenate, mottled with creamy-brown, spotted with lake-coloured, white-margined flecks, with blue-black vein-like streaks between; dark impressed spot in each acute projection; creamy - white transverse band, with lake-coloured margins, connects anterior tubercles, directed obliquely backwards from centre of band are two short bars of similar hue; petiole of leaf-like mark curves round base, is creamy-white, lake margins; lateral margins mottled, flecked and veined with normal tints. On ventral surface is a shield-like mark with white flecks. Epigyne represents a broad, yellowish, transversely segmented, napiform lobe; above apex of lobe, which is directed forwards, is a brown membrane produced into central and lateral acute projections; margins of lobe on posterior side incurvate, divided by a short, petiole-like projection from lobe.

Colorations of some examples have rich lake, chocolate, and orange tints. Taken amongst low, moist vegetation.

Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Epeira orientalis, sp. nov. Plate VII., fig. 3.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 5; broad, 4; facial index, 2. Abd., long, 10; broad, 9. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 19, 18, 16, 12 mm.

Min.—Abd., long, 9; broad, 8. Max.—Abd., long, 12; broad, 9. Leg of first pair, 24.5 mm.

Cephalothorax lake-black, lake-coloured about dorsal surface, hairs sparse, light, short, adpressed; length of cephalothorax equal to tibiæ of a leg of first pair, sides rounded, moderately compressed forwards; lateral index of caput nearly equal to facial; luniform transverse depression in centre of caput; thoracic indentation transverse, radial and caput striæ fairly marked; contour of profile rises from thoracic junction at angle of 40°, slopes forwards with a slightly undulating line, rising at ocular eminence, which is moderately developed, slopes abruptly

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forwards, widest in front. Clypeus in height equal to about half facial space.

Posterior row of eyes nearly straight, median pair their diameter apart, twice their space from hind-laterals; anterior row recurved, central pair largest of eight, separated from one another by their diameter and a-half, rather less than that interval from hind-centrals; lateral eyes seated obliquely on moderate tubercles, their radius apart.

Legs moderately stout, femora brownish-lake, clouded with brown, few short yellow spines; double groove on genua and tibiæ, latter articles, metatarsi, and tarsi yellowish-brown, blackish annuli; armature black and white hairs, yellowish spines, tibial spines less than diameter of article in length. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 9 teeth, increasing in length and strength; inferior claw, 2 teeth.

Palpi brown-black, few white hairs, spines numerous; palpal claw 9 teeth, directed forwards.

Falces rather slender, conical, vertical, brown-black.

Maxillœ broad as long, obtusely pointed, inclined towards labium, which is rather pointed; organs chocolate-brown, pale apices.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ, brown-black.

Abdomen somewhat diamond-shape, or broad oval, projects over base of cephalothorax, depressed above, sides convex; integument has a soft black velvety appearance, petiole of leaf-like serrated dorsal mark, dark, with orange-red and yellow sinuated margins, numerous flecks of similar hue on base of abdomen on either side of petiole; tubercles prominent, directed outwards; dorsal mark extends to apices of tubercles, is sharply constricted at central pair of impressed spots, tapers towards spinners, throwing off a few transverse bars, has orange-red tints, with dull-yellowish shading, few black marks in centre; lateral margins longitudinally wrinkled, large irregular-shaped mark of normal tints; sparsely clothed with very fine short hairs, few black erect hairs. Ventral surface dull-black, bright orange-red and yellow marks above spinners, which are short, brown-black. Epigyne represents a somewhat oval, greenish-black, eminence, anterior portion transversely wrinkled, projects moderately forwards, centrally produced into a pendulous, oval, fleshy process, directed backwards; lateral margins form a series of three curved folds.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 4.5; broad, 4. Abd., long, 6; broad, 5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 20, 18, 15, 9 mm.

Cephalothorax light-brown, fore-lateral margins and median indentation dark-olive; fairly clothed with glossy pale stone-coloured hairs; depressed, sides rounded, compressed forwards; median indentation longitudinal, deep, striæ faint; caput

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narrow, depressed, ocular eminence prominent; fore and hind row of eyes much recurved, posterior centrals less than their diameter apart.

Legs same tint as cephalothorax, light-brown annuli on tibiæ and metatarsi, whitish hairs; spines short, yellow-brown, base dark, numerous, especially on tibial joints; femoral joints of 1–2 rather stout; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 8 teeth, inferior claw, 2 short teeth.

Palpi, humeral and cubital joints yellowish, latter applanate, broad, base constricted, projects from apex two long strong bristles, radial joint short, pitchy-red, produced above into a stout upright process, from curved apex there projects forwards a somewhat semi-oval, truncated membrane, finely toothed along truncated end; in centre of article, on outer side, is a rather large mammiform eminence, beneath which is a black curved apophysis, convave above, directed forwards; digital joint large, broad-oval, convex and hairy externally, convexities directed towards each other; palpal organs complex, most remarkable are, at base of bulb, a large black apophysis, concave above, directed forwards; projecting upright from its base is a long, stout, black process, curved forwards at apex; between former projection and apex of bulb is a dark, somewhat membranous, pointed apophysis, projecting from a ring-like base; bulb terminates with several membranous projections, concave beneath, acuminate.

Abdomen, base somewhat rounded, tapers posteriorly from lateral angles; tubercles conical, well-developed.; specific pattern on fore-part bears some resemblance to female's, but has duller tints—which also obtain in some female examples; from the broad transverse band which connects tubercles, a tapering mark, with few acute projections, extends to spinners.

This handsome Epeira is rather uncommon, but mature examples may be met with throughout the winter months—frequents branchlets of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium); the snare, apparently, only consists of a few irregular lines; the cocoon, which she fabricates amongst the slender branches, is sub-globose, composed of coarse dark-green silk of loose texture, about two metres in diameter; comprised within are about 70 or more oval eggs of a pale-brown colour, agglutinated together in a lenticular form. Male rare.

Te Karaka, Auckland, A.T.U.

Epeira bi-albimacula, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 2.3. Abd., long, 4; broad, 2.5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 11, 10, 9.5, 6 mm.

Cephalothorax pellucid stone-brown, caput clouded with

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olive-brown; moderately clothed with light hairs; broad-oval, compressed forwards; median fovea somewhat circular, normal grooves moderately marked; caput convex, projects forwards, lateral index equals space between a fore-lateral eye and the hind-central furthest from it; contour of profile rises from thoracic junction at an angle of 30°, forms a very low arch across caput. Clypeus in height equals diameter of a fore-central eye.

Four central eyes large, seated on a prominent eminence, form a trapezoid, whose anterior side is widest; hind-centrals, which are separated by nearly their diameter, and rather more than that space from fore-centrals, exceed latter a little in size; lateral eyes nearly contiguous, placed obliquely on moderate tubercles, are further from anterior median eyes than those eyes are from each other.

Legs and cephalothorax concolorous, black-brown, olive-tinged annulations, armature pale hairs, numerous black spines; 1–2 equal in strength; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, strong, slightly sinuated, free end curved, 9 open comb-teeth, increasing in length and strength; inferior claw long, sharply bent, 2 teeth.

Palpi long, colour of legs, olive-green annuli; palpal claw long, 12 open teeth.

Falces vertical, somewhat conical, divergent, clear stone-brown, clouded with olive-green.

Maxillœ quadrate, strong, greenish-stone, dark centre. Labium oval, pointed, rather broader than long, resembles maxillæ in colour.

Sternum cordate, glossy black-brown, yellow median line.

Abdomen broad-oviform, slightly convex, projects over base of cephalothorax, clothed with light hairs, and bristle-like black hairs; ground colour brown, mottled with a pale hue; between the rounded tubercular eminences are two remarkable large creamy-yellow spots; tapering posteriorly as far as spinners is a wide acute-crenate red-chestnut and brown mark. Ventral surface light dull-yellow, broad T-shaped black-brown mark. Epigyne large, conical, pendulous, segmented, clear dark-green process, apex directed backwards, tinged with yellow, on either side of process are glossy-black planiform spiral lobes.

Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Epeira saxitalis, sp. nov.

Female, immature.—Ceph. th., long, 2.5; broad, 2.5; facial index, 1. Abd., long, 5.3; broad, 5. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 11.5, 10, 9, 7 mm.

Cephalothorax yellowish, sparsely clothed with light hairs; broad oval, laterally constricted forwards; caput moderately convex, roundly truncated; median indentation somewhat

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diamond-shaped; caput and radial striæ moderately marked; contour rises from thoracic junction at an angle of 45°, slightly arched across caput. Clypeus sensibly directed inwards, in height equal to half facial space.

Eyes on black rings, posterior row sensibly recurved, hind-centrals rather further from anterior pair than they are from each other, an interval slightly exceeding their diameter, their space and a half from hind-laterals; anterior centrals dark, on low eminences, interval between them rather exceeds the space between posterior pair; lateral eyes smallest of eight, seated obliquely on low tubercles, less than their radius apart.

Legs straw-colour, almost devoid of hairs, numerous irregular, erect, light-yellowish spines, dark base, rather less than diameter of tibiæ in length; superior tarsal claws—1st pair fine, moderately curved, free end long, tip bent, 10 close teeth directed forwards, two terminal teeth exceed third by one-half; inferior claw long, fine, 2 small points.

Palpi resemble legs in colour, light hairs, erect bristles, palpal claw form of tarsal, 8 teeth.

Falces glossy, yellowish, conical, project sensibly forwards.

Maxillœ nearly as broad as long, obliquely truncated, yellowish.

Labium rather broader than long, somewhat pointed, nearly half length of maxillæ, greenish tinge.

Sternum cordate, yellow-brown.

Abdomen somewhat diamond-shaped, depressed, projects over base of cephalothorax, short obtuse tubercles at lateral angles; greyish stone-colour, thickly flecked with brown, fine brown streak along median line—in some examples almost obliterated—throwing off series of oblique bars.

This species is common about the cliffs at Waiwera, its stone-colour assimilating with its environment; several immature males, 4 mm. in length, were taken. Resembles female in form and coloration.

Epeira sub-compta, sp. nov. Plate VII., fig. 4.

Female.—Ceph. th. long, 3.2; broad, 3; facial index, 1. Abd. long, 5; broad, 4.7. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 14.5, 13.3, 12, 9 mm.

Cephalothorax yellowish-amber colour, clothed with few light hairs, spine-like bristles on caput, striæ of latter and median indentation chocolate - brown; thorax moderately depressed, broad, sides rounded, curvature directed somewhat backwards; normal grooves well-marked; caput applanate (viewed from above), somewhat conical, sides compressed, lateral index about equal to space between a hind-lateral eye and the hind-central next to it; profile line rises at an angle of 30°, runs with a faint

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slope to posterior central eyes, dips abruptly across facial space. Height of clypeus equals space between fore-median eyes.

Posterior row of eyes recurved, interval between median pair equals their diameter; anterior row recurved, centrals slightly largest of eight, rather more than their breadth from each other, separated by latter space from hind-pair; lateral eyes placed obliquely on separate tubercles, their diameter apart, fore-tubercle prominent.

Legs moderately strong, concolorous to cephalothorax, broad chocolate-brown annulations; light and dark stiff hairs; femora convex above, few short spines; genual joint half-length of tibial, both articles have two well-marked longitudinal grooves; tibiæ and metatarsi have few irregular yellowish spines above, former double-row of 4 beneath, latter two rows of 6. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair moderately curved, 9 open comb-teeth, points curving slightly backwards; inferior claw, 2 points.

Palpi moderately stout, rather longer than cephalothorax, resemble legs in colour and armature; palpal claw long, moderately curved, 10 comb-teeth, increasing in length and strength, directed forwards.

Falces strong, vertical, somewhat conical, project at base in front, divergent, yellowish, suffused with chocolate-brown.

Maxillœ nearly as broad as long, obtusely pointed, inclined towards labium, which is broader than long, pointed; organs yellowish, base dark.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ, yellowish-brown, suffused with darker hue.

Abdomen somewhat oviform, posterior end transversely wrinkled, base broad, projects over thorax, slightly convex above, sides rounded, longitudinally wrinkled; sparsely clothed with short light hairs, few bristles; a broad, coarsely runcinate, median band tapers to spinners, mottled brown, inner marginal streak black-brown, outer creamy-yellow, in centre of dorsal band is a—not clearly defined—acute-crenate chocolate mark, few creamy-yellow marginal lines; lateral margin yellow stone - colour, series of somewhat sinuated, brown-black, oblique lines converge towards spinners. On ventral surface there is a large, somewhat quadrate, shield-shaped dark olivaceous mark, with two large creamy-yellow spots near spinners. Epigyne transverse oval, encircled by two broad projecting membranes, outer yellowish, inner shades off to chocolate-brown on posterior side, is confluent with outer anterior side, from whence they are produced into a broad tapering central keel, connected at its truncated apex with outer membrane; dark inner membrane incurvate within concavities, on either side of keel; projecting over labia is a broad, pendulous, segmented, contorted, yellowish process, applanate and incurved at apex.

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α. Annulations on tibiæ and metatarsi faint. Superior surface of abdomen creamy-yellow; specific pattern resembles type form, more defined; apices of runcinate band black-brown, between teeth are a series of three acute black-brown marks.

Two specimens, Whangarei Harbour, T. Brown,

Epeira viriditas, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 4; broad, 3.5; facial index, 1.4. Abd., long, 5; broad, 4. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 15, 14, 13, 8 mm.

Cephalothorax greenish straw-colour, suffused with bright pea-green; hairs very sparse and fine; sides rounded, laterally constricted at caput, which is depressed, lateral index equals space between a fore-lateral eye and the hind-central furthest from it; ocular eminence moderately prominent; median indentation transverse, radial and caput striæ fairly marked; contour of profile rises at an angle of 30°, slopes, with slight curve, to ocular area. Height of clypeus equals radius of a fore-central eye.

Eyes on lake-coloured rings; posterior row straight, interval between median pair slightly exceeds their diameter, nearly twice their space from hind-laterals; anterior row recurved; median pair, which are slightly larger than hind pair, about their breadth and a half apart, rather less than interval from posterior centrals, their space from fore-laterals; side eyes placed on low separate tubercles, about their radius from one another.

Legs concolorous to cephalothorax; rather stout, armature sparse, short, whitish hairs, lake-tinged spines numerous on tibiæ and metatarsi, 10–12 on inferior surface, latter article and tarsi tinged with lake-colour; superior tarsal claws—1st pair 9 teeth, 5 basal close, terminal strong; inferior claw sharply bent, 2 teeth.

Palpi resemble legs in colour and armature; palpal claw 8 teeth.

Falces moderately stout, conical, directed somewhat inwards, pea-green; fangs, dark lake-colour.

Maxillœ nearly as broad as long, obtusely truncated, inclined towards labium, which is rather broader than long, roundly, pointed, everted; organs pea-green, yellowish margins.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ, yellowish, clouded with pea-green.

Abdomen oviform, base somewhat pointed; very sparsely clothed with short light hairs; dorsal surface covered by a bright, deep pea-green, yellow margined, oviform mark; lateral margins greenish-black. On ventral surface is a green, yellow-

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margined, shield-shaped mark. Epigyne represents a yellowish, transversely wrinkled, cucullate eminence; projecting outwards from beneath hood-like membrane, is a broad, long, clear greenish-yellow, linear process; about 12 well-defined segments, concave above, apex cupuliform; integument at base of process produced, at right angles to it, into large, somewhat conchiform projections, with brown margins, curving inwards beneath process.

Frequents Leptospermum; Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Epeira discolora, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th. long, 3; broad, 2.2; facial index, 1. Abd., long, 5; broad, 4. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 12, 11, 9.2, 5 mm.

Cephalothorax yellow amber-colour, suffused with reddish-amber, hairs sparse, whitish; oval, rather depressed, moderately constricted forwards; caput roundly truncated, ocular eminence moderately prominent, lateral index equals space between fore-lateral eyes; median fovea somewhat circular, deep, radial and caput striæ fairly marked; contour of profile rises from thoracic junction at an angle of 60°, dips slightly across caput. Clypeus vertical, in height equal to diameter of a fore-central eye.

Posterior row of eyes sensibly recurved; centrals separated by an interval that slightly exceeds their diameter, little more than their space from hind-laterals; anterior row recurved, median pair rather smaller, and further apart than are posterior pair; interval between fore and hind-centrals rather exceeds space between latter pair; lateral eyes seated obliquely on black tubercles, less than their radius from each other.

Legs rather slender, yellow-amber colour, reddish annuli, femora of first pair clouded with olive-green; sparsely furnished with short hairs, erect black spines; tibial and metatarsal spines exceed diameter of those articles in length. Superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 11 comb-teeth, increasing in length and strength; inferior claw, 2 teeth.

Palpi moderately slender, about length of cephalothorax, yellowish, spines numerous; palpal claw like tarsal, 8 teeth.

Falces strong, conical, vertical, red-amber colour.

Maxillœ broad, rounded, inclined towards labium, which is nearly twice as broad as long, everted; organs yellowish, base chocolate-brown.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ, brown, yellowish streaks in centre.

Abdomen oviform, convex above, projects over base of cephalothorax; dorsal surface covered by an oviform pea-green mark, margins brown, sinuated; on its fore-part there is a creamy-white angular line, vertex directed forward, base extends back to central pair of impressed spots, between latter

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and spinners are two or more whitish spots; upper portion of lateral margins rich maroon, lower greenish-brown oval patch, with creamy margins. Ventral surface brown, two longitudinal whitish streaks and spots. Epigyne yellowish, moderately convex, somewhat triangular, transversely wrinkled, cucullate membrane, centrally produced into a short involute lip; dark margins of hood-like membrane project a little forwards, from base of lip curve backwards, forming large lateral loops, confluent beneath lip.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 2.4. Abd., long, 3.2; broad, 2. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 14, 12, 10, 7 mm.

Cephalothorax yellowish-amber, slightly suffused with darker hue; broad oval, fore-part of caput more depressed than female's, contour of profile low arch; median indentation and striæ well marked.

Legs concolorous to female's; femoral spines exceed diameter of article in length, numerous on 1–2; margin of coxæ, 1st pair, produced on inner side into a short curved apophysis.

Palpi yellowish, few pale hairs, humeral joint short, small curved spine on fore-end; cubital short, complanate, fore-angles produced into cylindrical tubercles, from which project remarkably long, strong bristles, outer angle produced into a stout conical apophysis; radial joint cyathiform, length about equal to diameter of cubital, attached to inferior surface of latter joint; digital joint large, somewhat globose, reddish tints, convexities hairy, directed towards each other; palpal organs complex, superior surface, large, brownish, convex disc, dark margins of which are produced into a curved, tapering apophysis, directed backwards; most remarkable, projecting from inferior surface of bulb are two broad curved apophyses near articulation of joints, terminating in several black points; between these and the terminal, long, tapering, black process, which is directed downwards and somewhat backwards, are two large, broad-conical eminences directed downwards.

Abdomen small, oviform, pea-green, varies somewhat in coloration.

This species varies in colour, lateral margins in some examples being brown or green, in others the abdomen has a yellowish tinge.

Not uncommon; usually frequents manuka (Leptospermum); forms a moderate-sized web; pairs in November.

Te Karaka, A.T.U.

Epeira verutum, sp, nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3.5; broad, 2.5. Abd., long, 6; broad, 4.7. Legs 1, 2, 4, 3 = 11, 9, 8, 6.5 mm.

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Cephalothorax yellow-brown, suffused with red-chestnut; hairs greyish, sparse; broad-oval, constricted laterally forwards, depressed; caput roundly truncated, lateral index nearly equals space between fore-lateral eyes; ocular eminence low; median indentation transverse, normal grooves well-marked. Clypeus vertical, height exceeds diameter of a fore-central eye.

Posterior row of eyes moderately recurved, median pair about their diameter apart, rather more than their breadth from anterior centrals, which are separated by about their diameter and a half, and rather more than that interval from the side-eyes next to them; laterals seated obliquely on dark tubercles, about their radius from each other.

Legs moderately strong, concolorous to cephalothorax, more or less defined greenish annulations; armature darkish hairs and spines; length of tibial spines about equal to diameter of article.; superior tarsal claws—1st pair evenly curved, 11 teeth, 4 outer open, curved backwards; inferior claw long, sharply bent, teeth small.

Palpi moderately slender, armature and colour of legs; palpal claw moderately curved, 6 teeth, increasing much in length and strength.

Falces vertical, conical, tumid at base in front, strong teeth; similar to legs in colour.

Maxillœ broad, inclined towards labium, which is nearly as long as broad, somewhat pointed, everted; yellowish-green, base dark.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ, chocolate-brown colour.

Abdomen ovoid, projects over base of cephalothorax, on dorsal surface is a broad, pale pea-green, yellow-margined lance-like mark, basal angles obtuse, shaft tapers posteriorly; the four central, well-marked, impressed spots on lance-head form a trapezoid; lateral margins dark velvety - brown. Epigyne represents a yellowish-green, transversely wrinkled, moderately prominent, semicircular eminence, centrally produced into a broad, transversely wrinkled process, directed backwards, concave above, apex somewhat calceolate; projecting laterally from base of lip are large processes, terminating with somewhat planiform spiral lobes.

Female.—Var. veruina, var. nov.

Cephalothorax, legs, and palpi do not differ essentially in coloration from type form. Abdomen light brown, shading off on lateral margins to a soft dark brown, specific mark pale chalky-green edged with buff, sharply constricted at posterior pair of central impressed spots, giving it the form of an arrow, with a well-defined shaft: on posterior half of abdomen is a brownish band, with sinuated margins.

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Var. hastatum, var. nov. Plate VIII., fig. 2.

Female.Cephalothorax and legs resemble type form. Abdomen light-brown above, graduating to a darker shade on lateral margins; dorsal surface covered by a more or less defined somewhat oviform brown mark, with sinuated margins; specific mark differs in form from that of var. veruina, constriction defining arrow-head being in line with anterior pair of central impressed spots; in line with posterior pair is an obtuse - angled transverse bar, shaft tapers off to spinners.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 2. Abd. long, 3.6; broad, 2.7. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 11, 9, 8, 6 mm.

Cephalothorax. yellowish-brown, greenish-tinge; caput slightly more compressed than female's.

Legs yellow-brown, olivaceous annulations; coxæ of first pair produced, on outer side, into a short curved apophysis; femoral spines of latter pair strong, tibial exceed diameter of article in length.

Palpi yellowish, humeral joint slender, short; cubital, broad, somewhat oval, complanate, truncated at apex, projecting from short cylindroid tubercles, at each angle are long bristles; radial joint articulated to inferior surface of cubital, nearly twice diameter of latter joint, umbraculiform; digital joint large, somewhat oval, convexities moderately hairy, directed towards each other, base of convexity produced on outer side into a reddish-brown curved apophysis, concave on superior surface; beneath it is a large, conical, yellowish process, directed downwards and outwards; superior surface of bulb semi-globose, transversely striated, crumpled on inner side into a hippocrepiform eminence, lobe beneath, terminates in a short beak-like process, concave within, directed downwards; remaining most remarkable projections are, a short, broad, pale, rugose membrane, curving upwards towards point of beak, and a large yellowish and black claw-like apophysis projecting from apex of joint, curved backwards.

Abdomen oviform, coloration and markings resemble female.

Var. lineola, var. nov.

Abdomen brown, oviform mark nearly obliterated, specific pattern reduced to a narrow longitudinal line, with similar tints; in some examples faint trace of arrow-like mark.

Examples of this interesting species, and the more or less clearly defined varieties, were numerous on low shrubs, about the summit of Arthur's Pass; I also captured them at Lake Alexandra, Mackenzie Plains, Canterbury. Examples of var. hastatum have been sent to me by F. Goyen, Esq., Dunedin.

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Epeira linea-acuta, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 2.8; facial index, 1. Abd., long, 5; broad, 4. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3=10.5, 9.5, 9.5, 6.5 mm.

Cephalothorax greenish, hairs sparse, grey; depressed, sides rounded, laterally constricted forwards; caput roundly truncated, ocular eminence low, lateral index equal to space between a fore-lateral eye and the hind-central nearest to it; median fovea deep, striæ fairly marked; profile line rises from thoracic junction at an angle of 30°, forms slight arch across caput. Height of clypeus about equal to diameter of an anterior central eye.

Eyes on dark rings; posterior row sensibly recurved; median pair rather more than their diameter apart, their space and a quarter from hind-laterals; anterior row recurved, centrals nearly twice their breadth from each other, rather less than that interval from hind-centrals, nearly their space from side-eyes next to them; laterals seated obliquely on low tubercles, separated by about their diameter.

Legs moderately stout; clear yellowish-green, brownish annulations; short grey hairs, spines rather numerous, yellowish, double row of five beneath tibiæ and metatarsi; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 9 teeth; inferior claw, 2 strong teeth.

Palpi rather slight, yellowish-green; palpal claw straighter than tarsal, 9 teeth.

Falces conical, directed somewhat inwards, greenish-yellow.

Maxillœ nearly as broad as long, obtusely pointed, inclined towards labium, which is triangular, almost twice as broad as long; organs yellowish, base greenish.

Sternum cordate, eminences opposite coxæ, yellowish, olive tinge.

Abdomen somewhat oviform, broad, sensibly convex above, sides rounded, projects moderately over base of cephalothorax; sparsely clothed with short fine hairs; dorsal surface covered by a large, mottled, greenish-yellow oviform mark, margined by two streaks, inner white, outer brown, graduating off to green; four central impressed spots form a trapezoid, 1st pair placed close to apex at base; on either side, and directed towards 2nd pair, are two fine brown lines forming an acute angle; extending outwards from spinners to 3rd pair are a series of four brown lines—outer streaks in most examples form a curve connected with narrow dorsal line. On ventral surface there is a wide green band, white and brown margins. Epigyne represents a broad, transversely wrinkled, yellowish eminence, centrally produced into a short, pendulous, cupuliform, wrinkled process, directed backwards; projecting at right angles from base of process are two smaller, somewhat vermiform, short

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thick processes, base of which consists of two well-defined segments; apices conical, smooth.

Male.—Ceph. th., long, 3; broad, 3.4. Abd., long, 3.5; broad, 3. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 12, 11, 10, 6 mm.

Cephalothorax deeper green, caput more compressed laterally, ocular eminence projects more over clypeus, and tubercles of anterior lateral eyes more prominent than female's.

Legs strong, yellowish-green; annuli well marked.

Palpi short, greenish; cubital joint about half length of humeral, applanate, projecting from truncated apex are two long bristles; radial joint articulated to inferior surface of cubital; projecting outwards and downwards is a large, yellowish, conoid process; above is a broad, spiral apophysis; apex dark-lake, directed outwards, curving inwards; digital joint large, somewhat oval, convexities hairy, directed towards each other; palpal organs complex, superior surface of bulb striated, apex partially cleft through, exposing inner dark lobe: lower, smooth portion of bulb terminates in a remarkable claw-like process; projecting downwards are two wide, darkish, semi-pellucid, membranous processes.

Abdomen resembles female's in coloration and pattern.

Numerous examples. Lake Tekapo, Canterbury, A.T.U.

Epeira purpura, sp. nov.

Female.—Ceph. th., long, 3.2; broad, 2.8; facial index, 1.2. Abd., long, 7; broad, 6. Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3 = 12.5, 11.5, 10, 6 mm.

Cephalothorax yellowish-amber, suffused with red-lake; hairs sparse, light; rather depressed, sides rounded, constricted at caput, which is roundly truncated, ocular eminence low, lateral index less than interval between a fore-lateral and the hind-median eye furthest from it; normal grooves not well-marked; contour of profile rises at an angle of 45°, slopes forwards with a slight curve to occiput; clypeus in height equals diameter of a fore-central eye.

Posterior row of eyes slightly recurved, median pair rather more than their breadth apart, their space and a quarter from hind-laterals; anterior row moderately recurved, centrals separated by an interval equal to nearly twice their diameter, rather more than their breadth from hind-pair, nearly their space from fore-laterals; side-eyes seated obliquely on separated tubercles, nearly contiguous.

Legs rather slight, yellowish-amber colour, suffused with red-lake; armature few light hairs, spines numerous, double row of 5 on inferior surface of tibiæ, about equal number under metatarsi; superior tarsal claws—1st pair, 9 comb-teeth; inferior claw strong, 2 teeth.

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Palpi resemble legs in colour and armature; palpal claw somewhat like tarsal, 8 teeth.

Falces vertical, conical, moderately stout, yellowish.

Maxillœ longer than broad, somewhat spathulate, inclined towards labium, which is pointed, rather broader than long; organs brownish, pale apices.

Sternum cordate, nearly as broad as long, eminences opposite coxæ; chocolate-brown.

Abdomen large, base obtusely pointed, lateral angles prominent, pointed posteriorly; sensibly convex above, sides slope inwards; creamy-white transverse band connects angles, thickly marked with large irregularly-shaped creamy-white flecks, which are intersected by lake-purple vein-like lines; very sparsely clothed with short, fine hairs. Dark-green yellow-margined shield-shaped mark on ventral surface; epigyne yellowish, broad, somewhat vermiform process, segments well-developed, apex calceolate: three-fourths of pendulous process is attached to a wide membrane, beaded margins of which are involute on posterior side.

Single specimen. Te Karaka, A.T.U.