Art.. XXVIII.—Descriptions of New Spiders.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 17th November, 1886.]
Genus Lycosa, Latr.
Lycosa virgata, sp. n.
Mas.—Length, 8 mm. The sexes do not differ greatly in size.
Cephalothorax brown, with a brownish-yellow stripe extending on each side from the posterior margin to the middle row of eyes, and a median line of the same hue extending
from the base of the posterior slope to the hindmost row of eyes, behind which it is widest. On each lateral slope there are a few dark-brown triangular flecks. Falces and sternum pale-brown; legs, palpi, and spinners brownish-yellow, flecked with brown; abdomen dark-brown above, with a narrow median band of pale-yellow extending from the base to a point about a third of the length of the abdomen from the spinners, and on each side of this band runs, from the base to the spinners, a line of rather indistinct dark flecks. The colouration and markings are similar in the female, but of a lighter shade.
Cephalothorax about 1 mm. longer than broad at its broadest part, somewhat longer than the patella and tibia of a leg of the fourth pair, about twice as broad at the third pair of legs as at the caput, rounded at the sides; posterior slope very and lateral slope moderately steep, not convex above; ocular area very hairy, and slightly sloping forward from the posterior to the central pair of eyes.
Front row of eyes curved backwards and shorter than the middle row, which is shorter than the posterior row; eyes of anterior row very small, and about equally distant from one another; those of the posterior row smaller than those of the middle row.
Falces slightly convex near the base, only slightly diverging towards the extremities, groove toothed on each side: on the under-side 3 teeth, 2 large and 1 small, and on the upper side 1 large tooth, with a very minute one on each side of it; claw short and slender.
Maxillœ slightly inclined to the lip, small at the base and gradually becoming larger towards the extremities; rounded in front on the outer side, and having a dense fringe of fine hair on the inner side.
Lip only slightly convex, more than half as long as the maxillæ; constricted at the base, broadest near the middle, and slightly rounded in front.
Sternum ovate-cordate, with a median groove extending from the anterior to the posterior margin.
Abdomen ovate, about as long as and slightly narrower than the cephalothorax, densely hairy; spinners somewhat divergent, inferior pair longer and stouter than the superior pair; anus prominent.
Legs 4, 1, 2, 3; no spines on the tarsi, nor on the under-side of the femora and patellæ. The patellæ of the first and second pairs are without spines, but those of the third and fourth pairs have one or two slender spines on the superior surface. The femora of all the legs are spinous above, and the tibiæ and metatarsi above and below.
Palpi armed with spines above only; humeral joint thickest at the fore extremity, bent outwards and laterally compressed;
cubital joint somewhat longer than the radial, but not so strong; digital joint beak-like; bulbus genitalis brown, situated in a hollow at the base of the digital joint, globular, deeply cleft at the anterior surface; from the inner lobe spring two corneous processes, the one nearest the middle of the bulbus being long, bent outwards at right angles near its middle part, and having its exposed surface somewhat plane and its end divided; the other short, conical, straight, and directed downwards and slightly towards the centre of the bulbus; bulbus marked transversely by a sinuous shallow groove with brown margins. The vulva of the female consists of two semicircular orifices separated by a high narrow septum; posterior margin highest opposite the septum.
Hab. Otago: very common in open country. P.G.
Lycosa canescens, n. sp.
Mas.—Length, 7 mm. The sexes do not differ greatly in size.
Cephalothorax of a brown ground-colour, densely covered with a yellowish-grey pubescence; falces, sternum, lip, and maxillæ brown (the two latter of a paler hue than the two former); legs and palpi brownish-yellow, flecked and annulated with brown; abdomen of the same ground-colour, and furnished with the same kind of pubescence as the cephalothorax, having on its dorsal surface a narrow medial band of whitish hair extending from the base to the middle, and from this point on each side and at the same distance from the centre a line of pale coloured spots; spinners brownish-yellow. The colour and pubescence of the female resemble those of the male, but the abdominal markings are either very indistinct or wholly absent.
Cephalothorax about 1 mm. longer than broad at its broadest part, about as long as the patella + tibia of a leg of the 4th pair, nearly three times as broad at the 3rd pair of legs as at anterior angle of the caput, rounded at the sides, posterior and lateral slope moderately steep, not convex above, and slightly sloping forwards from the posterior to the central pair of eyes.
Anterior row of eyes curved backwards, only very slightly shorter than the middle row, which is shorter than the posterior row; eyes of anterior row small, not differing greatly in size, centrals nearer to the laterals than to each other; eyes of middle and posterior rows large, and not differing greatly in size.
Falces slightly convex, and slightly diverging towards the extremities; groove-toothed on each side; on the under side 3 teeth, and on the upper side 2 teeth; claw short, and very strong at the base.
Maxillœ slightly convex, smaller at the base than at the fore extremities, rounded on the outside and in front, where on the inner side there is a very dense fringe. Lip convex, about half
as long as the maxillæ, widest near the middle, the fore extremity slightly rounded in the female, and almost truncate in the male.
Sternum ovate-cordate, glossy, and slightly convex.
Abdomen ovate, of the male about as long as but slightly narrower than the cephalothorax, of the female longer than the cephalothorax and about as broad. Spinners prominent, inferior pair longer and stouter than the superior pair.
Legs 4, 1, 2, 3; all the joints armed with spines except the tarsi, and the patellæ and femora have no spines on their inferior surface.
Palpi furnished with spines on the superior surface only; humeral joint thickest at the fore extremity, bent outwards and laterally compressed; cubital and radial joints not differing greatly in length and strength; digital joint beak-like; bulbus genitalis brown, situated in a hollow at the base of the digital joint, resembling that of L. virgata, except that the shorter spine is much less distinct, and directed towards the base of the larger one.
Vulva of female not so long as, and more rounded posteriorly than that of L. virgata; and the exterior orifice is only partially divided by a deep lobe extending from the centre of the anterior margin half-way across it.
Hab. Otago. P.G.
I have never found this spider anywhere but in river-beds, and from the density of its pubescence I think it highly probable, though I have never seen it in water, that it seeks its prey in water as well as on land.
Lycosa taylori, n. sp.
Mas.—Length, 11 mm.
Cephalothorax brown, with a brownish-yellow central area of highly irregular and ornamental outline, and a longitudinal band of the same hue on each side; the tibial, metatarsal, and tarsal joints of the legs brown, the other joints brownish-yellow flecked with brown; digital joint of palpi brown, the other joints of the same hue as the femoral and patellar joints of the legs; falces reddish-brown; lip brown; maxillæ brown at the base, and passing into brownish-yellow towards the extremities; sternum dark brown, with a medial longitudinal band of brownish-yellow which dilates towards the posterior extremity, where it covers the whole surface; abdomen, above dark brown mottled with black and yellow, below brown-yellow, sparingly flecked with black: at the base of the dorsal surface there is a large T-shaped yellow fleck, and towards the spinners on each side a large oval fleck of the same hue; spinners brownish-yellow.
Cephalothorax 1 mm. longer than broad at its broadest part, about as long as the patellar + the tibial joint of a leg of the
4th pair, moderately constricted at the caput; posterior and lateral slopes moderately steep, not convex above, rounded at the sides, fovea very distinct.
Front row of eyes somewhat bent backwards, very small, centrals larger than the laterals and nearer to those than to each other; eyes of middle row distinctly larger than those of the hinder row, and distant from the laterals of the front row by about the diameter of a fore-central eye: the hind row is the longest, and the middle somewhat longer than the front row.
Falces convex, and slightly diverging towards the extremities; groove toothed, 2 teeth, one much larger than the other, on the upper side; and 3, 1 small and 2 large, on the lower; claw moderately long, and strong at the base.
Maxillœ convex, smallest at the base and gradually increasing in breadth towards the extremities, rounded on the outside and truncated on the inside in front, where there is a dense fringe, and somewhat inclined to the lip.
Lip half as long as the maxillæ, convex, narrowest at the base and broadest towards the middle, very slightly rounded in front, and having immediately behind its fore-margin two distinct dents.
Sternum cordate, and somewhat convex.
Abdomen oblong-ovate, slightly narrower and about 1 mm. longer than the cephalothorax; spinners not prominent, superior and inferior pairs not differing greatly in length.
Legs 4, 1, 2, 3 (1 and 2 almost equal); all the joints of 3 and 4, except the tarsi, armed with spines, and also all those of 1 and 2, except the tarsal and patellar joints; but only the tibiæ and metatarsi have spines on the inferior surface.
Humeral joint of palpi bent outwards, laterally compressed, stouter at the extremities than elsewhere, and armed with numerous spines on the superior surface; cubital joint longer than but not so strong as the radial; digital joint beak-like, about as long as radial + cubital; bulbus genitalis situated in a hollow at the base of the digital joint, brown, globular in outline, hollowed out in front, cleft at the sides, having two corneous processes in front, both springing from near the centre of the bulb, and directed outwards; the inner the longer, much bent, deeply grooved on the inner side of the basal half, and near its extremity suddenly contracted on the posterior side; the outer legs bent, having the same general direction as the inner, and lying partly under it. There is a transverse groove at the base of the bulb, and the largest lobe is crossed by a sinuous brown band.
Female: Not seen.
Hab. Leith Valley, near Dunedin; under stones. P.G.
A very handsome spider, and named in honour of Wm. Taylor, Esq., Inspector of Schools, to whom I am indebted for several rare spiders.
Lycosa œrescens, n. sp.
Mas.—Length, 9 ½ mm.
Cephalothorax greenish-brown, with a pale-yellow fleck on the caput behind each posterior eye, and a heart-shaped fleck of the same hue behind the junction of the caput with the thorax; lateral margins pale-yellow, with a fleck or two of brown; thoracic fovea reddish; falces reddish-brown; lip and maxillæ palish-brown; sternum brown; legs and palpi yellow, with brown extremities, and a few brown flecks on the femora, patellæ and tibiæ; abdomen above of the same hue as the cephalothorax, with a median longitudinal band of palish-yellow, bordered on each side by an irregular streak of brown, and extending from the base to a point somewhat beyond the middle, where the brown borders diverge, and thence towards the spinners crossed by short bars of brown; at the sides greyish mottled with brown; below reddish-brown, with two longitudinal rows of very minute brown spots, extending from behind the genital aperture to near the spinners. These spots are due to minute bald depressions in the integument. The whole body is rather densely covered with a fine pale pubescence.
Cephalothorax about 1 mm. longer than broad at its broadest part, not quite so long as the patella + tibia of a leg of the 4th pair, less than 2 mm. wide at the inferior margin of the fore part of the caput, and considerably narrower than this at the top in front.
Front row of eyes slightly bent backwards, small, centrals slightly larger than the laterals, and nearer to those than to each other; eyes of middle row distinctly larger than those of the hind row, and separated from the fore-laterals by about the diameter of one of the latter. The hind row is the longest, but the fore and middle row do not differ much in length. The eyes of the hind and middle row and the laterals of the front row are placed on black spots.
Falces long, somewhat convex and slightly diverging towards the extremities; groove toothed on both sides—on the underside 3, and on the upper side 2 teeth, the posterior one being the smallest on each side. Claw moderately long and slender.
Maxillœ convex, increasing gradually in width from the base to the anterior extremities, slightly rounded on the outside, and almost truncate in front, where there is a very dense tuft of hair on the inner angle of each. Lip about half as long as the maxillæ, tumid at the base, then slightly constricted, then widening to near the middle, then becoming slightly narrower towards the anterior extremity, which is truncate.
Sternum cordate, glossy, and convex.
Abdomen ovate, about as wide as and about 1 mm. longer than the cephalothorax; spinners compact and moderately prominent,
superior and inferior pairs not differing greatly in length and strength.
Legs 1 and 2 almost equal, 4th pair the longest and the 3rd the shortest; no spines on the tarsi; metatarsi and tibiæ spinous above and below; patellæ and femora spinous above only (patellæ of 1st pair with only 1 spine above, or none).
Palpi spinous above, but without spines below; near the anterior extremity of the humeral joint 4 spines, and behind these, at considerable intervals, 1, 1; humeral joint about equal in length to the radial + the cubital joint, bent, laterally compressed, thickest at the anterior extremity; cubital joint slightly longer than the radial, but not quite so strong; digital joint much shorter than the radial and cubital together, beak-like in shape; bulbus genitalis situated at the base of the beak, globular in outline, deeply cleft from the middle to the anterior surface. From the inner lobe of the bulbus springs a curved horny process, the direction of which is outwards and backwards, and the exposed surface of which is almost plain.
I have but one example of the female of this species. It does not differ much in size from the male, and resembles it in colours and markings as well as in other essential specific characters. The vulva is brown, semicircular in outline, with sharp ends directed backwards, and consists of two roundish apertures separated by a septum, anteriorly very slightly and posteriorly greatly dilated.
Found under stones in the Valley of the Waitaki. P.G.
The species of Lycosa described above are easily distinguished by their colours and markings alone.
Genus Hexathele, Ausserer.
Hexathele petreii, n. sp.
Fem.—Length, 20 mm.
Cephalothorax brown-yellow, somewhat darker at the pars cephalica than at the pars thoracica; falces dark-brown; lip brown, becoming paler towards the anterior extremity; maxillæ yellow-brown; sternum, legs, and palpi brownish-yellow. The abdomen above of the same hue as the cephalothorax, with a fleck of brown at the base, and a median longitudinal dark knotted band commencing at a small distance behind this basal fleck, and extending towards the spinners to a point beyond the middle, from which point to the spinners the abdomen is crossed obliquely by a double row of 2 to 4 bands of the same hue. In some examples there are faint indications that at some stage of the animal's existence a pair of oblique dark bands is thrown off from each knot of the median band. On the ventral
surface the abdomen is brown, mottled with brown yellow; posterior side of spiracular plates whitish; spinners of the same colour as the legs. The whole body, except the cephalothorax, is copiously furnished with dark hair.
Cephalothorax as long as the patella + tibia of a leg of the fourth pair; about 1 mm. longer than broad at its broadest part, and rather more than 1 mm. narrower at the fore-part of the caput than at its broadest part; truncated in front and behind; slightly rounded at the side; pars cephalica high; pars thoracica low; thoracic fovea deep, broad and rounded behind, and narrower and somewhat angular in front; lateral furrows well-marked; caput and thorax distinct.
The eyes in two rows, the anterior row bent backwards, and the posterior forwards, the latter longer than the former; the fore-centrals round, and the fore-laterals largish, round, and posited somewhat obliquely, the centrals about as distant from each other as from the laterals; eyes of posterior row longish, round, and posited obliquely, the centrals much smaller than the laterals and almost contiguous to them, and about as distant from the fore-centrals as these are from the fore-laterals; the hind-laterals nearer to the fore-laterals than these are to the fore-centrals; a few bristly hairs behind the ocular area, and a tuft in front of the fore-centrals.
Falces very long and strong, projecting 5 mm. beyond the clypeus, strongly convex, almost glabrous on the outer side, and abundantly furnished with bristly hairs on the inner side and in front; claw long and moderately strong; groove with a large number of teeth on each side, those on the inner side large, and those on the outer side minute.
Maxillœ strongly diverging, in shape resembling the exinguinal joints of the legs and not differing greatly in length from them, the basal half furnished with short black spines, and the fore-margin with a fringe of fine reddish hair. Lip triangular in outline, about as broad as the base is long, convex, separated from the sternum by a semicircular groove, and armed in front with very short blunt spines.
Sternum broadly elliptical, emarginated at the anterior and somewhat pointed at the posterior extremity, the sides somewhat projecting opposite the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd pairs of legs, and behind each projection there is a roundish bald dent.
Abdomen broadly ovate, narrowest towards the base, 12 mm. long and 9 mm. broad at its broadest part, and projecting over the thorax.
The spinners of each fore-pair near each other; the outer short and truncated, the inner nearly as long again as the outer and rounded towards the extremity; the posterior pair very long, about 6 mm.
Palpi about as long as cephalothorax + falces; humeral joint much bent outwards, and laterally compressed; cubital joint thickened towards the fore-extremity and shorter than the radial joint, the latter not differing much in length from the digital joint; all the joints armed with spines, but the two anterior ones much more copiously than the rest, and the humeral and cubital have them above only, and the other joints at the sides and below only; digital joint terminated by a single pectinated claw.
Legs, 4, 1, 2 and 3 about equal; tarsi of 1st and 2nd pairs without spines, those of the 3rd and 4th pairs armed with spines below only; metatarsi of 3rd and 4th pairs armed with spines above and below, those of the 1st and 2nd pairs below and at the sides; tibiæ of all the legs furnished with spines at the sides and below, and those of the 3rd pair sometimes have one or two spines above; patellæ spinous at the sides only; femora all armed with spines above, but not below. At the fore extremity of the coxal joint there is a fringe of fine spines, and a few spines are found at the fore extremity of the exinguinal joint. Claws 3, long and strong; superior pectinated, inferior much bent but without teeth.
Mas.—The male resembles the female in colour and markings, except that the palpi and the 1st pair of legs are reddish-brown. The dimensions of the cephalothorax and its appendages—except the falces, which are much smaller—do not differ much from those of the female; but the abdomen, though its length and breadth have about the same ratio to each other, is much smaller. The tibiæ and metatarsi of the 1st pair of legs differ greatly in shape and armature from those of the corresponding pair in the female. The tibiæ are very turgid, and, in addition to the ordinary spines below and at the sides, furnished with two very stout bent spines at the fore-extremity, the inner of which is longer and stouter than the outer. The basal half of the metatarsi is bow-shaped, with the are directed upwards and outwards; the joint is much thickened at the anterior end of the are, and furnished with one spine in the middle and one at the anterior end, on the outside of the are, and two on the underside at the fore-extremity of the joint. Bulbus genitalis directed backwards, turbinate, and drawn out into a long, thin, slightly bent, sharp-pointed spine.
Hab. Interior of Otago, D. Petrie: P.G.
Named in honour of D. Petrie, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., by whom it was discovered, and to whom I am greatly indebted for a large number of interesting spiders and much assistance in botanical work.
The tube is circular, very large and deep, not differing much in diameter throughout its whole length, and, like that of Nemesia, though less thickly, lined with web, but without a lid.
For an inch or two round the mouth there is spun a loose, coarse web, for the purpose, probably, of entrapping beetles and other insects that its occupant preys upon. This web appears to be more or less continuous with the lining of the nest, and makes the mouth of the tube appear slightly funnel-shaped. When the spider is absent on a foraging expedition, the nest is left quite open, but when it re-enters the nest it generally spins a few threads of web across it, at or near the top.
Genus Migus, Kirk.
Mas.—Length, 9 mm.
Pars thoracica brownish-yellow, with the anterior and lateral margins of the fovea dark brown; pars cephalica greenish brown-yellow; sternum pale, and maxillæ brownish-yellow; lip of a greenish hue at the basal half, and of the same hue as the maxillæ towards the front; falces greenish brown-yellow with a bright reddish brown fang; the exinguinal and coxal joints of the legs pale yellow, the other joints and the palpi of the same colour as the falces. The abdomen above dark brown, minutely speckled with pale brown spots, and having two longitudinal rows of elongate, obliquely posited, spots of the same hue; below pale yellow towards the base, and of the same hue as the dorsal surface towards the spinners; spinners pale yellow. The cephalothorax is glabrous, except at the lateral margins, where there is a fringe of dark hairs directed upwards, and between the eyes and the fovea where there are a few dark bristly hairs directed forwards. The rest of the body and its appendages are furnished with hair.
Cephalothorax shorter than the patella + tibia of a leg of the 4th pair, rounded at the sides, about half as wide at the fore-angle of the caput as at its broadest part between the 2nd and 3rd pairs of legs, highest at the fore-central eyes, from whence it slopes gradually to the posterior margin; lateral slope not very steep; fovea semi-hexagonal in front and low and rounded behind; lateral indentations moderately well marked; caput distinct from the thorax, somewhat rounded in front; clypeus high, and slightly sloping forwards.
Both rows of eyes slightly bent forwards, and not differing much in length, the posterior bent more than the anterior; the fore-centrals each in a black tubercle, round, and rather less distant from each other than from the fore-laterals; the latter posited obliquely, longish, round, and somewhat larger than the former; eyes of posterior row sub-equal, slightly elongated, smaller than the fore-centrals; the laterals near the centrals but not contiguous to them; the laterals of both rows and the centrals of the hind row on a common black spot. The fore-centrals are the darkest in colour, and the fore-laterals are
darker than the hind-laterals, and these again darker than the hind-centrals, which are of a brilliant pearly lustre.
Falces moderately strong, prominent, knee-shaped, shorter than the patella of a leg of the 1st pair; groove-toothed, 4 small teeth on the outer and 3 large ones on the inner side; the basal half glabrous, the fore part sparingly furnished with hairs; claw moderately long and strong.
Maxillœ strongly diverging, sides parallel, at the fore end slightly rounded, on the outer end produced to a subconical point on the inner side; no spines on any part.
Lip triangular, rather longer than broad at the base, convex, and separated from the sternum by a semicircular groove.
The sternum ovate in outline, broadest behind, emarginated at the anterior and somewhat pointed at the posterior extremity; the sides projecting slightly opposite the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd pairs of legs.
Abdomen ovate, longer than the cephalothorax and about as broad. Inferior spinners short and slender, superior more than twice as long as the inferior, and very stout.
Palpi considerably longer than the cephalothorax, armed with spines on the superior side of the humeral joint, and on the inferior side of the radial joint, and with two longish slender ones near the fore-extremity of the digital joint; humeral joint bent, laterally compressed, and nearly as long as the cubital and radial joints together; radial joint much longer and much stouter than either the cubital or the digital joint; bulbus genitalis directed backwards, turbinate, and produced into a long, slender, sharp-pointed spine.
Legs 1, 4, 2, 3, the 1st and 4th not differing much in length; armed with hairs, bristles, and spines, the last most numerous on the femora and stoutest at the sides of tibiæ and at the fore-extremity, below, of the patellæ of the first pair. The other joints have few or no spines. The metatarsi of the first pair are only slightly bent at the basal half, but the tibiæ of the same pair are considerably stronger than those of the other pairs.
The female of this species has been described by Cambridge; but, as the male differs very considerably from the female, I have given a detailed description of it here.
Found at Ravensbourne, near Dunedin, by Mr. Petrie and myself. I have traced it from Portobello nearly to Oamaru. It is never found many feet from the sea beach. The male is very sprightly, but the female is very sluggish, and invariably simulates death upon being touched. It is able to live a long time without food. I kept a female in a corked tube without food for nearly two months, and at the end of this time it appeared not to have suffered the least from its long fast.
The nests, strongly resembling those of Nemesia, though many times shallower and much smaller, are built in clay banks, and at all angles between the horizontal and the vertical, but generally at an angle vertical, or nearly so, to the earth's surface.