Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 19, 1886


Art. XXIX.On some New Native Plants.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 19th January, 1887.]

Plates XIV.-XVIII.
Erigeron bonplandii, Buch.

A small shrubby very viscid plant, 10–12 inches high. Leaves numerous, linear obovate, obtuse, obscurely serrate, 2–4 inches long, ¾-inch at the broadest part, bright-green on the upper surface, and covered with close, white, shining tomentum beneath. Scapes 4, in the axils of the upper leaves. Stem bracts numerous, diminishing in size upwards. Heads nearly 2 inches in diameter, involucral scales in few series, long, linear, upright. Rays long, linear; anthers tailless. Pappus of few short hairs; achene with short rigid hairs on margins.

This very showy Erigeron was collected by Mr. Martin, on Mount Bonpland; there is a fine robust specimen growing in his nursery at Green Island. The large flower-heads of this species make it very attractive, and it is worthy of cultivation. This species is allied to Erigeron novœ-zealandiœ, figured in vol. xvii. “Trans. N.Z. Institute,” but-differs much from that species in its large leaves and numerous scapes.

Celmisia martini, Buch.

Rhizome stout. Leaf sheaths ½ inch in diameter. Leaves 12 inches long, ½ inch broad, obscurely serrate, linear-oblong, and tapering to an acute point at top, narrowing near the bottom to 1 inch, then spreading downwards into a broad villous sheathing petiole; under-surface covered with closely appressed white or very pale-buff tomentum; central vein dark-purple, dividing near the bottom into nine dark-purple veins; back of leaf covered, when young, with a white silvery pellicle, which afterwards breaks away, exposing the dark-green leaf. Scape stout, scarcely longer than the leaves. Bracts few, narrow, linear, 4 inches long, diminishing in size upwards. Head nearly 2 inches in diameter. Florets numerous, long, narrow, linear.

Hab. Mount Bonpland, 4,000 feet.

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This fine Celmisia was collected by Mr. Martin on Mount Bonpland, and has succeeded well with him at his nursery at Green Island, where it was planted out, and bids fair to become a permanent plant of cultivation.

Aciphylla kirkii, Buch.

A rigid shining plant, 8–12 inches long. Leaves 8–9 inches long, ¾–1 inch broad. Leaves chiefly bifoliate, bifurcation 3–6 inches from top, obtuse, apiculate, finely marked with anastomosing striæ, and with a stout marginal nerve on both sides of the leaf, sheath at bottom membranous. Flowers diœcious. Male scape nearly straight, bracts long, 3-foliate. Female scape and bracts flexuose. Umbels numerous.

This well-marked species was collected on Mount Alta, in 1883, but as the only specimen then procured arrived at Dunedin in a very fragmentary state, it was laid aside. On a recent examination the material proved sufficient for a restoration, when carefully put together. Another species of Aciphylla may be looked for in the Wanaka District, of which I have only a fragment. The leaves are 12 inches long, smooth and shining, with the striæ only marked, and the serrations on the edges of the leaves scarcely felt.

Gastrodia hectori, Buch.

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Root tuberous, stem and spike of flowers 18 inches high, closely sheathed for ⅔ of its length by a long leaf, ⅓ of the leaf being free, a short outer sheath at bottom encloses the base of the sheathing leaf. Scales none. Racemes 3 ¼ inches long. Flowers 13, close-set, brownish-yellow, 2/10 of an inch in length, seed-vessel black, or dark brown, orbicular.

The present species was collected several years ago in Marlborough district, near Picton, and has also been seen on the Conway River. The species of Gastrodia are probably abundant, but their dark habitats, in dense bush country, prevent them from being easily seen.

Ourisia montana, Buch.

A small erect hispid plant, 1–2 ½ inches high. Stems creeping; leaves few, linear, ovate, or obovate, entire, 1–1 ¼ inch long, ⅓–½ inch broad. Petiole one-third as long as the leaf. Scape 1 ¼ inch, with one very small bract. Flowers solitary, large for the size of the plant, pedicels slender, springing from the base, and with the flower topping the leaves. Corolla large, white, oblique, limb 5-fid., ¾ inch diameter. Calyx 5-partite.

The large entire leaves, long pedicels, and large flowers, distinguish this species from Ourisia uniflora and Ourisia colensoi. Collected on Mount Alta Range, at 5,000 to 6,000 feet altitude.

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Ranuculus Muelleri. Buch.

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Aciphylla Kirkii. Buch.

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Celmisia Robusta. Buch.

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Olearia alpina, Buch.

A small ornamental alpine tree, 8–12 feet high, trunk 6–8 inches in diameter; branches, and leaves below, covered with pale buff tomentum. Leaves 5–6 inches long, ¼ inch broad, linear, entire on the margins, midrib very stout, veins close, diverging at right angles, thus forming a series of lacunæ on both sides of the midrib. Heads numerous, in large panicles, with diverging branches, involucres turbinate, flowers not seen; pappus reddish, whole inflorescence covered with brownish tomentum.

Common on the Tararua Mountains, and mountains towards Wanganui. A remarkable plant, closely allied to O. excorticata, Buch.; stems covered with thin brownish bark, which peals off in large papery sheets. This small tree is worthy of attention for ornamental shrubbery, although cultivation might rob it of much rugged beauty. Though closely allied to O. excorticata, Buch., the oblong leaf of that species presents when compared with the long linear leaf of this species a marked distinction.

Celmisia robusta, Buch.

A small robust branching species, 4–6 inches high. Leaves 1–1 ½ inch long, ½ inch broad, coriaceous, ovate-oblong, acuminate or rounded at the tip, and broadly sheathing at the base, finely toothed, greenish-white above and covered with closely appressed white tomentum beneath. Scape 4–5 inches long, with 6–10 linear bracts. Head 1 inch diameter; involucral scales numerous, subulate, tapering, often recurved. Pappus orange colour, ¼ inch long, achene pubescent.

The affinity of this hardy mountain plant is with C. hectori, but the large obovate olive-green leaves of this plant necessitate the formation of a new species.

Haastia montana, Buch.

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Closely tufted, branches erect, and covered with soft fulvous wool over the whole plant. Leaves loosely imbricating, rounded on top, obovate, erect or recurved, veins of the leaves irregular, indistinct. Heads small, 6/10ths of an inch diameter, involucral scales reduced to fine black lines.

A very distinct plant from any of the other species of this genus. From H. recurva it may be distinguished by its large up-right soft leaves, and from H. sinclairi by the absence of the large black involucral scales, and altogether different foliage from either.

This addition to the genus Haastia was discovered on Mount Alta Range, Lake Wanaka.

Ranunculus muelleri, Buch.

A stout, robust, fulvous and villous plant, 5–6 inches high. Root-stalk stout, rootlets numerous. Leaves all radical, round,

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crenate-lobed, 2 inches diameter, petioles 2 inches long. Peduncles few, 4–5 inches long. Flowers, 2–3 large, white, each flower with a broad linear bract underneath, and a flower-bud in the axil.

The present fine plant adds another species to the already large family of New Zealand Ranunculus. It was collected on the Tararua Mountains, the only specimen seen in flower, and has been since overlooked. I am indebted to Mr. Kirk for pointing out its claim as a new species.

Cassinia rubra, Buch.

A small delicate shrub, 2–4 feet high, with bright olive-green foliage. Leaves very small, erect, or decumbent, linear-oblong, obtuse, ¼–⅕ inch long, margins nearly flat. Heads of flowers dense, in close rounded corymbs. Flowers very small, numerous. Involucral scales in 3–4 series, bright pink or red.

This beautiful little plant was reported as collected on the Wanganui River, inland. No doubt such a beautiful shrub would prove a valuable addition to the gardens, if young plants could be procured and established.

Geum alpina, Buch.

A small, prostrate, hairy, mountain plant, with stout prostrate rhizomes. Leaves alternate, closely arranged, ½–¾ inch diameter, rounded, lobed, and with fine crenate serratures. Flowers minute, yellow, on numerous branches towards the end of the stems.

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In extremely small forms of this plant, the leaves are much reduced in size, and the numerous little yellow flowers scarcely exceed the calyx, a head of flowers not exceeding 2/10 inch. No doubt this is a reduction of size entirely due to severe climatic influence.

Pachycladon elongata, Buch.

A small glabrous, open-branched, alpine plant. Root long, fusiform, elongate. Leaves few towards the bottom, ¾-inch long, with 5–7 deep serratures. Upper and largest portion of plant composed of flowering racemes, which are afterwards replaced by long slender siliqua or pods, 1 inch long.

It would appear that a gradation of form can be traced in the genus Pachycladon, from Hooker's Pachycladon novœ-zealandiœ, through P. glabra, Buch., to the present attenuate form, which may be named Pachycladon attenuata, Buch. The gradation of form in this case cannot be ascribed to climatic influence, as the three species were all collected at the same altitude and locality, Three Kings Mountain, 5,000 feet altitude.

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Hemitelia Smithii.

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Stem Sections of Hemitelia Smithii.

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Art. XXX.On a remarkable branching Specimen of Hemitelia smithii.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 19th January, 1887.]

Plates XII., XIII.

The visitor to the slopes of Mount Cargill, near Dunedin, may have noticed the marked abundance of that beautiful tree-fern Hemitelia smithii, which often attains there a height of 20–30 feet; and he may also have noticed a strong tendency in this species to divide at the top of the stem into two, and sometimes three, branches. But a remarkable departure, however, from this limited terminal branching has been discovered, which forms the subject of the present paper. The accompanying sketch, drawn from measurements, proves the tree to have been 16 feet in height, and that it has 16 branches, as also several buds. The budding and branching may proceed from any part of the stem, and the specimen has several branches diverging in various directions, which again divide, as in dicotyledonous trees. The accompanying drawings (Plates XII. and XIII.) have been sketched by measurements taken from the fallen tree, it having recently been cut down by some boys.

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The transverse sections are intended to illustrate the method of branching in this specimen of tree-fern; they are all drawn one-third natural size, except diagram A B, which is 1/135 natural size.

There is one remarkable feature in connection with the true or inner stems and branches of tree-ferns: that is, the point of attachment of the branch with the inner or true stem does not increase much in diameter for several inches from the parent stem; it then gradually enlarges in an upward direction, and becomes covered by the fibrous mass. A weakness in branches might be suggested from this; but the great strength of tree-ferns is due to the strong fibrous matter enveloping them, which is remarkably strong, and would prove as reliable for a transverse strain as many timbers; they have often been used for short bridges, both as stringers and flooring.

In the diagrammatic section, A B, is shown the method of branching in this tree-fern: a branch is produced from a small bud, which pushes its way through the woody inner or true stem of the tree, and also the close fibrous outer covering. (See longitudinal section of A 1, where a transverse and longitudinal section is shown of the method of branching.) The large sections (B B and B 3) are cut 3 feet above A, showing the increase of size in 3 feet of the central core.

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Art. XXXI.On the New Zealand Species of Coprosma.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 18th October, 1886.]

Next to Veronica, the genus Coprosma is the most puzzling in the New Zealand Flora. Not only are the species highly variable in their mode of growth, foliage, and vegetative characters generally, but the flowers are so small and inconspicuous, and so uniform in their structure, as to offer few distinctive characters of importance. It is thus no easy matter to identify the species even when they are examined in a fresh state, while in the case of dried specimens, it requires the utmost care to arrive at any satisfactory conclusions.

For a considerable time I have made the New Zealand Coprosmas a subject of special attention. Most of the species I have seen living in their native stations, and have thus had opportunities of tracing the variations due to differences in soil, altitude, and exposure. I have been enabled to collect large suites of specimens from all parts of the colony, and, in addition, have been favoured with others made for me by friends. Through the kindness of Sir Joseph Hooker, sets of my specimens have been compared with the types of the species described by Cunningham and others, and now preserved in the Kew Herbarium, so that my identifications have been rendered more certain. The information and materials that I have collected I now propose to make use of in drawing up a systematic account of the species, with the view of rendering their determination more easy, and of supplying, as far as I can, the admitted deficiencies existing in all previously published accounts.

The genus Coprosma belongs to the Rubiaceœ, or Madder family, represented in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere by a sub-tribe (Stellatœ) of low-growing herbaceous plants, comprising, among others, the well-known Madder, Woodruff, Cross-wort, etc. It is, however, in the tropics and in the south temperate zone that the more typical members of the family are found. Many of these are highly ornamental, and are often seen in our gardens and greenhouses, as the various species of Bouvardia, Ixora, Gardenia, etc. Two well-known economic plants are also included—the Coffee shrub, and the quinine-producing Cinchona. The close alliance of these plants to Coprosma has led to the suggestion that its bark should be examined for quinine, or the allied alkaloids, and the berry for caffeine. I believe that no exhaustive chemical examination has yet been made, but some preliminary investigations that have been made by Mr. Skey and others do not warrant very favourable expectations.

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The first species of Coprosma were collected in 1769 by Banks and Solander, during Cook's first voyage. Specimens of six species were brought home to England, and are now preserved in the Banksian Herbarium in the British Museum. In the manuscript account of the plants of New Zealand, drawn up by Dr. Solander, but which, for some unexplained reason was never published, although made quite ready for the press, even to the preparation of the engravings, the name Pelaphia was proposed for the genus; and the species were also fully and clearly described. However, as Dr. Solander's names were never actually published, they can have no standing in botanical works.

During Cook's second visit to New Zealand, in 1772, he was accompanied by Forster, the well-known naturalist. Plants were collected at Queen Charlotte Sound and Dusky Bay, and many of them were subsequently described by Forster in his “Prodromus.” The term Coprosma was now for the first time applied to the genus, and two species described—C. lucida and C. fœtidissima. For many years these remained the only species actually published from New Zealand.

Nothing more was added to our knowledge of Coprosma until Allan Cunningham made his two visits to New Zealand in 1826 and 1838. In his “Precursor to a Flora of New Zealand,” which contains the results of these journeys, ten species are enumerated. Three of these are mere synonyms; and two more were already known. The remaining five are good and distinct forms. Cunningham's descriptions, however, are extremely imperfect, and in many respects faulty and misleading. The types of his species are now preserved at Kew; but, according to Sir Joseph Hooker, (“Handbook,” p. 111), the specimens have been much intermixed by himself.

In 1846, M. Raoul published in his “Choix de Plantes de la Nouvelle Zelande,” a description of Coprosma robusta, perhaps the most widely distributed of all our species, but which seems to have been confounded with C. lucida by previous botanists. About the same time Mr. Colenso contributed to the Tasmanian “Journal of Natural Science” a paper entitled “A Tour in New Zealand,” in which several additional species were made known. This was afterwards reprinted in Hooker's “Journal of Botany;” but, unfortunately, I have been unable to obtain a copy. I much regret this, as it is possible that some of Mr. Colenso's species may be identical with some of those described by later writers; and, if so, his names should take precedence.

Hooker's “Flora Antarctica,” which appeared in 1845, contains an account of the Coprosmœ collected by the author in the Auckland and Campbell Isles in 1840. Seven species were enumerated, six of which were considered to be new. But of these C. affinis has since been referred by its author to C.

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fœtidissima; C. myrtillifolia, which was based on barren specimens, has been abandoned, and is probably identical with C. parviflora; while it is doubtful whether there is any real distinction between C. repens and C. pumila.

In 1854, Sir Joseph Hooker brought out his “Flora Novæ Zealandiæ.” Botanists resident in New Zealand, especially Mr. Colenso and Dr. Sinclair, had sent large collections to Kew to be used in the preparation of this work, and among them no small number of Coprosmœ. The material thus brought together, though still imperfect, was much more extensive than that at the disposal of any of Hooker's predecessors, and it is needless to say that it was worked up with his customary care and accuracy, with the result of producing the first intelligible and comprehensive account of the genus. Nineteen species were described, of which five were new. The principal mistake made was in confusing a number of distinct and dissimilar species under the head of C. myrtillifolia, C. divaricata, and C. propinqua; but probably the specimens were not good enough, or complete enough, to show the distinction existing between them.

The arrangement followed in the more recently-issued “Handbook,” differs slightly from that given in the “Flora,” but there are no changes of any importance. The species confused with C. propinqua and C. myrtillifolia (= C. parviflora) are separated and put into their proper places, but no less than four distinct species are still included in C. divaricata. The disadvantage of working entirely on dried specimens is shown by the fact that in the specific descriptions hardly any use is made of the shape of the fruit, whereas it often gives good distinctive characters. The total number of species admitted in the “Handbook” is 24. Since its publication, no memoir treating of the genus as a whole has appeared, although from time to time new species have been described by Mr. Kirk, Mr. Petrie, Mr. Colenso, and myself.

The following summary sketch of the range of variation in the vegetative and floral characters of the genus may be useful to those who have not previously studied the species in detail:—

Habit, etc.—The greater number of the species are closely-branched shrubs, varying from 6 to 12 or 15 feet in height. Some attain the stature of small trees, the largest being C. arborea, which is, sometimes 30 feet in height, with a trunk 18 inches in diameter. C. baueriana is remarkable for its great range in size, according to situation and exposure. When growing on black maritime rocks it is often under 2 or 3 feet; while in sheltered places, on rich sandy soil, specimens 25 feet in height have been measured. C. areolata, C. propinqua, and C. fœtidissima occasionally reach 15 or 20 feet, although usually less than that. C. serrulata is the smallest of the large-leaved

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species, and is generally under 4 feet in height. C. spathulata and C. rhamnoides have an average height of from 4 to 6 or 8 feet. C. acerosa has long and flexuous branches, often (in the typical form) much and closely interlaced, forming a dense bush 2 to 4 feet high; but some states of it are prostrate and sparingly branched. C. depressa is prostrate or sub-prostrate, and often under 1 foot in height. C. repens and C. petriei are the smallest species of the genus. They have prostrate and rooting, almost herbaceous, stems, closely appressed to the ground, and frequently only a few inches long.

The arrangement and disposition of the branches occasionally afford characters of importance: thus C. areolata can be at once distinguished from its nearest allies (C. tenuicaulis and C. rotundifolia) by its comparatively narrow and almost fastigiate outline. The mode of branching of C. propinqua, C. parviflora, C. acerosa, and others is characteristic of the species, and gives important aid in their identification.

Leaves.—In Coprosma, as in so many Rubiaceœ, the leaves are invariably opposite, entire, petiole, or sub-sessile, and connected by interpetiolar stipules. In size there is considerable range. C. grandifolia often has them as much as 9 inches in length, while in C. repens and C. petriei they are frequently under ⅛ inch. The large-leaved species C. grandifolia, C. lucida, C. robusta, C. baueriana, etc., have a well-developed many flowered inflorescence, and thus form a fairly well-characterized section of the genus. In the small-leaved species the flowers are either arranged in few-flowered fascicles or are solitary. As to shape, the leaves may be orbicular, ovate, oblong, lanceolate, or even linear. In the same species there is often considerable diversity of shape, and in C. rhamnoides leaves varying from orbicular to linear may be observed on the same bush. C. serrulata has the margins of the leaves minutely serrulate. All the other members of the genus have them quite entire when mature, but in some the very young leaves are obscurely incised. This is well seen in C. robusta. The texture varies considerably—from very coriaceous in C. lucida, C. robusta, and C. crassifolia to comparatively thin and membranous in C. rotundifolia and C. tenuifolia. The venation is pinninerved, at any rate in the great majority; but some of the small-leaved species have few lateral veins, although the midrib is always conspicuous and well developed. The veins frequently anastomose, in some forming copious minute reticulations, as in C. tenuifolia; in others larger areoles, as in C. areolata and C. tenuicaulis. All the species have a stout vein running round the whole of the margin of the leaf, and often giving it a thickened appearance.

In nearly all the species, except a few of the smaller-leaved ones, curious little pits exist on the under-surface of the leaves,

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in the axils formed by the union of the primary veins with the midrib. They are never more than ⅛ inch in length, and are usually much less. Inside they are lined with numerous stiff white hairs, which, on being treated with caustic potash, are seen to be composed of two or three cells. So far as I have observed, the pits do not secrete anything, and I am quite unable to guess at their function. They are often inhabited by a minute yellow acarid, which makes use of them as a home. Sometimes two or three acarids may be found in the same pit, and they crawl freely about the young leaves and branches.

Stipules.—All the species possess interpetiolar stipules. They are more or less triangular in shape, often with minute denticulations towards the apex. The margins, or the whole surface, are frequently ciliated or puberulous. At their bases they are generally connate with the petioles, thus forming a short sheath round the branch. In C. linariifolia, especially on the young leafy branches, the sheaths are elongated, and form a very conspicuous, though variable character.

At the apex of the very young stipule a gland is situated which secretes a copious supply of a viscid mucilaginous fluid. These glands are highly developed and in an active state when the adjacent leaves are in the early stages of growth, but shrivel up and cease to secrete long before the leaves attain their full size. Their office is evidently to keep the young and tender leaves and branches plentifully bathed with fluid.

Indumentum.—Many of the species have puberulous or pubescent branches, and some have the under-surface, or both surfaces, of the leaves similarly provided, C. rotundifolia, C. areolata, and C. ciliata being perhaps the most conspicuous examples. The degree of pubescence is, however, a very variable character throughout the genus, and can only be employed with considerable caution for systematic purposes.

Inflorescence.—It is not always easy to understand the arrangement and position of the flowers, especially in some of the small-leaved species. The most developed inflorescence is seen in C. grandifolia, where it consists of trichotomously-divided many-flowered cymes, springing from the axils of the leaves. These cymes are often 3 inches in length, and bear from 20–40 flowers in the males, but a much smaller number in the females. At each division of the axis is a pair of connate leaf-like bracts. The ultimate divisions terminate in little clusters of flowers, each cluster being enclosed at the base by a shallow involucel formed by a pair of depauperated leaves and their stipules. Minute bracts are also present at the base of each flower. In C. lucida the inflorescence has precisely the same structure, but through the internodes of the primary and secondary axes being shortened it is much more compact. The internodes being still further reduced in length, we reach the arrangement seen in

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C. robusta, where the flowers are congested into a dense many-flowered glomerule, or with two or three superposed glomerules. In C. baueriana, C. petiolata, and C. cunninghamii, the flowers are much less in number than in C. robusta, but their arrangement is on the same principle. In C. arborea the glomerules are rounder, and even more compact, and in addition to occupying the axils of the leaves, they often terminate the branches, which is never the case in C. robusta.

In the small-leaved species the flowers are much reduced in number, and are often solitary, especially the females. As to their arrangement, there are two main types, but they graduate insensibly into one another. In the first, the flower, or fascicle of flowers, is placed in the axil of a leaf, and is thus axillary. If, however, the pedicel of the flower is examined, it will be seen that in all cases two or three series of connate bracts are placed under the flower. The upper series forms a cup-shaped involucre, closely investing the base of the flower, and can be easily mistaken for a calyx, especially in the males, where the true calyx is either much reduced or altogether absent. These connate bracts evidently represent depauperated leaves and their stipules, so that the flowers really terminate minute arrested branchlets. This is the arrangement seen in C. rotundifolia, C. areolata, and C. tenuicaulis. In the second class the flowers quite obviously terminate leafy branchlets. In C. fœtidissima, C. colensoi, etc., they are placed at ends of the main branches, as well as on lateral branchlets, and several pairs of well-developed leaves are usually present, in addition to the bracts mentioned above. In other species (C. propinqua, C. parviflora, etc.), the flowers terminate short lateral branchlets only. As these branchlets are frequently much reduced, and often have only one pair of small leaves below the bracts, there is really not much to distinguish the inflorescence from that of the first type. This is particularly the case when the leaf at the base of the branchlet, and from the axil of which it has sprung, is persistent, as frequently happens.

Flowers.—The flowers are unisexual, and the sexes are placed on different plants. Occasionally, however, a few male flowers are intermixed with the females, and vice versâ. Some species, and especially C. robusta and C. fœtidissima, now and then produce hermaphrodite flowers, to all appearance well-developed and perfect, but which seldom mature fruit. The flowers are very uniform in shape all through the genus, and thus are of little value in the discrimination of the species.

The males are always larger and more numerous than the females. They have a broad or narrow campanulate corolla, divided half-way down, or further, into four or five lobes. The calyx, in the species in which it is present, is minute and cupular, and either truncate or obsoletely 4–5-toothed. In C.

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arborea and C. spathulata, however, it is much larger, and has well-developed linear lobes. Most of the small-leaved species do not possess even the rudiment of a calyx, so far as the male flowers are concerned, but its place is well supplied by the cupular involucel previously alluded to. This involucel is a shallow cup-shaped organ, closely investing the base of the corolla. It is usually four-lobed, two of the lobes being rather larger than the others, but sometimes is quite truncate. It corresponds so closely in shape and position to a calyx as to be readily taken for one, and, in fact, it has often been described as such by authors. But there are sufficient reasons for believing it to be composed of a pair of depauperated leaves and their connecting stipules. In the first place, a similar involucel exists in the female flowers, where the true calyx is always developed; and in the second, if a sufficient number of specimens are examined, examples can be found where the two longer lobes are better developed, and evidently answer to metamorphosed leaves. In some species, and notably in C. acerosa, it is possible to trace a gradation of forms, from instances where the two longer lobes are hardly distinguishable from ordinary leaves, to cases where they are reduced to minute prominences on an otherwise truncate involucel. It should be mentioned, too, that the long lobes of the involucel are always placed crosswise (or decussately) to the pair of undoubted leaves below, which is precisely the position they ought to occupy on the assumption that they are metamorphosed leaves.

The stamens, which are either four or five in number, have long slender filaments, and rather large oblong anthers, which hang pendulous from the mouth of the corolla, swinging about with every breath of air. The pollen is small, smooth, and elliptical, and is produced in large quantities.

The female flowers are smaller and narrower than the males, approaching tubular in shape. The calyx tube is adnate to the ovary; the limb is almost always minute, and either obsoletely 3–5-toothed or truncate at the mouth. In C. arborea, C. spathulata, and C. linariifolia, however, the limb has comparatively long linear lobes. The styles are two, very long and slender, being often several times longer than the corolla. They are free to the base, and are covered with stigmatic papillæ for their whole length. The ovary is normally two-celled, with a single ovule in each cell; but frequently it is three- or four-celled, and more rarely six-celled. In C. repens it is quite common for the ovary to be four-celled.

Fruit.—This is a drupe with two (rarely four or six) one-seeded plano-convex pyrenes, applied to each other by their flat faces. In shape it varies from oblong or ovoid to globose; and in size from ⅛–¾ inch. The colour is chiefly orange or red; but some species have a semi-transparent colourless drupe (C.

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arborea, C. cunninghamii, etc.). In others it is blueish (C. acerosa, C. parviflora), and in some black (C. spathulata, C. tenuicaulis, etc.). The shape is pretty constant in each species, and hence it is of considerable value as a distinguishing character; but the size, and to a lesser degree the colour, are very variable.

Fertilization.—All the species appear to be wind-fertilized. When a male tree in full flower is shaken, clouds of the loose incoherent pollen are driven off; and the long projecting styles of the female flowers, densely clothed with stigmatic papillæ, are well calculated to catch the pollen. As a rule, insects are seldom seen on the flowers of any of the species. A small dipterous insect occasionally visits those of C. robusta and C. propinqua, apparently to feed on the pollen; but I have never observed it on the female flowers, and consequently it cannot aid in the fertilization of the species.

Distribution of the species.—Of the thirty-one species admitted, all but three are confined to New Zealand, including in that term the adjacent groups of the Kermadecs, the Chathams, and the Auckland and Campbell Islands. The species found outside the Colony are the following:—C. baueriana, which is plentiful in Norfolk Island; C. petiolata, which occurs both there and in Lord Howe Island; and C. repens (C. pumila), which is found on the mountains of Victoria and Tasmania.

In the systematic portion of this paper the distribution of the species within the Colony is given as fully as possible, so that it is unnecessary to dwell on that point here. With respect to the character of their habitats, the species may be roughly divided into the following five classes:—


Maritime, including C. baueriana, C. petiolata, and the typical form of C. acerosa.


Lowland species of wide and general distribution, with no marked preference for any particular soil or situation, such as C. robusta, C. lucida, C. grandifolia, etc.


Lowland species preferring swampy forests or rich alluvial soils—C. propinqua, C. rotundifolia, C. areolata, and several others.


Lowland species with a local and confined distribution, as C. spathulata, C. arborea, etc.


Species confined to hilly or subalpine localities, as C. fœtidissima, C. colensoi, C. cuneata, C. repens, and a few others.

Before passing to the systematic part of the paper, I have to tender my most sincere thanks to several gentlemen for their kind assistance in its preparation. To Mr. Petrie, of Dunedin,

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I am especially indebted. From him I have received copious and well-selected suites of specimens of the Otagan species, accompanied with descriptive notes of great value. In addition to this, he has communicated to me, in the course of a correspondence extending over several years, very many original and important observations derived from his own study of the genus, and which have been of great use to me. Such liberal and generous assistance is as rare as it is valuable. I have also to thank Mr. Colenso, Mr. Hamilton, Mr. Adams, Mr. Reischek, and others for specimens of species of the genus, and for information respecting them.

There remains for me to acknowledge the very important aid afforded by Sir J. D. Hooker and Mr. N. E. Brown, of the Kew Herbarium. The latter gentleman has most kindly made a comparison of my specimens with the types preserved at Kew, drawing up a special report on all points of interest; and his conclusions have been examined and verified by Sir J. D. Hooker. My warmest thanks are due to both.

Synopsis of the Species.

Division A.—Erect trees or shrubs. Leaves large, broad, usually over 1 inch in length. Flowers fascicled on lateral peduncles, fascicles usually many-flowered.

Section I.—Peduncles long, 2–4 inches, trichotomously divided; flowers numerous, in fascicles at the ends of the divisions of the peduncle.
Leaves large, 3–9 inches long, membranous; male corolla ⅓ inch, funnel-shaped 1. C. lucida.
Leaves smaller, 2–5 inches, coriaceous; male corolla ⅕ inch, broadly tubular 2. C. grandifolia.
Section II.—Peduncles short, rarely over 1 inch; fascicles dense, many-flowered, or, more rarely, smaller and few-flowered.
Sub-alpine dwarf shrub. Leaves with serrulate margins 3. C. serrulata.
Maritime shrub. Leaves dark green, fleshy, obtuse, black when dry; branches glabrous, or slightly pubescent 4. C. baueriana.
Maritime shrub. Young leaves and branchlets minutely pubescent 5. C. petiolata.
Leaves coriaceous, oblong or elliptical, acute, 1 ½–5 inches long; drupe orange 6. C. robusta.
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Leaves coriaceous, linear or lanceolate, ½–1 inch long; drupe pale and transparent 7. C. cunninghamii.
Leaves 1–2 inches, membranous, ovate-oblong, acute, perfectly glabrous, areolation very minute 8. C. acutifolia.
Leaves 1–4 inches, membranous, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, areolation not so minute as the preceding, veins and stipules often hairy 9. C. tenuifolia.
Tree, 20–25 feet. Leaves coriaceous, ovate- or orbicular-spathulate, narrowed into winged petioles 10. C. arborea.

Division B.—Erect, rarely prostrate, shrubs. Leaves small, usually under 1 inch. Flowers in few-flowered fascicles on short lateral branchlets, or solitary. (The lateral branchlets are sometimes so much reduced that the flowers appear to be axillary.)

a. Leaves spathulate, suddenly narrowed into linear winged petioles, often longer than the blade. Small shrub 11. C. spathulata.
b. Leaves orbicular to linear-obovate or -oblong; petiole short.
* Twigs usually densely pubescent (nearly glabrous in C. tenuicaulis). Leaves orbicular, orbicular-spathulate or broad oblong (often narrow in C. rhamnoides). Drupe globose, black or red.
Height 4–10 feet. Branches widely divaricating. Leaves ⅓–1 inch, membranous, orbicular, cuspidate. Drupe often didymous, red, ⅛ inch diameter 12. C. rotundifolia.
Height 5–20 feet; branches fastigiate; bark pale; leaves ⅓–⅔ inch, membranous, orbicular-spathulate or ovate-spathulate, veins reticulated in large areoles; fruit dark-red, or nearly black, ⅙–¼ inch diameter 13. C. areolata.
Height 5–8 feet; branches widely divaricating; bark purplish; leaves ¼–½ inch, orbicular- or ovate-spathulate, rather coriaceous, veins reticulated in large areoles; fruit globose, black, ⅛–⅕ inch diameter 14. C. tenuicaulis.
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Height 2–8 feet; dense or open; branches interlaced; leaves very variable, orbicular to narrow oblong, ⅕–⅔ inch long, fruit globose, red, ⅛–⅕ inch 15. C. rhamnoides.
** Twigs densely pubescent. Leaves oblong to linear-oblong or -obovate. Drupe (unknown in C. ciliata) globose.
Height 4–10 feet; leaves oblong, ¼–⅔ inch, densely ciliate 16. C. ciliata.
Height 5–15 feet; branches slender, often spreading in a horizontal plane. Leaves obovate or linear-oblong, ⅕–¾ inch, obtuse, coriaceous 17. C. parviflora.
*** Twigs nearly glabrous. Leaves variable. Drupe oblong (sub-globose in C. crassifolia), usually yellow.
Height 4–12 feet; branches excessively rigid, interlacing; leaves orbicular, very thick and coriaceous, ¼–¾ inch; fruit sub-globose, ¼–⅕ inch 18. C. crassifolia.
Height 4–15 feet; branches stout or slender, often interlacing; leaves orbicular-spathulate to oblong, rather coriaceous, ¼–¾ inch; drupe oblong or obovoid, ⅕–⅓ inch 19. C. rigida.
Height 4–10 feet; branches divaricating, leaves rounded-oblong or orbicular, thin, ¼–¾ inch; drupe oblong, ¼ inch 20. C. rubra.
Height 4–10 feet; branches slender, interlacing; leaves ovate-spathulate or elliptic-spathulate, thin, small, ⅕–⅓ inch; drupe oblong, greenish-yellow, ⅕–¼ inch 21. C. virescens.
c. Leaves narrow-linear, ¼–⅓ inch x 1/20 inch. A rambling or prostrate bush, 1–5 feet high; branches flexuous, interlaced 22. C. acerosa.
d. Leaves narrow, linear-oblong, ¼–½ inch x 1/10 inch. A large shrub, 8–20 feet high; branches widely divaricating 23. C. propinqua.
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Division C.—Erect, rarely prostrate shrubs. Leaves small or of medium size, ⅙–2 inches long. Flowers terminating leafy branchlets, always solitary (except the males in C. linariifolia and sometimes in C. fœtidissima).

Height 6–15 feet; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, acute, ½–1 ½ inch; stipules sheathing; male flowers in terminal 3–5-flowered fascicles 24. C. linariifolia.
Slender, 6–15 feet high, extremely fœtid when bruised; leaves oblong, obtuse, rather thin, ½–2 inches; male flowers large, ⅓ inch, sometimes fascicled 25. C. fœtidissima.
Slender, 3–8 feet high; not fœtid; leaves ¼–¾ inch, oblong, obtuse or retuse, rather thin; flowers ⅙–⅛ inch 26. C. colensoi.
Stout, much branched, 4–10 feet high; leaves ¼–¾ inch, linear-obovate, obovate-oblong, or cuneate-oblong, obtuse, coriaceous 27. C. cuneata.
Slender, leafy, erect, 5–10 feet high; leaves ¼–⅓ inch, linear or linear-lanceolate, flat, thin 28. C. microcarpa.
Stout, erect or prostrate, 1–4 feet high; leaves ⅙–¼ inch, linear-lanceolate, concave, coriaceous 29. C. depressa.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Division D.—Stems short, prostrate, and rooting. Leaves small, 1/10–⅓ inch long. Flowers solitary, terminal.

Leaves linear-oblong to rounded-oblong or obovate; male corolla large, curved, tubular, ⅓–⅔ inch long 30. C. repens.
Leaves linear-oblong or linear-obovate, often hairy. Male corolla small, narrow below, campanulate above, ⅕–⅓ inch long 31. C. petriei.

1. C. grandifolia,

Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 104; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 112; C. latifolia, Col., MSS.; Pelaphia lœta et P. grandifolia, Banks et Sol., MSS.; Ronabea australis, A. Rich., Flora Nouv. Zel.

North Island.—Common throughout, from the North Cape to Wellington. Altitudinal range from sea level to 2,500 feet.

South Island.—Nelson, common in lowland districts, both in the eastern and western portions of the Province, T.F.C.

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Quoted from Otago by Mr. Buchanan (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” i., p. 43), but I have seen no specimens from thence.

A large, sparingly-branched shrub, 8–15 feet high, with dark-brown bark. Leaves much the largest of the genus, 5–9 inches long, obovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, acute, dull green, not shining or glossy, membranous, veins very finely reticulated. Peduncles 1–3 inches long, trichotomously divided. Flowers in fascicles at the ends of the divisions of the peduncle, each fascicle being enclosed in a shallow involucre formed by a pair of reduced leaves (bracts) and their connecting stipules. A distinct though minute calyx is present in both sexes. Male corolla ⅓ inch long, funnel-shaped. Female much smaller, ⅕–¼ inch, tubular, Drupe about ⅓ inch long, oblong, obtuse, yellowish-orange.

One of the most distinct species of the genus. The large foliage and well-developed inflorescence separate it from all its allies. C. lucida approaches it in inflorescence, but is at once distinguished by the much smaller more obovate coriaceous leaves, and by the stouter and more compact habit. C. tenuifolia has leaves very near in outline, colour, texture, and venation, but they are much smaller; and, judging from the fruit, the inflorescence is very different.

Mr. Colenso has very kindly favoured me with flowering and fruiting specimens (collected at Hawke's Bay) of a Coprosma labelled “C. latifolia, Col.,” and which I understand he has lately described as a new species closely allied to C. grandifolia. After a careful examination, however, I have failed to find any characters to separate his plant from C. grandifolia, even as a variety. The leaves are perhaps a trifle more obtuse than is usual, but otherwise I see no difference at all from the ordinary form common near Auckland and in many other places.

2. C. lucida.

Forst., Prodr., p. 138; D.C., Prodr., iv., p. 378; A. Rich., Flora, p. 262; A. Cunn., Prodr., ii., p. 206; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 104; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 112. Pelaphia laurifolia, Banks et Sol., MSS.

North Island.—Common throughout, from the North Cape to Wellington. Altitudinal range from sea-level to over 3,000 feet.

South Island.—Nelson, plentiful, T.F.C.; Marlborough, J. Buchanan; Westland, A. Hamilton!; Canterbury, in Banks Peninsula and lowland districts, J. B. Armstrong, T.F.C.; Otago, common on the south-east and west coasts, not so plentiful in the north or in the interior, D. Petrie!; Stewart Island, plentiful, D. Petrie.

A handsome stout leafy shrub, 4–15 feet high, perfectly glabrous in all its parts. Leaves 2–5 inches long, oblong-obovate,

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oblong-lanceolate, or elliptic-oblong, coriaceous, obtuse, apiculate or acute, gradually narrowed into short stout petioles, pale glossy-green. Peduncles 1–2 inches long, trichotomously divided. Flowers numerous, in fascicles at the ends of the divisions of the peduncle. Calyx present in both sexes, but limb very inconspicuously toothed. Male corolla ⅕ inch long, broadly tubular; female rather shorter and narrower. Drupe ⅓–½ inch long, oblong or oblong-obovoid, obtuse, yellowish-orange.

C. lucida varies considerably in habit. When growing in the open it usually forms a dense round-topped shrub; but when met with as undergrowth in the forest it is much more sparingly branched, and the branches are much longer and spread more. It is allied by its inflorescence to C. grandifolia, but is at once recognised by its very different foliage and habit. From C. robusta it is removed by its paler obovate more coriaceous leaves, which dry a yellowish-green, and not blackish-brown as in that species; and by the longer peduncles and more open inflorescence. The drupe is also much larger and much more pulpy and juicy than that of C. robusta. There is no danger of its being confounded with any other of the large-leaved species. In the “Handbook” the leaves are erroneously described as membranous, probably from becoming thin when dried. In the fresh state they are always coriaceous.

3. C. serrulata.

Hook. fil., MSS.; Buchanan, Trans. N.Z. Inst., iii., p. 212; Kirk, l.c. x., App. p. xxxv.

South Island.—Sub-alpine localities, but not very common. Nelson, slopes of Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, 3,000 to 4,000 feet, T.F.C. Canterbury, mountain districts above 2,000 feet, J. B. Armstrong!; Arthur's Pass, Waimakariri Glacier, mountains near Lake Tekapo, T.F.C. Otago: Mount Ida, 2,000 to 3,000 feet; Mount St. Bathans, 2,000 to 3,000 feet; Mount Tyndall, 4,000 feet, D. Petrie!; Dusky Bay, on the mountains, A. Reischek!

A robust, leafy, sparingly-branched dwarf shrub, 1–4 feet high, perfectly glabrous in all its parts. Branches few, stout, straggling; old bark white and papery. Leaves coriaceous, 1–2 ½ inches long, oblong-obovate, broadly obovate, or nearly orbicular, rarely narrower and elliptical-oblong, obtuse or apiculate, narrowed into a short broad petiole; margins thickened, minutely serrulate; veins reticulated, very conspicuous on the under-surface. Stipules very large, triangular, margins ciliated. Inflorescence diœcious. Males: in axillary 3–7-flowered fascicles. Calyx apparently wanting. Corolla ¼–⅓ inch long, between

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funnel-shaped and campanulate, 4–5-lobed. Stamens, 4–5. Females: solitary, or in 3–5-flowered fascicles. Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb minute, cupular, sometimes with a few irregular teeth. Corolla ⅕–¼ inch long, tubular, shortly 3–5-lobed. Styles long and stout, often 1 inch long, cohering up to the mouth of the corolla. Drupe broadly oblong or sub-globose, ¼–⅓ inch long, reddish.

A remarkably distinct plant, at once recognized by the minutely serrulate leaves. It is usually found in sheltered places on steep mountain slopes, and rarely attains a greater height than four or five feet. The bark of the stem and branches is white and papery, and is easily detached. The leaves are often very coriaceous, perhaps more so than in most of the species. The male fascicles are often reduced to three or four flowers, and occasionally to a single one. The female flowers are generally solitary, although there is no difficulty in finding specimens with fascicles of three, and, more rarely, with five flowers.

It may be remarked, in passing, that in several of the species the very young leaves have their margins minutely incised or serrate, but the character is always an obscure one, and is never present in fully mature leaves, except in C. serrulata.

4. C. baueriana.

Endl., Iconog., t. iii.; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 105; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 112. C. lucida, Endl., Prodr. Flor. Ins. Norfolk, p. 60, non Forst. C. retusa, Hook, fil., Lond. Journ. Bot., iii., p. 416. Pelaphia retusa, Banks et Sol., MSS.

North Island.—Abundant all round the coasts, on maritime rocks and sand-hills, but not found inland, save where planted by the Maoris in the cultivations, etc.

South Island.—Southern shores of Cook Strait, from Collingwood to Picton, but not common.

Chatham Island.—J. Buchanan (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vii., p. 336). Also found in Norfolk Island.

A shrub or small tree, very variable in size and habit of growth, in exposed rocky places often not more than 2–3 feet high, with almost prostrate branches; in rich sandy soils sometimes 15–25 feet, with a close head of spreading branches. Branches stout, glabrous, or the young ones minutely pubescent. Leaves bright shining green, almost fleshy, black when dry, 1–3 inches long, broadly ovate or oblong, rarely narrow oblong, obtuse or retuse, rarely sub-acute, quite glabrous; margins usually recurved, and often conspicuously so; veins finely reticulated. Stipules short and broad. Male flowers clustered in dense heads on short axillary peduncles. Calyx minute, cupular, obsoletely 4-toothed. Corolla campanulate, ⅕–¼ inch,

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4–5-lobed. Females: Peduncles smaller and more slender than in the males, and heads smaller, rarely more than 3–6-flowered. Calyx-limb minute, truncate or obsoletely 4-toothed. Corolla smaller and narrower than in the males. Drupe oblong or ovoid, ¼–⅓ inch long, yellowish-orange.

I doubt whether there is any real distinction between this species and C. petiolata. From C. robusta it is separated by its stouter and closer habit, more obtuse, and much more fleshy and glossy leaves, with recurved margins, by the smaller heads of flowers, and by the rounder fruit.

C. baueriana is more frequently seen in cultivation than any other species, chiefly on account of its very handsome glossy foliage and compact habit. States having the leaves variegated with white or yellow are not uncommon, and have been introduced into European gardens. It forms an excellent hedge, and as it is not easily affected by exposure to salt spray or drifting sand, is very suitable for planting in exposed places near the sea. Thus, at Taranaki, luxuriant garden hedges composed of it may be seen in situations open to the full force of the westerly gales.

At Maketu, in the Bay of Plenty, there exists a grove of this species, which the Maoris state had its origin from the skids which were used in pulling ashore the Arawa canoe, on its arrival in New Zealand with the first Maori immigrants. It is said that the skids were brought in the canoe from Hawaiiki, but the acceptance of this statement is rendered difficult by the fact that C. baueriana is not known to occur anywhere in Polynesia, or, indeed, out of New Zealand, save at Norfolk Island.

5. C. petiolata.

Hook. fil., Journ. Linn. Socy., i., p. 128; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 113. C. baueri, F. Muell., Fragm. Phyt. Austr., ix., p. 69, non C. baueriana, Endl.

North Island.—Tapotopoto Bay, North Cape. T. Kirk (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” i., p. 143); Castle Point, Wellington, Colenso (“Handbook”).

Kermadec Islands.—McGillivray.

Also found in Lord Howe's Island and Norfolk Island.

With this species I am imperfectly acquainted. According to Sir Joseph Hooker it is distinguished from the preceding by the leaves being less fleshy, and by the young foliage and branches being covered with a minute pubescence. But C. baueriana often has the young branches covered with a minute velvety pubescence, and the leaves vary in texture. Sir F. Mueller, in his “Fragmenta” (vol. ix., p. 69), unites both species, and probably this is the correct view to take.

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6. C. robusta.

Raoul, Choix des Plantes, 23, t. 21. Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i. p. 105; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 113.

North and South Islands.—Common in lowland districts, from the North Cape to Invercargill.

Chatham Islands.—J. Buchanan (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vii., p. 336).

A stout, leafy, glossy-green shrub, 6–15 feet high, perfectly glabrous in all its parts; bark greyish-brown. Leaves coriaceous, very variable in size and shape, 1 ½–5 inches long, lanceolate to broad elliptic-oblong, acute, rarely obtuse, narrowed into short stout petioles, dark-green and shining above, paler below. Flowers clustered in axillary many-flowered glomerules. Males: Calyx minute, cupular, minutely 4–5-toothed or quite truncate. Corolla ⅕–⅓ inch long, campanulate, shortly or deeply 3–5-lobed. Stamens, 3–5. Females: Much smaller, ⅙–¼ inch long. Calyx-limb truncate, or rarely with a few irregular teeth. Corolla tubular, shortly 3–5-lobed. Drupes densely packed, oblong to ovoid, rarely obovoid, ¼–⅓ inch long, yellowish- or reddish-orange.

C. robusta, has a very wide and general distribution. Unlike many of the other species, it is not restricted to any particular class of habitat, but is seen in all soils and situations, whether sheltered or exposed, near the sea or inland. As a rule, however, it does not ascend the mountains to a greater height than about 2,500 feet. In its ordinary state it is not at all difficult to recognize. The characters separating it from C. lucida I have pointed out under that species. From C. baueriana it is chiefly distinguished by its firm coriaceous leaves, which are not at all fleshy, by the much larger fascicles of flowers, and by the rather smaller and more pointed fruit. From C. cunninghamii it differs in the larger broader leaves, much more numerous flowers, and in the colour of the drupe, which appears to be always pale and transparent in C. cunninghamii. I have, however, intermediate forms which are difficult to place, judging from foliage and inflorescence alone. From C. acutifolia, C. tenuifolia, and C. arborea, it is at once separated by the texture and shape of the leaves, and by numerous other points.

7. C. cunninghamii.

Hook. fil., Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 113. C. fœtidissima, A. Cunn., Prodr., in part, non Forst.

North Island.—Not uncommon in the lowlands, chiefly in alluvial grounds by the banks of rivers.

South Island.—Usually near the coast. Various localities in Nelson, T.F.C. Banks Peninsula and lowlands of Canterbury,

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Armstrong, T.F.C. Otago: near Dunedin; Milton; Invercargill, etc., D. Petrie!

Chatham Islands.—Dieffenbach (“Handbook”); Buchanan (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vii., p. 336).

Altitudinal range from sea-level to 500 feet.

A large, sparingly-branched shrub, or small tree, 6–15 feet in height; bark pale. Leaves flat, coriaceous, variable in size, ½–2 inches long, usually linear or linear-lanceolate, but occasionally broader and shorter and linear-oblong, acute, gradually narrowed into short stout petioles. Inflorescence composed of 3–12-flowered axillary glomerules. Male flowers ⅙–⅕ inch long. Calyx minute, cupular, truncate, or obscurely lobed. Corolla campanulate, 4–5-lobed. Female flowers much smaller and narrower. Calyx-limb 4–5-toothed. Corolla ⅛–⅙ inch, tubular, 3–5-lobed. Styles very long and stout. Drupe broad-oblong or sub-globose, pale, and semi-transparent.

Most closely allied to the preceding species, but in its usual state differing in the more slender open habit, pale bark, much smaller and narrower leaves, smaller fascicles of flowers, and particularly in the rounder, pale, and semi-transparent fruit. Intermediate states are plentiful, and some are very puzzling to place in the absence of fruit, especially some Otago specimens sent by Mr. Petrie, and which may be referable to small and narrow-leaved forms of C. robusta. It is also related to C. propinqua, which, however, can be easily separated by its more spreading habit, dark bark, smaller and narrower leaves, fewer flowers, and more elongated drupe.

8. C. acutifolia.

Hook. fil., Journ. Linn. Socy., Bot., I., p. 128; Handbook N.Z. Flora, p. 114.

Kermadec Islands.—McGillivray (“Handbook”).

I am totally unacquainted with this species, and can add nothing to Sir J. D. Hooker's description. It seems to be allied on the one hand to C. grandifolia, and on the other to C. tenuifolia, but to be distinct from both. It is confined to the Kermadec Islands.

9. C. tenuifolia.

Cheeseman, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 315.

North Island.—Ruahine Mountains and other localities in Hawke's Bay, W. Colenso! Pirongia and Karioi Mountains, Mount Egmont Ranges, T.F.C. Forests between the Upper Wanganui and Taupo, T. Kirk!

I have already given a description of this species in the volume of the “Trans. N.Z. Inst.” quoted above, and do not

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propose to repeat it here, as I have no fresh information to offer. The plant was first collected on the Ruahine Mountains by Mr. Colenso, many years ago. In the “Handbook” Sir Joseph Hooker referred it, with some doubt, to C. acutifolia. He now considers it to be distinct, and in this view is supported by Mr. N. E. Brown, who has pointed out to me that the venation of the leaves is entirely different in the two plants, and that C. acutifolia is quite glabrous, while C. tenuifolia is more or less pubescent on the stipules, young branchlets, and midrib and petioles. The inflorescence is probably quite distinct, but as at present the male flower of C. acutifolia and the young females of C. tenuifolia are alone known, it is difficult to form an opinion; although it seems likely that the inflorescence of C. tenuifolia will prove to be more compact than that of C. acutifolia.

10. C. arborea.
Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst., x., p. 420.

North Island.—Not uncommon from the North Cape southwards to the Waikato and Thames Rivers. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 1,000 feet.

A closely-branched round-headed tree, 20–30 feet high, with much of the habit and appearance of Myrsine urvillei. Trunk 6–14 inches in diameter, wood yellowish. Branchlets terete, puberulous towards the tips, bark greyish-brown. Leaves coriaceous, variable in size, 1–3 inches long, ½–1 ½ inches broad, ovate-spathulate or orbicular-spathulate, obtuse or retuse, suddenly narrowed into winged petioles ⅕–¾ inch long, yellowish-green above, often reddish below; veins closely reticulate; margins flat. Stipules short, triangular, finely ciliate when young. Flowers densely clustered in many-flowered glomerules or heads, which terminate the main branches as well as short axillary branchlets. Males: calyx narrow, deeply divided into 4–5 linear or linear-oblong ciliate lobes. Corolla campanulate, ⅕-inch long, deeply 4–5-lobed, lobes broad, acute. Stamens 4–5, filaments very long. Females: glomerules smaller, usually 4–12-flowered. Calyx-limb 4–5-toothed. Corolla smaller and narrower than in the males. Drupes closely packed, globose, or more rarely broadly oblong or obovoid, colourless and semi-transparent, ¼–⅓ inch in diameter.

The largest species of the genus, and very distinct from any other. The foliage is nearest to that of C. spathulata, but is much larger, and the petioles much shorter in proportion. The male flowers are very closely packed, forming large spherical glomerules, and these are placed at the terminations of the main branches, as well as on short axillary branchlets. The calyx of the male flowers is better developed, and has deeper divisions than in any other species.

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11. C. spathulata.

A. Cunn., Prodr. ii., p. 207; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 106; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 114; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46. Pelaphoides rotundiflora, Banks et Sol., MSS.

North Island.—Abundant in forests from the North Cape to the Upper Waikato. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 1,000 feet.

A small shrub, rarely more than 5–6 feet in height. Branches few, slender and straggling, very young ones finely puberulous. Leaves rather distant, very variable in size, from ½ to 1 ½ inch long; blade orbicular or broadly oblong, obtuse, retuse, or emarginate, coriaceous, quite glabrous, suddenly narrowed into a narrow winged petiole which may be longer or shorter than the blade. Stipules triangular, cuspidate. Male flowers in 2–3-flowered axillary fascicles or solitary. Calyx deeply 4–5-lobed, invested at its base by an involucel composed of a pair of depauperated leaves and their stipules. Corolla campanulate, ⅕–¼ inch long, 4–5-lobed to the middle, lobes revolute. Stamens usually 4. Females usually solitary, but occasionally fascicled. Calyx-limb deeply 4-lobed, lobes erect, acute. Corolla rather smaller and narrower than in the males, funnel-shaped. Drupe globose, ⅕–⅓ inch diameter, black and shining when fully ripe.

Allied to C. arborea, from which it is easily separated by the small size, different habit, smaller foliage on longer petioles, fewer flowers, and by the larger black fruit. The leaves are often a bronzy colour, shining and polished on the upper surface.

12. C. rotundifolia.

A. Cunn., Prodr., ii., p. 206; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 108; Handbook N.Z. Flora, p. 114; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46. C. rufescens, Colenso, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 261.

North and South Islands.—Common in alluvial soils at moderate elevations, from the North Cape to Invercargill. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 1,500 feet.

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A large laxly-branched shrub, 6–12 feet high. Branches long and slender, widely-spreading, irregularly and sparsely branched, the young ones densely pubescent or almost villous towards the tips; bark greyish-brown. Leaves in distant opposite pairs, ¼–1 inch long, usually orbicular, but varying to broadly-oblong or ovate-oblong, cuspidate or abruptly acute, rarely obtuse, very thin and membranous, more or less pubescent and ciliate, especially on the margins and on the veins below, veins finely reticulated; petioles short, villous. Flowers in axillary few or many-flowered fascicles, rarely solitary. Males: True calyx absent, but in its place one or two membranous involucels composed of a pair of depauperated leaves and their stipules. Corolla broadly campanulate, 1/10–⅛ inch

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long, deeply 4-lobed. Stamens, 4. Female flowers smaller and narrower than the male. Calyx adnate to the ovary, invested at the base by involucels similar to those of the male; limb minute, truncate, or obscurely toothed. Corolla 1/10–1/12 inch, tubular, 3–4-lobed. Drupe variable in size, ⅛–¼ inch diameter, globose or broader than long, often didymous, red.

Distinguished from the following species by its spreading habit, large round leaves, usually densely aggregated flowers, and the smaller red drupe. From C. tenuicaulis it is removed by its coarser and more open habit, much larger and more membranous leaves, and by the colour of the drupe. C. rubra often closely approaches it in foliage; but the flowers are larger, and the drupe is oblong and yellow.

C. rotundifolia usually affects deep rich alluvial soils by the banks of rivers, and is particularly abundant in the swampy forests fringing the Northern Wairoa, Thames, Waikato, and other large streams in the North Island. The leaves are often deciduous, so that in spring the plant is usually quite bare. They are perhaps the most membranous of the genus. The fruit is frequently didymous, as described in the “Handbook,” but by no means invariably so.

13. C. areolata.
Cheeseman, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 315.

North Island.—Not uncommon in lowland districts.

South Island.—Nelson, plentiful, T.F.C. Westland, A. Hamilton! Canterbury, Banks Peninsula, T.F.C. Otago, not uncommon, D. Cetrie.

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An erect, closely branched, shrub or small tree, 6–15 feet in height. Branches slender, close, fastigiate, ultimate pubescent or almost villous with soft greyish hairs. Leaves in opposite pairs, ⅓–⅔ inch long, orbicular-spathulate, ovate-spathulate, or elliptic-spathulate, usually acute or apiculate, rather thin and membranous, flat, glabrous or nearly so above, usually pubescent on the veins below, suddenly narrowed into short hairy petioles; veins reticulated in large areoles. Flowers axillary, solitary or in few-flowered fascicles. Males: Usually 2–4 together, small, ⅛–⅙ inch. True calyx wanting, but one or two calycine involucels closely invest the base of the corolla. Corolla broadly campanulate, deeply 4–5-lobed. Females: solitary, or two together, rarely more, 1/10–⅛ inch long. Calyx-limb minute, truncate, or obscurely toothed. Corolla narrow, tubular. Drupe globose or broadly obovoid, ⅙–¼ inch diameter, reddish-black or nearly quite black.

Allied on one side to C. rotundifolia, and on the other to C. tenuicaulis. I have already pointed out its differences from the first of these, and C. tenuicaulis is at once separated by its

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smaller size, spreading branches, dark-coloured bark, more glabrous leaves and branchlets, smaller and more coriaceous leaves, and perfectly black globose fruit.

14. C. tenuicaulis.
Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 106; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 115.

North Island.—Not uncommon, especially in swampy forests. I have seen no South Island specimens. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 500 feet.

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A densely and widely branched shrub, 4–8 feet high. Branches slender, bark plum-colour or dark purplish-brown; young branchlets finely and shortly puberulous. Leaves in opposite pairs, ¼–½ inch long, orbicular or ovate-spathulate, obtuse, somewhat coriaceous, flat, glabrous on both surfaces, narrowed into a broad flat petiole; veins reticulated in large areoles. Flowers axillary, solitary or more generally in 2–3-flowered fascicles. Males: No true calyx, but the usual calycine involucre present. Corolla broadly campanulate, ⅙–⅛ inch long, 4–5-lobed. Stamens, 4–5. Females: tubular, 1/7–⅛ inch long. Calyx - limb truncate. Corolla, 3–5-lobed. Drupe globose or depresso-globose, ⅛–⅕ inch diameter, shining black.

A distinct and well-marked species, which keeps its characters well in all stations. I have already pointed out its differences from C. areolata, which is its nearest ally. It is also closely related to C. rhamnoides, some broad-leaved forms of which come very close. But C. rhamnoides always has much more pubescent branches, and usually narrower and more pointed leaves, with very different venation, and the drupe is usually red.

15. C. rhamnoides.

A. Cunn., Prodr., ii., p. 206; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 107; Handbk.N.Z. Flora, p. 116; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46. C. divaricata, A. Cunn. Prodr., ii., p. 207, not of Hook. fil. C. concinna, Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvi., p. 330. C. heterophylla, Col., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 263. ? C. gracilis, A. Cunn., Prodr.

North and South Islands.—Abundant throughout, from the North Cape to Stewart Island. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 3,000 feet.

A small, densely-branched bush, 2–6 feet high. Branches spreading, stiff, rigid, and often interlaced in exposed places; more slender and open in shaded. Bark greyish, or reddish-brown, fissured. Ultimate branches densely pubescent, with short stiff white hairs. Leaves very variable in shape and texture, from orbicular or broadly-ovate to narrow oblong, and in some varieties lanceolate or even linear leaves are mixed with the broader ones; rounded, retuse, or acute, narrowed into a very short petiole, from coriaceous to almost membranous;

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glabrous or puberulous on the under-surface, ⅕–¾ inch long by ⅛–½ inch broad; veins reticulated and evident, except in the more coriaceous forms. Flowers axillary, or on short decurved lateral branchlets, solitary or in few-flowered fascicles. Males: True calyx wanting, but the usual cupuliform involucre composed of depauperated leaves and their stipules present. Corolla 1/10–⅛ inch long, campanulate, 4–5-lobed to below the middle; lobes often recurved. Stamens, 4–5. Females: smaller, 1/12–1/10 inch long. Calyx adnate to the ovary, its limb very short, truncate, or obsoletely toothed. Corolla tubular, 4-lobed to below the middle; lobes narrow, revolute. Drupe globose, usually bright red, occasionally black, ⅕ inch diameter.

Var. α. vera.—Leaves orbicular or broadly-ovate, obtuse, often coriaceous. C. rhamnoides, A. Cunn.

Var. β. divaricata.—Leaves broadly ovate, oblong-ovate or oblong, acute, rather thin. Narrower leaves, linear or lanceolate, often mixed with the broader ones. C. divaricata, A. Cunn.; but not C. divaricata, Hook. fil.

One of the most puzzling and variable species of the genus. Two main forms are distinguishable, as described above; but it must be borne in mind that numerous intermediates occur, which might be placed under either head. Var. α, with rounded obtuse leaves, I am informed by Mr. N. E. Brown, answers to Cunningham's type-specimens of C. rhamnoides, now preserved in the Kew Herbarium. In its extreme state it is stiff and rigid, with coriaceous leaves; but the branches often become longer and more slender, and the leaves thinner, narrower, and sub-acute. In this state it is C. concinna, Colenso, as I find from specimens kindly forwarded by Mr. Colenso himself. Var. β, Mr. Brown assures me, is identical with the true C. divaricata of A. Cunningham, a very different plant to the C. divaricata of the “Handbook;” and with this view Sir J. D. Hooker now concurs. It varies much in the shape of its leaves—from nearly round to ovate, trowel-shaped, or oblong; but as a rule, they are narrower, thinner, and more acute than in the preceding variety, into which, however, it passes by insensible gradations. Some common subvarieties of it are remarkable for having narrow lanceolate or linear leaves mixed with those of the ordinary form; these leaves being most plentiful on the younger branches. Mr Colenso has described this as a distinct species, under the name of C. heterophylla.

The flowers are very uniform in both varieties, and offer no distinctive characters of importance. They are perhaps the smallest in the genus, C. tenuicaulis, C. areolata, and C. rotundifolia being the nearest in this respect. The fruit is always globose, and usually a dark red—“port-wine” colour. Some varieties, however, have a crimson drupe, and in others the fruit becomes nearly black when decaying.

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16. C. ciliata.

(Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., i., p. 22; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 115.)

Auckland and Campbell Islands.—Abundant (“Flora Antarctica”).

I am not acquainted with this species, and can therefore add nothing to Sir J. D. Hooker's description. The flowers and fruit are unknown, and I am not sure that the plant will not prove to be a variety of C. parviflora, mountain forms of which often have ciliate leaves.

17. C. parviflora.

Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 107; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 116. C. myrtillifolia, Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., i., p. 21; Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 108 (var. α. only).

North and South Islands.—Abundant throughout, both in the lowlands and on the mountains.

Auckland Isles.—Sir J. D. Hooker.

Altitudinal range from sea-level to 4,000 feet.

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A stout, erect, leafy shrub, 4–12 feet high. Branches stout or slender, much divided; branchlets often arranged in a horizontal plane, densely pubescent, sometimes quite shaggy; bark light grey. Leaves usually close set, fascicled on short lateral branchlets, ⅕–¾ inch long, 1/10–¼ inch broad, obovate, linear-obovate, or linear-oblong, obtuse and rounded at the tip, more rarely acute, coriaceous, flat or margins slightly recurved, glabrous, or the petiole and midrib slightly puberulous, or surfaces and margins ciliate with scattered soft hairs, gradually narrowed into short petioles, veins not conspicuous. Flowers solitary or 2–4 together. Males: True calyx wanting, but two minute 4-toothed involucels present at the base of the flower. Corolla 1/10–⅛ inch long, broadly campanulate, 4–5-partite almost to the base. Stamens, 4–5. Females: Calycine involucels present as in the males. Calyx-limb minutely 4–5-toothed. Corolla 1/12–1/10 inch, much narrower than in the males, and not so deeply cleft. Drupe globose, ⅕–¼ inch diameter, white or yellowish-white, translucent.

A well-marked and distinct species, which, though varying within certain limits, can always be distinguished from its allies by its leafy habit, pubescent branches, obovate or linear-obovate coriaceous leaves, and semi-transparent globose drupe. There are three main forms: the first, which may be considered the type of the species, is rather stout and closely branched, with moderately pubescent branches and obovate or linear-obovate coriaceous leaves, which are nearly glabrous. This form is found both in the lowlands and on the mountains. The second, which is common in many places on the mountains of Nelson

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and Canterbury, has a much more slender habit, softer more pubescent branches, and rather broader much thinner leaves, which are usually ciliate on both surfaces and margins with soft hairs. This might be distinguished as var. pilosa. The third form is stiff and rigid, and very closely branched, with white bark and very small almost linear leaves. It also is montane, and occurs in several places in the Southern Alps, from Nelson to Otago.

18. C. crassifolia.
Colenso, Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science.

North Island.—Whangarei, T.F.C.; Head of Manukau Harbour, W. Colenso, T. Kirk!, T.F.C. Sand-hills between Helensville and the West Coast, T.F.C.

South Island.—Nelson, Maitai Valley, and other places, T.F.C. Otago, not uncommon throughout the Province, D. Petrie!

A compact rigid bush, 6–12 feet high. Branches divaricating, excessively stiff and rigid, often interlacing. Bark reddish-brown or greyish-brown, rough, uneven, and fissured on the branches, smoother on the twigs. Ultimate branchlets glabrous or very finely puberulous. Leaves in pairs on opposite twigs, broadly oblong, ovate, or orbicular, rounded at the tip or retuse, suddenly narrowed into a very short puberulous petiole, flat, usually very thick and coriaceous, quite glabrous, often whitish below, ⅕–1 inch long, ⅙–¾ inch broad; veins usually concealed; margins thickened. Flowers terminating short lateral often leafless branchlets (and thus appearing axillary), solitary or more rarely 2–3 together. Males: True calyx wanting, but one or more involucels present, composed of depauperated leaves and their stipules. Corolla ⅙–¼ inch long, campanulate, 4-lobed to nearly the base, Stamens, 4. Females tubular, ⅛–⅙ inch long. Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb minute, truncate or obsoletely toothed. Drupe sub-globose or broadly oblong, ⅕–¼ inch diameter, dull yellow.

C. crassifolia, which is a distinct species, though closely allied to the following, was originally discovered by Mr. Colenso nearly 40 years ago, near the head of the Manukau Harbour. In the “Flora,” and also in the “Handbook,” Sir J. D. Hooker referred it, together with the three next species, to C. divaricata, A. Cunn. But Mr. N. E. Brown, who has lately carefully examined the whole of the Coprosmas in Cunningham's herbarium, has satisfied himself that the original type of C. divaricata is only a variety of C. rhamnoides, and that the four plants placed under it by Hooker are quite distinct, both from it and from one another. I understand that Sir Joseph Hooker now

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accepts this view. As a species, C. crassifolia is best distinguished by the excessively stiff and rigid habit, almost glabrous branchlets, rounded thick and coriaceous leaves, and sub-globose yellow fruit. The next species is separated by its more slender habit, narrower spathulate leaves, and more oblong drupe; C. rubra by its larger thin orbicular leaves, and much larger oblong fruit; while C. virescens is at once removed by its slender habit and thin spathulate leaves.

19. C. rigida, n. sp.

C. divaricata, Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 107, in part; non C. divaricata, A. Cunn., Prodr.

North and South Islands.—Not uncommon throughout, in swampy forests.

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A branching shrub or small tree, 5–15 feet high. Branches divaricating, stout or slender, open or much interlaced, glabrous or the very young twigs minutely pubescent; bark reddish-brown or plum colour. Leaves in opposite pairs on short lateral branchlets, ¼–¾ inch long, obovate or oblong-spathulate, coriaceous but variable in texture, dark-green above but paler below, quite glabrous, gradually narrowed into short petioles, veins not reticulated. Stipules triangular, glabrous. Flowers solitary, or in 2–4-flowered fascicles on short lateral branchlets. Males: True calyx wanting, but one or more cupuliform involucres closely investing the base of the corolla. Corolla broadly campanulate, ⅙–⅕ inch long, divided more than half-way down into 4–5 lobes. Stamens, 4–5. Females: Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb with 4–5 minute lobes. Corolla tubular, ⅙–1/7 inch long, deeply 3–5-lobed. Drupe oblong, yellow, ⅕–⅓ inch long.

This is one of the species included by Sir J. D. Hooker in C. divaricata of the “Flora” and “Handbook.” It is very near to the preceding, but the habit is not nearly so rigid, the leaves are narrower and not so coriaceous, and the fruit is larger and more oblong.

20. C. rubra.

Petrie, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii., p. 269. C. divaricata var. latifolia, Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 107; non C. divaricata, A. Cunn.

North Island.—Colenso, in Herb. Kew, Nos. 380, 1976.

South Island.—Otago: near Dunedin; Otepopo; Palmerston South, D. Petrie!

An open or closely branched shrub, 5–12 feet high; branches slender, divaricating, ultimate ones pubescent; bark reddish-brown, smooth. Leaves varying from broadly-oblong to nearly orbicular, obtuse or sub-acute, glabrous or ciliolate, rather thin and membranous, narrowed into rather long ciliolate petioles, ¼–¾ inch long, ⅙–½ inch wide; veins reticulated. Flowers

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sometimes solitary, but more generally in twos or threes on short lateral branchlets. Males: True calyx wanting, but one or more involucels closely invest the base of the corolla. Corolla ⅛–⅙ inch long, bell-shaped, 4-lobed. Stamens, 4. Females: Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb minute, 4–5-toothed. Corolla tubular, 4-partite. Drupe oblong, ¼–⅓ inch long, yellowish-white, translucent.

This species has much resemblance in foliage and habit to C. rotundifolia, but differs altogether in the flowers and fruit, which clearly place it in the same section as the two preceding plants. It seems to have been originally discovered by Mr Colenso in some locality in the North Island; but I have myself only seen Mr. Petrie's specimens, collected in Otago. Mr. N. E. Brown informs me, however, that Mr. Colenso's specimens exactly match Mr. Petrie's.

21. C. virescens.

Petrie, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xi., p. 426. C. divaricata var. pallida, Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 107; non. C. divaricata, A. Cunn.

North Island.—Wairarapa Valley, Colenso. (No. 333 in Herb. Kew.)

South Island.—Otago: vicinity of Dunedin; Otepopo, etc., D. Petrie!

A compact glabrous shrub, 6–12 feet high. Branches numerous, slender, interlaced; bark greenish. Leaves in pairs on opposite twigs, spathulate, obtuse, glabrous, membranous, ⅕–⅓ inch long. Flowers solitary or in fascicles of two or three, terminating short lateral branchlets. Males: True calyx wanting, but the usual involucels formed of depauperated leaves and their stipules present. Corolla campanulate, deeply 4-lobed, ⅛ inch long. Females: Calyx-limb indistinctly 4-toothed. Corolla tubular, deeply 4-lobed, smaller than in the males. Drupe oblong, ¼ inch long, greenish-white or yellowish, translucent.

A very distinct species, but perhaps more closely allied to C. rubra than any other. I give the North Island locality on the authority of Mr. N. E. Brown, who informs me that Mr. Colenso's specimens agree very well with Otago ones collected by Mr. Petrie.

22. C. acerosa.

A. Cunn., Prodr., p. 207; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 109; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 118; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46.

North and South Islands.—Common throughout, from the North Cape to Stewart Island, and also in the Chatham Islands. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 4,000 feet.

A depressed, often excessively branched wide-spreading bush, 1–5 feet high. Branches numerous, spreading, trailing, or

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prostrate, tortuous and often interlaced, often zigzag, puberulous; bark yellowish-brown or dark-brown. Leaves in close or remote opposite pairs or fascicles, ⅕–⅗ inch long, 1/20 inch wide, very uniform in shape, narrow-linear, obtuse or sub-acute, sub-erect, rather rigid, veinless. Flowers apparently lateral, but in reality terminating minute arrested branchlets. Males: solitary, or in fascicles of 2–4. True calyx wanting, but one or two involucels present, composed of depauperated leaves and their stipules. Corolla broadly campanulate, ⅙ inch long, 4-lobed to below the middle. Stamens 4, rarely 5. Females always solitary, invested at the base by calycine involucres similar to those of the males. Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb minutely 4-toothed. Corolla 1/10 inch long, tubular, 4-lobed. Drupe globose, variable in size, ⅙–½ inch, pale blue.

Var. α.—Sand-dune form. Yellowish-green; branches long, slender, much and closely interlaced. Leaves close set, rather long and slender. Flowers usually solitary.

Var. β.—Inland and mountain form. Browner and darker; branches not so numerous, stouter and more rigid; leaves often short and stiff; male flowers usually fascicled.

The typical form of this species is a most abundant plant on sand-hills all round the New Zealand coast. It has long weak flexuous and tortuous branches, which are usually much and closely interlaced, thus forming a dense scrambling bush 1–5 feet high. Var. β is by no means common in the North Island, but is plentiful in the elevated central districts of the South Island. Extreme forms of it, with few prostrate branches, shorter and stiffer, much more remote leaves, look very different to the typical state; but intermediates are common. As a species, C. acerosa is at once distinguished by its peculiar habit, extremely narrow leaves, and sky-blue drupe.

23. C. propinqua.

A. Cunn. Prodr., ii., p. 206; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 109; Handbk.N.Z. Flora, p. 116; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46. Pelaphia parvifolia, Banks et Sol., MSS.

North Island.—Abundant throughout, in swampy forests or by the sides of rivers.

South Island.—Not uncommon, extending as far as Stewart Island.

Chatham Islands.—H. Travers!

Altitudinal range from sea-level to 1,500 feet.

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A large branching shrub or small tree, 6–20 feet high. Branches widely divaricating, glabrous or puberulous at the tips; bark brown, or brownish-grey. Leaves opposite or in opposite pairs, usually rather distant, ¼–½ inch long, 1/12–⅛ inch wide, narrow linear-oblong, obtuse or sub-acute, rather coriaceous,

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gradually narrowed into a very short petiole or quite sessile. Flowers terminating short lateral branchlets. Males: In fascicles of 3–4, or, more rarely, solitary. True calyx wanting; but a 4-toothed cupuliform involucre, composed of a pair of depauperated leaves and their stipules, invests the base of each fascicle and also of each flower. Corolla broadly campanulate, ⅙–⅕ inch long, deeply 5-lobed. Stamens, 4–5. Females solitary, much smaller than the males. Calyx adnate to the ovary, its limb 4-toothed or irregularly notched. Corolla tubular, 1/7–⅛ inch long, 3–4-lobed. Drupe variable in shape, oblong to globose, ⅓ inch long, blueish or blueish-black.

One of the largest of the species, being sometimes 20 feet high. It is allied on the one hand to C. cunninghamii, and on the other to C. linariifolia. From the first it differs in the more spreading habit, dark-coloured bark, smaller narrower leaves, and smaller and fewer flowers; from the last in the smaller, less acute, and more coriaceous leaves, in the stipules not being sheathing, in the inflorescence not being so distinctly terminal, and in the less-developed calyx of the female flowers. In the swampy kahikatea forests of the Thames and Waikato it is a most abundant plant, often forming the chief undergrowth over large areas. Though common in the South Island, it does not seem to attain the same size as in the North.

24. C. linariifolia.

Hook. fil., Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 118. C. propinqua var. γ. Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 109.

North Island.—Hilly and mountainous districts, and in the interior, as far north as the Thames Valley.

South Island.—Abundant throughout, especially in river valleys.

Altitudinal range, from sea-level to 2,500 feet.

A large branching shrub or small tree, 6–20 feet high. Branches slender, spreading; younger puberulous; bark dark-grey. Leaves all opposite, ½–1 ½ inch long, ⅛–¼ inch broad, linear or linear-lanceolate, more rarely oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, flat, hardly coriaceous, suddenly narrowed into rather short slender petioles, blackish when dry, veins indistinct. Stipules glabrous or puberulous, upper ones connate for some length and sheathing the branch, margins usually ciliate. Flowers terminating leafy lateral branchlets. Males: in 3–5-flowered fascicles; each fascicle enclosed in one or two involucels composed of depauperated leaves and their stipules, and each flower with minute bracts at its base. True calyx wanting. Corolla broadly campanulate, ⅙–¼ inch long, divided about half-way down into 4–5 lobes; lobes usually revolute. Stamens, 4–5. Females: always solitary, seated within one or

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two involucels similar to those of the male fascicles. Calyx limb with 4–5 large oblong erect lobes. Corolla ⅛ inch long, tubular. Drupe broadly oblong, ⅓ inch long, pale and semitransparent, with blueish streaks, crowned by the persistent calyx lobes.

The long sheathing stipules form a conspicuous, though variable, character for this species. In several respects it approaches C. propinqua and C. cunninghamii. I have already pointed out its differences from the first of these; and C. cunninghamii is easily separated by its larger paler foliage and more numerous flowers, the females of which have not the long calyx lobes of C. linariifolia. In exposed mountainous localities the habit becomes more compact, and the leaves shorter, broader, and more coriaceous, thus showing an approach to C. cuneata.

25. C. fœtidissima.

Forst., Prodr., No. 138; D.C., Prodr., iv., p. 578; A. Rich., Flora Nov. Zel., p. 261; A. Cunn., Prodr., ii., p. 206; Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., i., p. 20; Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 105; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 116; Raoul, Choix des Plantes, p. 46. C. affinis, Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., i., p. 21.

North Island.—Chiefly in hilly and mountainous localities, but not common to the north of the East Cape, although extending as far as the Thames Goldfields.

South Island.—Abundant throughout, especially in the interior.

Auckland and Campbell Islands.—Plentiful, Sir J. D. Hooker and others. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 5,000 feet.

Usually a slender, sparingly branched shrub or small tree, 6–15 feet high, but occasionally attaining a greater size, and in the Auckland Isles reaching 20 feet, with a trunk 1 ½ feet in diameter (Hook. fil., “Flora Antarctica”); intensely fœtid when bruised or while being dried. Branches slender, terete or tetragonous, glabrous or the very young ones minutely puberulous; bark pale. Leaves variable in size and shape, ½–2 inches long, ¼–¾ inches broad, usually oblong, but varying from linear-oblong or linear-obovate to rounded oblong or broad-ovate, obtuse, acute, or retuse, narrowed into rather long and slender petioles, rather membranous, or in some varieties coriaceous; margins flat; veins indistinct or few and diverging. Stipules short and broad, cuspidate, often puberulous, margins ciliate. Flowers sessile, terminating the branchlets. Males: solitary or two or three together; rather large, ⅓–⅔ inch long, often decurved. Calyx minute, cupular, irregularly 4-lobed, not always present, closely invested at its base by one or two cupuliform involucres composed of modified leaves and their stipules. Corolla campanulate, divided about half-way down

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into 4–5, rarely 8–10, lobes. Stamens the same number as the lobes. Females: always solitary, erect, ¼–⅓ inch long. Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb truncate or obscurely toothed. Corolla tubular, 3–4-lobed. Drupe ⅓ inch long, oblong or ovoid, generally pale red in southern specimens, often white and transparent in the north.

C. fœtidissima forms a very considerable proportion of the undergrowth in the mountain forests of the South Island, but is not nearly so plentiful in the North. The horribly disagreeable odour of the leaves when bruised or drying, and the large terminal flowers, render it easy to recognise. The flowers are very frequently polygamous, and when so the calyx is always well-developed, which is not always the case in the normal male flowers. Its nearest ally is the following species.

26. C. colensoi.

Hook. fil., Handbk. N.Z. Flora., p. 117. C. myrtillifolia var. linearis, Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 108.

North Island.—Thames goldfields, J. Adams! Te Aroha, Pirongia, and Karioi Mountains, altitude 1,500 to 3,000 feet, T.F.C. Mountains near Cook Strait, Colenso (“Handbook”).

South Island.—Stewart Island, D. Petrie!

A small, slender, open or closely-branched shrub, 4–8 feet high. Branches slender, terete, puberulous; bark pale, when old often loose and papery. Leaves yellowish-green, variable in size, ½–1 inch long, linear-oblong or linear-obovate to broad-oblong or obovate, obtuse, retuse, or emarginate, rarely acute, narrowed into rather slender petioles, rather membranous; margins flat or slightly recurved; veins usually indistinct. Flowers solitary, terminating the branchlets. Males: On very short decurved pedicels. True calyx wanting, but corolla seated in an involucel composed of a pair of depauperated leaves and their stipules. Corolla small, ⅛ inch long, broadly campanulate, 4-lobed. Stamens, 4–5. Females: On short decurved pedicels as in the males. Calyx-limb minute, 4–5-toothed. Corolla not seen. Drupe (unripe) oblong, ⅙ inch long.

It will be noticed that the above description, which is drawn up entirely from specimens collected by myself on Te Aroha and Pirongia mountains, hardly corresponds with that given in the “Handbook.” Sir Joseph Hooker, who has examined my specimens, is inclined to think that they represent a new species; but Mr. N. E. Brown places them under C. colensoi; stating, however, that they do not match the typical form of that plant. Not being acquainted with the true C. colensoi, I can hardly state what the differences are, for in a genus like Coprosma too much reliance cannot be placed on descriptions alone. However, the

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most prudent course is to keep the two plants under the one name until further information is obtained. Mr. Petrie's specimens from Stewart Island have very much more coriaceous leaves, with different venation, and may be true C. colensoi; but as they have neither flowers nor fruit, it is difficult to pronounce on them.

27. C. cuneata.

Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., i., p. 21, t. 15; Flora Nov. Zeal. i., p. 110; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 117.

North Island.—Mount Egmont, abundant, 3,500 to 5,000 feet altitude. Dieffenbach, T.F.C. Ruahine Mountains, Colenso, H. Tryon! Lake Taupo, and Hikurangi, Colenso.

South Island.—Abundant in mountain districts.

Auckland and Campbell Islands.—Sir J. D. Hooker.

Altitudinal range from 500 to 5,000 feet.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

A stout, densely-branched shrub, 2–10 feet high, in alpine situations becoming smaller and still more compact and rigid. Branches stout, usually densely leafy, the younger ones puberulous; bark dark-grey or brown. Leaves close set, often crowded on short lateral branchlets, variable in size, ⅕–¾ inch long, 1/10–¼ inch wide, obovate-lanceolate, linear-obovate, or oblong-obovate, more rarely cuneate-oblong, obtuse or sub-acute, patent or recurved, rigid and coriaceous, often concave above, almost veinless, margins often slightly recurved. Stipules short and broad, when young with the margins densely fimbriate or ciliate. Flowers solitary, terminating the branchlets, sessile. Males: True calyx wanting, but the base of the corolla invested by one or two involucels. Corolla ¼–⅓ inch long, broad campanulate, tube short and narrow, lobes widely spreading, 4 or 5. Females: Calyx-limb 4-lobed, lobes rather long, blunt, unequal. Corolla shorter and narrower than the males, ⅕–¼ inch long, 4-lobed to the middle or below. Drupe globose, ⅛–⅙ inch diameter.

One of the most variable species of the genus, but well-marked off from any other by its dense and leafy habit, broad fimbriate stipules, coriaceous recurved linear-obovate or cuneate leaves, which are often concave above, and by the rather large terminal flowers. It varies exceedingly in size, and when high up on the mountains is often reduced to a bush little more than a foot in height, the leaves, etc., being correspondingly reduced. It is exceedingly abundant on the slopes of Mount Egmont, near the upper limit of the forest, forming a leafy shrub 12 feet in height, or even more, and with leaves sometimes ¾ inch in length. Further up the mountain it forms a dense scrub, 2–3 feet high, with close and matted branches. North Island specimens appear to have stouter branches and broader leaves than the majority of those from the South Island.

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28. C. microcarpa.

Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 110; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 118.

North Island.—“Tops of the Ruahine Mountains, Colenso” (“Handbook”).

I am either unacquainted with this species, or have not identified it, and can consequently add nothing to Sir Joseph Hooker's description. It appears to differ from C. cuneata in its slender habit, and narrower thin and flat leaves.

29. C. depressa.

Colenso; Hook. fil., Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 110; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 118.

North Island.—Lake Taupo, and Ruahine Mountains, Colenso; Mount Egmont, T.F.C.

South Island.—Mount Arthur plateau, Nelson, altitude 4,000 to 5,000 feet, T.F.C.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

A low, densely-branched, often prostrate bush, 2–4 feet high. Branches leafy, trailing or prostrate, puberulous; bark greyish. Leaves opposite or in opposite fascicles, linear-lanceolate, about ⅕ inch long by 1/15 inch wide, acute or obtuse, rigid and coriaceous, veinless, somewhat concave, glabrous or with a few scattered hairs towards the margins, sub-erect patent or recurved, narrowed into very short stout petioles. Stipules short and broad, ciliate on the margins. Flowers terminating the branchlets, solitary, sessile. Males: True calyx wanting, but the usual calycine involucels present. Corolla 1/10–⅛ inch long, campanulate, deeply 4-lobed. Stamens, 4. Females: Invested by involucels similar to those of the males. Calyx-limb 3–4-toothed. Corolla 1/10 inch, deeply 4-lobed. Styles 2, short and stout. Drupe globose, ⅛ inch diameter, yellowish-red.

The plant described above is not uncommon on the Mount Arthur plateau, Nelson; and is, I think, identical with Colenso's C. depressa. It is principally separated from C. cuneata by its smaller size, more slender and prostrate habit, and by the smaller narrower leaves. Small forms of C. cuneata, however, approach very close to it, and it may prove to be a variety only.

30. C. repens.

Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., i., p. 22, t. 16A; Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 110; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 119. C. pumila, Hook. fil., Flora Antarct., ii., App., p. 543; Flora Nov. Zeal., i., p. 110; Handbk. N.Z. Flora, p. 119.

North and South Islands.—Common in alpine localities, altitude 2,500 to 6,000 feet.

Auckland and Campbell Islands.—Common from sea-level to the tops of the mountains. Sir J. D. Hooker (“Flora Antarctica”).

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A small alpine creeping species. Branches glabrous, long or short, 4–18 inches, often closely matted together, prostrate and rooting, bark pale or dark grey. Leaves usually close-set, but sometimes distant, sub-erect or patent, bright-green, coriaceous and somewhat rigid, ⅛–⅓ inch long, linear-oblong or linear-obovate to broad oblong or broad obovate, acute or obtuse, narrowed into very short broad petioles or nearly sessile; veinless. Stipules short and broad, obtuse, often ciliate. Flowers greenish-white, solitary, terminating short erect branchlets. Males: Large for the size of the plant, ⅓–1 inch long. Calyx present, small, cupular 4–8-toothed. Corolla tubular, often curved, shortly 4–8-toothed. Stamens, 4–8; filaments often twice as long as the corolla; anthers narrow, large. Females: Much smaller, seldom more than ⅓ inch long. Calyx-limb 4–8-toothed. Corolla tubular, 4–8-lobed to about one-third way down. Styles 2–4 or 5. Drupe globose, ¼–⅓ inch diameter, red; nuts, 2–4.

C. repens is easily distinguished from all the New Zealand species of Coprosma, except C. petriei, by its small size and creeping and prostrate habit. From C. petriei it is separated by the rather larger and broader always glabrous leaves, much larger tubular male flowers, and red globose drupe. It will be noticed that I have treated C. pumila, Hook. fil., as a synonym of C. repens. This I have done on the authority of Mr. N. E. Brown, of the Kew Herbarium, who informs me that, after a careful examination of the specimens on which the species was based, he can find no sufficient characters to separate it from C. repens. As I understand that Sir Joseph Hooker accepts this view, and as I have had no opportunity of examining the types, I am inclined to follow it also. There is a probability, however, that a closely-allied species exists, differing from C. repens to a certain extent in habit, in floral characters, and in the much larger purple drupe. I understand that Mr. Kirk considers this to be the true C. pumila; but this view is not supported by the description given in the “Handbook,” where the fruit is described as orange-yellow. It does not follow that, because a species allied to C. repens probably exists, it must of necessity answer to Hooker's C. pumila.

31. C. petriei.

Cheeseman, Trans. N.Z. Inst., xviii., p. 316.

South Island.—Mount Arthur, Nelson, altitude 4,000 to 6,000 feet, T.F.C. Mountains near Lake Tekapo, Canterbury, 4,000 feet, T.F.C.; uplands in the interior of Otago, common, D. Petrie!

A small species, with prostrate and creeping stems. Branches 6–18 inches long, usually densely matted, creeping and rooting,

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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

glabrous or puberulous. Leaves close-set or distant, erectopatent, 1/10–¼ inch long, linear-oblong or linear-obovate, acute or obtuse, narrowed into short petioles or sessile, veinless, glabrous, or margins and both surfaces sprinkled over with short white hairs. Flowers solitary, terminating short erect branchlets. Males: ⅕–⅓ inch long. True calyx wanting; but the usual calycine involucels investing the base of the corolla. Corolla tubular at the base, campanulate above, 4-lobed. Females: smaller, 1/10 inch long. Calyx-limb irregularly toothed. Corolla short, broadly tubular, 4-lobed to below the middle. Drupe globose, ⅙ inch diameter; red in Mount Arthur specimens, but blueish in Otago, according to Mr. Petrie.

Apparently a very distinct little plant, at once separated from C. repens by the shape of the male corolla.

Art. XXXII.A few Observations on the Tree-Ferns of New Zealand; with particular Reference to their peculiar Epiphytes, their Habit, and their manner of Growth.

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 9th August, 1886.]

Plate XIX.

I.—General, or Common.

Not being acquainted with the living botany of the South Island, my remarks will be necessarily confined to the tree-ferns of the North Island: at the same time I think that many of those plants are nearly as common there as they are here.

Tree-ferns are general throughout the North Island, in forests, on the edges of woods, and on the banks of streams; they are found in dry hilly woods as well as in the low wet ones, but are more numerous and gregarious in the latter. Mostly growing singly, scattered among the trees of the forest; not unfrequently, however, in small clumps, especially on low alluvial flats or tongues of land in the woods bounded on two sides by watercourses; and, more rarely, in tolerably large and continuous groves in wet situations between hills, in forests.

The number of species at present known of tree-ferns is 11.* These are classed under 4 genera, viz., Cyathea, Hemitelia, Dicksonia, and Alsophila. Of those 4 genera, Cyathea has 5, and Dicksonia 4, species; Hemitelia possesses 2, and Alsophila

[Footnote] * Of these, 7 are described in the “Handbook, Flora of New Zealand,” and “Synopsis Filicum;” and 4 (since discovered) in “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vols. xi., xv., and xviii.

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but 1. This last fern is much more rare, and affects a higher altitude than the others, having been only met with by me in the Fagus forests of the Ruahine mountain range, 2,000 feet altitude and upwards. Of all the genera, Dicksonia is the most common, especially in the southern parts of this island. Most of the species are endemic; one or two of them are stated to inhabit Tasmania and Australia; and the most striking and distinct one of all, Cyathea dealbata (the “Silver-tree-fern”), is said to be found in Lord Howe Islands, in latitude 32° S., between the North Cape of New Zealand and Sydney.

They are usually of a single stem, erect and columnar, and devoid of branches, with a spreading crown of large regular and elegant palm-like fronds, gracefully radiating from the top and forming a living circle. In some species, especially of Cyathea, (e.g., C. medullaris, Forst., and C. polyneuron, Col.), their fronds attain to a very large size; I have measured them 15–20 feet long and proportionately broad; when large they are gracefully arched; when small are often extended, and nearly plane. Sometimes, however, their stems are inclined, others are gradually curved, and others drooping—particularly when springing from the sides of a declivity or ravine, or when over-hanging a stream. They are of various heights and thicknesses, some species being taller and slenderer than others, ranging in height from 6 to 45 feet, and in thickness from 4 inches to 2 feet: only one species, however, (Dicksonia fibrosa, Col.), attains to the maximum thickness, while Dicksonia squarrosa, D. gracilis, and most of the species of Cyathea and of Hemitelia are among the tallest. Our single known species of Alsophila is the shortest, and is sometimes stemless.

They are very rarely met with bearing branches; I have, however, seen a few 2-branched, and two specimens 3-branched; and occasionally 2, 3, or 4 springing closely together from the ground, as if fascicled below at the base.

Sometimes their trunks are quite clean, and devoid of epiphytal vegetation; more commonly, however, they are clothed with a dense mass of epiphytes; the stems of some species, when clear, often present a neat appearance throughout, from the regularity of the broken bases of their stipites, which add much to their beauty; while others show no such remains, but, instead, a dense and everincreasing mass of hardened surface rootlets, which generally assume a pretty even appearance, growing circularly around the stem after the manner of bark, but now and then shooting downwards irregularly in long shaggy masses; this last feature, however, generally pertains to the lower side of curved stems. And while on some trunks there are few or no withered fronds hanging from above beneath the living crown of the fern-tree, others are completely enveloped in their old pendulous fronds,

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the growth of many years, presenting a curious bushy spectacle, appearing in the quiet sheltered recesses of the ancient forests as if no disturbance had ever there taken place, for not one old frond had fallen from above! As a natural consequence, in such cases the stems underneath are clean and free from epiphytes.

The epiphytal vegetation common to the stems of the tree-ferns is in some respects peculiar and worthy of notice. For, while such is mainly composed of some of our smallest and most delicate ferns, (of Hepaticæ, and one or two species of mosses, and not unfrequently a small Astelia), some of the larger trees of the forest are often seen springing from their stems; these not unfrequently flourish in their peculiar situations, and sometimes grow to a large size, lofty, overtopping the fern-tree itself, and sometimes, though rarely, killing it by its close embrace; more usually, both seem to flourish and enjoy their curious reciprocal attachment. The trees that are commonly found so combined with the fern-tree are Weinmannia (sps.), and Panax arborea, and Ackama rosæfolia in the forests at the North, the peculiar locality of this genus.

The ferns that often clothe and completely hide the trunks of the tree-ferns comprise the smaller species of Hymenophyllum, as H. nitens, H. tunbridgense (and its varieties), and H. rarum; also, Trichomanes venosum, and its near ally T. venustula; indeed, such may truly be called the proper home of these two Trichomanes, as well as of Hymenophyllum tunbridgense, for nowhere else are these pretty little ferns to be found growing so luxuriantly. It is a beautiful object to contemplate the whole stem of a large tree-fern so dressed and decorated by Nature! often extending completely and closely around the trunk, and that for several feet; their little elegant glistening light-green fronds, so very regular, too, in their manner of pendulous growth, overlapping each other and imbricating like scales. Here is also the home of that highly curious fern Tmesipteris, never found growing on the earth, and rarely found on any other plant; and very recently a small and new species* of the closely-allied genus Lycopodium has been detected growing thereon; while a small elegant moss, Hymenodon piliferus, (the only New Zealand species of that genus), is sure to be found deeply ensconced between the numerous dead stipites, and growing freely in its dry abode. Two or three species of delicate small frondose Hepaticæ (e.g., Symphyogyna sub-simplex, S. brevicaulis, S. simplex, Podomitrium, Phyllanthus, etc.), are also at home there, snugly nestling deep in the crevices of the stems, from which it is a difficult matter to dislodge them without breaking; while some of the larger Hepaticæ, as the dendroid Plagiochilæ, areoften found growing

[Footnote] * A full description of this little novelty has been prepared, and will be iven in a following paper.

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luxuriantly upon their trunks, completely enwrapping them below, especially in low, wet, shaded woods.

Other and larger ferns than those mentioned are not unfrequently to be met with, depending from the trunks of the tree-ferns, as Hymenophyllum dilatatum, H. demissum, H. multifidum, Asplenium falcatum, A. flaccidum, and Polypodium (species); also Lycopodium varium; but then these are much more common and plentiful elsewhere, both on trees and on the ground.

II.—Particular, or Uncommon.

Under this heading I wish to state what I have more recently seen, which, indeed, is the main cause of my writing this paper. During the last three to four years I have noticed some extraordinary things pertaining to the tree-ferns.

1. As to their great number in one spot, and their manner of growth there.—In certain unfrequented localities in the dense forest of the Seventy-mile Bush, which I explored at different times, I suddenly came upon two or three groves of tree-ferns: one in particular I will attempt to describe. On a flat in the heart of the forest, in a deep hollow lying between steep hills, the bottom of which for want of drainage was very wet and uneven, and contained much deep vegetable mud and water even in the driest summer season, I found a large and continuous grove or thicket of very tall tree-ferns, chiefly Dicksonia squarrosa, and D. fibrosa, with a few of Cyathea dealbata intermixed, with but few forest trees and shrubs growing scattered among them. I suppose they occupied about 3 roods of ground, and I estimated their number to be from 800 to 1,000. They were all lofty, from 25 to 35 feet high, and in many places growing so close together that it was impossible to force one's way through them. Their trunks were most profusely covered with the usual epiphytal ferns (those smaller ones already mentioned). Conspicuous, however, among them, was that very rare fern in these parts, Hymenophyllum subtilissimum, Kunze, (H. frankliniarum, Col.,*) which literally clothed their trunks from top to base, intermixing below in the more humid spots with a fine dendroid Plagiochila (sp. nov.) of most luxuriant growth. The ground, too, with rotting logs and stumps below, was densely covered with various fine Hepaticæ of several genera, (as Plagiochila, Gottschea, Lepidozia, Mastigobryum, Podomitrium, Symphyogyna, etc.), while here and there among them were several lovely and rare mosses of the genera Hypopterygium, Cyatrophorum, and Hookeria; and on the higher and drier stumps and mounds grew graceful undisturbed cushions of Leucobryum candidum, plentifully in fruit, rather a rare occurrence.

[Footnote] * Hymenophyllum æruginosum, Carm., of “Handbook N.Z. Flora.”

[Footnote] † The description of this fine species will be given in a following paper.

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A few of those tree-ferns were 2-branched; one, I noticed bearing three branches; all of the branches were at some height from the ground, and rose just as high as the parent stock. Several of those tree-ferns grew in little clumps of 3, 4, or 5, arising from small mounds 2 feet high or so, with deep watery muddy holes between them; their stems were very close together, and appeared as if fascicled or springing from one root-stock below; while above they not unfrequently diverged from the perpendicular.

Familiar as I have long been with our New Zealand forests and their denizens, I gazed with astonishment in this deep and secluded grove of tree-ferns! for I had never before witnessed such a grand display of them; neither had I seen for upwards of 40 years* this pretty species of soft silky Hymenophyllum that was here so exceedingly common. Very certain I am that it does not grow in those several and many scattered parts of that same extensive forest which I have so frequently visited during these last 10–12 years.

From this wet wood I brought away several fine Hepaticæ; particularly that superb Gottschea, G. dichotoma, Col., the largest known New Zealand species. This fine plant (which I have only detected in this locality), completely and thickly covered a large old stump, hanging gracefully down around its top, reminding one of a rich-looking fringed circular cushion or hassock. The ground or mud in many places was thickly covered with long irregular patches of an erect species of Symphyogyna, which I believe to be new. This genus is mostly gregarious in small lots, but I never before saw it growing in such profusion, and so very compact and large, somewhat resembling beds of curled cress or parsley. Places and spots of botanical beauty or-novelty, however, (like all other things), have their drawbacks or opposites: the worst feature here was the very bad footing, causing much tumbling about and splashing and sinking, between slippery and hidden rotting roots and branches, into deep black vegetable mud up to one's knees; and then there was the haunting fear of some accident happening, through which I should not be able to get out of this tangled labyrinth; and, as a matter of course, in that distant and unfrequented spot, should not be easily or early found, if ever found at all!

2. As to the very peculiar growth of some tree-ferns, caused by

[Footnote] * Originally discovered in the mountainous woods of the interior, N.W. of Lake Waikare, in 1841, and published in 1842 in the “Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science,” vol. i., p. 378; also vol. ii., p. 183.

[Footnote] † See “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., p. 284.

[Footnote] ‡ Since ascertained to be such: a description of this plant will also be given in a paper to follow.

Picture icon

Sketch (Unfinished) of a Fern Tree (Cyathea Dealbata.) Encircled in Growth by A Panax Arboreum.

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their own epiphytes.—Some novel instances of this nature I have occasionally met with, a few of them being very strange.

(1.) I have already said tree-ferns are often found with young plants of Weinmannia (sps.), and of Panax arborea, springing from their stocks at some distance above the ground. These trees also grow to a considerable size—of 3, 5 and 7 feet, and are well-branched and flourishing, although their rootsdo not reach down to the earth. A few of them, however, of a much larger size, 14–16 feet high, that I have seen and examined, send down their trunks (I can hardly term them roots) from the place where they had sprung from seed on the stock of the fern-tree into the ground, (sometimes in two or three branches or ramifications), closely adhering to the fern-tree and partly intertwining its stem.

(2.) In a dry wood on the bank of the River Mangatawhainui I saw several specimens of this nature. One aged fern-tree had its base completely surrounded at the surface of the ground by a large Weinmannia racemosa, that had originally sprung from its stock, which also adhered to it above on one side for several feet. Another fern-tree had a Weinmannia embracing it on the one side, and on the opposite side a Panax arborea, (this latter very largely and closely), and both trees had originally sprung from the trunk of the fern-tree, and thence descended to the earth. I noticed one tree-fern in particular, that was wholly separated below from the earth, having its caudex closely hugged for 2–3 feet by a large branching Panax arborea, whose branches or divided stem (I cannot call them roots) descended from the original point of first growth above in the stock of the fern-tree, and enwrapping it at intervals had held it fast, wholly immovable, as if the two trees had coalesced into one. This was on the side of a dry hill, and the rains, etc., in past years, had completely washed away the soil and small vegetation from beneath and around the base of the fern-tree; the fern, however (a Cyathea dealbata), was of a large size and most luxuriant growth. I had detected two or three instances of that nature before, but those fern-trees were only partially severed from the earth at their bases, while this one was wholly separate, and from its appearance had been so for many years, as no fresh rootlets were emitted there.

(3.) Strange, however, as that instance may appear, I have still a more curious anomaly to mention, which, as far as I know, is quite unique. Four years ago, while botanising in the high and dry woods near Matamau, I came upon a fine tree-fern (Cyathea dealbata), whose caudex below was almost wholly surrounded by its former epiphytal foster-child—a stout spreading specimen of Panax arborea, from which, or out of which! the fern-tree luxuriously grew, as if it were springing from a large vase! On the one side (or, rather, speaking correctly, on three

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sides), the fern-tree was wholly enclosed; and this was all the more plainly to be seen, from the fact of the trunk of the Panax being bare of epiphytal vegetation, so that its light-coloured and clean bark showed in strong relief against that of the darker fern-tree in the few narrow interstices on the one side where it still slightly appeared. Another great curiosity was the entire unbroken appearance of the Panax on the one side of the fern-tree, which was completely covered by it; there was no trace discernible of any cicatrices or joinings in its bark, which was even. The tree, or pair so strangely conjoined, stood in a small glade or open space among the trees of the forest that were densely thick around, which circumstance, together with the dark-green foliage of the very large leaves and sprays of the Panax, above and around the delicate pure white fronds of the fern (viewed from beneath them and looking up), with the blue sky here and there in the background seen through their branches, caused the two trees to be seen to a great advantage. The tout ensemble was both unusual and charming, and served to bring to mind portions of Ovid's metamorphoses of trees.

Another pleasing thought arose from the consideration of this tree (Panax), in its so clasping and sending out and down its root-like branches, (which it never does when growing in the earth in its native woods), thus showing its real natural affinity in latent habit to those other genera of that same natural order in which it is placed, (e.g., Hedera, Gunnera, etc.), which so largely and constantly grow and adhere by their climbing root-lets; and yet the ivy (Hedera helix) sometimes grows as a standard.

I visited that spot on several occasions during two years, and always with feelings of admiration; and was so much surprised and pleased with my “find,” that on two of those visits, having taken my portfolio with me, I attempted to take a drawing of it; (in one of those times, however, being caught in heavy rain!) but, owing to the loss of drawing and writing power in my thumb, I made a poor job of it. Still, such as it is, and unfinished, I bring it before you, as by it you may be the better able to know somewhat of the relative sizes and appearances of the two curiously-entwined and coalesced plants.

I took accurate measurements of this botanical phenomenon, and the following is the result:—


Height of caudex of Cyathea from the ground to the springing of its living fronds, 7ft. 6in.


Height of Panax, about 18ft.


Girth of both, taken together at base, 6ft.


At 5ft. 3in. from the ground the Panax tree forked into two stout, erect main branches.


Girth of both plants under the forking of the Panax, 5ft. 3in.

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Girth of main branch of Panax, 2ft. 10in.; of the other, 2ft. 3in.


Girth of Cyathea, immediately under its crown of fronds, 5ft.


Breadth of the narrow interstices of the stem of the fern-tree not yet covered by the Panax: at the base, 2in.; above, in the widest part, 3in.


The fronds of the fern extended about 9ft. each way, forming a flattish arch.


The lower horizontal branches of the Panax extended nearly equal with the fronds of the fern.


The trunk of the Panax below was quite bare of epiphytal vegetation (only a small young creeping plant of Metrosideros scandens just climbing up at one corner), but large fronds of Polypodium billardieri and other ferns hung pendulous from between the two upright limbs of the Panax and the Cyathea.


The longitudinal edges of the root-like descending lower limbs of the Panax showed exactly the appearance of the back of a healthy tree from which a limb has been clean cut off, growing-in with thick round advancing margins over the wound.

Art. XXXIII.A Description of some newly-discovered and rare indigenous Phænogamic Plants, being a further Contribution towards making known the Botany of New Zealand.

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 11th October, 1886.]

Class I.—Dicotyledons.
Order I.*Ranunculaceæ.

Genus 1. Clematis, Linn.

1. C. aphylla, sp. nov.

A slender prostrate trailing plant. Stems 2–4 feet (or more) long, cylindrical, very narrow, 1 line diameter, green, glabrous, striate, few-branched; nodes at pretty regular distances, 5–6 inches apart. Leaves, O. Peduncles slender, hairy,

[Footnote] * The numbers in this paper attached to both orders and genera are those of “The Handbook of the New Zealand Flora.”

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1 ½–2 inches long, a 2-lobed connate densely hairy bract at base, and another about the middle; hairs brown. Flowers hermaphrodite, axillary, opposite, single, small, greenish with a brown tinge, about 1 inch diameter, (?) monœcious; sepals 4, broadly-lanceolate, or sub-ovate lanceolate, sub-acute, 6 lines long, conniving, very silky on both surfaces, many nerved (6–7), nerves branching; margins uneven at tips, sub-ciliate. Stamens 10, sub-lanceolate-linear, rather broad, green; anthers long, linear, very narrow, with a minute blunt connective; achenes (immature) slightly silky; styles shorter than sepals, green, silky, tips recurved.

Hab. Trailing and hanging down on cliffy spots, Puketapu, near Napier; 1885–6: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. This is a very peculiar plant, widely differing from the other New Zealand species of this genus, as well as from those of Australia and Tasmania. We have now known it for two years, and it always presents the same appearance—long trailing slender green stems, no leaves, and single 4-sepaled hermaphrodite flowers. I have examined several specimens, and they do not vary; only one of them had three flowers, all on separate peduncles and with separate basal bracts springing from one axil, as if fascicled but distinct. It would have been described by me last year, but I had a suspicion that it might prove to be identical with C. fœtida, var. β depauperata, or a variety of it; which, however, I do not now believe, after re-examining several fresh specimens.

Order IV.—Violarieæ.

Genus 2. Melicytus, Forst.

1. M. microphyllus, sp. nov.

A tall, slender shrub or small tree, 12–15 feet high, trunk 5 inches diameter; bark pale drab-brown, much and densely mossed, etc.; branches long, slender; branchlets many, sub-erect, pubescent. Leaves small, numerous, sub-coriaceous, glabrous, scattered, single and sub-fascicled 2–4 together, 1–3 (rarely 4) lines long, oblong-orbicular, sub-panduriform, and orbicular, reticulately and coarsely veined, green, margin purple, sinuate, acutely toothed with a small red curved tooth at extremity of each primary vein (usually 6 on a leaf); apex very broad, obtuse, and retuse, with a small central tooth; base tapering; petiole short, under 1 line long, slightly puberulous, with small scarious stipellæ at base. Flowers pretty numerous, rather small, orbicular, 1 ½–2 lines diameter, axillary and lateral, solitary, sometimes in pairs; peduncle longer than petiole, 1–1 ½ lines long, stout, slightly puberulous, bracteate; bracts generally above, rarely below. Calyx purple, glabrous, veined,

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acutely 5-lobed, lobes spreading, tips sub-laciniate. Petals (sometimes 6) sessile, rather large, spreading, broadly ovate and sub-orbicular, with a single middle vein, pale, streaked and tipped with purple; tips slightly erose or sub-laciniate, sub-apiculate and recurved. Anthers (sometimes 6) sessile, large, gibbous, didymous, with a large thickish clavate connective a little higher than the anther. Stigma very small, sessile, conical, slightly sub-trifid. Fruit O.

Hab. Forests, banks of River Mangatawhainui, near Norse-wood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. This species certainly approaches very near to M. micranthus, Hook. fil., but it differs in several characters, as well as in its much larger size, with larger flowers and smaller leaves. I suspect this plant is diœcious, and the above description of the male flowers only. I first detected it in full flower in March; and on again visiting the same tree in May (end of month), hoping to obtain fruit, there was not a berry to be found, but the plant still bearing a few flowers. I have for many years noticed young plants of upright growth, and 5–7 feet high, in those woods, but always in leaf only, although frequently diligently examined by me. This tree is the only one I found bearing flowers.

Order VI.—Caryophylleæ.

Genus 3. Colobanthus, Bartling.

1. C. repens, sp. nov.

A small quite glabrous low creeping perennial plant, about ¾-inch high, forming a short densely matted turf; branches 3–4 inches long, procumbent, rooting at nodes. Leaves about ½ inch long, narrow-linear, subulate, sub-acute with acicular tips, thickish, not rigid, nerveless, green, shining, spreading, recurved; the lower dilated and largely membranous at base, the upper connate; minutely ciliate on lower margins; ciliæ fugacious. Scapes solitary, axillary, slender, erect, straight, 6–7 lines long, longer than leaves. Perianth 1 line long; sepals 4, broadly ovate, obtuse, shorter than capsule, green, concave, 3-nerved, slightly margined; margins translucent. Stigmas 4, strongly recurved, stout, papillose, brown. Capsule pale, longer than perianth, valves obtuse, tips rounded. Seeds light-brown, sub-triangular-orbicular, finely granulate.

Hab. On low alluvial banks, (growing intermixed with Pratia and Hydrocotyle), sides of River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. A species possessing affinity with C. quitensis and C. billardieri (both New Zealand plants), but differing in habit and in several particulars.

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Order XXXIII.—Umbelliferæ.

Genus 1. Hydrocotyle, Linn.

1. H. involucrata, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant procumbent, trailing. Stems 10–00 inches long, slender, glabrous, with a few weak scattered hairs; nodes 3–5 inches apart, each having a large clasping sub-orbicular-reniform stipule, the margins irregularly and minutely lobed and toothed, pellucid and highly cellular; cells large oblong. Leaves few, distant, membranous, somewhat roughish from raised bases of hairs, dull light-green, reniform, 1–1 ¼ inches broad, 6-lobed; lobes rounded, cut into one-fifth of leaf, their sinuses overlapping; margins irregular, sub-crenate-toothed; basal sinus very broad, the margins more acutely toothed; 8-veined, veins (and margins) light-reddish; hairy on both sides, but much more so below; hairs short, thickish, acute, white; petioles very long 3–5 inches, slender, weak, hairy below with long scattered weak 1-nerved reflexed hairs that increase in density upwards towards the apex. Peduncle one-third length of leaves, 1–1 ½ inches long, hairy. Umbels 8–14-flowered, in a compact sub-globular head. Involucre in 2 rows, composed of 10–12 convex incurved membranous leaflets with darkish-brown centres and pellucid margins; the outer, ovate, margins laciniate; the inner, linear-oblong, margins entire. Flowers rather large, pale-brown, pedicelled; pedicels erect, glabrous, 1 line long, with sometimes a small bracteole near the apex; petals valvate, broadly ovate, 1-nerved; tips sub-acute and obtuse, their margins finely crenulate-toothed (sub lente); stamens largely exserted, curved; anthers orbicular (a little broader than long), pale; styles stout, long, at first converging, afterwards very divergent. Fruit rather large, pale-greenish-brown, nearly orbicular, 1/10 inch broad, straight below, apex very slightly notched, flat, glabrous, shining, thickest at centre, intermediate ribs obscure, dorsal edge of carpels obtuse; seed narrow, linear-ovate, obtuse.

Hab. Low wet spots in forests, hilly country north of Napier, County of Wairoa; 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. A species having some affinity with H. novæ-zealandiæ, D.C., H. pterocarpa, F. Müell., and H. vagans, Hook. fil., (an Australian species), but differing from them (and from all the species described in the “Handbook, Flora N.Z.,”) by its involucral leaflets; in this respect, however, it approaches a few of the Australian species; also, the two newly-described species (mihi), H. colorata and H. alsophila,* in their floral bracteoles.

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.” vol. xviii., pp. 260–261.

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Order XXXVIII.—Rubiaceæ.

Genus 1. Coprosma, Forst.

1. C. autumnalis, sp. nov.

Plant, a small tree, or tall slender shrub, erect, 12–16 feet high, few-branched; trunk 3–5 inches diameter, clear of branches; branches distant, slender, long, drooping; bark thin, light-brown, with a fine scaly silvery-white epidermis; inner bark orange. Leaves large, membranous, not numerous, sub-terminal on branchlets, 1–1 ¼ inches apart, broadly lanceolate, 5–6 ½ inches long, 2 ½–3 ½ inches broad, acute, narrowly margined; margins sub-crenulate, especially towards tips; dark-green and shining above, much paler below, coarsely reticulated on both sides, deeply and largely foveolate in main axils; foveolæ ciliate; petioles stout, 1–1 ¼ inches; stipules large, sub-conical, cuspidate, hard, black, glossy. Peduncles axillary; (fem.) stout, sub-compressed, 1–1 ½ inches long, trichotomously branched; the 3 sub-peduncles fascicled, each ½ inch long; stipules at base 4-fid. Flowers—Male: Peduncles ½–¾ inch long, rather slender, 3- sometimes 5-branched, with a pair of small leafy bracts at base; sub-peduncles 4–5 lines long; heads of flowers large, densely compact, outer heads each 6–9, middle head 8–16 flowers; calyx small, cup-shaped, with 5–6 stoutish teeth; corolla campanulate, 3 lines long, 5-lobed; lobes rather large, one-third length of corolla, sub-acute, erect; anthers 6 (sometimes in outer flowers 5), large, stout, 2 lines long, linear, obtuse, purple-tipped, base much hastate, very pendulous; stamens ½ inch long, filiform, minutely papillose. Female: outer 2 sub-peduncles, each 3–4, and the central one 6–9 flowers; involucral or floral bract large, with 6–8 coarse teeth; calyx greenish, purple spotted, sub-urceolate, with 5–6 stout teeth; teeth conniving; corolla pale green, infundibuliform, 2 ½ lines long, 5-sometimes 6-lobed; lobes large, obtuse, spreading, sub-recurved; stigmas 2, ½ inch long, stout, divergent, much crumpled, very pubescent. Fruit 3–4, sometimes 5–6 (rarely 9), drupæ, clustered, sessile, broadly elliptic, 4–4 ½ lines long, bright red (red-currant-colour), very glossy. Seeds large, oval, sub-acute, 3 ½ lines long, 2 lines broad, convex on the outside, flat within, white, somewhat silvery.

Hab. Forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1881–6: W.C. Flowering in May and June.

Obs. I. The near affinity of this fine species is with C. grandifolia, Hook. fil., from which, however, it differs in several characters: as the larger number of its flowers in heads, both male and female, in its corollas, anthers, and large elliptic fruits. It is a curious and novel sight to see in the autumn the female plant loaded with both ripe fruit and the

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new opening flowers of the coming spring-summer season; at such time, too, the ground is covered with the glossy red fruits, which are also juicy and sweet. The pleasing phenomenon served to remind me of the poet Thomson's ideal of vegetation in the beginning—the Golden Age of man,—

“Great Spring before
Green'd all the year; and fruits and blossoms blush'd
In social sweetness on the self-same bough.”

Seasons: Spring, 1. 319.

The male flowers likewise, at the same time, are really handsome, with their large heads of fringe-like anthers.

Obs. II. I have long known this plant in fruit only; this, however, was owing to its autumnal flowering (different to the other species of this genus), for which I was not prepared.

Order LIII.—Scrophularineæ.

Genus 4. Gratiola, Linn.

1. G. concinna, sp. nov.

Plant procumbent, creeping, matted, sub-ascending. Stems 7–10 inches long, stout, purple-spotted, simple or slightly branched, puberulous with long white flattish-jointed glandular hairs. Leaves distant, sub ½ inch apart, orbicular and orbicular-elliptic, 2 lines long, membranaceous, of a pleasing green, glabrous, reticulately veined, with 4–5 small obtuse teeth each having a coloured spot at its base, petioled; petioles short, broad. Flowers rather few, axillary, solitary, peduncled; peduncles 1–2 lines long, stoutish, hairy. Calyx coloured, hairy, leafy, 5-parted to base; lobes long, unequal, 3-nerved, pellucid-dotted, toothed, recurved, tips obtuse; with two long similar bracts at base. Corolla 4 lines long, white, somewhat hairy; tube slightly curved, much veined; veins purple and branched above; limb spreading, 4-lobed; upper lip large, sub-bilobed, thickly clothed with yellow glandular hairs; lower lip 3-fid, each lobe emarginate. Stigma sub-rhomboid, dilated, flattish. Capsule sub-orbicular, turgid, green, glabrous, shining. Seeds brown, conical, very obtuse, a little curved.

Hab. Edges of a swamp in forest, south bank of the River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa, where it thickly covers the ground in large spreading patches, presenting a very pleasing and neat appearance; March, 1886: W.C.

I have not noticed it anywhere else.

Obs. This species is evidently allied to G. nana, Benth., but it is a much larger plant, and is very distinct in several of its characters.

Genus 10. Euphrasia, Linn.

1. E. tricolor, sp. nov.

Plant perennial, sub-shrubby, 8–12 inches high; erect, com-

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pact, branched above. Stems and peduncles densely puberulous. Leaves numerous in opposite pairs, mostly small, under 3 lines long (a few scattered lower ones 8–9 lines long), sub-rhombicovate, or obovate, impressed underneath as if stamped (sunk) within margin and between veins, once or twice toothed, the smallest entire. Flowers rather numerous, showy, solitary, axillary in opposite pairs; peduncle 1 line long. Calyx 2 ½ lines long, glabrous, sub-campanulate, 4-lobed; lobes large, obtuse, coarsely and prominently veined. Corolla ringent, inflated, pilose without, 9 lines long; white, with straight dark-pink veins (usually 8 above and 9 below), with a large orange spot at base of lower lip, and also of filaments; tube rather short; lower lobes large, spreading, sub-rectangular, with straight lateral margins; apices deeply emarginate and sinuous; upper lip recurved, lobes notched. Anthers glabrous, very obtuse, dark-umber; edges of valves largely ciliate with stiff white hairs; spurs of posterior pair equal, white, acute. Stigma sub-globose and (with style) finely pilose. Capsule oblong, 3 ½ lines long, obtuse, sub-compressed at top, with base of style persistent, puberulous. Seeds white, membranaceous; testa very lax, winged above, produced below, striate with minute transverse bars.

Hab. Bases of high wooded cliffs forming the banks of the River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. I. This plant is nearly allied to E. cuneata, Forst., but differs from that species in several particulars: as in its larger lobes to both calyx and corolla, the latter spreading, richly coloured, with straight lateral margins; in its glabrous and coloured and largely ciliated (almost crested) anthers, with equal spurs, etc. But, as both Hooker and Bentham have each separately remarked (the former on our New Zealand, and the latter on the Australian species), “the several species are very variable”; and this I have also often proved.

II. A small variety of this plant (a. microphylla) is found 20 miles further south, in the open plains between Tahoraiti and Woodville; it closely resembles this one, only it is very much smaller in all its parts, its numerous leaves being only 1–1 ½ lines long; E. tricolor, var. microphylla, Col.

Class II.—Monocotyledons.
Order VII.—Liliaceæ.

Genus 5. Astelia, Banks and Solander.

1. A. hastata, sp. nov.

Leaves very long, sub-coriaceous, linear-acuminate, 4 feet long, 1 ½ inches broad at middle, tip filiform; many nerved, with 2 very prominent and coloured narrow ones; upper surface

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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

glabrous, thickly pubescent underneath, as if minutely and regularly pitted (very apparent under a lens), sharply keeled; base much dilated and clasping, 4 ½ inches broad, black, shining, margins thin; veins spreading laterally, largely and coarsely reticulate. Male: Scape 2 feet long, stout, triquetrous, 1 ¾ inches circumference at base, composed of 7 nearly equal equidistant long single drooping racemes, the lowest 9 inches long, ¾ inch wide, each about 3 inches apart on scape; peduncles 1 inch long, each with an excessively long bract at its base, ovate, very acuminate, caudate, drawn out into a very long narrow tip, the lowest being 2 feet 6 inches long and 3 inches wide at the broadest; the upper portion light-green, sub-coriaceous and glabrous, the lower white, soft, and densely silky on both sides; the pubescence adpressed in stippled dots. Flowers yellow-brown, numerous, crowded, spreading, above 1 inch diameter; segments cut to base, narrow, linear, obtuse, ½ inch long, much longer than anthers, reflexed, with 1 central nerve running to tip and 2 lateral nerves ending half-way; all shaggy below on the outside (with pedicels and bracteoles), but the 3 inner have only a narrow central shaggy line to tip, with membranous glabrous margins, the 3 outer being hairy, with ciliated edges; pedicels 2 lines long, each with a small linear 1-nerved bracteole the length of pedicel. Stamens 3 lines long, spreading, rumpled; anthers, 1/10; inch long, triangular, obtuse, emarginate, largely hastate, their basal extremities curved and divergent, corrugated, somewhat bladdery. Stigma rather large, slightly produced, 3-fid. Female: Scape 15–18 inches long, very stout, composed of seven long narrow cylindrical simple flaccid racemes; much more compact on scape than male, each 9–10 inches long and ½ inch wide; peduncles very short, 2–4 lines, but the lowest 1 ½ inches; bracts much as in male, very silky below, the lowest 2 feet 6 inches long, and 2 inches wide at base. Flowers light-brown, exceedingly numerous and compact, very small, scarcely 2 lines long including ovary; segments not split to base, very small, about ½ line long, somewhat linear-ovate, reflexed from middle, the 3 outer more shaggy and ciliate, 1-nerved to tip; tips obtuse; the lower part of perianth forming a cup around the base of ovary; pedicels about 3 lines long, erect, close, but not crowded, sub-verticillate, patent, very shaggy, each with a narrow-linear bracteole at base the length of the pedicel; hairs flat, membranous, glossy, sub-ovate-lanceolate, nerved, white. Ovary (immature) ovate, beak produced; stigma, large, spreading, very pubescent; anthers (abortive) minute, triangular, acute, hastate, adhering closely to ovary, and with a part of the stamen appearing above the reflexed segment.

Hab. Forests, hilly country north of Napier, County of Wairoa; January, 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.

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Obs. This very fine species is naturally allied to A. solandri, A. Cunn., and to A. microspermum, Col.,* but differing largely from them both in several important characters, particularly in size, length, and shape of sub-panicles (racemes), in its extraordinarily long bracts, its different yellow-brown flowers, its very peculiar large corrugated and hastate anthers, and its curiously flattened broad and nerved hairs.

2. A. graminifolia, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant slender, few (7–8) leaved; apparently of simple distinct habit of growth. Leaves sub-membranaceous, largely drooping, 15–21 inches long, ¼ inch wide, linear-acuminate, tips filiform; the upper surface glabrous, dull greyish-green; the lower pubescent-hoary; hairs small, greyish, very closely adpressed; many nerved, with small distant transverse veinlets between them, and 2 very prominent narrow equidistant reddish nerves on the upper surface; margins slightly recurved and ciliate with fine shaggy white hairs; the base spreading, gradually dilated, 1 inch wide, very membranous, with fine silvery shining hairs thick on both surfaces. Scape (female) 6–7 inches long including panicle, erect, densely shaggy with white shining hairs, as also pedicels and outsides of floral bracts and bracteoles; panicle loose, 2 inches long, composed of 2 distant erect racemes and 3 intermediate solitary flowers; flowers in racemes close-set, pedicelled; pedicels 1/10th inch, patent; the upper raceme of top about ½ inch long, composed of 17 flowers; the lower raceme, distant about 1 ½ inches from the upper one, about ¾ inch long, composed of 20 flowers, with peduncle ½ inch, and a long leaf-like membranaceous and very acuminate bract, 6 ½ inches long at base; each of the solitary flowers having a long bract at base of pedicel. Flowers: perianth rather large, reddish-brown, glabrous, somewhat scarious, forming a very loose globular cup around ovary; segments free, ⅖th of perianth, narrow, linear-ovate, acuminate, 1-nerved, the nerve extending to base of perianth; a long very narrow linear sub-erect reddish 1-nerved bracteole at base of each pedicel. Ovary (immature) broadly ovoid-acuminate, rather suddenly contracted towards apex in forming a long beak; style O; stigma 3-lobed, puberulous; anthers (abortive) opposite segments, arising from segmental nerve at edge of cup, minute, long, filiform, sub-hastate.

Hab. Woods, hilly country north of Napier, County of Wairoa; 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. A very peculiar species, unlike all others of the genus known to me; yet possessing near affinity to A. spicata, Col.,

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvii., p. 251.

[Footnote] † “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xiv., p. 335.

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from which it differs in habit, length of leaves, panicle, pedicelled flowers, large loose perianth, and shape of ovary. Unfortunately I have had only one female specimen (all that was collected) to examine; this, however, was perfect and in good condition, except its immature fruit.

3. A subrigida, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant epiphytal, perennial, densely cæspitose. Leaves, about 20 to a single tuft or plant, rather short, equitant, diverging fan-like regularly and distichously from the base, which is sub-cylindrical, not triquetrous, linear-acuminate, 9–11 inches long, 4 lines wide, erect, sub-rigid, tips sharp, sub-coriaceous, glabrous, yellowish-green, striate, 10–12-nerved; nerves strong; the upper portion of the under-surface closely appressed with short greenish-grey glossy hairs, having a minutely pitted appearance; dark-brown, gradually dilated and largely clasping at base, with white shining hairs at the extreme base only. Female: Scape (including panicle) 12–14 inches long, rather slender, trigonous, woody, hard, thickly pilose above with appressed hairs, and shaggy at the base; hairs white, glossy; panicle very compact, short, sub-ovate, 5 inches long, composed of 7 sub-panicles; the lower three being compound, each containing 3 small racemes, the middle one longest, 2 ½ inches long, and the two laterals short, about 1 inch; the upper four being short simple racemes; each sub-panicle with a long membranous bract at base, the lowest one being 7 inches long, broad below, but soon very narrow, and much acuminate. Flowers very compact, brownish; pedicels stout, short, about 1/10 inch; perianth rather small, spreading, 6-fid to base, the three outer lobes larger than the three inner ones. Fruit small, globular, 1 ½ lines diameter, dull glaucous-green; style short, thick; stigmas 3, large, coalescing; seeds small, 12–18, sub-lunate-pyriform, thickest at apex, black, shining, minutely and thickly tuberculate (sub lente), gibbous on one side, slightly obtusely angled on the other, testa produced at funiculus end, sub-trifid.

Hab. High up in the upper forks of large forest trees, where the plant forms large dense masses; woods near Norse-wood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. This species of Astelia I have long known in its leafing state, but failed (until this year) in obtaining it in flower and fruit, and then only perfect female scapes; the male scapes being similar in size, etc., but old, or too long past flowering for accurate description. From the great quantity of barren plants that I have seen and examined at various seasons, I should suppose this species to flower but rarely. It seems to be widely different from all known and described species; approaching,

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however, on the one hand A. spicata, Col.,* (which also very rarely flowers), and serving to unite that small species in a natural and progressive series with the larger species of the genus. I yet hope to succeed in obtaining the perfect male flowers during the approaching summer.

Order IX.—Junceæ.

Genus 1. Juncus, Linn.

1. J. luxurians, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant perennial; stout, tall, dark-green, forming thick bushy tufts and patches, that are sub-erect, drooping, and prostrate; rhizome creeping, with many small scale-like bracts, and sending up numerous new shoots every year; roots fibrous. Culms terete, leafless, 6–8 ½ feet long, 2 lines diameter below, smooth, minutely striate, upper portions soft and tender; tips very acuminate and sharp; the bases brown, glossy, with 3–4 adpressed sheathing bracts, the longest about 12 inches long; tips of bracts thin, very obtuse, sometimes acute; pith soft, woolly, and not continuous, yet not regularly broken or jointed. Panicle lateral, 8–12 inches from tips, large, effuse, pale-green, fascicled, sub 20 branchlets mostly compound; 1–3 being very large, stout, compressed, 2–3 inches long, each bearing at tip sub 10 compound branchlets; involucral bracts 1 ½ lines long, ovate-acuminate, very acute, membranous, white with a brown central nerve. Flowers 1/10 inch long, bibracteolate at base; bracteoles ovate, acute, membranous, white; pedicelled, pedicels long slender; perianth segments lanceolate-acuminate, very acute, rather longer than capsule, their centres bright green with broad white membranous margins. Stamens, 3; anthers small, yellow, oblong, with a minute connective; filaments short, rather broad. Stigmas 3, long and spreading, rumpled, plumose, dark-red. Capsule sub-prismatic, turgid, obtuse, very light brown, or dirty-white, shining, less than 1 line long. Seeds small, numerous, bright yellowish-brown, convex, oblong, sub-clavate; testa not produced.

Hab. In wet swampy hollows between hills, in a dense forest south of Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1885–6, W.C.

Obs. This remarkably fine rush is found growing in middlesized tufts, and also in very large and dense patches, with the ground thickly strewed with them in a prostrate state, forming several layers, all living and dark-green. It is rather difficult to force one's way through a large sub-erect patch, owing to their height, their very close growth, and their being so greatly

[Footnote] * Vide “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xiv., p. 335 (female); and vol. xvi., p. 340 (male).

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entangled. Its extreme softness and tenderness (for a rush), its great length, and its prostrate habit, led me to suspect its being a species nova when I first saw it; but at that time (winter) I could not procure any good specimens. Through its being so soft and tender it is much browsed on and trampled by cattle, so that it is rather difficult to obtain whole and perfect specimens. Hitherto I have only noticed it growing in that one undisturbed forest swamp, where, however, it is plentiful.

Order XI.—Cyperaceæ.

Genus 13. Uncinia, Persoon.

1. U. polyneura, sp. nov.

Plant perennial, clear green, densely cæspitose, forming large bushy tufts, with numerous brown ovate bracts at base, deeply costate. Culms erect, 20 inches long, smooth, unequally triquetrous, the upper portion channelled on the two narrower sides; usually with 4 sheathing leaves nearly together at base, Leaves sub-erect and drooping, linear, long and narrow, 22 inches long, 2 lines wide, very acuminate; tips obtuse, thickened and very closely serrulate; their bases much sulcated; striæ broad, smooth, dark-brown; the upper surface glabrous, regularly striate, many and finely nerved (sub 24), with 3–5 stout whitish nerves equidistant between mid-rib and margin on each side; the lower surface finely scabrid; mid-rib narrow, smooth, slightly keeled in upper portion but very prominently so in the lower; margins closely serrulate; vagina entire, crescent-shaped, membranous; ligula small, sub-lunate, extending from midrib to margin. Spikelet 5–6 inches long, rather slender, lax; the upper 1 ½ inches male, dark-brown, cylindrical and narrow; the denticulation of rhachis very deep, with raised and thickened edges; bract O. Glumes closely imbricate, nearly 2 ½ lines long, narrow, ovate-acuminate, obtuse, margin of tip irregular (sub lente), dark-brown, obscurely striped, striate and prominently so at sides. Utricle 2 ½ lines long, a little longer than the glume, narrow, spindle-shaped, dark blackish-brown, glossy; bristle 2 lines long, slender, pale, much thickened and rugulose at the curve, tip of hook reflexed. Stigmas 3, long, lax, very shaggy, dark-brown.

Hab. Edges of forests and glades near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. This plant in its general appearance has some affinity with U. alopecuroides, Col.,* but differs in the culms being twice as long, differently angled, smooth, and bractless; in the leaves not being scabrid on both surfaces, and the midrib smooth; in

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xv., p. 335.

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the spikelet being much more slender; in the glume being shorter than the utricle, and dissimilarly coloured and marked; in the utricle being longer than the glume and very dark brown; and in the bristle being shorter than the utricle.

Art. XXXIV.A Description of some newly-discovered Cryptogamic Plants, being a further Contribution towards the making known the Botany of New Zealand.*

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 11th October, 1886.]


On this occasion, the last night of ordinary meeting of our Society for this year, I am again permitted to bring you our usual annual botanical offering, in a small basket of Crytogamic plants obtained from our inland woods and glens.

I have called it “our” offering; and this may require a few words in explanation. This plural pronoun is here used in a double sense: (1) To let you know that I have again been largely assisted by kind and liberal, hearty and active, coworkers in this part of the botanical field, who all work con amore in this matter: among them I would particularly mention with thanks three of our active members—Messrs. H. Hill, A. Hamilton, and D. P. Balfour—to whom not only myself and our local branch auxiliary Society, but the New Zealand Institute as a scientific body, are largely indebted. And (2) that this offering or tribute is one made by, as well as from, our New Zealand woods. For, privileged as I am to present and make known this, their free gift, and thus for a short time briefly occupying the position of their herald or ambassador unto you—coming hither directly from them, and from long and oft-repeated sojournings in their homes and company, and understanding their thoughts and quiet reasonings, and silent yet the more expressive language—I would beg permission to say a few words respecting them.

Among the many and varied congenial homes of the great Crytogamic family, in those deeply secluded glens and mountain woods, far away from the busy life of towns, and even the solitary haunts of the isolated “bush” woodman, is the place par excellence for the disciple of Nature to study, to admire, to learn, to know; and so learning, so knowing, to hold converse with her and her beauties; and, through their teachings, with

[Footnote] * In continuation of paper on same subject, read in the previous year. See “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., pp. 219–255.

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the one Great Mind and Author of all I One of our esteemed British classical poets, Thomson, in writing on this subject, has truly said,—

“Here wandering oft,
I solitary court
Th' inspiring scene: and meditate the book
Of Nature ever open.”

For (as I have said to you on a former occasion) I believe in the universal language of Nature: and it is with feelings such as those that I have not unfrequently detected new and hitherto hidden and unknown novelties; and when thankfully gathering them have sometimes said, solus, or spoken out to them: “Come out of your obscurity, and be seen in society. Come and be introduced to science. Come and add your tribute also, however small, to the further display of the many great and wonderful perfections of Nature; and, in so doing, more openly fulfil the imperative injunction made to you two thousand years ago, in the words of that very ancient song: ‘Benedicite universa germinantia in terra Domino; laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.”‘And then, at such times, I have further thought: How many thousands of years—may be, myriads of ages—since this wee little wondrous delicate and frail yet perfect form first appeared, whether created or evolved; and how, in spite of all opposing and powerful elemental influences, and cataclysms, and volcanic eruptions, has this little microscopical plant held its own, fructifying, and shedding its tiny seeds in their proper season, and so overcoming and riding triumphant over all opposition and every adverse power? Moreover, when I have also occasionally found a little Cryptogam which I knew to be also a denizen of another part of the globe—it may be of the Antarctic islets furthest South, or of Tasmania, or Australia, or the Islands of Polynesia; or of the far-off specks in the vast Southern Ocean, the Crozets, or Kerguelen's Land; of the Cape of Good Hope, or Cape Horn; of the Peruvian Andes, or of the European Alps; of the riparian banks of the Amazon, the Thames, the Tweed, or the Shannon; of the summits of our own Ruahine Mountains, or of the Scottish Highlands—what a further theme for thought! Where the commencement, the outset, the Alpha, the origin? or were there originally more than one such? And, if so, did such embryos, situated at the antipodes of each other, commence life together?

Possibly, or rather very likely, some of the younger portion of my audience here this evening may think these remarks of mine strange, aberrant, or at all events peculiar; pertaining, it may also be thought, to the garrulity of old age, and following as a fitting sequence to my expressed belief in the universal language of Nature. To all such, (if there be any), I would merely reply that thoughts like those I have touched on are (1)

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not unreasonable; (2) are eminently pleasing, illuminating, and informing; (3) are qualified to raise our human nature; and (4) to lead us on to more correct views of the Great Father and Author of all. Once more will I quote a few highly expressive lines from my favourite poet Thomson:—

“Nature, attend! join every living soul,
Beneath the spacious temple of the sky,
In adoration join; and ardent raise
One general song—to Him!
Soft-roll your incense, herbs, and fruits, and flowers,
In mingled clouds to Him, whose sun exalts,
Whose breath perfumes you, and whose pencil paints.”

But to leave the mountain-tops, first gilded by the sun, and the purer air of the balmy pine forests and heights, not to mention their kindred poetical musings, and to descend to the plains—to the technical and prosaic facts and descriptions of our few little Crypts.—I have to observe that four of the orders of the great Linnæan class Cryptogamia are here represented—viz., Filices, Lycopods, Musci, and Hepaticæ. Of the first order, or ferns, I have only one novelty, a species of Lomaria; of the second, or Lycopodium, I have also but one new species; of the third, or mosses, I have five new species, belonging to three genera—viz., Polytrichum, Hypopterygium, and Hookeria, all fine mosses and well represented here in New Zealand; and of the fourth, or liverworts, I have 40 species, pertaining to no less than 11 genera, some of which, as Jungermannia, Plagiochila, Mastigobryum, and Frullania, were already remarkably large and cosmopolite. In the “Synopsis Hepaticarum,” published 40 years ago, Plagiochila possess 189 species, Jungermannia 195 species, Mastigobryum 64 species, and Frullania 155 species; and these large numbers of species have been subsequently increased with many more; indeed, out of this present small collection there are no less than 5 species of Plagiochila, 16 species of Mastigobryum, and 6 species of Frullania; while others of those smaller and rarer genera now added to by me are still very limited, both as to the number of their known species and their area.

The total number of Cryptogamic novelties described in this paper is 47; and while all will prove interesting to the working botanist and devoted disciple of Nature, some of them, it is believed, will prove no less so to the cultivated and cursory, though less technically skilled, observer.

Lastly, and in conclusion, (as I do not wish to repeat my former observations over again, though equally applicable here), I would respectfully beg my hearers, being members of the Institute, to read and note what I have said in my introduction in my paper of last year on this subject, in connection with this present paper.

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Class III.—Cryptogamia.
Order I.—Filices.

Genus 16.* Lomaria, Willdenow.

1. L. intermedia, sp. nov.

Plant small; caudex ½–¾ inch, indistinct, formed of the bases of old stipites and wiry roots; tufted, few fronded; fronds sub-erect and spreading, pinnate; stipes rather slender, blackish-brown, glabrous, succulent, somewhat brittle, deeply channelled above, as also is the rhachis. Sterile fronds, 7–8 inches long, (including short stipe, ¾ inch), 1 inch wide, linear-lanceolate, rachis, flexuous, green; pinnæ 16–18 pairs, alternate, distant, membranous, light-green, glossy, thickly dotted beneath with minute red scales, oblong, sides straight, very obtuse, margins crenate, adnate, the lower base much excised and sub-truncate, the upper base slightly sub-auriculate or produced, but not extended on rhachis, 3–4 lobes at top confluent, the uppermost lobe broadly ovate, obtuse; the lowermost 5–6 pairs of pinnæ small, sub-orbicular, and sometimes opposite; veins 4–5-jugate, obscure, the lower forked, upper simple, extending nearly to margin, tips clavate, the lowest basal vein always 3-branched, and proceeding from the rhachis, not the midrib: fertile fronds much longer and more slender, 9–11 inches (including stipe, 2 inches), pinnæ 16–18 pairs, alternate, very distant, sub ½ inch, narrow linear almost filiform, 6–7 lines long, ½ line wide, obtuse, margins sub-crenulate, presenting a regular knobbed or beaded appearance, arising from the clavate tips of the veins, adnate, slightly decurrent, ultimate lobe long and very narrow, the lowermost segments exceedingly small; rich red-brown; margin of indusium finely lacerate, as obtains in L. filiformis, A. Cunn.

Hab. Scattered in damp shaded localities, Seventy-Mile Bush, County of Waipawa; 1880–86: W.C. In forests near Palmerston, County of Manawatu; 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. I. This species is allied to several of our smaller Lomariæ,—as, L. lanceolata, Spr., L. pumila, Raoul, L. membranacea, and L. oligoneuron, Col.,—but more closely to L. membranacea, from which species it differs in its larger size, its crenate (not “dentato-serrate”) sterile pinnæ, which are also of a different shape, more obtuse and distant, excised at their lower and produced at their upper bases, much fewer veined, and minutely dotted with red scales beneath; while the fertile

[Footnote] * The numbers attached to the orders and genera in this paper are those of them in the “Handbook Flora of N.Z.”

[Footnote] † Vide “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., p. 346.

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pinnæ are also very much narrower, and adnate, with sub-crenulate margins. Those four species form a compact little natural group.

II. After long search, I found 4 small scales at the bases of 2 stipites. These are very short, about 1 line long, black, subulate, with a broad membranous and entire base, and large black oblong cells.

Order II.—Lycopodiaceæ.

Genus 2. Lycopodium, Linn.

1. L. novæ-zealandicum, sp. nov.

Plant small, dependent, lax, soft; main stem slender, 3–4 inches long, single, leafy to base, once forked at top; forks ½–1 inch long, cylindrical. Leaves sub-trifarious, glabrous, shining pale-green, spotted with brown dots, lowermost rather distant, loose, spreading, recurved, sub-linear-spathulate, 4–6 lines long, ½ line wide, transversely wrinkled, narrowed at base and slightly decurrent; tips sub-acuminate, obtuse, thickened, nerve broad and strong; margins entire, pale, sub-cartilaginous; upper leaves much smaller, closer, imbricate, sub-appressed, nerve obsolete. Capsules axillary in upper leaves of main stem and on forks, large for plant, orbicular with a deep sinus, broader than base of leaf, yellow; valves gaping, thickened at margins; spores sub-orbicular, minutely roughish. Scale—or capsule-leaves on forks, sub 2 lines long, subulate, erect, very obtuse at tips, much dilated at base, clasping.

Hab. Epiphytical on fern-trees, open marshy glades in low forest, bank of River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. I. Of this little plant I obtained five specimens from three fern-trees, two of them in full fructification and nearly alike in size and shape; two of the barren specimens were a little larger (4–5 inches, main stem), but much the same in form; their colour greener.

II. This is a small species of the Selago section; apparently pretty closely allied to L. taxifolium, Sw., (ap. fig. Hook. et Grev. Gen. Filicum, tab. Ixxxviii.), a Jamaica and St. Helena species; but that plant is much larger, and its leaves are sub-sexfarious, rigid, and acute, and its capsules reniform. This plant is also nearly allied to L. gnidioides, Linn., a Cape and Mauritius species. It differs much from its nearest New Zealand congener, L. varium, Br., in its much smaller size, in its narrower leaves of a different shape, being more lax and remote, and not so thickly set around the stem, in the total absence of quadrangular spikes, its differently-shaped capsules, and its softness. Sir J. D. Hooker has given no less than five drawings of different forms of that variable species in his “Flora

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Tasmaniæ,” (tab. clxx.), but all without fructification. Another drawing of that species, with fruit and dissections, is also given by Sir W. J. Hooker, (Ic. Filicum, tab. 112), which is more in accordance with the New Zealand states of L. varium; but all differ widely from this plant.

Order IV.—Musci.

Genus 46. Polytrichum, Linn.

A. Calyptra nearly glabrous.

IV. Polytrichadelphus, C. Müell. (Cyphoma, Hook. fil. and Wilson.)

1. P. polycarpum, sp. nov.

Stems erect, 2 inches high, rather stout, once forked, bare at base. Leaves 3 ½ lines long, thickly set from near base, sub-patent, spreading and decurved below on stem, subulate, acute, glabrous, flat on upper surface not canaliculate, sub-rigid, opaque, narrowly margined, serrate, nerved throughout, darkgreen with brown tips, lurid in age; bases broad, sub-quadrate, 1 line wide, amplexicaul; cells very minute, sub-orbicular distinct and transverse in the margin of leaf near contraction, narrow linear-oblong in the basal portion; perichætial shorter than stem-leaves. Fruit-stalks lateral, slender, erect, 1 ½ inches long, slightly flexuous, twisted at top, light-red, shining, 4–5 to a branch. Capsule broadly oblong, a little contracted at mouth, sub-horizontal and inclined, 2 lines long, somewhat strumous, flat and slightly concave above, conspicuously 2-angled at the sides (sometimes obscurely 4-angled), semi-terete below; light-brown (becoming darker in age), shining, mouth orbicular; teeth 64, rather short, hyaline, acute, sinuses broadly rounded; the circular epiphragm radiate, margin uneven. Spores circular, transparent at centre. Calyptra longer than capsule, narrow linear, 2 ½ lines long, straight, red, glabrous, tip obtuse, hirsute at extreme apex; hairs very short and thick; membranous and lacerate at base.

Hab. Hilly woods, east bases of Ruahine Mountain Range, County of Hawke's Bay; 1885: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. This species will range under Polytrichadelphus, C. Müell., and is allied to P. magellanicum, Hedw. It differs however, from that species in its more simple stems, in its leaves being margined and more serrate, with much larger sub-quadrate bases, (resembling those of P. giganteum, Hook., as given by Schwaeg., tab. cccxxv.), and in their not being canaliculate and lamellate; also, in its slender seta, the sub-strumous form of its capsule with circular mouth, its shorter and more acute teeth with broader sinuses, and its longer calyptra.

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Genus 67. Hypopterygium, Bridel.

1. H. hillii, sp. nov.

Plant closely cæspitos in small tufts. Stems about ½ inch high, thickly tomentose throughout with dark brown tomentum. Frond sub-deltoid-orbicular, pale yellowish-green, 5–6 lines broad, the lower branches 2-pinnate, the upper simple. Leaves: on the stem, deltoid-acuminate, nerveless, margins entire slightly uneven, cells long and narrow; on the primary branches, distichous, spreading, close and slightly imbricate, broadly ovate, much apiculate, dimidiate, very thin almost pellucid, stoutly margined; margins serrate; nerve extending about three-fourths of leaf; cells small and sub-orbicular at tips, larger and oblong at centre and base with minute interstitial cellules; dorsal leaves orbicular, very largely apiculate, the mucro stout and acute and nearly half the length of the leaf, margined, slightly denticulate near apex; nerve stout, extending beyond middle; cells as in those of the primary branches; perichætial narrow-ovate, much acuminate, acute; cells very long and narrow. Fruit-stalk, 5–7 to each plant, about ½ inch long, reddish, erect, tip slightly curved. Capsule a little drooping, oblong, red, minutely and regularly papillose, broadest and tubercled near base; cells large, sub-orbicular-quadrate; outer teeth dark-brown, subulate, acuminate, with no median line but a dark line at margins, transversely sulcate; the inner teeth nearly as long as the outer, pale, subulate, acuminate, bifid, tips almost capillary, dark jointed. Calyptra as long as the capsule, dimidiate, narrow, subulate, acute, a little curved, whitish below, tip brown.

Hab. Forests, Daneverke, County of Waipawa; 1885; Mr. H. Hill: forests near Norsewood, same county; 1886: W.C.

Obs. This elegant little fern-like moss is allied to the smaller species of Hypopterygium, (“Sec. I. a. Leaves not mixed with bristles; ** branches 2-pinnate;”) of which we have some half-dozen or more known and described species, but it is very different from them all. I have, with much pleasure, named it after its discoverer, Mr. Henry Hill, B.A., Inspector of Government Schools for the Hawke's Bay District, whose ready zeal and care in collecting, and kindness and liberality in imparting botanical specimens of rare plants, I have long thankfully experienced, as my published botanical papers will abundantly testify.

2. H. pachyneuron, sp. nov.

Plant, rhizome stoutish, creeping, 2–3 inches long, brown, slightly hairy. Stems single, distant on rhizome, erect, 1 inch high, rather slender, glabrous, leafy and green above, bare and brown below. Frond sub-orbicular-cordate in outline, ½ inch

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long, green, inclining to pale-green at tips of branches; branches bi-pinnate throughout, very close set and overlapping. Leaves: lateral, distichous, spreading, imbricate, ovate, acute, slightly and distantly serrate at tips, margined; nerve very stout and broad at base and extending beyond middle; cells rhomboidal, larger at base; the dorsal leaves broadly orbicular, apiculate, margined; margins entire, slightly uneven; nerve vanishing beyond middle; cells oblong, small at tip and margins, larger at centre and base; stem leaves similar to dorsal; perichætial narrow oblong-lanceolate, very acuminate, entire; cells narrow oblong rectangular. Fruit-stalk: 8–9 on one plant, each singly arising from the base of a branch on the main stem, or from a fork of the primary branches, slender, erect, red, 5 lines high, shorter than frond; base very filiform, vaginant; vagina large, cylindrical, dark-brown. Capsule sub-erect and horizontal, about 1 line long, oblong, reddish, smooth, slightly rugose at base; outer teeth dark-brown, subulate, with a dark median line, very closely transverse-sulcate, edges much roughened (sub-denticulate) with numerous dark teeth, greatly acuminate, tips flexuous, curved; inner teeth just as long as outer, pale, remotely barred with a median line, acuminate, bifid for one-third of length from tip, with three filiform jointed ciliæ, shorter than teeth, alternate between them.

Hab. Near Wairoa, Hawke's Bay; 1885: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. This is another species of the same subsection as the preceding, and is also pretty closely allied to its known New Zealand congeners.

Genus 71. Hookeria, Smith.

Section 2. Mniadelphus.

α Leaves with thickened margins.
** Leaves entire.

1. H. cataractæ, sp. nov.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Plant growing in large spreading patches, 2–3 inches long, fragile, soft; stems stout, thick at top, dark, leafy throughout, branched above; branches long, divaricate, distant, flat, compressed, hairy, 1/10 inch wide. Leaves small, ⅔ line, sexfariously disposed, obovate-oblong, very obtuse, slightly narrowed at base, imbricate, very thin, glossy, of a pleasing bright-green (lighter in age), wavy, tips recurved, margin entire, thickened, and (with nerve) red in age; nerve extending ⅚ of leaf, diverging near tip with a very short branch at divergence, stout at base, fine at top; cells orbicular, small, particularly at apex and sides, larger and oblong at lower centre and base; perichætial leaves smaller and narrower, sub-apiculate, enclosing numerous cylindrical paraphyses, cells larger. Fruit-stalk arising from near

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base of branchlet, ½ inch long, erect, flexuous, slender, shining, dark-red, thickened at base and vaginant; vagina tubercled. Capsule smooth, shining, oblong, equal, rather less than 1 line long, brown, slightly tubercled at base, sub-erect and horizontal; cells small, oblong-orbicular; outer teeth much acuminate, dark-brown, closely trabeculate, free, with stout thickened margins, rough at edges with bars largely protruding towards tips, and two dark stout longitudinal medial lines close together; inner teeth long, very acuminate, finely hair-pointed, white, with distant trabeculæ and a single median line. Operculum half the length of capsule, rostrate, reddish, smooth, shining, acuminate, acute, black-tipped, centre reddish-brown, base much fimbriate; fimbriæ recurved, light-brown, obtuse, of unequal lengths.

Hab. Close to a waterfall, wet dripping-sides of shaded cliffs, banks of the River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. A species allied to H. concinna, Col.,* but much larger, and of a different habit, form of growth, and texture.

β. Leaves without thickened margins.
** Leaves serrulate.

2. H. telmaphila, sp. nov.

Plant sub-erect, 1–1 ¼ inches high, simple and slightly branched; stems stout, dark-coloured, hairy at bases with long red wiry hairs. Leaves pale dusky-green, quadrifariously disposed, imbricate, not margined, minutely serrulate (sub lente); lateral spreading, 2 ½ lines long, broadly ovate, very obtuse, the base contracted and with the stout nerve presenting a sub-petiolate appearance; nerve extending ⅔ of leaf, very stout at base, ending abruptly with a short branch from the tip; cells large, orbicular, smaller at apex and sides; dorsal and ventral leaves adpressed, smaller, sub-orbicular, ovate; perichætial numerous, small, very thin, ovate, acute, apex sharply serrulate, the margins entire; cells oblong. Fruit-stalk (immature) ½ inch long, black, stout, flexuous, twisted, much thickened at base. The leaves when dry are distant and much crisped, but soon expanding in water.

Hab. On the ground, edges of a swamp, dense forest near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. A species near to H. pseudopetiolata, Col., but differing from that species in its larger size and very much larger and broader leaves, that are only very minutely serrulate and imbricate; their cells also are unequal, with a stouter and longer nerve.

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., p. 229.

[Footnote] † “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., p. 231.

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Order V.—Hepaticæ.

Genus 2. Jungermannia, Linn.

1. J. pygmæa, sp. nov.

Plant minute, erect, 2 (rarely 3) lines high, of close, compact growth, pale-green. Stems highly cellular. Leaves sub 20, orbicular, narrowed at base, semi-amplexicaul, not decurrent, imbricate, vertical, sub-recurved at tips, margin entire but slightly uneven; cells small, orbicular, and minutely beaded at apex of leaf, larger and oblong, with minute triangular cellules in the interstices in the centre and at the base, and minute sub-quadrate and regular at the margin, giving the leaf a margined appearance. Stipules O. Perianth obovate, 6-lobed, and plicate, each lobe 3-toothed, the central tooth largest and ciliate with 5–6 short ciliæ; cells large, oblong-quadrangular. Seta slender, capillary, flexuous, 4 ½ lines long, highly cellular; cells narrow, longitudinal. Capsule small, brown; valves oval, obtuse, slightly margined, striate with dark-brown wavy lines and numerous minute transverse ones; cells oblong.

Hab. On wet sides of clayey and sandstone cuttings, closely intermixed with a minute Fissidens, and forming one compact and spreading mass; Glenross, County of Hawke's Bay; 1886: Mr. D. P. Balfour.

Obs. A species very near to J. humilissima, Col., (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., p. 236, and to other small allied species mentioned there), but differing mainly from that species in the form of its perianth and its capsule, in the cells of its leaves, and in its smaller size.

Genus 3. Plagiochila, Nees and Mont.

1. P. polycarpa, sp. nov.

Rhizome creeping, long, much branched. Stems dendroid, erect, 6–9 inches high, woody, sub-rigid, bare and compressed below cylindrical above, black, glossy, bipinnately branched; branches ascending and horizontal, very numerous, especially above, irregular in length—sometimes a branch as large and as thick as the main stem proceeds horizontally from it near the base. Leaves light-green when young, olive-green when old, much crisped when dry, closely set, imbricate, largely decurrent, ventral margins cilio-denticulate; teeth few, distant, but closer and smaller at apex; dorsal margin entire and very oblique; cells sub-orbicular. Main stem 2 ½ lines wide (including leaves), leaves large, somewhat elliptic-orbicular, apices round, their ventral bases much produced and clasping; branches (with leaves) 1 ½ lines wide, their leaves smaller and somewhat deltoid in outline; involucral sub-obovate, narrow, sub-vertical, ciliate on ventral margin and at apex, dorsal margin entire.

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Perianth terminal on short lateral branchlets, green, broadly-elliptic, apiculate, sub-inflated, mouth large, gaping, lips entire, thickened, incurved, with 3–4 very minute ciliæ (sub lente) at tip, the mucro sometimes split or minutely bifid; seta short, slightly exserted, nodding; capsule oval, dark red-brown, small for plant; valves oblong, obtuse; elaters bi-spiral, adhering largely to margins. The male plant is more slender, with smaller leaves, narrow spikes, and much attenuated apices.

Hab. In wet dark woods in deep gulleys between hills, growing luxuriantly and thickly in very large continuous patches of several feet, on rotten logs, roots and bases of trunks of large trees, completely covering them; near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1885–86: W.C.

Obs. This fine species will rank with those other known New Zealand dendroid Plagiochilæ,—viz., P. gigantea, Lind., P. stephensoniana, Mitt., P. sub-similis, Col.,* etc. It also has affinity with them all, mostly, perhaps, with P. stephensoniana, but differing from that species in its perianth and involucral leaves, colour, and manner of growth, being much and largely branched at the top. The form of its leaves on the ventral side in their upper basal portion is much like those of P. deltoidea, and P. cristata, Lind., (and of some others), being largely-produced and sub-amplexicaul.

2. P. obscura, sp. nov.

Rhizome creeping, long, stout. Stems dendroid, erect, 5–6 inches high, semi-depressed and sulcated below, dark, stout, leafy from base, much branched above; branches sub-tripinnate, reddish-brown. Leaves very numerous, close, imbricate, cordate, amplexicaul, sparsely ciliate-dentate at apex and apical portion of ventral margin; the dorsal base of leaf wavy and largely decurrent, and nearly meeting on the stem that of the opposite leaf; the base of the ventral margin much produced beyond the stem; the young leaves light-green, the old ones dark-green; cells minute, orbicular; guttulate, sub-opaque. Involucral leaves similar, but smaller and obovate; teeth coarse, each containing many cells. Perianth terminal on very short lateral branchlets, green, elliptic-orbicular, obtuse, apiculate, entire, the mucro having 4 short teeth (sub lente); seta exserted, very short; capsule small, oval, dark-brown; valves sub-acute.

Hab. On decaying logs and branches, wet dark woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. A species allied to the preceding, P. polycarpa, but a smaller, coarser, and darker plant, with differently shaped and opaque leaves.

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xiv., p. 340.

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3. P. suborbiculata, sp. nov.

Plant dendroid, 3–4 inches high; stem (and main branches) black, bare at base, leafy above, tripinnately branched at top; branches long, irregular, spreading; sometimes a branch, with its numerous upper and close bushy branchlets, is larger than that whence it sprang; branchlets clear greènish-brown, curved, drooping, 2 ½ lines wide (including leaves). Leaves alternate, distant on main stem and branches, closer on branchlets, but not much imbricate; green when young, dusky-green when old; those on main stem sub-reniform-orbicular, 2 lines diameter, horizontal, patent, slightly amplexicaul; on branches orbicular or orbicular-cordate; margins largely denticulatociliate (almost spiny), except the basal portion of the dorsal margin; teeth or spinous ciliæ reddish, irregular, coarse, jointed, the largest with 2–3 lateral cells at their bases; marginal interstices between teeth curved and rounded; cells large, orbicular, and oblong, with thick double walls and clear triangular dots in the interspaces, smaller and more compact in a regular line on the margins. Involucral similar, but larger and spreading. Perianth terminal, free, obovate, 3 lines long, curved, compressed; lips semicircular, much produced, ciliate-toothed, extending round apex and slightly down the sides; base cylindrical, peduncled.

Hab. Dry hilly forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. This species is very near P. gigantea, Lind., which it much resembles in form and general appearance, though a smaller plant. It differs, however, from that species in its larger and more orbicular leaves and in their areolation, their margins being much more coarsely toothed and sub-spiny, and their dental interspaces rounded; its perianths, too, are much more round and produced at their tips, with longer, more numerous and extensive ciliate teeth; and its involucral leaves are more distant and spreading.

4. P. exilis, sp. nov.

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Plant creeping at base, sub-erect, 3–4 inches high, excessively slender, few and loosely branched; branches diffuse, distant, long, often 3 branchlets opposite and near each other spring from near the top of the main stem, and a sub-horizontal one from close under perianth; stem (with leaves) 1/10 inch wide, red, smooth. Leaves light-green, small, alternate, distant, obovate, apices very obtuse and truncate, closer and very slightly overlapping at tops of branches, ventral margin and apex coarsely and irregularly denticulate, (mostly 10 teeth on ventral margin and 2–3 at apex), dorsal margin entire, an oblique ridge or thickening near the margin extending to stem (giving the

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appearance of a nerve), and this slightly decurrent on the stem parallel with the proper margin; cells minute, of various shapes and sizes (mostly oblong), rather opaque. Involucral leaves similar, but laciniate on both margins, the laciniæ larger, curved, and bi-laciniate. Perianths few, terminal on tips of main branches, free, peduncled, obovate-oblong, compressed, sides straight, mouth largely cilio-laciniate; lips scarcely rounded; cells as in leaves. Capsule slightly exserted, small, oval, reddish-brown; valves oblong, obtuse. Male plant still more slender, wiry, attenuated and diffuse; 3–4 small branchlets of spikes near the top of main stem, sub-fasciculate, the branchlet continued above the spike with the spikes double on it; spikes very narrow, 2 lines long; scales 3–4-toothed at apex, tips recurved.

Hab. On wet logs, etc., forming closely-growing loose tangled masses; low wet woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. In general form and habit this species will rank near to P. tenuis, Lind., (an East Indian and West Indian species), and the male plant with that of P. deltoidea, Lind. It is also pretty closely allied to the following species, P. distans.

5. P. distans, sp. nov.

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Plant creeping, slender, wiry, procumbent, and sub-erect. Stems delicate, 1 ½–2 inches high, leafy to base, simple, forked at top and sometimes sub-fascicled with 2–4 branchlets; tops of stems sub-flabellate; stems (including leaves) mostly about 1 line wide, the largest sometimes 1 ½ lines; stems light reddish-brown. Leaves on stems small, alternate, very distant, sub-obovate, dimidiate, flat, spreading, ventral margin much arched, dorsal straight, a few large distant teeth (4–7) at apex and on anterior portion of ventral margin, generally 3 spinous teeth at apex, the one at the outer anterior angle being the longest, dorsal margin entire; leaves generally larger at tops of branchlets and about the perianth, light green; cells orbicular, with thick walls and minute circular cellules in the interstices. Involucral leaves similar, erect. Perianths terminal on branchlets, obovate, 1/10 inch long; mouth narrow; lips largely ciliate-dentate; teeth few, flexuous; cells as in leaves. Male plant still more slender, sometimes 3 spikes on a branch, with leaves in the interspaces, each spike about 1 ½ lines long; scales sub-erect, tips 2-fid. The tips of the branches are sometimes flagellate and scaly; some of the stems are also exceedingly fine and slender, being only ½ line wide, including their pinnate leaves.

Hab. On trees, in low wet woods, forming rather large and densely compact patches; near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

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Obs. A species nearly allied to the preceding, P. exilis, mihi; and also to P. distinctifolia, Lind., a West Indian and South American species, (and also said by Lindenberg* to have been “found in Dusky Bay, New Zealand, Herb. Hook.”; but it is not included by Sir J. D. Hooker in the “Flora N.Z.,” nor the “Handbook Flora N.Z.”; hence, I suppose, some slight error in the Dusky Bay hab., possibly an error for Staten Land, near Cape Horn). This species differs from P. exilis in its leaves being less toothed with rounded apices, and without the oblique and decurrent ridge, so striking in the leaves of that plant, and also in their widely different areolation: the spikes, moreover, of the male plant of this species are much smaller, with only 2 teeth to their sub-erect (not recurved) scales. This species is also shorter and much more slender and filiform, and of a different habit of growth.

Genus 7. Gottschea, Nees.

* Leaves stipulate.

1. G. ciliistipula, sp. nov.

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Plant gregarious, procumbent, imbricate in growth, creeping, soft, of a pleasing bright-green. Stems 1 inch long, 3–4 lines wide, simple, sometimes 1–2–3 short branches near top, flat, leafy throughout, with numerous dark-red rootlets below. Leaves very thin, all margins finely and closely serrulate; ventral lobe long, narrow, sub-acute, much finely plaited, the lower basal margin ciliate; dorsal lobe much shorter, broadly ovate, dimidiate, largely-arched, tip acute. Stipule quadrate, 1/20 inch wide, quadrifid; lobes long, narrow, sinuate, sub-acute, largely ciliate; ciliæ long, subulate, acute, flexuous, 5–9-jointed, very glossy; sinuses large, round, broad and clear, plaited or ridged longitudinally downwards from base of each sinus, the ridges ciliate. Cells large, of various shapes and sizes—hexagonal, oblong, and quadrate. On the stem, in the axils between the two lobes, are 2–3 minute narrow highly-cellular ciliated phyllodia, their ciliæ also long-jointed and flexuous.

Hab. In large patches on rotten logs and trunks of trees, in a deep dark wood near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. A species having affinity with G. læte-virens, G. nitida, and G. trichotoma, Col., but differing from them all in its beautifully plaited and cut stipules, ciliated with long, wavy, glossy ciliæ, as well as in other characters.

2. G. compacta, sp. nov.

Plant procumbent, obovate, tapering, light-green, 1–2 inches long, 8 lines wide at top; stems flat, branched, stout, rooting,

[Footnote] * “Species Hepaticarum”: fasciculus i., Plagiochila; appendix, p. 156.

[Footnote] † “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., pp. 238, 240.

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hairy and scaly beneath at bases. Leaves alternate, distant on stem below, close, and slightly imbricate at their bases above, oblong, spreading, plaited about the tips, which are very thin, laciniate-lobed; lobes largely and sharply serrate; tip of the ventral lobe sub-acute, of the dorsal broad and obliquely truncate, and both finely serrate; axils clear; cells large, oblong, of various sizes, minutely and regularly papillose, but clear and orbicular at tips. Stipule large, free, 1 ½ lines wide, sub-cuneatequadrate, narrowest at base, much cilio-laciniate on three sides; laciniæ long, flexuous, very acute, bifid; sinus long, margins subsinuate and laciniate.

Hab. Among mosses, on rotten logs in wet shaded woods, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. A species having pretty close affinity with G. macroamphigastra, Col.*

2. G. compacta, sp. nov.

Plant small, compactly gregarious, nestling together in little tufts or cushions, procumbent and sub-erect, with a profusion of dark-red rootlets below. Stem stout, leafy to base, simple, but often with 2–3 minute branchlets at top, ¼–¾ inch high, 3–8 lines wide at tip including branchlets; lower leaves green, but very pale-green at tops bearing the appearance of whitish round buds. Leaves amplexicaul, closely imbricate; ventral lobe very thin, ovate-acuminate, acute, much plaited with fine short plaits or ridges running diagonally to margins, the upper margin finely serrate, the lower margin largely laciniate; cells large, oblong, clear, with minute orbicular interstitial ones; dorsal lobe broad, much arched, apex obliquely truncate and finely and sharply serrate, anterior margin slightly serrulate, the basal portion entire and overlapping; cells much as in the ventral lobe, but more crowded and not so clear. Stipules large (for the plant), bilobed half-way through, laciniate on all margins; laciniæ large, very cellular; cells large, oblong and clear below, orbicular and double-walled above.

Hab. On rotten logs, forming little dense closely-compacted patches, in low wet woods, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. A peculiar-looking little species, well marked, by its habit of growth and its handsome largely-laciniate stipules.

Genus 11. (Gymnanthe, Taylor.)

(1.) Tylimanthus, Mitten.

1. T. furfuraceus, sp. nov.

Plant gregarious; rhizome creeping, much and intricately branched, succulent. Stems or fronds rising erect from rhizome,

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., p. 238.

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½–1 inch apart, stoutish, usually simple, (sometimes once branched, branch patent, horizontal), 2 inches high, 4 lines wide, flexuous, succulent, decurved, pale-green, the base of stipe bare with small distant leaflets above increasing in size upwards to the leaves. Leaves, sub 20 pairs on stem, alternate, pinnate, close-set, imbricate, wavy, somewhat quadrilateralelliptic, apex truncate, rounded, and slightly retuse, sub-sessile, attached to stem only at posterior corner, slightly decurrent, tips and margins sub-recurved, closely serrulate on anterior margin, apex, and upper half of posterior margin, remainder entire; anterior margin arched, posterior nearly straight, the entire portion thickened; teeth irregular in size, broad at base, 2–3 cells in each; colour clear dark-green; cells various, oblong, triangular, etc., scattered; cell-walls thick, double. Involucre terminal, vertical, pendulous, cylindrical, 3 lines long, very narrow, obtuse, light-green, covered with a fine, minute, light-reddish scaly scurf.

Hab. On rotten logs, growing in large compact patches, in wet shaded forests near Norsewood; 1885–86: W.C.

Obs. This species has close affinity with T. saccata, (Gymnanthe of “Handbook N.Z. Flora,” and of “Species Hepaticarum,”) but differs from it in its smaller size, more numerous, larger, closer, imbricate and wavy leaves, which are also of a different shape, as are also their cells, their margins more denticulate, and only adhering by the lower corner to the stem, and in its furfuraceous torus. I have very rarely found it in a fruiting state, and then only after long and diligent search.

2. ? T. perpusillus, sp. nov.

Plant very small, delicate, pale-green; rhizome creeping, short, very slender. Stems erect, ½–¾ inch high, densely compact and gregarious, slender, sub-succulent, simple, flexuous, slightly thickened at tips, 1 line wide including leaves, usually leafy to base. Leaves minute, alternate, usually distant, (sometimes close and subimbricated at the middle), pinnate, mostly 12–14-(rarely 20-) jugate, sub-quadrate-orbicular, truncate, deeply notched or sub-bifid, the upper lobe larger, apices acute, sinus very broad, sometimes minutely toothed, sessile, clasping, slightly decurrent, a little twisted and convex, patent, margins entire; anterior margin arched, slightly uneven at apex; posterior straight, or slightly excised at base. Cells minute, crowded, sub-orbicular, their walls thickened, with scattered very minute cellules within them. Fruit not seen.

Hub. In shady damp niches, in the summit or peak of a high hill named “Cook's Tooth,” near Porangahau, County of Waipawa; 1886: Mr. H. Hill.

Obs. A species having affinity with the preceding, T. furfuraceus, Col., to which it bears a striking general resemblance,

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although a very much smaller plant. Notwithstanding my having received some scores of specimens, I have not found any bearing fruit; therefore it is only provisionally placed under this genus, at the same time I have no doubt of it belonging to it.

Genus 13. Lepidozia, Nees.

1. L. latiloba, sp. nov.

Plant small, prostrate, recurved, spreading in patches; colour dusky-olive-green. Main stems 1–1 inches long, bipinnate, leafy to base; branchlets numerous, alternate, ¼-¾ inch long, patent, irregular, curved, drooping; tips acuminate and flagellate. Leaves numerous, very close, imbricate, concave, glossy, quadrate or sub-palmate-quadrate, 4-lobed; lobes large, half the length of leaf, very broad at base, (each containing 6 lines of lateral cells), acuminate, tips acute, margins uneven, sinus very broad; cells distinct, minute and orbicular at margins and tips, larger and oblong in the centre and at base. Stipules same as leaves, only the lobes a little narrower and more acuminate, patent, tips incurved.

Hab. On ground or rotten wood, dark shaded woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. A species having some affinity with L. cupressina, Lind., a West Indian, Chilian, and Tasmanian plant.

Genus 14. Mastigobryum, Nees.

Section 1. Stipules quite free from the leaves.
* Leaves quite entire.

1. M. obtusatum, sp. nov.

Plant small, procumbent, weak, spreading, 1-½ inches long, ½ line wide, dichotomous; branches uniform in width through-Out; light-green. Leaves alternate, broadly elliptic, the dorsal slightly overlapping at the middle, the lowest smaller and distant, margins entire and somewhat irregular, the dorsal margin arched, the ventral nearly straight; apices of upper leaves entire, rounded, and very obtuse, of the lower leaves various, truncate, and 1–2–8 obsoletely dentate; cells orbicular, excessively minute, sub-opaque, contiguous in regular parallel lines, with a band of 3 longitudinal rows of larger and clearer cells near the ventral margin. Stipules minute, wider than stem, quadrate, largely 4-fid; laciniæ long, spreading, acute; cells oblong-quadrate, very clear, brown. Flagellæ few, long.

Hab. Woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. A species very near to M. convexum, Lind. The band of 3 rows of large cells closely resembles a similar band in the leaves of M. monilinerve, Nees.

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** Leaves 2-dentate or 2-fid.

2. M. amœnum, sp. nov.

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Small: stems 1–2 inches long, spreading, decurved, loosely dichotomous; branches leafy, equal, about ½ inch long, 1/20 inch wide (including leaves), cellular. Leaves very distinct, not imbricate, alternate and sub-opposite, oblong-quadrate, margins slightly sinuous, dorsal edge arched, ventral nearly straight, truncate, largely bidentate, the upper lobe larger, sinus nearly one-third length of leaf, broad, sinuate; colour pleasing light grass-green; cells large, orbicular, alike throughout. Stipules excessively minute, free, adpressed, composed of 4–5 capillary cellular fimbriæ. Flagellæ numerous, 3–4 to a branchlet, long, capillary. Male inflorescence from upper axils of stipules, single and geminate, sub-pedicelled, highly cellular; perianth campanulate, 5–7 fissured, laciniæ ovate-acuminate, enclosing an orbicular head of 10–12 minute cylindrical reddish sacs.

Hab. In dense forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C. Running over and into cushions of Leucobryum candidum.

Obs. A species having affinity with M. colensoanum, Hook. fil., but differing from that species in its leaves not being imbricated, and in its stipules being minute and capillary-laciniate.

3. M. minutulum, sp. nov.

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Plant very small, 4–5 lines (rarely ½ inch) high; dark green. Stems rather stout (for the plant), cellular, usually once forked; branches few, short, leafy, sub 1/25th inch wide, including leaves. Leaves distant below, close and loosely imbricated above, narrow oblong-quadrate, sub-falcate, slightly curved at dorsal margin, contracted at base, margins narrowly thickened and irregular, truncate, bidentate, tips somewhat obtuse, the upper lobe larger, sinus large, wide, edges irregular, cells perfectly orbicular, with minute interstitial ones. Stipules distant, excessively minute, laciniate, appressed. Flagellæ short, stoutish, scaly.

Hab. On the ground, but mostly confined to decaying dry vegetable matter; in dense wet woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

*** Leaves 8-dentate or 3-fid.

4. M. elegans, sp. nov.

Plant compactly tufted, erect; stems 2–4 inches high, dichotomous; branches simply forked above, 2 lines wide, uniform throughout; tips recurved; light green, margins often tinged with pink. Leaves numerous, close-set, opposite, slightly imbricate at dorsal bases, spreading, convex, broadly ovate or

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sub-orbicular, truncate, trifid, teeth long and sharp, with minute teeth between them; dorsal margin largely rounded at base and overlapping stem; ventral margin sub-sinuate, slightly denticulate near apex, waved, with 1 large regular plait near the base to meet the stipule; cells small, orbicular, with minute interstitial cells, larger and oblong at base. Stipules free, large, 1 line wide, distant, quadrate, patent, recurved, in a regular line with bases of leaves and apparently connate, but really distinct, though approaching very close, somewhat 6–8 lobed on three sides; lobes irregular, laciniate; laciniæ acuminate, acute; cells small, oblong-orbicular. Flagellæ rather numerous below, few above, about 3 to a main branch, short, stout, scaly, issuing from above a stipule in the centre of the stem.

Hab. In dry craggy Fagus woods, growing compactly together on the ground with Bartramia readeriana, but only observed in two or three spots; banks of the River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1881–86: W.C.

Obs. A very elegant and striking species; scarcely allied to any of its numerous New Zealand congeners, and much more resembling Isotachis in its general appearance. The lower single stems with their leaves are always of a light-brown colour, presenting a dead appearance.

5. M. macro-amphigastrum, sp. nov.

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Plant rather stout, firm, 2 inches long, 2–3 inches wide, dichotomous, spreading, of a pleasing dark-green colour; branches equal, 11/2 lines wide, leafy throughout, much flagellate. Leaves opposite, closely imbricate, oblong, falcate, convex, truncate, trifid, sinuses very large and minutely and irregularly toothed, margins entire; dorsal margin much arched; ventral margin slightly sinuate at tip, dilated at base, largely incised in the middle, and abruptly truncate at extreme base to meet the stipule, which it does very closely though not connate; cells minute, orbicular, distinct at tips, crowded in the body of the leaf, each cell containing 2–3 pellucid dots. Stipules free, large, sub-deltoid-truncate, produced, patent, set slightly above where the two opposite leaves meet the stem, margins coloured brownish-red, recurved, and much laciniate; laciniæ sharp; cells irregular, oblong-rhomboidal at apex, smaller and orbicular at base. Flagellæ short, stout, scaly, branched, thickened at tips, by which they adhere rather strongly.

Hab. In low wet shaded woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C. On close, compctly-growing mosses, and on other Hepaticœ, overrunning them.

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6. M. imbricatistipulum, sp. nov.

Plant small, delicate, of close compact growth, erect, ½–¾ inch high, simple and forked, sometimes branched at base and dichotomous; branches short, about 1 line wide; pale green; flagellæ few, short. Leaves opposite, slightly imbricated, obovate-oblong, truncate, trifid, teeth large, acute, sinuses entire, margins slightly irregular, the ventral more so and slightly incised in the middle: the dorsal margin arched near base; cells minute, orbicular, crowded, distinct at tips, larger and clearer in body of leaf and base. Stipules free, close, quadrate, sub-adpressed with the upper margin overlapping the stipule above, and laciniate-toothed, the sides usually straight and entire; cells orbicular.

Hab. Among mosses on rotten logs, in wet forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

7. M. pusillum, sp. nov.

Plant creeping, delicate, small, sub ½–inch long, dichotomous; branches spreading, arched, light-green. Leaves opposite, close-set, regular, slightly imbricate near their bases, narrow-oblong, broadest at base, falcate, margins entire and slightly uneven, truncate, trifid; teeth large, spreading; sinuses broad and clear, the upper one usually larger; apical cells small, oblong distinct and regularly disposed, the central appearing as if compound, or composed of the figure “8” within each cell, the basal crowded and opaque. Stipules large (for plant), sub-quadrate, irregularly toothed on their three sides; teeth sometimes bi-cuspidate; cells oblong, distinct, regular, and clearer at margins and teeth. Flagellæ few, short.

Hab. On trunks of fern-trees, forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

8. M. olivaceum, sp. nov.

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Stems 11/2 inches long, dark-brown, stout, loosely forked above with few branches; branches ½-¾ inch long, 11/2 lines wide. Leaves closely set, imbricate, dark-olive, rather opaque, oblong-linear, falcate, arched above, slightly narrowed at tip, truncate, largely 3-dentate with minute intermediate teeth or points, which also extend on lateral margins for some distance from apex, especially on the dorsal margin; cells minute, orbicular or orbicular-oblong, discrete (guttulate) as in M. novœzealandiœ. Stipules large, wider than stem, patent, membranaceous, semi-orbicular-quadrate, much laciniate with 6–7 long teeth or laciniæ, and several smaller ones between them; cells oblong-rhomboidal at margins, small at base. Flagellæ short, rigid, dark-coloured.

Hab. Forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886; W.C.

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9. M. polyodon, sp. nov.

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Plant creeping, 11/2–2 inches long, leafy to base, stout, decurved, dichotomous; branches short, 1/10th inch wide including leaves; of a pleasing dark-green colour. Leaves, opposite, recurved, broad, sub-quadrilateral, (or somewhat equilateral-triangular excluding the tip), dorsal margin much arched, the ventral nearly straight, their bases overlapping on stem, truncate, trifid, with 2–3 small teeth in each sinus, and several minute distant teeth on each margin below apex, but more on the ventral margin; cells oblong, crowded, distinct in regular rows, very minute at apex and margins, larger in centre and at base, apparently compound, each being dark with an orbicular light centre. Stipules free, quadrate, broadest at base, wider than stem, recurved, much toothed on three sides; teeth acute and bi-cuspidate, each composed of 2 clear longitudinal cellules; the apical and marginal cells large, clear, rhomboidal rectangular and oblong; the central and basal cells minute, orbicular and crowded. Flagellæ short, thickish.

Hab. On the ground, in dry shady forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. The stipules of this plant are a strikingly beautiful object under the microscope.

10. M. compactum, sp. nov.

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Plant creeping and sub-erect, firm, short, ¾-1 inch high, simple and shortly branched above; stems, including leaves, 1/10 inch wide; light-green with an olive tint. Leaves opposite, close-set, lower half largely imbricate and overlapping stem at their bases, ovate, truncate, margins irregular and slightly subdenticulate, the dorsal margin arched, the ventral nearly straight, sinus broad, the lower smaller and more acute, sometimes a minute tooth in either; cells small, sub-orbicular, distinct, guttulate in regular sub-parallel lines, much larger and clearer in the middle and on to the base. Stipules free, but posited close to bases of leaves as if connate, oblong- or reniform-quadrate, recurved, much toothed or jagged; teeth 6–10, short, acute, irregular; the upper cells adjoining each other and clear, but distinct and smaller below.

Hab. On trunks and large limbs of trees, forming small thick cushion-like patches; forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

11. M. heterophyllum, sp. nov.

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Plant procumbent, creeping, 1–11/2 inches long, spreading, simple and forked, light-green; branches few, capillary, 1/20 inch wide, including leaves. Leaves fugacious, minute, opposite, oblong, close-set, sub-imbricate, the largest sub-quadrate, broadest at base; margins entire, sinuate, the dorsal margin

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arched; truncate, trifid, and bifid on branchlets intermixed; teeth long, acute; sinuses broad and somewhat irregular; cells oval - orbicular, distinct, guttulate, uniform. Stipules free, quadrate, rather large, wider than stems, 4–6-toothed; teeth reddish, very cellular, reticulate; cellules minute, clear and adjoining above, oblong-orbicular, distinct, and crowded at base. Flagellæ few, stoutish, very scaly.

Hab. On trunks of fern-trees, forming large thick patches; dense forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

12. M. macrodontum, sp. nov.

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Plant procumbent, small, sub 1-inch long; stems stoutish, forked; branches short, 1/10th inch wide with leaves, dusky dark-green. Leaves opposite, close-set and imbricate, oblong, almost sub-quadrilateral, very broad at ventral base to meet stipule; the dorsal bases completely covering the stem and overlapping each other, slightly arched and falcate; margins entire and slightly uneven near apex, trifid; teeth irregular, large, broad, each containing several lateral cells, with usually 2 smaller teeth in each sinus; cells minute, broadly oval, distinct (guttulate), uniform, regularly disposed in lines. Stipules free, rather large, sub-quadrate, broadest at base, irregularly toothed on three sides, highly cellular; apical and marginal cells large, clear, rhomboidal and oblong (parallelogrammic); those at base and one-third through towards centre orbicular, minute, and regular. Flagellæ short, stout.

Hab. On bark of trees in woods, hill country between Mohaka and Lake Waikare, County of Wairoa; 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. A species pretty near M. olivaceum.

13. M. obscurum, sp. nov.

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Plant gregarious, procumbent, creeping, pale green. Stems slender, weak, 1–11/2 inches long, scarcely 1 line wide with leaves, flexuous, branched; branches rather long for plant. Leaves fugacious, alternate, thickish, opaque, close but scarcely imbricate above on stems, distant below, oblong-quadrate, truncate, trifid; teeth irregular and coarse; margins entire, the dorsal slightly arched; cells not discernible. Stipules free, small, adpressed, transparent and highly cellular, sub-quadrate, 4-fid; lobes very obtuse and rounded; cells large, sub-orbicular-quadrate, conjoined, uniform, each lobe containing 4 cells in a line laterally. Flagellæ O (sought, but not seen).

Hab. In woods, forming small compact patches; hill country between Mohaka and Lake Waikare, County of Wairoa; 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.

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14. M. nitens, sp. nov.

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Plant procumbent, creeping, pale yellowish-green, glossy. Stems 2 inches long, flexuous, wiry and bare below, stout above and very leafy, 11/2 lines wide (including leaves), dichotomous, tips recurved. Leaves opposite, close, slightly imbricated, very regular, falcate, sub-oblong-quadrate, dimidiate, the basal portion more than twice as broad as the apical but not overlapping stem, truncate, trifid; teeth long, acute; sinus broad with sometimes a minute toothlet; narrowly margined, margins uneven, minutely and sparsely toothed on both sides near apex, dorsal margin much arched, ventral, excised. Cells minute, oblong-orbicular, distinct, nearly alike throughout, but large at basal centre. Stipules free, but as close as possible to bases of leaves as if connate, rather large, wider than stem, quadrate, patent, recurved, the margin coloured dark purple, laciniate-serrate above with 4–6 acute irregular teeth, those at the two angles largest; sides sinuous with generally 1 large tooth above the middle. Cells: central and basal very minute, oblong, distinct, ranged regularly in longitudinal rows; the marginal larger, clearer and united. Flagellæ very numerous; upper short, stout and scaly; lower, very long and filiform with hairy ends.

Hab. Woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; forming large thick patches on bark, and on dry vegetable débris; 1886: W.C.

Obs. A. species near M. olivaceum, also M. compactum (supra).

15. M. parasiticum, sp. nov.

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Plant stoutish, creeping, dull pale-green; stems 1–11/2 inches long, 1 line wide, dichotomous, much decurved at tips. Leaves opposite, close, imbricate, very regular, sub-convex, oblong, falcate, dimidiate; base twice the width of apex, sub-amplexicaul, truncate, trifid; teeth long, spreading, acute; the lower sinus larger, with occasionally a minute toothlet in it; margins slightly sub-sinuous, the dorsal much arched and overlapping stem, the ventral somewhat excised with the lowest portion adjoining stem wholly truncate. Cells: at lateral margins very minute oblong, closely compacted in longitudinal lines; larger sub-orbicular and distinct at apex; the central still larger, sub-quadrangular, and increasing in size to the base. Stipules free, rather large, very cellular, patent, recurved subreniform-quadrate, mostly 4-toothed at apex, and 1 tooth (sometimes 2) at sides; cells large, of various sizes and shapes, quadrangular, rhomboidal, and oblong. Flagellæ numerous, short, stout, and scaly.

Hab. In forests with the preceding species, M. nitens; growing luxuriantly on clumps of Leucobryum candidum; 1886: W.C.

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16. M. obtusistipulum, sp. nov.

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Plant prostrate, small, slender, repeatedly overlapping itself in growth; stems brown, stoutish, wiry, 1–11/4 inches long, ⅔ line wide (including leaves), simple, loosely and sparingly forked at top. Leaves small, pale brownish-green, alternate, distant, tender, fugacious, opaque, very slightly adhering to stem, narrow oblong, broadest at base, truncate, trifid; teeth rather coarse, large and blunt; margins slightly uneven; dorsal margin much arched, the basal portion falcate; ventral margin nearly straight. Cells sub-orbicular, very obscure, but regularly disposed in rows between dark longitudinal lines, appearing as if each cell was composed of 5 cellules, separated by a star-like division, and as if there were two layers of superimposed cells. Stipules free, rather large (for plant), as broad as the leaves at their bases, distant, appressed, highly cellular, cuneate-quadrate, 4-lobed; lobes short, broad, and very obtuse. Flagellæ O.

Hab. On the ground, thickly overrunning loose dry vegetable débris; low damp spots, forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Genus 19. Polyotus, Gottsche.

1. P. smaragdinus, sp. nov.

Plant prostrate; stems creeping, 3–4 inches long, 2-pinnately branched; branches spreading, upper ones very long; branchlets numerous, alternate, diverging, irregular in length, 3–15 lines long. Leaves, a pleasing emerald-green, distichous, regular; stem leaves close, patent, not imbricate, broadly cordate-ovate, dimidiate, apiculate, margins entire but slightly uneven, with usually 4 large lacinia-like ciliæ at the base on each side; cells sub-orbicular, distinct; leaves on branches imbricate, orbicular-elliptic, largely apiculate, margins entire, auricles clavate, darkred when mature, with a minute subulate fimbria at the base; cells large, hexagonal, with minute interstitial cellules. Stipules on main stems 4-partite, segments ciliato-laciniate all round, ciliæ jointed; sinuses long, clear; cells oblong; stipules on the branchlets similar but very minute, bearing 2 very small claviform appendages, similar to those on leaves but much smaller.

Hab. On bark of trees, and among mosses on the ground; dark woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. This truly elegant species has affinity with both P. claviger and P. palpebrifolius, Gottsche, but differs from them and from all other known species in several particulars, especially in colour and in form of leaves and stipules.

2. P. fimbriatus, sp. nov.

Plant prostrate, creeping; stems stout, flexuous. pendulous, 4–6 inches long, 3-pinnately branched; branches straggling,

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very irregular in length, overlapping each other; branchlets numerous, close-set, alternate. Leaves mostly pale yellowish-brown, the upper layer and more exposed dark-orange and rich bright red-brown; main-stem leaves sub-imbricate above on stem with crisp sub-vertical margins, having a fissured scaly appearance, orbicular-cordate, very apiculate, margins entire but slightly uneven, largely amplexicaul, the sinus broad and circular, with several long irregular-curved fimbriæ and ciliæ at base; branch leaves imbricate, distichous, sub-orbicular, apiculate (sometimes sub-acute and obtuse), margins entire with long irregular laciniate fimbriæ at base; auricle clavate, dark-purple in age with several long flexuous fimbriæ at base; cells clear, orbicular, with minute interstitial cellules. Stipules on main stem large, sub-quadrate, 4-partite; segments largely ciliate on all sides; ciliæ long, recurved, flexuous, jointed; stipules on branchlets similar but smaller, with a dark boss or blotch at central base, and bearing two small dark claviform appendages similar to those on leaves, and ranging with them: cells oblong-orbicular, very clear, each of the segments having a narrow marginal line of compacted minute cells.

Hab. On trees, often overrunning mosses, etc., Seventy-mile Bush, between Norsewood and Woodville, County of Waipawa; 1885–86: W.C.

Obs. A species allied to the preceding, P. smaragdinus; but more nearly to P. claviger, and P. taylori, Gottsche. It is, however, a much larger, robust, and coarser plant; differing from them, and from all known species, in its large clasping and fimbriate stem-leaves, its largely fimbriate and ciliate stipules, and in its rich striking colours.

Genus 21. Madotheca, Dumort.

1. M. latifolia, sp. nov.

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Plant prostrate, creeping, diffuse. Stems stout, brown, 3–4 inches long, 21/2 lines wide, bipinnate; spreading irregularly over each other in loose horizontal layers, and so forming small cushioned tufts; branches alternate, short, flat, patent. Leaves darkish-green when fresh, (young leaves and branchlets light-green), closely and uniformly set, much imbricated, convex, reniform-orbicular, decurved, dorsal margin entire, the apex or outer angle much incurved, base waved; the ventral lateral margin on stem very uneven; lobule sub-orbicular-elliptic, larger than stipule, crisp; cells orbicular, with thick walls and minute interstitial cellules; involucral 4, oblong-ovate, (2 of them being smaller and narrower), largely ciliate; ciliæ jointed; cells as in leaves, only larger and clearer at centre and base; a dark-green outer leaf largely produced and sub-vertical, much incurved and enwrapping the apical margin, finely ciliate; capsule (immature)

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enclosed, globular, dark-green. Stipule oblong, recurved, apex retuse, margin entire, much waved, especially at the base.

Hab. On branches of trees, slightly adhering to their bark, and to foliaceous lichens, and to its own under-branches; Seventy-mile Bush, County of Waipawa; 1882–86: W.C. Forest near Palmerston, County of Manawatu; 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. This species much resembles M. stangeri, Gottsche, (and its vars.), but it differs from them in the shape of its leaves, which are much more reniform or transversely elliptic, in its largely ciliated involucral leaves, in its oblong and retuse stipules that are not gibbous, and in its orbicular cells, as well as in its size and colour. It is a fine and pretty plant, and though its stems and branches are not so large and long as those of M. stangeri, they are quite as wide as the widest of them.

2. M. amœna, sp. nov.

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Plant pendulous; stems 5–6 inches long, 23/4 lines wide, pinnate, mostly simple, few-branched and forked at tips; bases bare, black, wiry, sub-rigid; colour a lively light-green. Leaves closely regularly and largely imbricated, but not overlapping their opposite bases on stem, broadly elliptic, margins entire, the lateral sparingly and finely toothed towards stem, apex decurved; lobule very slightly affixed to leaf, oblong, broader at apex, ciliate; ciliæ irregular, jointed; cells small, orbicular, with minute interstitial cellules (much as in the preceding species M. latifolia, but smaller). Stipules small, rather distant, sub-deltoid-cordate, with rounded tip, and basal angles produced and clasping, tip recurved; narrowly margined, marginal cells minute, uniform; margins entire, but irregular at base; cells remarkably minute, and of various sizes and shapes, mostly oblong.

Hab. On trunks of trees, hilly forests, Glenross, County of Hawke's Bay; 1886: Mr. D. P. Balfour.

Obs. A species near to the preceding; and also to M. stangeri, and its vars.; but differing in its usual long simple form, in appearance and in colour, in the size of its cells, and particularly in the shape and structure of its small margined stipules, and in its different lobule.

Genus 23. Frullania, Raddi.

1. F. novœ-zealandiœ, sp. nov.

Stems slender, 1 inch long, wiry, flexuous, dark-coloured, pinnate, rarely bipinnate; branchlets few, alternate, irregular in length. Leaves pale-green, very slightly imbricate, broadly ovate, sub-acute and obtuse, margins irregular, ventral base patent not inflexed, those on the main stem larger than on

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branches; lobule brown-purple, rather large and prominent, galeate with a long acuminate depending tip that is often recurved. Stipules: on main stems, sub-rhomboid-quadrate, deeply bibbed; lobes divergent, tips acuminate, with 2 teeth on each lobe outside; on small branches, ovate, deeply bilobed; lobes lanceolate, entire. Cells minute, orbicular, regularly disposed in longitudinal lines.

Hab. On bark of trees, intermixed with other Hepaticœ and mosses; forests, Glenross, County of Hawke's Bay; 1886: Mr. D. P. Balfour.

Obs. A species belonging to Section 1, Division ***, p. 536 of “Handbook N.Z. Flora;” and having affinity with F. hampeana, Noes, and with F. spinifera, Hook. fil. et Tayl., but differing from them both in several particulars.

2. F. delicatula, sp. nov.

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Plant very minute, delicate pale-green. Stems slender, 1–11/2 inches long, 1/30 inch wide (including leaves), bipinnate, irregularly and sparingly branched; branches rather long for the plant. Leaves round (longer than broad), close but not imbricate, margins entire and slightly recurved, basal portion not inflexed; lobule small, arched, slightly deflexed, tip obtuse, not produced beyond margin of leaf, pale purple. Cells minute, sub-orbicular, crowded, indistinct. Stipules reniform-orbicular, entire, adpressed.

Hab. Hilly woods at Pohue, north-west from Napier, County of Hawke's Bay; 1885. (A few fragments, found mixed among larger Hepaticœ collected there by Mr. A. Hamilton.)

Obs. A very filiform, delicate, tender plant, remarkable for its whole entire stipules.

3. F. rotundifolia, sp. nov.

Plant small, erect, not ½ inch high, but growing thickly together in densely-compacted patches; dark green, but appearing blackish together in the mass.

Stems creeping, 2 inches long, bipinnate, wiry black and bare below, but stout, and of same colour as leaves, and very much branched at top; branchlets alternate, very short. Leaves very close-set, imbricate, patent, sub-vertical, wavy, recurved, rather opaque, orbicular; margins entire, but slightly irregular (sub lente); basal portion not infiexed, sub-amplexicaul; lobule small, sub-galeate, same colour as leaf, tip obtuse, not produced; involucral lanceolate, acuminate, very acute, margins entire. Stipules orbicular, with a small broad sinus at apex, which is broadest and rounded at base, and margined; tips somewhat conniving. Cells very small, sub-orbicular, with numerous exceedingly minute interstitial cellules. Perianth sub-terminal,

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sub-cylindrical, slightly clavate, apiculate, smooth. Capsule oval, whitish; seta produced, nodding; valves oval, membranaceous, spreading, not cut to base; elaters as in gen. descr.

Hab. On upper branches of tall trees, adhering to bark and overrunning lichens (Stictœ); forests, Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. This species is rather peculiar; small though it is, it makes a show from its densely clustered habit of growth and patent sub-transverse leaves; it has also a pretty appearance when in fruit, with its spreading white 4-valved capsules peering above the tips of its dark leaves, resembling minute starry flowers. It is also singular from the curious sinus of its stipules, which, as far as I know, is quite a unique character.

4. F. minutissima, sp. nov.

Plant very small, about 2–3 lines high, erect, thickly gregarious, appearing black in the mass. Stems procumbent, sub ½ inch long, much implexed, bipinnate; branchlets alternate, very short. Leaves on main stem distant, on branches close and touching but scarcely imbricate, sub-orbicular and broadly elliptic, margins entire, tips rounded and recurved, basal portion inflexed in a minute triangular interlobule or lobelet between lobule and stem, brownish, the young leaves and branchlets light-green; lobule large (for plant), nearly ⅖ths of leaf in size, distant from stem, elliptic-clavate, broadest at apex, erect a little inclined, produced at base slightly beyond margin of leaf, dark purple; involucral leaves oblong-ovate, apiculate, entire. Stipules orbicular, sinus large, angle acute at base and very broad at margin. Perianth obovoid, triangular, sides slightly concave, apex truncate, mucronate, mucro obtuse, dark brown, shining. Cells excessively minute, orbicular-oblong with microscopical interstitial cellules.

Hab. On branches of trees, forming thickly compact and spreading patches; banks of River Mangatawhainui, near Norse-wood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. This very minute species is readily distinguished from all other known New Zealand species by its large erect lobule.

5. F. scabriseta, sp. nov.

Plant procumbent, creeping, spreading. Stems stout, 1–1 ½ inches long, brown, 3-pinnate, much branched; branches long, leafy throughout. Leaves alternate, close-set on main stem, slightly imbricate on branches, broadly oval, light-green, margins entire but slightly uneven, recurved; lobule same colour as leaves, small, arched, tip short, obtuse, scarcely produced beyond leaf; involucral leaves sub-obovate, entire; cells small, sub-oblong-angular, with thick walls composed of a chain of very minute

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cellules. Perianth sub-inflated, narrow - oblong, triangular angles sharpish, apex rounded, mucronate, mucro obtuse, lips entire. Calyptra broadly clavate, green; seta white, nodding, sub-rugulose; valves broadly oval, obtuse, spreading, recurved, brown with a rather large white circular base; elaters numerous, reddish, stout, truncate, the tip of the hollow tube containing the elater closed and capitate by the elater, and broader than the tube.

Hab. On trees, in low wet woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. A species having some slight affinity with F. spinifera, Hook. fil. et Tayl., in its general appearance; but differing in leaves and lobules, in its more sharply-angled perianth with entire involucral leaves, in its scabrid seta, and in its peculiar capitate elaters.

6. F. implexicaulis, sp. nov.

Plant minute, much implexed and compact in small dark-coloured masses. Stems ¾-1 inch long, 2-pinnate, flexuous, black, wiry. Leaves alternate, oblong-orbicular, (sometimes broadly ovate and sub-acute on the branches), dimidiate, margins entire, sub-vertical and recurved on the main stem, convex and very close-set yet scarcely imbricate on the branches, brownish-green, the young leaves and branchlets bright-green; lobule large, set close to stem, prominent, hooded, the arch high, tip acute but not acuminate nor decurved, and scarcely produced beyond margin of leaf, brown-green; involucral leaves sub-obovate-oblong, entire; cells small, sub-orbicular with minute interstitial cellules. Stipule small, convex, sub-orbicular, broader than long with apex produced, narrowly margined, bifid; sinus large and deep, and wide at tips. Perianth oblong-obovate, sub-inflated, rugulose, plaited above, tip produced and obtuse with a mucro, mouth shortly fimbriate; calyptra turbinate; spores large, sub-angular, light-brown.

Hab. On pendent branches of living trees, forming small scattered much implexed dark clusters; edges of forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. This species in its general appearance resembles F. minutissima (supra), although it differs widely in the habit of growth, as well as in several important characters (vide descript.).

Genus 25. Noteroclada, Taylor.

1. N. longiuscula, sp. nov.

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Plant pale yellowish-brown, prostrate, creeping, adhering on ventral surface by numerous fine pale rootlets. Stems 3–4 inches long, 1/10 inch wide (including leaves), simple below, few-

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branched above, leafy throughout; branches alternate, long, irregular, tips involute. Leaves regular, very close, largely imbricate, sub-vertical, broadly oval, wavy, decurrent, margined; margins entire, but slightly irregular with a very narrow marginal line; leaves when dry secund, vertical above stem and closely appressed to each other. Cells minute orbicular, guttulate, smaller at margin, larger and clearer at base, with minute interstitial cellules. Involucre (or perianth) terminal from a short stout branch near base, sessile, erect, sub-oblong-ovate 2 lines long, plaited at top, mouth large, tips finely lacerate. Two short scaly flagellæ depending from branch a little below the involucre.

Hab. Hilly woods at Pohue, north-west from Napier, County of Hawke's Bay; 1885: Mr. A. Hamilton.

Obs. A species widely differing from the few other known ones. I have received several leafing specimens of this plant, but only one of them bore an involucre (old) and flagellæ more and perfect ones are wanted.

Genus 30. Symphyogyna, Mont. and Nees.

1. S. platycalyptra, sp. nov.

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Plant diœcious, terrestrial, highly gregarious; stipitate, erect, rising from a short stout simple or few-branched succulent subterraneous rhizome, that is slightly hairy with fine weak hairs; generally 3 stipes, each about 1 inch apart, spring from one rhizome, the rhizomes being thickly matted. Frond circular, 1 inch diameter, of a pleasing green, divided into two main branches, that are again equally divided and largely overlapping, each flabellate division containing 3 branchlets, which are again dichotomous, and broadly margined to their bases; the main branches, however, are not margined; margins entire, slightly sinuous; main sinuses broad, open; ultimate sinuses narrow; lobes short, overlapping, broad in middle, not linear, much waved, apices retuse; cells small, orbicular; the nerve broad and strong, but not extending to apical margin. Stem stout, succulent, 1–21/2 inches high, cylindrical below, compressed above. Female plant: fructification regular, generally 2–4, solitary at upper forks beneath, sometimes, but rarely, 1 at the main forking; involucral scale large, 2 lines wide, sub-reniform, slightly bilobed, undulate, somewhat plaited, recurved, with a glossy knobbed protuberance at the base; margin sub-sinuous, entire; cellules large, orbicular; 1–2 minute scales behind, and so enclosing calyptra. Calyptra very broad, 1/10th inch wide, 11/2–2 lines long, flat, membranous, smooth, shining, slightly laciniate at apex, very light-green; cellules quadrangular-oblong. Capsule (immature within) globular, large, smooth, green, surrounded by 8–10 large cellular pistillidia that spring

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from beneath. Male plant: fructification irregularly scattered beneath in sub-globular tubercular lumps on upper portion of stem and on the branches.

Hab. Plentiful in a muddy swamp, in a deep low dark shaded forest near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.

Obs. I. This species is peculiar from its wide, flat, strapshaped calyptra and its globular capsule, also from its strictly diœcious manner of growth. It forms dense compact patches or small beds, something like thick beds of young cress (Lepidum sativum) or parsley: and these are generally of two kinds or sizes: the larger (taller and bigger fronds and finer patches) contain only male plants, and the smaller and shorter the female ones, and these never appear to intermix. Indeed, I was a very long time (parts of two days), before I found a single female plant bearing fructification, and was about giving it up in despair, as I had confined my search to the finer masses; and it was only by chance that I happened to look among the smaller-sized plants.

II. This species has pretty close affinity with S. longistipa, S. fetida, and S. megalolepis, Col.,* and with S. flabellata, Mont., (“N.Z. Flora,”) but is distinct from them all.

Art. XXXV.An Enumeration of Fungi recently discovered in New Zealand, with brief Notes on the Species Novæ.

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 13th September, 1886.]

Last year (1885), I again sent a lot of Fungi to Kew, London, which I had for the greater part discovered during the preceding twelve months, in my several visits to the dense forests and deep glens of the Seventy-mile Bush, County of Waipawa; a few of them also being from Napier. Most of them were forms that were new to me, although I knew some of their genera and allied species. Altogether they comprised about 400 separate packets, containing, however, a much larger number of specimens. I sent them to Kew, to the kind care of the late Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., etc., in order to get them determined (if possible) by the eminent fungologist, Dr. Cooke, who had so very kindly done as much for a smaller lot, collected in the same localities, and sent thither by me in 1883. I have very recently received from the

[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst,” vol. xvi., pp. 353–365.

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present Director at Kew (J. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., etc.), a long, complete, and valuable list of the same, as again kindly determined by Dr. Cooke; and this (under separate heads) I purpose now laying before you, omitting only those species which were already known and described in the “Handbook Flora of New Zealand,” and also in my supplementary paper of newly-discovered Fungi, read before the Wellington Philosophical Society in 1884.* I shall classify them thus:—


Foreign Fungi already described, but not before found in New Zealand;


Indigenous species wholly new to science, true species novœ.

The remainder will consist of species already described as inhabiting New Zealand—incomplete and imperfect specimens of Mycelium, etc., that cannot at present be determined; (on some of these, however, Dr. Cooke has observed, “it is possibly new;”) specimens of minute Lichens having a semi-fungoid appearance; and a few species of small and allied terrestrial Algæ.

From these classified lists you will learn that out of the large number of species sent to Kew, (several of them being in duplicate and some in triplicate, arising from some species of Fungi being perennial, and to their varying states and ages, and to the different seasons in which they were collected), a total of 179 species are new to the New Zealand flora; and of these only 18 species have been determined as new to science.


Section I.—Foreign Fungi already described, but not before found in New Zealand.

* Of genera known to inhabit New Zealand.
Genus 1. Agaricus, Linn.


A. (Amanita) vaginatus, Fr.


A. (Pleurotus) serotinus, Fr.


A. (Pleurotus) atrocœruleus, Batsch.


A. (Pleurotus) chioneus, P.


A. (Pleurotus) affixus, B.


A. (Collybia) radicatus, Fr.


A. (Collybia) xanthopus, Fr., vel. prox.


A. (Collybia) raphanipes v. glaucophyllus.

[Footnote] * Art xxviii., “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvii., p. 265.

[Footnote] † These, however, were not sent as Lichens; of which order there are also a large number of specimens collected, to be hereafter examined. The same may also be said of the few packets of minute terrestrial Algæ contained in that parcel.

[Footnote] ‡ The numbers in this paper attached to genera are those of “The Handbook New Zealand Flora.”

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A. (Collybia), sp. uncertain.


A. (Myeena) lacteus, Fr.


A. (Mycena) galericulatus, Fr.


A. (Mgcena), perhaps polygrammus, Fr.


A. (Mycena) corticola, Fr.


A. (Mycena), capillaris, Fr.


A. (perhaps Mycena), uncertain.


A. (Omphalia) epichysium, P.


A. (Leucospori), insufficient.


A. (Pluteus) umbrosus, P. (?)


A. (Claudopus) variabilis, Fr.


A. (Pholiota) proœcox, Fr.


A. (perhaps Pholiota heteroclitus, Fr.)


A. (Pholiota), sp., destroyed by insects.


A. (Flammula) penetrans, Fr.


A. (Flammula) fusus, Batsch.


A. (Crepidotus) alveolus, Fr., vel prox.


A. (Crepidotus) pezizoides, Fr.


A. (Naucoria) vervacti, Fr.


A. (Naucoria) pediades, Fr.


A. (Naucoria) erinaceus, Fr.


A. (Naucoria) cerodes, Fr.


A. (Tubaria) inquilinus, Fr.

Genus 2. Coprinus, Persoon.


C. ephemerus, Fr.


C. plicatilis, Fr.

Genus 4. Marasmius, Fries.


M. fœtidus, Fr.


M. ramealis, Fr.


M. androsaceus, Fr

Genus 5. Lentinus, Fries.


L. pygmœus, Fr.

Genus 7. Panus, Fries.


P. viscidulus, B. & Br. (?)

Genus 9. Lenzites, Fries.


L. betulina, Fr.

Genus 10. Polyporus, Fries.


P. lentus, B.


P. (Mel.) picipes, Fr.


P. (Pet.) petaloides, Fr.

Genus 12. Favolus, Fries.


F. hispidulus, B. & C., var.

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Genus 13. Hydnum, Linn.


H. farinaceum, Fr.


H. mucidum, Fr.


H. (Res) membranaceum, Bull.


H. (Res) tabacinum, Cooke.

Genus 16. Stereum, Fries.


S. sanguinolentum, Fr.


S. acerinum, Fr.


S. ferrugineum, Fr.


S. frustulosum, Fr.


S. illudens, B.

Genus 17. Corticeum, Fries.


C. calceum, Fr.


C. cretaceum, Fr.


C. viscosum, Fr.


C. ochroleucum, Fr., var. spumeum, B. & C.

Genus 20. Clavaria, Linn.


C. mucida, Fr.


C. flava, Fr. (distorted.)


C. muscigena, Karst.

Genus 30. Lycoperdon, Tournefort.


L. echinatum, P.


L. echinellum, B. & Br.


L. tephrum, B. & Br.

Genus 35. Stemonitis, Gleditsch.


L. fusca, Roth.

Genus 39. Phoma, Fries.


P. malorum, Berk.

Genus 48. Uromyces, Léveillé.


U. amygdale, Pers.

Genus 49. Ustilago, Link.


U. olivacea, Tul.


U. urceolorum, Tul.

Genus 50. Æcidium, Persoon.


Æ. clematidis, D.C.

Genus 59. Geoglossum, Persoon.


G. berteroi, Mont.

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Genus 60. Peziza, Dillenius.


P. (Moll.) cinerea, Batsch.


P. (Scutellinia) badioberbis, B.


P. sp. (imperfect).

Genus 65. Asterina, Léveillé.


A. bullata, Berk.


A. reptans, B. & C.


A. (pelliculosa?)


A., sp.

Genus 68. Hypoerea, Fries.


H. saccharina, B. & C.

Genus 70. Hypoxylon, Bulliard.


H. multiforme, Fr.


H. serpens, Fr.

Genus 73. Nectria, Fries.


N. episphœria, Tode.

Genus 74. Sphæria, Haller.


S. acanthostroma, Mont. ?

Genus 77. Erysiphe, Hedwig.


E. (Martii ?) conidia.

** Of genera new to New Zealand.

Phlebia, Fries.


P. reflexa, B.


P. merismoides, Fr.

Grandinia, Fr.


G. granulosa, Fr.


G. granulosa, v. candida.


G., sp. (perhaps new, but insufficient for description.)

Odontia, Fries.


O. scopinella, B.

Kneiffia, Fries.


K. setigera, Fr., var.


K. subtilis, B. & C.

Hymenochæte, Fries.


H. rubiginosa, Lév.


H. rhabarbarina, B. & Br.

– 306 –

Solenia, Pers.


S. anomala, P.

Calocera, Fries.


C. viscosa, Fr.


C. cornea, Fr.


C. furcata, Fr.

Tremella, Fries.


T. lutescens, Fr., v. alba, B.

Exidia, Fries.


E. glandulosa, Fr.

Næmatelia, Fries.


N. nucleata, Fr.

Dacrymyces, Nees.


D. chrysocomus, Tul.


D. deliquescens, Fr.

Lycogala, Mich.


L. epidendrum, Fr.

Ptychogaster, Corda.


P. (sp. n., incomplete.)

Fuligo, Persoon.


F. varians, Somm.

Craterium, Trent.


C. minutum, Fr.


C. vulgare,—

Arcyria, Hill.


A. punicea, P.

Trichia, Hall.


T. varia, P.

Sphærobolus, Tode.


S. stellatus, Tode.

Phyllosticta, Pers.


P. sp. (young.)

Bactridium, Kze.


B. magnum, Cooke.

– 307 –

Cystopus, D'By.


C. candidus, Str.

Trichobasis, Lev.


T. oblongata, B.

Microcera, Desm.


M. coccophila, Desm.

Botrytis, Mich.


B. terrestris, P.

Verticillium, Link.


V. rexianum, Sacc. ?

Polyactis, Link.


P. vulgaris, C.

Penicillium, Link.


P. glaucum, Link.



M. carbonacea, Cooke.


S. geochroum, Desm.

Mucor, Mich.


M. stercoreus, Grev.

Morchella, Dill.


M. conica.



C. vinosa, Fckl.

Helotium, Fries.


H. lutescens, Fr.


H. citrinum, B.


H. pallescens, Fr.


H. phyllophyllum, Desm.


H. aureum, Fr., var.

Hypomyces, Tul.


H. aurantius, P.?

Nummularia, Tul.


N. exutans, Cooke.

– 308 –



P. sp. (sterile).



L. ovina, P.



S. gracilipes, Tul. (?)



R. mastoidea, Sacc.



R. subeorticalis, Fr.

(As the proper serial classification of these gen. nov. to New Zealand is unknown to me (not being mentioned in any of my works on Fungi), they are placed here somewhat irregularly at the end of this section.)



P. pergamenus, Fr. (junior.)


P. versicolor, Fr.


P. tabacinus, Mont.



F. (Fom.) fomentarius, Fr.


F. (Lœvi) hemitrephus, B.


F. australis, Fr.


F. (Res.) obliquus, Fr.


F. sp. (young specimens only.)


F. sp. (resupinate state.)



P. vaporaria, Fr.


P. mollusca, Fr.


P. fusco-purpurea, Fr.


P. mucida, P.


P. ferruginea, Fr.


P. vincta, B. et K.



C. omnivirens, B.



L. sp. (old.)



D. concentrica, De Not.



X. sp. (incomplete.)

– 309 –



H. longissima.



D. excelsum, Cke.



C. typhoides.



H. ilicinum, De Not.


H. commune, Fr.

Section II.—Species wholly new to science (sps. nov.) with a few remarks on each.

(Those genera that are also new to New Zealand and not found in the foregoing list (**) are marked with a star.)

1 Agaricus (Naucoria) acutus, Cooke.

A small species growing closely together within a rotten log.

2 Cyphella filicola, Cooke.

A highly curious little parasitical fungus, forming small whitish cups, growing thickly on Hymenophyllum demissum, on the marginal tips of its frond, somewhat resembling large valves or indusiums of Lindsœa; it is apparently scarce, only a very few fronds having been noticed. It has also been subsequently detected by Mr. H. Hill (1 spn.), thickets, east base of Ruahine Range; and by Mr. Hamilton.

3 *Leptothyrium panacis, Cooke.

A small species, parasitical on leaves of Panax arboreum.

4 Sphœronema solanderi, Cooke.

A small species, sparingly found on rotten branches.

5 *Septoria colensoi, Cooke.

Parasitical on lining leaves of Myoporum lœtum; Napier.

6 S. coprosmœ, Cooke.

On dead leaves of Coprosma lucida.

7 *Coleosporium compositarum, Lev.; var. oleariœ.

On heads of flowers and peduncles of Olearia colorata, growing profusely; but not commonly observed.

8 Æcidium hypericorum.

On leaves of Hypericum japonicum, forming small bright-yellow spots.

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9. Uromyces microtitidis, Cooke.

On leaves of Microtis porrifolia.

10. Helotium sordidum, Phil.

Small stipitate fungus, heads circular, 2 lines diameter, of a light-drab colour; on the underside of rotten logs.

11. H. pseudociliatum, Phil.

A small species, with a white centre above, red below and at margin; margins ciliate; on rotten wood.

12. Patellaria torulispora, Cooke.

On bark of a dead tree: small species.

13. Rosellinia (Comochœta) colensoi, Cooke.

A curious small hairy fungus, with a black tip; found very sparingly nestling on dead wood.

14. Xylaria pallida, Cooke.

A curious elongated species, resembling others of this genus; only once met with on a dead log, but in profusion there.

15. *Sphœrella weinmannia, Cooke.

Parasitical on leaves of Weinmannia, racemosa.

16. S. aristoteliœ, Cooke.

On living leaves of Aristotelia racemosa.

17. S. (Sphœrulina) assurgens, Cooke.

A curious little species, forming minute black spots on fronds of living Trichomanes venosum.

18. *Berggrenia aurantiaca, Cooke; var. cyclospora.

A small bright-red sessile fungus, found sparingly, and always singly, on the ground in forests; and almost invariably gnawed by insects.

Here I would place two other new, but little known, indigenous species—Polyporus nivicolor, Col., and Nectria otagensis, Curr., from the same parcel with the foregoing; although both have been already described: the first one in “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., p. 361; and the second in a paper by Dr. Lindsay, published at Home. I now insert these two Fungi here—the Polyporus, because of it being now confirmed by Dr. Cooke, and the Nectria, because of it being also found here in the North Island; of this fungus there were three packets sent, in various stages. (Its specific name is another witness to the impropriety of giving such local habitats as a name for a species.)

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Of the small terrestrial Algæ sent in that parcel only two species were determined, and both of genera hitherto unknown in New Zealand, viz.:—

1. Phormidium, or Chthonoblastes, sp.

A peculiar-looking plant, found overrunning gregarious and short mosses growing in patches, in rather long lines which are nearly straight, both brown and black, having a ribbon-like appearance; scarcely visible to the naked eye when dry, but very plain when wet, especially after much rain.

2. Dritosiphon muscicola, Kutz.

A pretty little blue hairy erect moss-like plant, found in retired holes and clefts in the cliffy banks, among grass and herbage; Scinde Island, Napier.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Total number of additional species of genera known to inhabit New Zealand 82
Total number of species of genera hitherto unknown in New Zealand 77
Total number of indigenous species novœ, some also belonging to genera not before known to exist in New Zealand 18
Also two additional species novœ of terrestrial Algæ 2
Total number of species new to our N.Z. Flora 179

Two striking facts will here immediately arrest our attention, (the same, too, as were quite as noticeable on the former occasion above mentioned), viz.:—


The large number of Fungi here in New Zealand that are identical as to both genera and species with those of England and other western countries, a few of them being almost cosmopolite.


The small number of truly indigenous species novæ.

And that those Fungi that are at present undiscovered will still continue to be found bearing pretty nearly the same ratio I have little doubt.

Another fact worthy of notice is the large number of genera not hitherto known to inhabit New Zealand. From the preceding list it appears there are no less than 58 genera new to this country, many of them at present possessing but a single species; yet, as several of those genera contain a large number of species in other lands, it is but reasonable to suppose that the number of each will be largely augmented here.

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If time permitted I should like to make some distinct observations, illustrating several of those new genera, for they are very heterogenous, and widely differing in appearance and in substance in all manner of ways; such, however, are the usual and common features of this vast order.

Those new species vary in shape, in size, in colour, and in substance, in hardness and in softness, in durability and in fugacity, in toughness and in brittleness. Some possess striking, brilliant, and beautifully varied colours, of which a bright-red not unfrequently predominates: others are elegantly zoned, and plaited, and frilled with varying neutral colours regularly disposed; of such are Polyporus versicolor, and Stereum lobatum; some have a rich lustrous satiny appearance, others are velvety, while others are opalescent, as Poria vincta; some are black, as Daldinia concentrica and Antennaria sps.; while others, as Polyporus nivicolor, Fomes hemitrephus, and Calicium ochrolaceum var. spumeum, are of the purest white, which delicate virgin unsullied appearance, unfortunately, they often lose in the most careful drying; some are of enormous size and aberrant forms (as Fomes sps.), 2–3 feet long and proportionately thick, and no two specimens of the same species alike in shape; while others are very regular, like little round black shining beads, as Comatricha typhoides; or minute cup-shaped flowers clustered together, as Æcidium clematidis; or miniature birds' nests with eggs, as Cyathus, and Crucibulum sps.; some are very hard, and also perennial, so that an axe makes but small impression on them; while others are very soft and, indeed, ephemeral, dissolving of their own accord in a few hours from their first sprouting into a watery mass! One or two species (notably Fuligo varians) resemble, when fresh, a light custard pudding, which, with careful drying, turns to dust! while others, as Tremella lutescens var. alba, assume the appearance of a delicate branching blomange, which, curiously enough, when carefully dried, leaves no visible residuum, save a dull shining mark on white paper as if a slug or a snail had sojourned there. Some are cancellated, hollow and light, like fine net or lattice-work; others are solid and heavy; some take the appearance of old worn chamois-leather (as Xylostroma sp.; some are very tough, so that they are gathered from their matrix, or substance to which they adhere, with extreme difficulty; others are so fragile, and withal permanent, as only to be found in perfection where neither winds nor rains can reach them, and though sometimes resupinate and several inches long, can scarcely be laid hold of, or removed, with the most cautious and tender handling. For such fairy- or gossamer-like productions I usually carry a little tin box lined with silver- or blotting-paper, and so manage to cut them down and drop them into it without touching them; but even this delicate treatment is too coarse for some (Stemonitis sps.), which,

– 313 –

pretty though they are in their recluse place of growth, the very slight movement of the air in putting forth one's hand towards them is often sufficient to break them up into a cloud of spores!

Three, however, of the newly detected indigenous species I should not fail to bring to your notice, if only for the peculiar matrices on which they respectively grow, two of them being only found on our delicate and elegant living ferns, Trichomanes venosum, and Hymenophyllum demissum. On the former of those two ferns, Sphœrella (Sphœrulina) assurgens is sparingly found; to the naked eye it is a minute round and slightly elevated black spot with a very small outside. The larger and far more curious species, Cyphella filicina, inhabits the latter fern, covering the tips of its fronds with its whitish cup-like receptacles, presenting a neat appearance somewhat resembling the indusiæ of a Lindsœa. This pretty and scarce fungus has also been found by Mr. Hill, and by Mr. Hamilton, in different localities, and only one specimen by each. Both of those fungi are scarce and rarely met with. The third, a very minute and almost microscopic species, Monilia carbonacea, is only found on the surface of burnt black and dry logs, giving them a very peculiar appearance. In form it resembles a minute and regular necklace of beads (whence, also, its name). It is far from being easily gathered.

In conclusion, I would briefly refer to another small and delicate species among those in the first list, Mucor stercoreus, a very common fungus at Home; but this is the first time of its being found here, or any of its sub-order. Of the non-detection of this genus (which is a large one) in these parts, Berkely wrote, saying: “No species of Mucor appears in the floras of the Antarctic regions and New Zealand, but I do not doubt their existence there, though none appears to have been collected by Bertero, who was a very close observer, in Juan Fernandez.”* And Sir J. D. Hooker, writing in the “Handbook Flora of New Zealand” on the sub-order Physomycetes, to which this genus belongs, makes a similar observation: “To this tribe belong the true moulds (Mucor, etc.), of which species must occur abundantly in New Zealand, though they have never been collected.” (p. 600.)

[Footnote] * “Cryptogamic Botany,” p. 294

– 314 –

Art. XXXVI.Observations on the Glands in the Leaf and Stem of Myoporum lætum, Forster.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 10th September, 1886.]

Plate XX.

Distribution of genus.—The genus Myoporum is widely distributed throughout Australia and the Pacific Islands. The species M. lœtum is common in the North and South Islands of New Zealand on the sea coasts as far south as Otago. It is also found in the Kermadec Islands (M'Gillivray), and Chatham Islands (W. Travers).*

Description of the leaves.—One character of the whole genus is the occurrence of pellucid glands in the leaves. The mature leaf is 2–4 inches long, lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, serrulate above the middle, narrowed into petioles, bright-green and lucid.

Glands in leaves.—The following I extract from the “Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society,” October, 1884, page 769:—

“The various causes of transparent dots or lines in leaves are:—Secreting cells, round intercellular secreting spaces of either lysigenous or schizogenous origin, secreting passages, epidermal or parenchymatous cells with mucilaginous cell-walls, cells containing mucilage, raphides cells, cells with single crystals or clusters of crystals, cystoliths, spicular cells, branched sclerenchymatous bundles, groups of sclerenchymatous cells, depressed pits with or without hairs, crevices in the tissue, stomata. The secreting cells, spaces, or passages may contain resin, gum-resin, balsam, or an essential oil. Secreting cells are an extremely common cause of transparent dots, and are usually characteristic of whole families, or at least genera. Round intercellular secreting spaces may be lysigenous, as in Rutaceœ, or schizogenous as in Hypericineœ, the two kinds showing no difference in the mature condition. Both kinds are of great importance from a systematic point of view, furnishing distinguishing characters for entire families. Thus, lysigenous secreting spaces occur in the Rutaceœ, Myoporineœ and Leguminosœ; schizogenous are constant in the Hypericineœ, Myrcineœ, Sacmydeœ and Myrtaceœ.”

Also the following, from De Bary's “Comparative Anatomy of the Phanerogams and Ferns,” p. 202:—

“Resin, ethereal oil, emulsions of gum-resin of different quality, according to the special case, and often little known as regards chemical relations, occur:—

[Footnote] * Vide Hooker's “N.Z. Flora,” pp. 225 and 739.

Picture icon

Myoporum LæTum.

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“(b.) In short cavities in the group Rutaceœ, in species of Hypericum, many species of Oxalis, Myrtaceœ, Myoporeœ.”

Also, p. 209:—

“(e.) Among the Myoporeœ, the species of Myoporum have numerous round oil-cavities of unequal size in the leaves and the outer cortex of the branches. The cavities are superficial and separated only by 1–2 layers of cells from the epidermis, which is arched convexly outwards; e.g., M. parvifolium. In M. tuberculatum, on the contrary, according to Unger, they occur in the middle of the chlorophyll parenchyma of the leaf. They are surrounded by 1–3 layers of flattened cells. As far as investigated, their origin appears to be lysigenetic.”

Observations.—I made observations on the leaf and stem of M. lœtum, through the autumn and winter, examining sections through fresh specimens and specimens preserved in alcohol, with the following results:—

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

In a piece of mature leaf, 4/25ths of a square inch, there were 164 glands. This gives 1,025 to the square inch, so that about 1,000 to the square inch appears to be a fair average of their number. They are, however, much fewer towards the base of the leaf, near the insertion of the petiole on the stem, but are not altogether absent. In the lamina they occur both in the parenchymatous tissue and also in the midrib (see fig. 4), and are entirely surrounded by two or three layers of compressed colourless cells (see figs. 1 and 2).

The upper epidermis is often arched outwards over the glands (see fig. 1), but there are always at least two rows of cells between the epidermis and the compressed cells surrounding the gland, one of the rows being palisade cells. The cells of the palisade parenchyma above the gland are also colourless.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

The glands vary in size from 1/32–1/16 inch in diameter in the lamina; in the midrib and stem they vary even more, some being found considerably smaller. The shape of the gland is spherical, and in the dried specimen which I examined the contents had all fallen away from the centre, forming a granular colourless coating round the inside of the gland, enclosing a vacuole. In the specimens preserved in alcohol, the contents had coagulated into little brownish-yellow masses, apparently of gum. (See fig. 2.)

In very young leaves there are no glands (see fig. 5), but they begin to appear when 10 or 12 leaves are formed nearer the apex (fig. 6). The rapid growth of the young leaves appears to retard the formation of the glands, but after their first appearance they are soon found in considerable numbers (fig. 6).

In the stem the glands appear both in the pith and cortical parenchyma (fig. 7). Their occurrence in the pith is not mentioned by Hooker or De Bary. They are scattered irregularly

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and vary in size throughout the secondary stems. In the younger wood of the autumn specimens I found them occurring very rarely for the space of two or three nodes, but after that they appeared both in pith and cortex, though few and irregular in size. In the older wood much larger glands are found, but these are also irregularly scattered, and usually among others considerably less in size (fig. 7). They appear to develope very late in the wood, and appear more frequently in the pith. The contents of the glands of the specimens which had been preserved in alcohol had, as in the case of the leaves, coagulated into little brownish-yellow masses, apparently of gum.

My observations on the development of these glands were imperfect, but they seem to point to a lysigenous origin, for the following reasons:—When first the glands appear in the young leaf, or stem, they appear as two or three colourless cells. These cells increase in size, and appear to divide repeatedly, until they form a mass of colourless cells of the size of the mature gland (see fig. 8). [This is easily distinguishable from a vein, as the latter consists of an external bundle-sheath enclosing a bundle of thick-walled cells, slightly pear-shaped with the pointed end upwards, the whole being surrounded by chlorophyll cells (see fig. 3)]. The central cells of the colourless mass seem now to become absorbed, leaving two or three rows of flattened cells (colourless) on the outside, surrounding a vacuole with gummy contents. In the glands of the stem I repeatedly noticed ragged cells and portions of cell-walls projecting into the vacuole of the gland, as if the interior cells had been partially absorbed but the absorption had not been completed. Whether this absorption were partial or almost complete, the surrounding colourless layers in the case of a full-sized gland always assumed a spherical outline.

Explanation of Plate XX.

Fig. 1. Transverse section through portion of mature leaf of Myoporum lœtum × 160: e, upper epidermis; p.p, palisade parenchyma; p, spongy parenchyma; g, gland.

Fig. 2. Transverse section through portion of mature leaf preserved in alcohol × 120. Letters as before. Gland shows gummy contents.

Fig. 3. Transverse section through portion of leaf showing vein (v) × 50. The red substance above the vein is some apparently gummy substance, which is very common in the leaves.

Fig. 4. Longitudinal section through midrib (slightly inclined), showing gland (g) × 166.

Fig. 5. Longitudinal section through young bud × 83, showing growing-point, g.p.

Fig. 6. Longitudinal section through young bud × 83, showing young glands, g.

Fig. 7. Transverse section through stem × 25; p, pith; f.v.b, fibro vascular bundles; c, cortex; g, glands.

Fig. 8. Transverse section through leaf × 83, showing young gland, g.

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Art. XXXVII.Observations on the Development of the Flower of Coriaria ruscifolia; Linn.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 5th August, 1886.]

Plate XXI.

The dubious affinity of the genus Coriaria renders its study interesting. My observations on the development of the flower of C. ruscifolia showed many important departures from the type given by Hooker. They were made almost wholly on preserved specimens gathered at various times between September, when the buds first appear, and March, when the fruit is ripening. The bud arises, like all flower-buds, as a little rounded cellular papilla in the axil of a bracteole. It grows rapidly, and the sepals very quickly begin to become distinct from the rest of the flower (Plate XXI., fig. 1, s). A longitudinal section shows them as a rounded protuberance on each side of a central cellular mass. Seen from above they have the appearance of six distinct papillæ. They begin to grow up around the rest of the bud, and the petals and stamens arise as little rounded protuberances above the upper surface of the bud (fig. 2), while the central portion remains more or less flat. This, however, soon becomes rounded (fig. 3), and in some sections seemed to be clothed with a layer of loosish cells. The sepals meanwhile grow very fast, and soon begin to close over the bud, while the petals and stamens grow rapidly also (fig. 4). All this is shown in flowers gathered on the same day, September 30th, and the buds though showing different stages of development do not vary greatly in size, as can be seen from the figures. In a bud gathered on October 3rd there is seen a great advance in growth (fig. 5). The sepals completely close in over the rest of the bud, the petals grow around the stamens, and these nearly meet over the pistil, which now shows six distinct styles. Like the sepals, the petals, stamens, and styles arise as little papilliæ, seen from above to be distinct from each other. All the four whorls of the flower have six segments each, although the flower is a Dicotyledon. This renders it extremely interesting. Hooker, in his account of the Coriarieœ, mentions nothing of this peculiarity, but says that the parts of the flowers of the Coriarieœ are in 5's or 10's. In the C. ruscifolia, however, I have found nothing but six in all four whorls of the flower. I cannot account for the prevalence of this number in the plant: nothing I have seen has tended to show how it arises, whether by the doubling of one (or two) parts, or by the suppression of two (or four) out of an original eight (or ten); but neither of these suppositions seem at all probable.

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When the styles arise they are curved over towards each other, enclosing a hollow (fig. 6), but they soon begin to grow up straight, while the ovary begins to swell out (fig. 6). The cells at the top of the style now begin to be rounded off from one another, so that the beginning of the stigma can be recognized (fig. 6, st.). Meanwhile the stamens have been rapidly growing, and have differentiated into a short filament surmounted by a large anther (fig. 6, f and a). The origin of the pollen, however, is not yet visible. The growth of the sepals and petals has been going on by vegetative division of the cells, and there is nothing particularly to be noticed in these whorls till after the fertilization of the flower.

The stamens soon begin to form mother-cells in the usual way, but the most interesting part of the flower is the gynœcium. The stigmatic cells, which at first were found only at the tip of the style, now spread downwards (fig. 7, st) and the style rapidly becomes stigmatiferous right down to the ovary. At the same time each carpel of the ovary begins to get hollow, and a single ovule arises in each as a papillary outgrowth from the central wall of the carpel (fig. 7, ov.). It grows rapidly and curves downwards till it assumes an anatropous form, while a coat grows round the nucellus (fig. 8, ov.). The ovule is now pendulous, and grows rapidly, and about this time the flower opens. I made a great many sections to try and observe a second coat growing round the ovule, but failed. I cannot say whether there is only one coat or two. I obtained many sections showing the one coat growing up, as in fig. 8, and many showing the complete ovule, but none showing a second coat growing round it.

All these forms of development may be observed between the 3rd and 27th of October. About the latter date the flower expands. Transverse sections through it just before it opens give the appearance of fig. 9, and fig. 10. In the latter the fibro-vascular bundles of the petal show like two ridges on the inner surface; the anthers distinctly show the four loculi, and the six styles are compressed into an irregular hexagonal form.

The growth of the anthers has not been noticed since the formation of the mother-cells of the pollen. These divide and give rise to four pollen grains each, before the pollen grains become separated (fig. 12). The ripe pollen grains are much larger than when first formed, and the cell-wall is thickened in three places. In each grain there is a nucleus, usually with two nucelli (fig. 14).

After fertilization the petals swell up and become juicy; when the fruit is ripe, the juice is a dark purple: the sepals remain, but the stamens wither (fig. 13). Each carpel gives

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rise to an achene: in the unripe fruit, shown in fig. 13, the young seed encloses a hollow. I have made no sections of a perfectly ripe fruit.

Explanation of Plate XXI.

Fig. 1. Longitudinal section through very young bud of Coriaria ruscifolia × 83; st, peduncle; b, bracteole; s, sepal.

Fig. 2. Longitudinal section of young bud of C. ruscifolia × 83: ped, peduncle; b, bracteole; s, sepal; p, petal; st, stamen.

Fig. 3. Longitudinal section through young bud of C. ruscifolia × 83. Letters as in Fig. 2; g, gynœcium.

Fig. 4. Longitudinal section through young bud of C. ruscifolia × 83. Letters as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5. Longitudinal section through bud of C. ruscifolia × 83: s, sepal; p, petal; st, stamen; sty, style.

Fig. 6. Longitudinal section through ovary and stamens of bud of C. ruscifolia × 83: s, sepal; p, petal; f, filament; a, anther; o, ovary; sty, style; st, stigma.

Fig. 7. Longitudinal section through pistil of young flower of C. ruscifolia × 83: sta, stamen; o, ovary; ov, ovule; sty, style; st, stigma.

Fig. 8. Longitudinal section through ovary of young flower of C. ruscifolia × 83: sta, stamen; o, ovary; ov, ovule; n, nucellus of ovary; sty, style.

Fig. 9. Transverse section through young flower of C. ruscifolia × 30: s, sepal; p, petal; f, filament: o, ovary; ov, ovule; f.v.b, fibro-vascular bundles.

Fig. 10. Transverse section through young unopened flower of C. ruscifolia × 20: s, sepals; p, petals; a, anthers; st, styles.

Fig. 11. Transverse section through ovary of C. ruscifolia × 25: ov, ovules; f.v.b, fibro-vascular bundles.

Fig. 12. Division of mother-cells of pollen-grains into four, × 650: p, pollen-grains in fours dividing.

Fig. 13. Transverse section through unripe fruit of C. ruscifolia × 25: s, sepal; p, petal; ov, ovule; f.v.b, fibro-vascular bundles.

Fig. 14. Ripe pollen-grains of C. ruscifolia × 770, showing nucleus n, with two nucelli.

Art. XXXVIII.The Medicinal Properties of some New Zealand Plants.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 23rd August, 1886.]

As this paper is the result of what I have gathered chiefly from old settlers and Maoris, and of a few personal observations, its statements are of course open to inquiry. It appeared to me that by putting this information in a tabulated form the attention of pharmacists might be attracted, and more reliable results obtained.

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There are few poisonous plants in this part of the colony.

Tupakihi, or Tutu (Coriaria ruscifolia).

As cultivation and cattle spread, this plant is rapidly disappearing. The juice of the fruit, strained free from the seed, is sweet and luscious and can be taken with impunity. The seeds are noxious. Their effect on the human subject is rigidity of the spine and neck, discolouration of the face, fixity of the eyes and general tremor. If emetics be administered cases are seldom fatal.

Cattle suffer from eating the young shoots, more especially hungry working bullocks. The effects are a temporary frenzy, a disposition to rush at any object, staggering and falling. If the animal can be approached, bleeding from the ear gives relief.

Sheep are very fond of the leaves; but as they eat deliberately, and walk as they eat, they suffer little. When a sheep is attacked by eating too much tutu, it rushes a dozen steps with protruded head, stops, staggers, and falls. Raising the head above the spine, and keeping it steady for a minute or two gives relief, and the animal resumes its usual quiet state.

A carefully-prepared paper on the poisonous principles of this plant, by Mr. Skey, will be found in “Trans. N.Z. Inst,” vol. ii., p. 153; and, in the same volume, p. 399, an account by Dr. Haast of an elephant being poisoned by eating tutu.

It is possible that the poison of the seeds might be used in destroying vermin, flies, and insects. As it affects the brain, its effects are probably painless.

Wharangi, or Pukapuka (Brachyglottis repanda).

This shrub is seldom eaten by cattle or sheep, but horses are fond of it. Its effects are staggering of the legs, and falling. It is often fatal; after death the body is much distended. The only cure known as yet is to keep the animal moving, or burning rags under its nose.

Karaka (Corynocarpus lœvigata).

Leaves and twigs are valuable forage for cattle. The pericarpium of the fruit is nutritious. The kernels of the seed are exceedingly poisonous, producing convulsions, and sometimes permanent distortion of the limbs. A graphic account of its effects is given by Mr. Colenso in Mr. Skey's paper, vol. iv., p. 316, of our “Transactions.”

Cooked and steeped in water for several weeks, these kernels formed a part of Maoris' diet, and probably were nutritious. As the ripe berries fall from the trees they are greedily consumed by cattle. Mr. Palmer, of Awhitu, writes to me: “After

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Coriaria Ruscifolia.

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eating karaka berries cattle become much excited, and lose all power in or control over their hind legs. Milking-cows are more affected than store cattle, their milk rapidly drying up.” Other settlers, on the other hand, tell me that their cattle eat the karaka berries with impunity. Probably this difference in report is owing to the quantity consumed, Awhitu having always been celebrated for its karaka groves. The karaka is a prolific bearer, and if a surer and better treatment than that of the Maori could be found, there appears to be no reason why, if perfectly deprived of their karakine, the seeds should not be an article of food.


This is a swamp grass, growing in the north of this Island. According to Mr. F. Maxwell, it is poisonous to sheep.

Puriri (Vitex littoralis), and Manuka.

May be classed amongst dangerous plants, from the severe inflammation caused by splinters penetrating the skin of hands or feet.


I have not heard of any native plant possessing this quality.


Phormium tenax.

A decoction of the root is a strong purgative. In vol. 6 of “Transactions,” p. 260, appears an able paper by Mr. A. H. Church; the chapter on the “bitter principle” is instructive. This principle Mr. Church considers tonic. In an appendix is an analysis of the seed, showing that it is rich in oil, a fact not generally known; he gives the proportion of oil at 20 per cent: that is, 100lbs. weight of flax-seed would yield more than 2 gallons of oil.


Kariao, or Supplejack (Rhipogonum scandens).

A concentrated decoction of the root has a scent and flavour like that of sarsaparilla. It is sweetish, and certainly demulcent to the throat. Its qualities deserve attention.


Our flora is rich in plants of this kind—used as cures for diarrhœa, or as styptics.

Koromiko, or Veronica (V. salicifolia).

This is a well-known remedy for diarrhœa used by Natives and settlers. A few of the young leaves chewed and swallowed

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afford a nearly certain remedy. I have found that an infusion of its dried leaves has little or no effect, but that a decoction has; from this, I suppose the active principle differs from tannin. Mr. Fitzgerald, of Wellington, offers a preparation of this useful plant, of which it is to be hoped the public will take advantage.

Rata (Metrosideros robusta).

The juice of the vine, obtained by cutting and inverting it, affords a strengthening, slightly astringent, beverage; very wholesome.

Pohutukawa (Metrosideros tomentosa).

The inner bark is reported to be useful for diarrhœa.

Rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum).

The gum of this tree is excessively astringent. The bark of the young tree was used by Maoris as a styptic, to stop the bleeding of wounds.

The capsules of Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), and the gum of Cyathea medullaris (Punga), are also useful in attacks of diarrhœa.


Kawakawa (Piper excelsum).

Its effects are stimulating; it excites the salivary glands, the kidneys, and the bowels slightly; it is aphrodisiack. The fruit and seeds, ripe or unripe, are more powerful than the leaves, although the latter are generally used. Mr. Fitzgerald has also prepared an extract of this plant.


Kohekohe (Dysoxylum spectabile).

The leaves and bark of this tree are intensely bitter; it is not eaten by cattle or sheep. A decoction of the leaves, if not too concentrated, is agreeably bitter. I consider it a tonic, but the opinion requires confirmation.

It is not likely that a drug of specific value will be obtained from our plants; but I think there is material for the preparation of some useful medicines, to which pharmacists, following the example of Mr. Fitzgerald of Wellington, may find it their interest to attend.

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Art. XXXIX.Descriptions of new Native Plants.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 17th November, 1886.]

1. Ranunculus kirkii, n. sp.

A small slender herb, very sparingly clothed with long soft hairs, and sending down numerous stout and long roots.

Radical leaves ternate on slightly hairy petioles, 1–2 ½ inches long; leaflets small, coriaceous, 3-lobed (often to the middle), glabrescent or with sparse hairs; the lobes entire or slightly cut.

Cauline leaves spathulate-oblong, on slender petioles of variable length.

Scapes very slender, 3–4 ½ inches long, branched or undivided, sparsely clothed with long soft hairs.

Flowers small, solitary, on the ends of the scapes, or of the scape-branches.

Sepals lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, glabrous or with a few hairs.

Petals 5, oblong, rounded, obtuse, twice as long as the sepals, with a narrow claw and a distinct gland just above the claw.

Carpels few, flattened and discoid, smooth at the sides, with a somewhat thickened ridge round the margin, and a subulate terminal slightly hooked beak.

Hab. Paterson's Inlet, Stewart Island.

This species is most closelyallied to R. ternatifolius, T. Kirk.

2. Lepidium matau, n. sp.

A small, erect, sub-pilose diœcious herb.

Root stout, long, enlarged or subdivided at the crown, perennial.

Stems one or several, branched, leafy, 3–4 inches high.

Lower leaves numerous, 1–1 ½ inches long, linear, pinnatisect, the lobes rounded or cuneate, entire or incised (chiefly on the upper edge), pilose or sub-pilose; petioles short.

Cauline leaves sessile, broadly oblong, sub-acute, usually entire.

Flowers imperfect; petals, none.

Male flowers in crowded racemes often 2 inches in length; pedicels slender, pilose, ⅙ inch long.

Female flowers in shorter and laxer racemes; pedicels decurved.

Pods ovate-elliptic, similar to those of L. kawarau (mihi).

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Hab. Alexandra South. This plant stands close to L. kawarau, but differs in so many respects, and, so far as I know, so constantly from that species, that I think it must be regarded as distinct. The discovery of intermediate forms may yet reduce these species to a single variable series. Unlike L. kawarau, this species does not appear to be eaten by sheep or cattle.

3. Tillœa multicaulis, n. sp.

A minute, slender, reddish, much branched glabrous herb.

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Stems several, frequently branched, 1 ¾ inches long or less, set at close intervals (1/12–1/10 inch) with pairs of small opposite connate subulate concave leaves, bearing in their axils very short branchlets clothed with sub-connate imbricating leaves similar to those of the stems.

Flowers, few, in the axils of the uppermost leaves, rosy, shortly pedicelled.

Sepals 4, subulate, acute.

Petals 4, broadly oblong, obtuse, twice the length of the sepals.

Carpels (immature) 4, with a scale at the outer base of each.

Hab. Maniototo Plain, 1,600 feet.

This species stands near Tillœa sinclairii, Hook. f. It grows in drier situations, and though slightly tufted never forms dense patches, as T. sinclairii does.

4. Erechtites diversifolia, n. sp.

A slender, unbranched, strict erect herb, 15–26 inches high.

Stems swollen at the base and sending off a strong tuft of roots, terete, strongly grooved, leafy, glabrate or sparingly cottony.

Lower leaves linear-oblong, obtuse, rather membranous, with few distant blunt teeth (having a very shallow sinus between), and recurved margins, obtuse, glabrous above, glabrate or puberulous below, gradually narrowed into long flat petioles, not auricled, the whole 2 ½–3 ½ inches long.

Cauline leaves narrower, more acute, with shorter petioles and less prominent teeth, the upper linear and sessile, glabrate or slightly cottony, not auricled.

Inflorescence usually much branched, lax or compact; heads numerous or rather few, ¼ inch long, on slender bracteate pedicels. Involucral scales glabrate or slightly cottony, linear, acute, with scarious margins, shorter than the florets.

Achene linear-oblong, grooved, hispid, slightly contracted below the flattened top.

Hab. Hills near Dunedin, and westwards as far as the Tuapeka District, 200 to 1,000 feet.

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Art. XL.Descriptions of new Native Plants.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 8th May, 1886.]

1. Ranunculus berggreni, n. sp.

Small, glabrous, glossy green.

Rootstock as thick as a crow-quill, creeping, and sending off long roots.

Leaves all radical, on slender flattened petioles ⅓–1 inch long; blade orbicular-reniform, 8–11 lines in diameter, unequally 3-lobed to the middle, the lobes crenate and beautifully reticulated.

Scapes 1 or 2, 1-flowered, slender, naked, glabrous, 1 ½–3 ½ inches long.

Sepals 5, ovate, obtuse, yellowish-green, with brown margins.

Petals 5, rich golden-yellow above, more or less green below; narrow-obovate, very obtuse, sometimes pink at the edges on the back; nectary near the base conspicuous.

Mature achenes not seen; in young forms the style is terminal, subulate, and recurved.

Hab. Carrick Range, near Cromwell; 4,000 feet: collected November, 1885. I visited this habitat in February of this year, expecting to get mature achenes; but in this I was disappointed, for the plants were eaten down by sheep or rabbits, no doubt in consequence of the exceptionally dry season rendering green food very scarce.

2. Haloragis spicata, n. sp.

A slender, erect, branched herb, 4–10 inches high.

Stems slender, wiry, grooved, sparingly scabrid, usually divided near the base into several branches.

Leaves in opposite pairs, diminishing upwards, almost sessile, coriaceous, with distinct midrib, acute, elliptic-oblong, sparingly pilose or almost glabrous, ⅓–⅔ inch long, with five distinct rather deep serratures at equal intervals along the margin.

Peduncles numerous, branching off from the top of the stem, with several (7 or fewer) single or paired small sub-hispid bracts, bearing in their axils perfect or imperfect sessile flowers.

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Stigmas 4, plumose, long, turned down on the ovoid 4-angled smooth nut, which is 1/10th inch long and stout. Fruit, 1-celled.

Hab. Moist terraces, top of Lake Hawea, 1,150 feet.

I have not been able to satisfy myself as to the nature of some of the flowers. The upper one or two in each spike is perfect, and produces large nuts, while the others appear to be staminate only. Only a study of later and more mature fresh plants can settle whether the lower flowers are perfect. So far as I can judge from my materials, the uppermost, or two upper, flowers of each spike alone are perfect.

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3. Celmisia prorepens, n. sp.

A species of somewhat smaller size than C. viscosa, Hook. fil., forming large dense patches on moist alpine situations.

Rootstock (denuded of the withered fibrous bases of the leaves) as stout as a quill or stouter, much branched, creeping and rooting, the terminal portions invested by a dense covering of the withered sheaths of the leaves or of their fibrous remains.

Leaves densely crowded, 1 ½–3 inches long, ½–1 inch broad, thin, leathery, rugose and corrugated lengthwise, glabrous above, below glabrous, or with a very thin pellicle of grey tomentum, oblong-lanceolate, acute, coarsely serrate, margins recurved, viscid, with veins distinct below. Sheaths narrower than the leaves, semi-membranous, striate, extremely viscid, reddish-brown.

Scapes 1 or 2, axillary, 6 inches long or less, flattened towards the base, slender, viscid, with sparse hairs and numerous broadly-linear entire bracts, often as much as 1 inch long.

Heads ¾ inch across; involucral scales rather few, linear, very viscid.

Pappus as long as the slender silky achene.

Hab. Old Man Range, 4,500 feet; Mt. St. Bathans, 5,000 feet.

This is a very distinct species. My flowering specimens are few, and the description of the head may need correction.

4. Stipa setacea, Br.

Several years ago I found this grass at Firewood Creek, Cromwell, and the Nevis Bluff, Kawarau River. As the plants were confined in these localities to small areas, and these were near an important highway, it was uncertain whether the species had not been accidentally introduced. In March of the present year I found it on the banks of the Waitaki River at Wharekuri. The discovery of this widely-distant habitat is sufficient to remove all reasonable doubt as to its being a genuine native of New Zealand. No doubt it will be observed in other stations ere long. The rare occurrence of this grass is, I believe, due to its being a favourite with sheep. At the Nevis Bluff I noticed that it was always closely cropped wherever sheep could get at it, and it was only in the clefts of rocky cliffs and inaccessible ledges that flowering or fruiting specimens could be got. At Cromwell, also, the only specimens to be found grow in spots very difficult of access. I have for years carefully looked for this plant in all likely places, and I am satisfied that it is now on the verge of extinction. It has a wide range in Australia, being found as far north as Queensland and as far south as Tasmania. I do not know whether it is readily eaten by sheep in these countries.