Art. XXXIV.—A Description of some newly-discovered Cryptogamic Plants, being a further Contribution towards the making known the Botany of New Zealand.*
[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 11th October, 1886.]
On this occasion, the last night of ordinary meeting of our Society for this year, I am again permitted to bring you our usual annual botanical offering, in a small basket of Crytogamic plants obtained from our inland woods and glens.
I have called it “our” offering; and this may require a few words in explanation. This plural pronoun is here used in a double sense: (1) To let you know that I have again been largely assisted by kind and liberal, hearty and active, coworkers in this part of the botanical field, who all work con amore in this matter: among them I would particularly mention with thanks three of our active members—Messrs. H. Hill, A. Hamilton, and D. P. Balfour—to whom not only myself and our local branch auxiliary Society, but the New Zealand Institute as a scientific body, are largely indebted. And (2) that this offering or tribute is one made by, as well as from, our New Zealand woods. For, privileged as I am to present and make known this, their free gift, and thus for a short time briefly occupying the position of their herald or ambassador unto you—coming hither directly from them, and from long and oft-repeated sojournings in their homes and company, and understanding their thoughts and quiet reasonings, and silent yet the more expressive language—I would beg permission to say a few words respecting them.
Among the many and varied congenial homes of the great Crytogamic family, in those deeply secluded glens and mountain woods, far away from the busy life of towns, and even the solitary haunts of the isolated “bush” woodman, is the place par excellence for the disciple of Nature to study, to admire, to learn, to know; and so learning, so knowing, to hold converse with her and her beauties; and, through their teachings, with
[Footnote] * In continuation of paper on same subject, read in the previous year. See “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., pp. 219–255.
the one Great Mind and Author of all I One of our esteemed British classical poets, Thomson, in writing on this subject, has truly said,—
“Here wandering oft,
I solitary court
Th' inspiring scene: and meditate the book
Of Nature ever open.”
For (as I have said to you on a former occasion) I believe in the universal language of Nature: and it is with feelings such as those that I have not unfrequently detected new and hitherto hidden and unknown novelties; and when thankfully gathering them have sometimes said, solus, or spoken out to them: “Come out of your obscurity, and be seen in society. Come and be introduced to science. Come and add your tribute also, however small, to the further display of the many great and wonderful perfections of Nature; and, in so doing, more openly fulfil the imperative injunction made to you two thousand years ago, in the words of that very ancient song: ‘Benedicite universa germinantia in terra Domino; laudate et superexaltate eum in sæcula.”‘And then, at such times, I have further thought: How many thousands of years—may be, myriads of ages—since this wee little wondrous delicate and frail yet perfect form first appeared, whether created or evolved; and how, in spite of all opposing and powerful elemental influences, and cataclysms, and volcanic eruptions, has this little microscopical plant held its own, fructifying, and shedding its tiny seeds in their proper season, and so overcoming and riding triumphant over all opposition and every adverse power? Moreover, when I have also occasionally found a little Cryptogam which I knew to be also a denizen of another part of the globe—it may be of the Antarctic islets furthest South, or of Tasmania, or Australia, or the Islands of Polynesia; or of the far-off specks in the vast Southern Ocean, the Crozets, or Kerguelen's Land; of the Cape of Good Hope, or Cape Horn; of the Peruvian Andes, or of the European Alps; of the riparian banks of the Amazon, the Thames, the Tweed, or the Shannon; of the summits of our own Ruahine Mountains, or of the Scottish Highlands—what a further theme for thought! Where the commencement, the outset, the Alpha, the origin? or were there originally more than one such? And, if so, did such embryos, situated at the antipodes of each other, commence life together?
Possibly, or rather very likely, some of the younger portion of my audience here this evening may think these remarks of mine strange, aberrant, or at all events peculiar; pertaining, it may also be thought, to the garrulity of old age, and following as a fitting sequence to my expressed belief in the universal language of Nature. To all such, (if there be any), I would merely reply that thoughts like those I have touched on are (1)
not unreasonable; (2) are eminently pleasing, illuminating, and informing; (3) are qualified to raise our human nature; and (4) to lead us on to more correct views of the Great Father and Author of all. Once more will I quote a few highly expressive lines from my favourite poet Thomson:—
“Nature, attend! join every living soul,
Beneath the spacious temple of the sky,
In adoration join; and ardent raise
One general song—to Him!
Soft-roll your incense, herbs, and fruits, and flowers,
In mingled clouds to Him, whose sun exalts,
Whose breath perfumes you, and whose pencil paints.”
But to leave the mountain-tops, first gilded by the sun, and the purer air of the balmy pine forests and heights, not to mention their kindred poetical musings, and to descend to the plains—to the technical and prosaic facts and descriptions of our few little Crypts.—I have to observe that four of the orders of the great Linnæan class Cryptogamia are here represented—viz., Filices, Lycopods, Musci, and Hepaticæ. Of the first order, or ferns, I have only one novelty, a species of Lomaria; of the second, or Lycopodium, I have also but one new species; of the third, or mosses, I have five new species, belonging to three genera—viz., Polytrichum, Hypopterygium, and Hookeria, all fine mosses and well represented here in New Zealand; and of the fourth, or liverworts, I have 40 species, pertaining to no less than 11 genera, some of which, as Jungermannia, Plagiochila, Mastigobryum, and Frullania, were already remarkably large and cosmopolite. In the “Synopsis Hepaticarum,” published 40 years ago, Plagiochila possess 189 species, Jungermannia 195 species, Mastigobryum 64 species, and Frullania 155 species; and these large numbers of species have been subsequently increased with many more; indeed, out of this present small collection there are no less than 5 species of Plagiochila, 16 species of Mastigobryum, and 6 species of Frullania; while others of those smaller and rarer genera now added to by me are still very limited, both as to the number of their known species and their area.
The total number of Cryptogamic novelties described in this paper is 47; and while all will prove interesting to the working botanist and devoted disciple of Nature, some of them, it is believed, will prove no less so to the cultivated and cursory, though less technically skilled, observer.
Lastly, and in conclusion, (as I do not wish to repeat my former observations over again, though equally applicable here), I would respectfully beg my hearers, being members of the Institute, to read and note what I have said in my introduction in my paper of last year on this subject, in connection with this present paper.
Genus 16.* Lomaria, Willdenow.
1. L. intermedia, sp. nov.
Plant small; caudex ½–¾ inch, indistinct, formed of the bases of old stipites and wiry roots; tufted, few fronded; fronds sub-erect and spreading, pinnate; stipes rather slender, blackish-brown, glabrous, succulent, somewhat brittle, deeply channelled above, as also is the rhachis. Sterile fronds, 7–8 inches long, (including short stipe, ¾ inch), 1 inch wide, linear-lanceolate, rachis, flexuous, green; pinnæ 16–18 pairs, alternate, distant, membranous, light-green, glossy, thickly dotted beneath with minute red scales, oblong, sides straight, very obtuse, margins crenate, adnate, the lower base much excised and sub-truncate, the upper base slightly sub-auriculate or produced, but not extended on rhachis, 3–4 lobes at top confluent, the uppermost lobe broadly ovate, obtuse; the lowermost 5–6 pairs of pinnæ small, sub-orbicular, and sometimes opposite; veins 4–5-jugate, obscure, the lower forked, upper simple, extending nearly to margin, tips clavate, the lowest basal vein always 3-branched, and proceeding from the rhachis, not the midrib: fertile fronds much longer and more slender, 9–11 inches (including stipe, 2 inches), pinnæ 16–18 pairs, alternate, very distant, sub ½ inch, narrow linear almost filiform, 6–7 lines long, ½ line wide, obtuse, margins sub-crenulate, presenting a regular knobbed or beaded appearance, arising from the clavate tips of the veins, adnate, slightly decurrent, ultimate lobe long and very narrow, the lowermost segments exceedingly small; rich red-brown; margin of indusium finely lacerate, as obtains in L. filiformis, A. Cunn.
Hab. Scattered in damp shaded localities, Seventy-Mile Bush, County of Waipawa; 1880–86: W.C. In forests near Palmerston, County of Manawatu; 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs. I. This species is allied to several of our smaller Lomariæ,—as, L. lanceolata, Spr., L. pumila, Raoul, L. membranacea, and L. oligoneuron, Col.,†—but more closely to L. membranacea, from which species it differs in its larger size, its crenate (not “dentato-serrate”) sterile pinnæ, which are also of a different shape, more obtuse and distant, excised at their lower and produced at their upper bases, much fewer veined, and minutely dotted with red scales beneath; while the fertile
[Footnote] * The numbers attached to the orders and genera in this paper are those of them in the “Handbook Flora of N.Z.”
[Footnote] † Vide “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., p. 346.
pinnæ are also very much narrower, and adnate, with sub-crenulate margins. Those four species form a compact little natural group.
II. After long search, I found 4 small scales at the bases of 2 stipites. These are very short, about 1 line long, black, subulate, with a broad membranous and entire base, and large black oblong cells.
Genus 2. Lycopodium, Linn.
1. L. novæ-zealandicum, sp. nov.
Plant small, dependent, lax, soft; main stem slender, 3–4 inches long, single, leafy to base, once forked at top; forks ½–1 inch long, cylindrical. Leaves sub-trifarious, glabrous, shining pale-green, spotted with brown dots, lowermost rather distant, loose, spreading, recurved, sub-linear-spathulate, 4–6 lines long, ½ line wide, transversely wrinkled, narrowed at base and slightly decurrent; tips sub-acuminate, obtuse, thickened, nerve broad and strong; margins entire, pale, sub-cartilaginous; upper leaves much smaller, closer, imbricate, sub-appressed, nerve obsolete. Capsules axillary in upper leaves of main stem and on forks, large for plant, orbicular with a deep sinus, broader than base of leaf, yellow; valves gaping, thickened at margins; spores sub-orbicular, minutely roughish. Scale—or capsule-leaves on forks, sub 2 lines long, subulate, erect, very obtuse at tips, much dilated at base, clasping.
Hab. Epiphytical on fern-trees, open marshy glades in low forest, bank of River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. I. Of this little plant I obtained five specimens from three fern-trees, two of them in full fructification and nearly alike in size and shape; two of the barren specimens were a little larger (4–5 inches, main stem), but much the same in form; their colour greener.
II. This is a small species of the Selago section; apparently pretty closely allied to L. taxifolium, Sw., (ap. fig. Hook. et Grev. Gen. Filicum, tab. Ixxxviii.), a Jamaica and St. Helena species; but that plant is much larger, and its leaves are sub-sexfarious, rigid, and acute, and its capsules reniform. This plant is also nearly allied to L. gnidioides, Linn., a Cape and Mauritius species. It differs much from its nearest New Zealand congener, L. varium, Br., in its much smaller size, in its narrower leaves of a different shape, being more lax and remote, and not so thickly set around the stem, in the total absence of quadrangular spikes, its differently-shaped capsules, and its softness. Sir J. D. Hooker has given no less than five drawings of different forms of that variable species in his “Flora
Tasmaniæ,” (tab. clxx.), but all without fructification. Another drawing of that species, with fruit and dissections, is also given by Sir W. J. Hooker, (Ic. Filicum, tab. 112), which is more in accordance with the New Zealand states of L. varium; but all differ widely from this plant.
Genus 46. Polytrichum, Linn.
A. Calyptra nearly glabrous.
IV. Polytrichadelphus, C. Müell. (Cyphoma, Hook. fil. and Wilson.)
1. P. polycarpum, sp. nov.
Stems erect, 2 inches high, rather stout, once forked, bare at base. Leaves 3 ½ lines long, thickly set from near base, sub-patent, spreading and decurved below on stem, subulate, acute, glabrous, flat on upper surface not canaliculate, sub-rigid, opaque, narrowly margined, serrate, nerved throughout, darkgreen with brown tips, lurid in age; bases broad, sub-quadrate, 1 line wide, amplexicaul; cells very minute, sub-orbicular distinct and transverse in the margin of leaf near contraction, narrow linear-oblong in the basal portion; perichætial shorter than stem-leaves. Fruit-stalks lateral, slender, erect, 1 ½ inches long, slightly flexuous, twisted at top, light-red, shining, 4–5 to a branch. Capsule broadly oblong, a little contracted at mouth, sub-horizontal and inclined, 2 lines long, somewhat strumous, flat and slightly concave above, conspicuously 2-angled at the sides (sometimes obscurely 4-angled), semi-terete below; light-brown (becoming darker in age), shining, mouth orbicular; teeth 64, rather short, hyaline, acute, sinuses broadly rounded; the circular epiphragm radiate, margin uneven. Spores circular, transparent at centre. Calyptra longer than capsule, narrow linear, 2 ½ lines long, straight, red, glabrous, tip obtuse, hirsute at extreme apex; hairs very short and thick; membranous and lacerate at base.
Hab. Hilly woods, east bases of Ruahine Mountain Range, County of Hawke's Bay; 1885: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs. This species will range under Polytrichadelphus, C. Müell., and is allied to P. magellanicum, Hedw. It differs however, from that species in its more simple stems, in its leaves being margined and more serrate, with much larger sub-quadrate bases, (resembling those of P. giganteum, Hook., as given by Schwaeg., tab. cccxxv.), and in their not being canaliculate and lamellate; also, in its slender seta, the sub-strumous form of its capsule with circular mouth, its shorter and more acute teeth with broader sinuses, and its longer calyptra.
Genus 67. Hypopterygium, Bridel.
1. H. hillii, sp. nov.
Plant closely cæspitos in small tufts. Stems about ½ inch high, thickly tomentose throughout with dark brown tomentum. Frond sub-deltoid-orbicular, pale yellowish-green, 5–6 lines broad, the lower branches 2-pinnate, the upper simple. Leaves: on the stem, deltoid-acuminate, nerveless, margins entire slightly uneven, cells long and narrow; on the primary branches, distichous, spreading, close and slightly imbricate, broadly ovate, much apiculate, dimidiate, very thin almost pellucid, stoutly margined; margins serrate; nerve extending about three-fourths of leaf; cells small and sub-orbicular at tips, larger and oblong at centre and base with minute interstitial cellules; dorsal leaves orbicular, very largely apiculate, the mucro stout and acute and nearly half the length of the leaf, margined, slightly denticulate near apex; nerve stout, extending beyond middle; cells as in those of the primary branches; perichætial narrow-ovate, much acuminate, acute; cells very long and narrow. Fruit-stalk, 5–7 to each plant, about ½ inch long, reddish, erect, tip slightly curved. Capsule a little drooping, oblong, red, minutely and regularly papillose, broadest and tubercled near base; cells large, sub-orbicular-quadrate; outer teeth dark-brown, subulate, acuminate, with no median line but a dark line at margins, transversely sulcate; the inner teeth nearly as long as the outer, pale, subulate, acuminate, bifid, tips almost capillary, dark jointed. Calyptra as long as the capsule, dimidiate, narrow, subulate, acute, a little curved, whitish below, tip brown.
Hab. Forests, Daneverke, County of Waipawa; 1885; Mr. H. Hill: forests near Norsewood, same county; 1886: W.C.
Obs. This elegant little fern-like moss is allied to the smaller species of Hypopterygium, (“Sec. I. a. Leaves not mixed with bristles; ** branches 2-pinnate;”) of which we have some half-dozen or more known and described species, but it is very different from them all. I have, with much pleasure, named it after its discoverer, Mr. Henry Hill, B.A., Inspector of Government Schools for the Hawke's Bay District, whose ready zeal and care in collecting, and kindness and liberality in imparting botanical specimens of rare plants, I have long thankfully experienced, as my published botanical papers will abundantly testify.
2. H. pachyneuron, sp. nov.
Plant, rhizome stoutish, creeping, 2–3 inches long, brown, slightly hairy. Stems single, distant on rhizome, erect, 1 inch high, rather slender, glabrous, leafy and green above, bare and brown below. Frond sub-orbicular-cordate in outline, ½ inch
long, green, inclining to pale-green at tips of branches; branches bi-pinnate throughout, very close set and overlapping. Leaves: lateral, distichous, spreading, imbricate, ovate, acute, slightly and distantly serrate at tips, margined; nerve very stout and broad at base and extending beyond middle; cells rhomboidal, larger at base; the dorsal leaves broadly orbicular, apiculate, margined; margins entire, slightly uneven; nerve vanishing beyond middle; cells oblong, small at tip and margins, larger at centre and base; stem leaves similar to dorsal; perichætial narrow oblong-lanceolate, very acuminate, entire; cells narrow oblong rectangular. Fruit-stalk: 8–9 on one plant, each singly arising from the base of a branch on the main stem, or from a fork of the primary branches, slender, erect, red, 5 lines high, shorter than frond; base very filiform, vaginant; vagina large, cylindrical, dark-brown. Capsule sub-erect and horizontal, about 1 line long, oblong, reddish, smooth, slightly rugose at base; outer teeth dark-brown, subulate, with a dark median line, very closely transverse-sulcate, edges much roughened (sub-denticulate) with numerous dark teeth, greatly acuminate, tips flexuous, curved; inner teeth just as long as outer, pale, remotely barred with a median line, acuminate, bifid for one-third of length from tip, with three filiform jointed ciliæ, shorter than teeth, alternate between them.
Hab. Near Wairoa, Hawke's Bay; 1885: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs. This is another species of the same subsection as the preceding, and is also pretty closely allied to its known New Zealand congeners.
Genus 71. Hookeria, Smith.
Section 2. Mniadelphus.
α Leaves with thickened margins.
** Leaves entire.
1. H. cataractæ, sp. nov.
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Plant growing in large spreading patches, 2–3 inches long, fragile, soft; stems stout, thick at top, dark, leafy throughout, branched above; branches long, divaricate, distant, flat, compressed, hairy, 1/10 inch wide. Leaves small, ⅔ line, sexfariously disposed, obovate-oblong, very obtuse, slightly narrowed at base, imbricate, very thin, glossy, of a pleasing bright-green (lighter in age), wavy, tips recurved, margin entire, thickened, and (with nerve) red in age; nerve extending ⅚ of leaf, diverging near tip with a very short branch at divergence, stout at base, fine at top; cells orbicular, small, particularly at apex and sides, larger and oblong at lower centre and base; perichætial leaves smaller and narrower, sub-apiculate, enclosing numerous cylindrical paraphyses, cells larger. Fruit-stalk arising from near
base of branchlet, ½ inch long, erect, flexuous, slender, shining, dark-red, thickened at base and vaginant; vagina tubercled. Capsule smooth, shining, oblong, equal, rather less than 1 line long, brown, slightly tubercled at base, sub-erect and horizontal; cells small, oblong-orbicular; outer teeth much acuminate, dark-brown, closely trabeculate, free, with stout thickened margins, rough at edges with bars largely protruding towards tips, and two dark stout longitudinal medial lines close together; inner teeth long, very acuminate, finely hair-pointed, white, with distant trabeculæ and a single median line. Operculum half the length of capsule, rostrate, reddish, smooth, shining, acuminate, acute, black-tipped, centre reddish-brown, base much fimbriate; fimbriæ recurved, light-brown, obtuse, of unequal lengths.
Hab. Close to a waterfall, wet dripping-sides of shaded cliffs, banks of the River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. A species allied to H. concinna, Col.,* but much larger, and of a different habit, form of growth, and texture.
β. Leaves without thickened margins.
** Leaves serrulate.
2. H. telmaphila, sp. nov.
Plant sub-erect, 1–1 ¼ inches high, simple and slightly branched; stems stout, dark-coloured, hairy at bases with long red wiry hairs. Leaves pale dusky-green, quadrifariously disposed, imbricate, not margined, minutely serrulate (sub lente); lateral spreading, 2 ½ lines long, broadly ovate, very obtuse, the base contracted and with the stout nerve presenting a sub-petiolate appearance; nerve extending ⅔ of leaf, very stout at base, ending abruptly with a short branch from the tip; cells large, orbicular, smaller at apex and sides; dorsal and ventral leaves adpressed, smaller, sub-orbicular, ovate; perichætial numerous, small, very thin, ovate, acute, apex sharply serrulate, the margins entire; cells oblong. Fruit-stalk (immature) ½ inch long, black, stout, flexuous, twisted, much thickened at base. The leaves when dry are distant and much crisped, but soon expanding in water.
Hab. On the ground, edges of a swamp, dense forest near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. A species near to H. pseudopetiolata, Col.,† but differing from that species in its larger size and very much larger and broader leaves, that are only very minutely serrulate and imbricate; their cells also are unequal, with a stouter and longer nerve.
[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., p. 229.
[Footnote] † “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., p. 231.
Genus 2. Jungermannia, Linn.
1. J. pygmæa, sp. nov.
Plant minute, erect, 2 (rarely 3) lines high, of close, compact growth, pale-green. Stems highly cellular. Leaves sub 20, orbicular, narrowed at base, semi-amplexicaul, not decurrent, imbricate, vertical, sub-recurved at tips, margin entire but slightly uneven; cells small, orbicular, and minutely beaded at apex of leaf, larger and oblong, with minute triangular cellules in the interstices in the centre and at the base, and minute sub-quadrate and regular at the margin, giving the leaf a margined appearance. Stipules O. Perianth obovate, 6-lobed, and plicate, each lobe 3-toothed, the central tooth largest and ciliate with 5–6 short ciliæ; cells large, oblong-quadrangular. Seta slender, capillary, flexuous, 4 ½ lines long, highly cellular; cells narrow, longitudinal. Capsule small, brown; valves oval, obtuse, slightly margined, striate with dark-brown wavy lines and numerous minute transverse ones; cells oblong.
Hab. On wet sides of clayey and sandstone cuttings, closely intermixed with a minute Fissidens, and forming one compact and spreading mass; Glenross, County of Hawke's Bay; 1886: Mr. D. P. Balfour.
Obs. A species very near to J. humilissima, Col., (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., p. 236, and to other small allied species mentioned there), but differing mainly from that species in the form of its perianth and its capsule, in the cells of its leaves, and in its smaller size.
Genus 3. Plagiochila, Nees and Mont.
1. P. polycarpa, sp. nov.
Rhizome creeping, long, much branched. Stems dendroid, erect, 6–9 inches high, woody, sub-rigid, bare and compressed below cylindrical above, black, glossy, bipinnately branched; branches ascending and horizontal, very numerous, especially above, irregular in length—sometimes a branch as large and as thick as the main stem proceeds horizontally from it near the base. Leaves light-green when young, olive-green when old, much crisped when dry, closely set, imbricate, largely decurrent, ventral margins cilio-denticulate; teeth few, distant, but closer and smaller at apex; dorsal margin entire and very oblique; cells sub-orbicular. Main stem 2 ½ lines wide (including leaves), leaves large, somewhat elliptic-orbicular, apices round, their ventral bases much produced and clasping; branches (with leaves) 1 ½ lines wide, their leaves smaller and somewhat deltoid in outline; involucral sub-obovate, narrow, sub-vertical, ciliate on ventral margin and at apex, dorsal margin entire.
Perianth terminal on short lateral branchlets, green, broadly-elliptic, apiculate, sub-inflated, mouth large, gaping, lips entire, thickened, incurved, with 3–4 very minute ciliæ (sub lente) at tip, the mucro sometimes split or minutely bifid; seta short, slightly exserted, nodding; capsule oval, dark red-brown, small for plant; valves oblong, obtuse; elaters bi-spiral, adhering largely to margins. The male plant is more slender, with smaller leaves, narrow spikes, and much attenuated apices.
Hab. In wet dark woods in deep gulleys between hills, growing luxuriantly and thickly in very large continuous patches of several feet, on rotten logs, roots and bases of trunks of large trees, completely covering them; near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1885–86: W.C.
Obs. This fine species will rank with those other known New Zealand dendroid Plagiochilæ,—viz., P. gigantea, Lind., P. stephensoniana, Mitt., P. sub-similis, Col.,* etc. It also has affinity with them all, mostly, perhaps, with P. stephensoniana, but differing from that species in its perianth and involucral leaves, colour, and manner of growth, being much and largely branched at the top. The form of its leaves on the ventral side in their upper basal portion is much like those of P. deltoidea, and P. cristata, Lind., (and of some others), being largely-produced and sub-amplexicaul.
2. P. obscura, sp. nov.
Rhizome creeping, long, stout. Stems dendroid, erect, 5–6 inches high, semi-depressed and sulcated below, dark, stout, leafy from base, much branched above; branches sub-tripinnate, reddish-brown. Leaves very numerous, close, imbricate, cordate, amplexicaul, sparsely ciliate-dentate at apex and apical portion of ventral margin; the dorsal base of leaf wavy and largely decurrent, and nearly meeting on the stem that of the opposite leaf; the base of the ventral margin much produced beyond the stem; the young leaves light-green, the old ones dark-green; cells minute, orbicular; guttulate, sub-opaque. Involucral leaves similar, but smaller and obovate; teeth coarse, each containing many cells. Perianth terminal on very short lateral branchlets, green, elliptic-orbicular, obtuse, apiculate, entire, the mucro having 4 short teeth (sub lente); seta exserted, very short; capsule small, oval, dark-brown; valves sub-acute.
Hab. On decaying logs and branches, wet dark woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. A species allied to the preceding, P. polycarpa, but a smaller, coarser, and darker plant, with differently shaped and opaque leaves.
[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xiv., p. 340.
3. P. suborbiculata, sp. nov.
Plant dendroid, 3–4 inches high; stem (and main branches) black, bare at base, leafy above, tripinnately branched at top; branches long, irregular, spreading; sometimes a branch, with its numerous upper and close bushy branchlets, is larger than that whence it sprang; branchlets clear greènish-brown, curved, drooping, 2 ½ lines wide (including leaves). Leaves alternate, distant on main stem and branches, closer on branchlets, but not much imbricate; green when young, dusky-green when old; those on main stem sub-reniform-orbicular, 2 lines diameter, horizontal, patent, slightly amplexicaul; on branches orbicular or orbicular-cordate; margins largely denticulatociliate (almost spiny), except the basal portion of the dorsal margin; teeth or spinous ciliæ reddish, irregular, coarse, jointed, the largest with 2–3 lateral cells at their bases; marginal interstices between teeth curved and rounded; cells large, orbicular, and oblong, with thick double walls and clear triangular dots in the interspaces, smaller and more compact in a regular line on the margins. Involucral similar, but larger and spreading. Perianth terminal, free, obovate, 3 lines long, curved, compressed; lips semicircular, much produced, ciliate-toothed, extending round apex and slightly down the sides; base cylindrical, peduncled.
Hab. Dry hilly forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. This species is very near P. gigantea, Lind., which it much resembles in form and general appearance, though a smaller plant. It differs, however, from that species in its larger and more orbicular leaves and in their areolation, their margins being much more coarsely toothed and sub-spiny, and their dental interspaces rounded; its perianths, too, are much more round and produced at their tips, with longer, more numerous and extensive ciliate teeth; and its involucral leaves are more distant and spreading.
4. P. exilis, sp. nov.
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Plant creeping at base, sub-erect, 3–4 inches high, excessively slender, few and loosely branched; branches diffuse, distant, long, often 3 branchlets opposite and near each other spring from near the top of the main stem, and a sub-horizontal one from close under perianth; stem (with leaves) 1/10 inch wide, red, smooth. Leaves light-green, small, alternate, distant, obovate, apices very obtuse and truncate, closer and very slightly overlapping at tops of branches, ventral margin and apex coarsely and irregularly denticulate, (mostly 10 teeth on ventral margin and 2–3 at apex), dorsal margin entire, an oblique ridge or thickening near the margin extending to stem (giving the
appearance of a nerve), and this slightly decurrent on the stem parallel with the proper margin; cells minute, of various shapes and sizes (mostly oblong), rather opaque. Involucral leaves similar, but laciniate on both margins, the laciniæ larger, curved, and bi-laciniate. Perianths few, terminal on tips of main branches, free, peduncled, obovate-oblong, compressed, sides straight, mouth largely cilio-laciniate; lips scarcely rounded; cells as in leaves. Capsule slightly exserted, small, oval, reddish-brown; valves oblong, obtuse. Male plant still more slender, wiry, attenuated and diffuse; 3–4 small branchlets of spikes near the top of main stem, sub-fasciculate, the branchlet continued above the spike with the spikes double on it; spikes very narrow, 2 lines long; scales 3–4-toothed at apex, tips recurved.
Hab. On wet logs, etc., forming closely-growing loose tangled masses; low wet woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. In general form and habit this species will rank near to P. tenuis, Lind., (an East Indian and West Indian species), and the male plant with that of P. deltoidea, Lind. It is also pretty closely allied to the following species, P. distans.
5. P. distans, sp. nov.
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Plant creeping, slender, wiry, procumbent, and sub-erect. Stems delicate, 1 ½–2 inches high, leafy to base, simple, forked at top and sometimes sub-fascicled with 2–4 branchlets; tops of stems sub-flabellate; stems (including leaves) mostly about 1 line wide, the largest sometimes 1 ½ lines; stems light reddish-brown. Leaves on stems small, alternate, very distant, sub-obovate, dimidiate, flat, spreading, ventral margin much arched, dorsal straight, a few large distant teeth (4–7) at apex and on anterior portion of ventral margin, generally 3 spinous teeth at apex, the one at the outer anterior angle being the longest, dorsal margin entire; leaves generally larger at tops of branchlets and about the perianth, light green; cells orbicular, with thick walls and minute circular cellules in the interstices. Involucral leaves similar, erect. Perianths terminal on branchlets, obovate, 1/10 inch long; mouth narrow; lips largely ciliate-dentate; teeth few, flexuous; cells as in leaves. Male plant still more slender, sometimes 3 spikes on a branch, with leaves in the interspaces, each spike about 1 ½ lines long; scales sub-erect, tips 2-fid. The tips of the branches are sometimes flagellate and scaly; some of the stems are also exceedingly fine and slender, being only ½ line wide, including their pinnate leaves.
Hab. On trees, in low wet woods, forming rather large and densely compact patches; near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. A species nearly allied to the preceding, P. exilis, mihi; and also to P. distinctifolia, Lind., a West Indian and South American species, (and also said by Lindenberg* to have been “found in Dusky Bay, New Zealand, Herb. Hook.”; but it is not included by Sir J. D. Hooker in the “Flora N.Z.,” nor the “Handbook Flora N.Z.”; hence, I suppose, some slight error in the Dusky Bay hab., possibly an error for Staten Land, near Cape Horn). This species differs from P. exilis in its leaves being less toothed with rounded apices, and without the oblique and decurrent ridge, so striking in the leaves of that plant, and also in their widely different areolation: the spikes, moreover, of the male plant of this species are much smaller, with only 2 teeth to their sub-erect (not recurved) scales. This species is also shorter and much more slender and filiform, and of a different habit of growth.
Genus 7. Gottschea, Nees.
* Leaves stipulate.
1. G. ciliistipula, sp. nov.
Plant gregarious, procumbent, imbricate in growth, creeping, soft, of a pleasing bright-green. Stems 1 inch long, 3–4 lines wide, simple, sometimes 1–2–3 short branches near top, flat, leafy throughout, with numerous dark-red rootlets below. Leaves very thin, all margins finely and closely serrulate; ventral lobe long, narrow, sub-acute, much finely plaited, the lower basal margin ciliate; dorsal lobe much shorter, broadly ovate, dimidiate, largely-arched, tip acute. Stipule quadrate, 1/20 inch wide, quadrifid; lobes long, narrow, sinuate, sub-acute, largely ciliate; ciliæ long, subulate, acute, flexuous, 5–9-jointed, very glossy; sinuses large, round, broad and clear, plaited or ridged longitudinally downwards from base of each sinus, the ridges ciliate. Cells large, of various shapes and sizes—hexagonal, oblong, and quadrate. On the stem, in the axils between the two lobes, are 2–3 minute narrow highly-cellular ciliated phyllodia, their ciliæ also long-jointed and flexuous.
Hab. In large patches on rotten logs and trunks of trees, in a deep dark wood near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. A species having affinity with G. læte-virens, G. nitida, and G. trichotoma, Col.,† but differing from them all in its beautifully plaited and cut stipules, ciliated with long, wavy, glossy ciliæ, as well as in other characters.
2. G. compacta, sp. nov.
Plant procumbent, obovate, tapering, light-green, 1–2 inches long, 8 lines wide at top; stems flat, branched, stout, rooting,
[Footnote] * “Species Hepaticarum”: fasciculus i., Plagiochila; appendix, p. 156.
[Footnote] † “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., pp. 238, 240.
hairy and scaly beneath at bases. Leaves alternate, distant on stem below, close, and slightly imbricate at their bases above, oblong, spreading, plaited about the tips, which are very thin, laciniate-lobed; lobes largely and sharply serrate; tip of the ventral lobe sub-acute, of the dorsal broad and obliquely truncate, and both finely serrate; axils clear; cells large, oblong, of various sizes, minutely and regularly papillose, but clear and orbicular at tips. Stipule large, free, 1 ½ lines wide, sub-cuneatequadrate, narrowest at base, much cilio-laciniate on three sides; laciniæ long, flexuous, very acute, bifid; sinus long, margins subsinuate and laciniate.
Hab. Among mosses, on rotten logs in wet shaded woods, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. A species having pretty close affinity with G. macroamphigastra, Col.*
2. G. compacta, sp. nov.
Plant small, compactly gregarious, nestling together in little tufts or cushions, procumbent and sub-erect, with a profusion of dark-red rootlets below. Stem stout, leafy to base, simple, but often with 2–3 minute branchlets at top, ¼–¾ inch high, 3–8 lines wide at tip including branchlets; lower leaves green, but very pale-green at tops bearing the appearance of whitish round buds. Leaves amplexicaul, closely imbricate; ventral lobe very thin, ovate-acuminate, acute, much plaited with fine short plaits or ridges running diagonally to margins, the upper margin finely serrate, the lower margin largely laciniate; cells large, oblong, clear, with minute orbicular interstitial ones; dorsal lobe broad, much arched, apex obliquely truncate and finely and sharply serrate, anterior margin slightly serrulate, the basal portion entire and overlapping; cells much as in the ventral lobe, but more crowded and not so clear. Stipules large (for the plant), bilobed half-way through, laciniate on all margins; laciniæ large, very cellular; cells large, oblong and clear below, orbicular and double-walled above.
Hab. On rotten logs, forming little dense closely-compacted patches, in low wet woods, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. A peculiar-looking little species, well marked, by its habit of growth and its handsome largely-laciniate stipules.
Genus 11. (Gymnanthe, Taylor.)
(1.) Tylimanthus, Mitten.
1. T. furfuraceus, sp. nov.
Plant gregarious; rhizome creeping, much and intricately branched, succulent. Stems or fronds rising erect from rhizome,
[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xviii., p. 238.
½–1 inch apart, stoutish, usually simple, (sometimes once branched, branch patent, horizontal), 2 inches high, 4 lines wide, flexuous, succulent, decurved, pale-green, the base of stipe bare with small distant leaflets above increasing in size upwards to the leaves. Leaves, sub 20 pairs on stem, alternate, pinnate, close-set, imbricate, wavy, somewhat quadrilateralelliptic, apex truncate, rounded, and slightly retuse, sub-sessile, attached to stem only at posterior corner, slightly decurrent, tips and margins sub-recurved, closely serrulate on anterior margin, apex, and upper half of posterior margin, remainder entire; anterior margin arched, posterior nearly straight, the entire portion thickened; teeth irregular in size, broad at base, 2–3 cells in each; colour clear dark-green; cells various, oblong, triangular, etc., scattered; cell-walls thick, double. Involucre terminal, vertical, pendulous, cylindrical, 3 lines long, very narrow, obtuse, light-green, covered with a fine, minute, light-reddish scaly scurf.
Hab. On rotten logs, growing in large compact patches, in wet shaded forests near Norsewood; 1885–86: W.C.
Obs. This species has close affinity with T. saccata, (Gymnanthe of “Handbook N.Z. Flora,” and of “Species Hepaticarum,”) but differs from it in its smaller size, more numerous, larger, closer, imbricate and wavy leaves, which are also of a different shape, as are also their cells, their margins more denticulate, and only adhering by the lower corner to the stem, and in its furfuraceous torus. I have very rarely found it in a fruiting state, and then only after long and diligent search.
2. ? T. perpusillus, sp. nov.
Plant very small, delicate, pale-green; rhizome creeping, short, very slender. Stems erect, ½–¾ inch high, densely compact and gregarious, slender, sub-succulent, simple, flexuous, slightly thickened at tips, 1 line wide including leaves, usually leafy to base. Leaves minute, alternate, usually distant, (sometimes close and subimbricated at the middle), pinnate, mostly 12–14-(rarely 20-) jugate, sub-quadrate-orbicular, truncate, deeply notched or sub-bifid, the upper lobe larger, apices acute, sinus very broad, sometimes minutely toothed, sessile, clasping, slightly decurrent, a little twisted and convex, patent, margins entire; anterior margin arched, slightly uneven at apex; posterior straight, or slightly excised at base. Cells minute, crowded, sub-orbicular, their walls thickened, with scattered very minute cellules within them. Fruit not seen.
Hub. In shady damp niches, in the summit or peak of a high hill named “Cook's Tooth,” near Porangahau, County of Waipawa; 1886: Mr. H. Hill.
Obs. A species having affinity with the preceding, T. furfuraceus, Col., to which it bears a striking general resemblance,
although a very much smaller plant. Notwithstanding my having received some scores of specimens, I have not found any bearing fruit; therefore it is only provisionally placed under this genus, at the same time I have no doubt of it belonging to it.
Genus 13. Lepidozia, Nees.
1. L. latiloba, sp. nov.
Plant small, prostrate, recurved, spreading in patches; colour dusky-olive-green. Main stems 1–1 inches long, bipinnate, leafy to base; branchlets numerous, alternate, ¼-¾ inch long, patent, irregular, curved, drooping; tips acuminate and flagellate. Leaves numerous, very close, imbricate, concave, glossy, quadrate or sub-palmate-quadrate, 4-lobed; lobes large, half the length of leaf, very broad at base, (each containing 6 lines of lateral cells), acuminate, tips acute, margins uneven, sinus very broad; cells distinct, minute and orbicular at margins and tips, larger and oblong in the centre and at base. Stipules same as leaves, only the lobes a little narrower and more acuminate, patent, tips incurved.
Hab. On ground or rotten wood, dark shaded woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. A species having some affinity with L. cupressina, Lind., a West Indian, Chilian, and Tasmanian plant.
Genus 14. Mastigobryum, Nees.
Section 1. Stipules quite free from the leaves.
* Leaves quite entire.
1. M. obtusatum, sp. nov.
Plant small, procumbent, weak, spreading, 1-½ inches long, ½ line wide, dichotomous; branches uniform in width through-Out; light-green. Leaves alternate, broadly elliptic, the dorsal slightly overlapping at the middle, the lowest smaller and distant, margins entire and somewhat irregular, the dorsal margin arched, the ventral nearly straight; apices of upper leaves entire, rounded, and very obtuse, of the lower leaves various, truncate, and 1–2–8 obsoletely dentate; cells orbicular, excessively minute, sub-opaque, contiguous in regular parallel lines, with a band of 3 longitudinal rows of larger and clearer cells near the ventral margin. Stipules minute, wider than stem, quadrate, largely 4-fid; laciniæ long, spreading, acute; cells oblong-quadrate, very clear, brown. Flagellæ few, long.
Hab. Woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. A species very near to M. convexum, Lind. The band of 3 rows of large cells closely resembles a similar band in the leaves of M. monilinerve, Nees.
** Leaves 2-dentate or 2-fid.
2. M. amœnum, sp. nov.
Small: stems 1–2 inches long, spreading, decurved, loosely dichotomous; branches leafy, equal, about ½ inch long, 1/20 inch wide (including leaves), cellular. Leaves very distinct, not imbricate, alternate and sub-opposite, oblong-quadrate, margins slightly sinuous, dorsal edge arched, ventral nearly straight, truncate, largely bidentate, the upper lobe larger, sinus nearly one-third length of leaf, broad, sinuate; colour pleasing light grass-green; cells large, orbicular, alike throughout. Stipules excessively minute, free, adpressed, composed of 4–5 capillary cellular fimbriæ. Flagellæ numerous, 3–4 to a branchlet, long, capillary. Male inflorescence from upper axils of stipules, single and geminate, sub-pedicelled, highly cellular; perianth campanulate, 5–7 fissured, laciniæ ovate-acuminate, enclosing an orbicular head of 10–12 minute cylindrical reddish sacs.
Hab. In dense forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C. Running over and into cushions of Leucobryum candidum.
Obs. A species having affinity with M. colensoanum, Hook. fil., but differing from that species in its leaves not being imbricated, and in its stipules being minute and capillary-laciniate.
3. M. minutulum, sp. nov.
Plant very small, 4–5 lines (rarely ½ inch) high; dark green. Stems rather stout (for the plant), cellular, usually once forked; branches few, short, leafy, sub 1/25th inch wide, including leaves. Leaves distant below, close and loosely imbricated above, narrow oblong-quadrate, sub-falcate, slightly curved at dorsal margin, contracted at base, margins narrowly thickened and irregular, truncate, bidentate, tips somewhat obtuse, the upper lobe larger, sinus large, wide, edges irregular, cells perfectly orbicular, with minute interstitial ones. Stipules distant, excessively minute, laciniate, appressed. Flagellæ short, stoutish, scaly.
Hab. On the ground, but mostly confined to decaying dry vegetable matter; in dense wet woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
*** Leaves 8-dentate or 3-fid.
4. M. elegans, sp. nov.
Plant compactly tufted, erect; stems 2–4 inches high, dichotomous; branches simply forked above, 2 lines wide, uniform throughout; tips recurved; light green, margins often tinged with pink. Leaves numerous, close-set, opposite, slightly imbricate at dorsal bases, spreading, convex, broadly ovate or
sub-orbicular, truncate, trifid, teeth long and sharp, with minute teeth between them; dorsal margin largely rounded at base and overlapping stem; ventral margin sub-sinuate, slightly denticulate near apex, waved, with 1 large regular plait near the base to meet the stipule; cells small, orbicular, with minute interstitial cells, larger and oblong at base. Stipules free, large, 1 line wide, distant, quadrate, patent, recurved, in a regular line with bases of leaves and apparently connate, but really distinct, though approaching very close, somewhat 6–8 lobed on three sides; lobes irregular, laciniate; laciniæ acuminate, acute; cells small, oblong-orbicular. Flagellæ rather numerous below, few above, about 3 to a main branch, short, stout, scaly, issuing from above a stipule in the centre of the stem.
Hab. In dry craggy Fagus woods, growing compactly together on the ground with Bartramia readeriana, but only observed in two or three spots; banks of the River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1881–86: W.C.
Obs. A very elegant and striking species; scarcely allied to any of its numerous New Zealand congeners, and much more resembling Isotachis in its general appearance. The lower single stems with their leaves are always of a light-brown colour, presenting a dead appearance.
5. M. macro-amphigastrum, sp. nov.
Plant rather stout, firm, 2 inches long, 2–3 inches wide, dichotomous, spreading, of a pleasing dark-green colour; branches equal, 11/2 lines wide, leafy throughout, much flagellate. Leaves opposite, closely imbricate, oblong, falcate, convex, truncate, trifid, sinuses very large and minutely and irregularly toothed, margins entire; dorsal margin much arched; ventral margin slightly sinuate at tip, dilated at base, largely incised in the middle, and abruptly truncate at extreme base to meet the stipule, which it does very closely though not connate; cells minute, orbicular, distinct at tips, crowded in the body of the leaf, each cell containing 2–3 pellucid dots. Stipules free, large, sub-deltoid-truncate, produced, patent, set slightly above where the two opposite leaves meet the stem, margins coloured brownish-red, recurved, and much laciniate; laciniæ sharp; cells irregular, oblong-rhomboidal at apex, smaller and orbicular at base. Flagellæ short, stout, scaly, branched, thickened at tips, by which they adhere rather strongly.
Hab. In low wet shaded woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C. On close, compctly-growing mosses, and on other Hepaticœ, overrunning them.
6. M. imbricatistipulum, sp. nov.
Plant small, delicate, of close compact growth, erect, ½–¾ inch high, simple and forked, sometimes branched at base and dichotomous; branches short, about 1 line wide; pale green; flagellæ few, short. Leaves opposite, slightly imbricated, obovate-oblong, truncate, trifid, teeth large, acute, sinuses entire, margins slightly irregular, the ventral more so and slightly incised in the middle: the dorsal margin arched near base; cells minute, orbicular, crowded, distinct at tips, larger and clearer in body of leaf and base. Stipules free, close, quadrate, sub-adpressed with the upper margin overlapping the stipule above, and laciniate-toothed, the sides usually straight and entire; cells orbicular.
Hab. Among mosses on rotten logs, in wet forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
7. M. pusillum, sp. nov.
Plant creeping, delicate, small, sub ½–inch long, dichotomous; branches spreading, arched, light-green. Leaves opposite, close-set, regular, slightly imbricate near their bases, narrow-oblong, broadest at base, falcate, margins entire and slightly uneven, truncate, trifid; teeth large, spreading; sinuses broad and clear, the upper one usually larger; apical cells small, oblong distinct and regularly disposed, the central appearing as if compound, or composed of the figure “8” within each cell, the basal crowded and opaque. Stipules large (for plant), sub-quadrate, irregularly toothed on their three sides; teeth sometimes bi-cuspidate; cells oblong, distinct, regular, and clearer at margins and teeth. Flagellæ few, short.
Hab. On trunks of fern-trees, forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
8. M. olivaceum, sp. nov.
Stems 11/2 inches long, dark-brown, stout, loosely forked above with few branches; branches ½-¾ inch long, 11/2 lines wide. Leaves closely set, imbricate, dark-olive, rather opaque, oblong-linear, falcate, arched above, slightly narrowed at tip, truncate, largely 3-dentate with minute intermediate teeth or points, which also extend on lateral margins for some distance from apex, especially on the dorsal margin; cells minute, orbicular or orbicular-oblong, discrete (guttulate) as in M. novœzealandiœ. Stipules large, wider than stem, patent, membranaceous, semi-orbicular-quadrate, much laciniate with 6–7 long teeth or laciniæ, and several smaller ones between them; cells oblong-rhomboidal at margins, small at base. Flagellæ short, rigid, dark-coloured.
Hab. Forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886; W.C.
9. M. polyodon, sp. nov.
Plant creeping, 11/2–2 inches long, leafy to base, stout, decurved, dichotomous; branches short, 1/10th inch wide including leaves; of a pleasing dark-green colour. Leaves, opposite, recurved, broad, sub-quadrilateral, (or somewhat equilateral-triangular excluding the tip), dorsal margin much arched, the ventral nearly straight, their bases overlapping on stem, truncate, trifid, with 2–3 small teeth in each sinus, and several minute distant teeth on each margin below apex, but more on the ventral margin; cells oblong, crowded, distinct in regular rows, very minute at apex and margins, larger in centre and at base, apparently compound, each being dark with an orbicular light centre. Stipules free, quadrate, broadest at base, wider than stem, recurved, much toothed on three sides; teeth acute and bi-cuspidate, each composed of 2 clear longitudinal cellules; the apical and marginal cells large, clear, rhomboidal rectangular and oblong; the central and basal cells minute, orbicular and crowded. Flagellæ short, thickish.
Hab. On the ground, in dry shady forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. The stipules of this plant are a strikingly beautiful object under the microscope.
10. M. compactum, sp. nov.
Plant creeping and sub-erect, firm, short, ¾-1 inch high, simple and shortly branched above; stems, including leaves, 1/10 inch wide; light-green with an olive tint. Leaves opposite, close-set, lower half largely imbricate and overlapping stem at their bases, ovate, truncate, margins irregular and slightly subdenticulate, the dorsal margin arched, the ventral nearly straight, sinus broad, the lower smaller and more acute, sometimes a minute tooth in either; cells small, sub-orbicular, distinct, guttulate in regular sub-parallel lines, much larger and clearer in the middle and on to the base. Stipules free, but posited close to bases of leaves as if connate, oblong- or reniform-quadrate, recurved, much toothed or jagged; teeth 6–10, short, acute, irregular; the upper cells adjoining each other and clear, but distinct and smaller below.
Hab. On trunks and large limbs of trees, forming small thick cushion-like patches; forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
11. M. heterophyllum, sp. nov.
Plant procumbent, creeping, 1–11/2 inches long, spreading, simple and forked, light-green; branches few, capillary, 1/20 inch wide, including leaves. Leaves fugacious, minute, opposite, oblong, close-set, sub-imbricate, the largest sub-quadrate, broadest at base; margins entire, sinuate, the dorsal margin
arched; truncate, trifid, and bifid on branchlets intermixed; teeth long, acute; sinuses broad and somewhat irregular; cells oval - orbicular, distinct, guttulate, uniform. Stipules free, quadrate, rather large, wider than stems, 4–6-toothed; teeth reddish, very cellular, reticulate; cellules minute, clear and adjoining above, oblong-orbicular, distinct, and crowded at base. Flagellæ few, stoutish, very scaly.
Hab. On trunks of fern-trees, forming large thick patches; dense forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
12. M. macrodontum, sp. nov.
Plant procumbent, small, sub 1-inch long; stems stoutish, forked; branches short, 1/10th inch wide with leaves, dusky dark-green. Leaves opposite, close-set and imbricate, oblong, almost sub-quadrilateral, very broad at ventral base to meet stipule; the dorsal bases completely covering the stem and overlapping each other, slightly arched and falcate; margins entire and slightly uneven near apex, trifid; teeth irregular, large, broad, each containing several lateral cells, with usually 2 smaller teeth in each sinus; cells minute, broadly oval, distinct (guttulate), uniform, regularly disposed in lines. Stipules free, rather large, sub-quadrate, broadest at base, irregularly toothed on three sides, highly cellular; apical and marginal cells large, clear, rhomboidal and oblong (parallelogrammic); those at base and one-third through towards centre orbicular, minute, and regular. Flagellæ short, stout.
Hab. On bark of trees in woods, hill country between Mohaka and Lake Waikare, County of Wairoa; 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs. A species pretty near M. olivaceum.
13. M. obscurum, sp. nov.
Plant gregarious, procumbent, creeping, pale green. Stems slender, weak, 1–11/2 inches long, scarcely 1 line wide with leaves, flexuous, branched; branches rather long for plant. Leaves fugacious, alternate, thickish, opaque, close but scarcely imbricate above on stems, distant below, oblong-quadrate, truncate, trifid; teeth irregular and coarse; margins entire, the dorsal slightly arched; cells not discernible. Stipules free, small, adpressed, transparent and highly cellular, sub-quadrate, 4-fid; lobes very obtuse and rounded; cells large, sub-orbicular-quadrate, conjoined, uniform, each lobe containing 4 cells in a line laterally. Flagellæ O (sought, but not seen).
Hab. In woods, forming small compact patches; hill country between Mohaka and Lake Waikare, County of Wairoa; 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.
14. M. nitens, sp. nov.
Plant procumbent, creeping, pale yellowish-green, glossy. Stems 2 inches long, flexuous, wiry and bare below, stout above and very leafy, 11/2 lines wide (including leaves), dichotomous, tips recurved. Leaves opposite, close, slightly imbricated, very regular, falcate, sub-oblong-quadrate, dimidiate, the basal portion more than twice as broad as the apical but not overlapping stem, truncate, trifid; teeth long, acute; sinus broad with sometimes a minute toothlet; narrowly margined, margins uneven, minutely and sparsely toothed on both sides near apex, dorsal margin much arched, ventral, excised. Cells minute, oblong-orbicular, distinct, nearly alike throughout, but large at basal centre. Stipules free, but as close as possible to bases of leaves as if connate, rather large, wider than stem, quadrate, patent, recurved, the margin coloured dark purple, laciniate-serrate above with 4–6 acute irregular teeth, those at the two angles largest; sides sinuous with generally 1 large tooth above the middle. Cells: central and basal very minute, oblong, distinct, ranged regularly in longitudinal rows; the marginal larger, clearer and united. Flagellæ very numerous; upper short, stout and scaly; lower, very long and filiform with hairy ends.
Hab. Woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; forming large thick patches on bark, and on dry vegetable débris; 1886: W.C.
Obs. A. species near M. olivaceum, also M. compactum (supra).
15. M. parasiticum, sp. nov.
Plant stoutish, creeping, dull pale-green; stems 1–11/2 inches long, 1 line wide, dichotomous, much decurved at tips. Leaves opposite, close, imbricate, very regular, sub-convex, oblong, falcate, dimidiate; base twice the width of apex, sub-amplexicaul, truncate, trifid; teeth long, spreading, acute; the lower sinus larger, with occasionally a minute toothlet in it; margins slightly sub-sinuous, the dorsal much arched and overlapping stem, the ventral somewhat excised with the lowest portion adjoining stem wholly truncate. Cells: at lateral margins very minute oblong, closely compacted in longitudinal lines; larger sub-orbicular and distinct at apex; the central still larger, sub-quadrangular, and increasing in size to the base. Stipules free, rather large, very cellular, patent, recurved subreniform-quadrate, mostly 4-toothed at apex, and 1 tooth (sometimes 2) at sides; cells large, of various sizes and shapes, quadrangular, rhomboidal, and oblong. Flagellæ numerous, short, stout, and scaly.
Hab. In forests with the preceding species, M. nitens; growing luxuriantly on clumps of Leucobryum candidum; 1886: W.C.
16. M. obtusistipulum, sp. nov.
Plant prostrate, small, slender, repeatedly overlapping itself in growth; stems brown, stoutish, wiry, 1–11/4 inches long, ⅔ line wide (including leaves), simple, loosely and sparingly forked at top. Leaves small, pale brownish-green, alternate, distant, tender, fugacious, opaque, very slightly adhering to stem, narrow oblong, broadest at base, truncate, trifid; teeth rather coarse, large and blunt; margins slightly uneven; dorsal margin much arched, the basal portion falcate; ventral margin nearly straight. Cells sub-orbicular, very obscure, but regularly disposed in rows between dark longitudinal lines, appearing as if each cell was composed of 5 cellules, separated by a star-like division, and as if there were two layers of superimposed cells. Stipules free, rather large (for plant), as broad as the leaves at their bases, distant, appressed, highly cellular, cuneate-quadrate, 4-lobed; lobes short, broad, and very obtuse. Flagellæ O.
Hab. On the ground, thickly overrunning loose dry vegetable débris; low damp spots, forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Genus 19. Polyotus, Gottsche.
1. P. smaragdinus, sp. nov.
Plant prostrate; stems creeping, 3–4 inches long, 2-pinnately branched; branches spreading, upper ones very long; branchlets numerous, alternate, diverging, irregular in length, 3–15 lines long. Leaves, a pleasing emerald-green, distichous, regular; stem leaves close, patent, not imbricate, broadly cordate-ovate, dimidiate, apiculate, margins entire but slightly uneven, with usually 4 large lacinia-like ciliæ at the base on each side; cells sub-orbicular, distinct; leaves on branches imbricate, orbicular-elliptic, largely apiculate, margins entire, auricles clavate, darkred when mature, with a minute subulate fimbria at the base; cells large, hexagonal, with minute interstitial cellules. Stipules on main stems 4-partite, segments ciliato-laciniate all round, ciliæ jointed; sinuses long, clear; cells oblong; stipules on the branchlets similar but very minute, bearing 2 very small claviform appendages, similar to those on leaves but much smaller.
Hab. On bark of trees, and among mosses on the ground; dark woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. This truly elegant species has affinity with both P. claviger and P. palpebrifolius, Gottsche, but differs from them and from all other known species in several particulars, especially in colour and in form of leaves and stipules.
2. P. fimbriatus, sp. nov.
Plant prostrate, creeping; stems stout, flexuous. pendulous, 4–6 inches long, 3-pinnately branched; branches straggling,
very irregular in length, overlapping each other; branchlets numerous, close-set, alternate. Leaves mostly pale yellowish-brown, the upper layer and more exposed dark-orange and rich bright red-brown; main-stem leaves sub-imbricate above on stem with crisp sub-vertical margins, having a fissured scaly appearance, orbicular-cordate, very apiculate, margins entire but slightly uneven, largely amplexicaul, the sinus broad and circular, with several long irregular-curved fimbriæ and ciliæ at base; branch leaves imbricate, distichous, sub-orbicular, apiculate (sometimes sub-acute and obtuse), margins entire with long irregular laciniate fimbriæ at base; auricle clavate, dark-purple in age with several long flexuous fimbriæ at base; cells clear, orbicular, with minute interstitial cellules. Stipules on main stem large, sub-quadrate, 4-partite; segments largely ciliate on all sides; ciliæ long, recurved, flexuous, jointed; stipules on branchlets similar but smaller, with a dark boss or blotch at central base, and bearing two small dark claviform appendages similar to those on leaves, and ranging with them: cells oblong-orbicular, very clear, each of the segments having a narrow marginal line of compacted minute cells.
Hab. On trees, often overrunning mosses, etc., Seventy-mile Bush, between Norsewood and Woodville, County of Waipawa; 1885–86: W.C.
Obs. A species allied to the preceding, P. smaragdinus; but more nearly to P. claviger, and P. taylori, Gottsche. It is, however, a much larger, robust, and coarser plant; differing from them, and from all known species, in its large clasping and fimbriate stem-leaves, its largely fimbriate and ciliate stipules, and in its rich striking colours.
Genus 21. Madotheca, Dumort.
1. M. latifolia, sp. nov.
Plant prostrate, creeping, diffuse. Stems stout, brown, 3–4 inches long, 21/2 lines wide, bipinnate; spreading irregularly over each other in loose horizontal layers, and so forming small cushioned tufts; branches alternate, short, flat, patent. Leaves darkish-green when fresh, (young leaves and branchlets light-green), closely and uniformly set, much imbricated, convex, reniform-orbicular, decurved, dorsal margin entire, the apex or outer angle much incurved, base waved; the ventral lateral margin on stem very uneven; lobule sub-orbicular-elliptic, larger than stipule, crisp; cells orbicular, with thick walls and minute interstitial cellules; involucral 4, oblong-ovate, (2 of them being smaller and narrower), largely ciliate; ciliæ jointed; cells as in leaves, only larger and clearer at centre and base; a dark-green outer leaf largely produced and sub-vertical, much incurved and enwrapping the apical margin, finely ciliate; capsule (immature)
enclosed, globular, dark-green. Stipule oblong, recurved, apex retuse, margin entire, much waved, especially at the base.
Hab. On branches of trees, slightly adhering to their bark, and to foliaceous lichens, and to its own under-branches; Seventy-mile Bush, County of Waipawa; 1882–86: W.C. Forest near Palmerston, County of Manawatu; 1886: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs. This species much resembles M. stangeri, Gottsche, (and its vars.), but it differs from them in the shape of its leaves, which are much more reniform or transversely elliptic, in its largely ciliated involucral leaves, in its oblong and retuse stipules that are not gibbous, and in its orbicular cells, as well as in its size and colour. It is a fine and pretty plant, and though its stems and branches are not so large and long as those of M. stangeri, they are quite as wide as the widest of them.
2. M. amœna, sp. nov.
Plant pendulous; stems 5–6 inches long, 23/4 lines wide, pinnate, mostly simple, few-branched and forked at tips; bases bare, black, wiry, sub-rigid; colour a lively light-green. Leaves closely regularly and largely imbricated, but not overlapping their opposite bases on stem, broadly elliptic, margins entire, the lateral sparingly and finely toothed towards stem, apex decurved; lobule very slightly affixed to leaf, oblong, broader at apex, ciliate; ciliæ irregular, jointed; cells small, orbicular, with minute interstitial cellules (much as in the preceding species M. latifolia, but smaller). Stipules small, rather distant, sub-deltoid-cordate, with rounded tip, and basal angles produced and clasping, tip recurved; narrowly margined, marginal cells minute, uniform; margins entire, but irregular at base; cells remarkably minute, and of various sizes and shapes, mostly oblong.
Hab. On trunks of trees, hilly forests, Glenross, County of Hawke's Bay; 1886: Mr. D. P. Balfour.
Obs. A species near to the preceding; and also to M. stangeri, and its vars.; but differing in its usual long simple form, in appearance and in colour, in the size of its cells, and particularly in the shape and structure of its small margined stipules, and in its different lobule.
Genus 23. Frullania, Raddi.
1. F. novœ-zealandiœ, sp. nov.
Stems slender, 1 inch long, wiry, flexuous, dark-coloured, pinnate, rarely bipinnate; branchlets few, alternate, irregular in length. Leaves pale-green, very slightly imbricate, broadly ovate, sub-acute and obtuse, margins irregular, ventral base patent not inflexed, those on the main stem larger than on
branches; lobule brown-purple, rather large and prominent, galeate with a long acuminate depending tip that is often recurved. Stipules: on main stems, sub-rhomboid-quadrate, deeply bibbed; lobes divergent, tips acuminate, with 2 teeth on each lobe outside; on small branches, ovate, deeply bilobed; lobes lanceolate, entire. Cells minute, orbicular, regularly disposed in longitudinal lines.
Hab. On bark of trees, intermixed with other Hepaticœ and mosses; forests, Glenross, County of Hawke's Bay; 1886: Mr. D. P. Balfour.
Obs. A species belonging to Section 1, Division ***, p. 536 of “Handbook N.Z. Flora;” and having affinity with F. hampeana, Noes, and with F. spinifera, Hook. fil. et Tayl., but differing from them both in several particulars.
2. F. delicatula, sp. nov.
Plant very minute, delicate pale-green. Stems slender, 1–11/2 inches long, 1/30 inch wide (including leaves), bipinnate, irregularly and sparingly branched; branches rather long for the plant. Leaves round (longer than broad), close but not imbricate, margins entire and slightly recurved, basal portion not inflexed; lobule small, arched, slightly deflexed, tip obtuse, not produced beyond margin of leaf, pale purple. Cells minute, sub-orbicular, crowded, indistinct. Stipules reniform-orbicular, entire, adpressed.
Hab. Hilly woods at Pohue, north-west from Napier, County of Hawke's Bay; 1885. (A few fragments, found mixed among larger Hepaticœ collected there by Mr. A. Hamilton.)
Obs. A very filiform, delicate, tender plant, remarkable for its whole entire stipules.
3. F. rotundifolia, sp. nov.
Plant small, erect, not ½ inch high, but growing thickly together in densely-compacted patches; dark green, but appearing blackish together in the mass.
Stems creeping, 2 inches long, bipinnate, wiry black and bare below, but stout, and of same colour as leaves, and very much branched at top; branchlets alternate, very short. Leaves very close-set, imbricate, patent, sub-vertical, wavy, recurved, rather opaque, orbicular; margins entire, but slightly irregular (sub lente); basal portion not infiexed, sub-amplexicaul; lobule small, sub-galeate, same colour as leaf, tip obtuse, not produced; involucral lanceolate, acuminate, very acute, margins entire. Stipules orbicular, with a small broad sinus at apex, which is broadest and rounded at base, and margined; tips somewhat conniving. Cells very small, sub-orbicular, with numerous exceedingly minute interstitial cellules. Perianth sub-terminal,
sub-cylindrical, slightly clavate, apiculate, smooth. Capsule oval, whitish; seta produced, nodding; valves oval, membranaceous, spreading, not cut to base; elaters as in gen. descr.
Hab. On upper branches of tall trees, adhering to bark and overrunning lichens (Stictœ); forests, Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. This species is rather peculiar; small though it is, it makes a show from its densely clustered habit of growth and patent sub-transverse leaves; it has also a pretty appearance when in fruit, with its spreading white 4-valved capsules peering above the tips of its dark leaves, resembling minute starry flowers. It is also singular from the curious sinus of its stipules, which, as far as I know, is quite a unique character.
4. F. minutissima, sp. nov.
Plant very small, about 2–3 lines high, erect, thickly gregarious, appearing black in the mass. Stems procumbent, sub ½ inch long, much implexed, bipinnate; branchlets alternate, very short. Leaves on main stem distant, on branches close and touching but scarcely imbricate, sub-orbicular and broadly elliptic, margins entire, tips rounded and recurved, basal portion inflexed in a minute triangular interlobule or lobelet between lobule and stem, brownish, the young leaves and branchlets light-green; lobule large (for plant), nearly ⅖ths of leaf in size, distant from stem, elliptic-clavate, broadest at apex, erect a little inclined, produced at base slightly beyond margin of leaf, dark purple; involucral leaves oblong-ovate, apiculate, entire. Stipules orbicular, sinus large, angle acute at base and very broad at margin. Perianth obovoid, triangular, sides slightly concave, apex truncate, mucronate, mucro obtuse, dark brown, shining. Cells excessively minute, orbicular-oblong with microscopical interstitial cellules.
Hab. On branches of trees, forming thickly compact and spreading patches; banks of River Mangatawhainui, near Norse-wood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. This very minute species is readily distinguished from all other known New Zealand species by its large erect lobule.
5. F. scabriseta, sp. nov.
Plant procumbent, creeping, spreading. Stems stout, 1–1 ½ inches long, brown, 3-pinnate, much branched; branches long, leafy throughout. Leaves alternate, close-set on main stem, slightly imbricate on branches, broadly oval, light-green, margins entire but slightly uneven, recurved; lobule same colour as leaves, small, arched, tip short, obtuse, scarcely produced beyond leaf; involucral leaves sub-obovate, entire; cells small, sub-oblong-angular, with thick walls composed of a chain of very minute
cellules. Perianth sub-inflated, narrow - oblong, triangular angles sharpish, apex rounded, mucronate, mucro obtuse, lips entire. Calyptra broadly clavate, green; seta white, nodding, sub-rugulose; valves broadly oval, obtuse, spreading, recurved, brown with a rather large white circular base; elaters numerous, reddish, stout, truncate, the tip of the hollow tube containing the elater closed and capitate by the elater, and broader than the tube.
Hab. On trees, in low wet woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. A species having some slight affinity with F. spinifera, Hook. fil. et Tayl., in its general appearance; but differing in leaves and lobules, in its more sharply-angled perianth with entire involucral leaves, in its scabrid seta, and in its peculiar capitate elaters.
6. F. implexicaulis, sp. nov.
Plant minute, much implexed and compact in small dark-coloured masses. Stems ¾-1 inch long, 2-pinnate, flexuous, black, wiry. Leaves alternate, oblong-orbicular, (sometimes broadly ovate and sub-acute on the branches), dimidiate, margins entire, sub-vertical and recurved on the main stem, convex and very close-set yet scarcely imbricate on the branches, brownish-green, the young leaves and branchlets bright-green; lobule large, set close to stem, prominent, hooded, the arch high, tip acute but not acuminate nor decurved, and scarcely produced beyond margin of leaf, brown-green; involucral leaves sub-obovate-oblong, entire; cells small, sub-orbicular with minute interstitial cellules. Stipule small, convex, sub-orbicular, broader than long with apex produced, narrowly margined, bifid; sinus large and deep, and wide at tips. Perianth oblong-obovate, sub-inflated, rugulose, plaited above, tip produced and obtuse with a mucro, mouth shortly fimbriate; calyptra turbinate; spores large, sub-angular, light-brown.
Hab. On pendent branches of living trees, forming small scattered much implexed dark clusters; edges of forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. This species in its general appearance resembles F. minutissima (supra), although it differs widely in the habit of growth, as well as in several important characters (vide descript.).
Genus 25. Noteroclada, Taylor.
1. N. longiuscula, sp. nov.
Plant pale yellowish-brown, prostrate, creeping, adhering on ventral surface by numerous fine pale rootlets. Stems 3–4 inches long, 1/10 inch wide (including leaves), simple below, few-
branched above, leafy throughout; branches alternate, long, irregular, tips involute. Leaves regular, very close, largely imbricate, sub-vertical, broadly oval, wavy, decurrent, margined; margins entire, but slightly irregular with a very narrow marginal line; leaves when dry secund, vertical above stem and closely appressed to each other. Cells minute orbicular, guttulate, smaller at margin, larger and clearer at base, with minute interstitial cellules. Involucre (or perianth) terminal from a short stout branch near base, sessile, erect, sub-oblong-ovate 2 lines long, plaited at top, mouth large, tips finely lacerate. Two short scaly flagellæ depending from branch a little below the involucre.
Hab. Hilly woods at Pohue, north-west from Napier, County of Hawke's Bay; 1885: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs. A species widely differing from the few other known ones. I have received several leafing specimens of this plant, but only one of them bore an involucre (old) and flagellæ more and perfect ones are wanted.
Genus 30. Symphyogyna, Mont. and Nees.
1. S. platycalyptra, sp. nov.
Plant diœcious, terrestrial, highly gregarious; stipitate, erect, rising from a short stout simple or few-branched succulent subterraneous rhizome, that is slightly hairy with fine weak hairs; generally 3 stipes, each about 1 inch apart, spring from one rhizome, the rhizomes being thickly matted. Frond circular, 1 inch diameter, of a pleasing green, divided into two main branches, that are again equally divided and largely overlapping, each flabellate division containing 3 branchlets, which are again dichotomous, and broadly margined to their bases; the main branches, however, are not margined; margins entire, slightly sinuous; main sinuses broad, open; ultimate sinuses narrow; lobes short, overlapping, broad in middle, not linear, much waved, apices retuse; cells small, orbicular; the nerve broad and strong, but not extending to apical margin. Stem stout, succulent, 1–21/2 inches high, cylindrical below, compressed above. Female plant: fructification regular, generally 2–4, solitary at upper forks beneath, sometimes, but rarely, 1 at the main forking; involucral scale large, 2 lines wide, sub-reniform, slightly bilobed, undulate, somewhat plaited, recurved, with a glossy knobbed protuberance at the base; margin sub-sinuous, entire; cellules large, orbicular; 1–2 minute scales behind, and so enclosing calyptra. Calyptra very broad, 1/10th inch wide, 11/2–2 lines long, flat, membranous, smooth, shining, slightly laciniate at apex, very light-green; cellules quadrangular-oblong. Capsule (immature within) globular, large, smooth, green, surrounded by 8–10 large cellular pistillidia that spring
from beneath. Male plant: fructification irregularly scattered beneath in sub-globular tubercular lumps on upper portion of stem and on the branches.
Hab. Plentiful in a muddy swamp, in a deep low dark shaded forest near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1886: W.C.
Obs. I. This species is peculiar from its wide, flat, strapshaped calyptra and its globular capsule, also from its strictly diœcious manner of growth. It forms dense compact patches or small beds, something like thick beds of young cress (Lepidum sativum) or parsley: and these are generally of two kinds or sizes: the larger (taller and bigger fronds and finer patches) contain only male plants, and the smaller and shorter the female ones, and these never appear to intermix. Indeed, I was a very long time (parts of two days), before I found a single female plant bearing fructification, and was about giving it up in despair, as I had confined my search to the finer masses; and it was only by chance that I happened to look among the smaller-sized plants.
II. This species has pretty close affinity with S. longistipa, S. fetida, and S. megalolepis, Col.,* and with S. flabellata, Mont., (“N.Z. Flora,”) but is distinct from them all.
[Footnote] * “Trans. N.Z. Inst,” vol. xvi., pp. 353–365.