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Volume 19, 1886
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Art. XXXV.An Enumeration of Fungi recently discovered in New Zealand, with brief Notes on the Species Novæ.

[Read before the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, 13th September, 1886.]

Last year (1885), I again sent a lot of Fungi to Kew, London, which I had for the greater part discovered during the preceding twelve months, in my several visits to the dense forests and deep glens of the Seventy-mile Bush, County of Waipawa; a few of them also being from Napier. Most of them were forms that were new to me, although I knew some of their genera and allied species. Altogether they comprised about 400 separate packets, containing, however, a much larger number of specimens. I sent them to Kew, to the kind care of the late Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., etc., in order to get them determined (if possible) by the eminent fungologist, Dr. Cooke, who had so very kindly done as much for a smaller lot, collected in the same localities, and sent thither by me in 1883. I have very recently received from the

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present Director at Kew (J. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., etc.), a long, complete, and valuable list of the same, as again kindly determined by Dr. Cooke; and this (under separate heads) I purpose now laying before you, omitting only those species which were already known and described in the “Handbook Flora of New Zealand,” and also in my supplementary paper of newly-discovered Fungi, read before the Wellington Philosophical Society in 1884.* I shall classify them thus:—

1.

Foreign Fungi already described, but not before found in New Zealand;

2.

Indigenous species wholly new to science, true species novœ.

The remainder will consist of species already described as inhabiting New Zealand—incomplete and imperfect specimens of Mycelium, etc., that cannot at present be determined; (on some of these, however, Dr. Cooke has observed, “it is possibly new;”) specimens of minute Lichens having a semi-fungoid appearance; and a few species of small and allied terrestrial Algæ.

From these classified lists you will learn that out of the large number of species sent to Kew, (several of them being in duplicate and some in triplicate, arising from some species of Fungi being perennial, and to their varying states and ages, and to the different seasons in which they were collected), a total of 179 species are new to the New Zealand flora; and of these only 18 species have been determined as new to science.

Fungi.

Section I.—Foreign Fungi already described, but not before found in New Zealand.

* Of genera known to inhabit New Zealand.
Genus 1. Agaricus, Linn.

1.

A. (Amanita) vaginatus, Fr.

2.

A. (Pleurotus) serotinus, Fr.

3.

A. (Pleurotus) atrocœruleus, Batsch.

4.

A. (Pleurotus) chioneus, P.

5.

A. (Pleurotus) affixus, B.

6.

A. (Collybia) radicatus, Fr.

7.

A. (Collybia) xanthopus, Fr., vel. prox.

8.

A. (Collybia) raphanipes v. glaucophyllus.

[Footnote] * Art xxviii., “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvii., p. 265.

[Footnote] † These, however, were not sent as Lichens; of which order there are also a large number of specimens collected, to be hereafter examined. The same may also be said of the few packets of minute terrestrial Algæ contained in that parcel.

[Footnote] ‡ The numbers in this paper attached to genera are those of “The Handbook New Zealand Flora.”

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9.

A. (Collybia), sp. uncertain.

A.

A. (Myeena) lacteus, Fr.

11.

A. (Mycena) galericulatus, Fr.

12.

A. (Mgcena), perhaps polygrammus, Fr.

13.

A. (Mycena) corticola, Fr.

14.

A. (Mycena), capillaris, Fr.

15.

A. (perhaps Mycena), uncertain.

16.

A. (Omphalia) epichysium, P.

17.

A. (Leucospori), insufficient.

18.

A. (Pluteus) umbrosus, P. (?)

19.

A. (Claudopus) variabilis, Fr.

20.

A. (Pholiota) proœcox, Fr.

21.

A. (perhaps Pholiota heteroclitus, Fr.)

22.

A. (Pholiota), sp., destroyed by insects.

23.

A. (Flammula) penetrans, Fr.

24.

A. (Flammula) fusus, Batsch.

25.

A. (Crepidotus) alveolus, Fr., vel prox.

26.

A. (Crepidotus) pezizoides, Fr.

27.

A. (Naucoria) vervacti, Fr.

28.

A. (Naucoria) pediades, Fr.

29.

A. (Naucoria) erinaceus, Fr.

30.

A. (Naucoria) cerodes, Fr.

31.

A. (Tubaria) inquilinus, Fr.

Genus 2. Coprinus, Persoon.

1.

C. ephemerus, Fr.

2.

C. plicatilis, Fr.

Genus 4. Marasmius, Fries.

1.

M. fœtidus, Fr.

2.

M. ramealis, Fr.

3.

M. androsaceus, Fr

Genus 5. Lentinus, Fries.

1.

L. pygmœus, Fr.

Genus 7. Panus, Fries.

1.

P. viscidulus, B. & Br. (?)

Genus 9. Lenzites, Fries.

1.

L. betulina, Fr.

Genus 10. Polyporus, Fries.

1.

P. lentus, B.

2.

P. (Mel.) picipes, Fr.

3.

P. (Pet.) petaloides, Fr.

Genus 12. Favolus, Fries.

1.

F. hispidulus, B. & C., var.

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Genus 13. Hydnum, Linn.

1.

H. farinaceum, Fr.

2.

H. mucidum, Fr.

3.

H. (Res) membranaceum, Bull.

4.

H. (Res) tabacinum, Cooke.

Genus 16. Stereum, Fries.

1.

S. sanguinolentum, Fr.

2.

S. acerinum, Fr.

3.

S. ferrugineum, Fr.

4.

S. frustulosum, Fr.

5.

S. illudens, B.

Genus 17. Corticeum, Fries.

1.

C. calceum, Fr.

2.

C. cretaceum, Fr.

3.

C. viscosum, Fr.

4.

C. ochroleucum, Fr., var. spumeum, B. & C.

Genus 20. Clavaria, Linn.

1.

C. mucida, Fr.

2.

C. flava, Fr. (distorted.)

3.

C. muscigena, Karst.

Genus 30. Lycoperdon, Tournefort.

1.

L. echinatum, P.

2.

L. echinellum, B. & Br.

3.

L. tephrum, B. & Br.

Genus 35. Stemonitis, Gleditsch.

1.

L. fusca, Roth.

Genus 39. Phoma, Fries.

1.

P. malorum, Berk.

Genus 48. Uromyces, Léveillé.

1.

U. amygdale, Pers.

Genus 49. Ustilago, Link.

1.

U. olivacea, Tul.

2.

U. urceolorum, Tul.

Genus 50. Æcidium, Persoon.

1.

Æ. clematidis, D.C.

Genus 59. Geoglossum, Persoon.

1.

G. berteroi, Mont.

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Genus 60. Peziza, Dillenius.

1.

P. (Moll.) cinerea, Batsch.

2.

P. (Scutellinia) badioberbis, B.

3.

P. sp. (imperfect).

Genus 65. Asterina, Léveillé.

1.

A. bullata, Berk.

2.

A. reptans, B. & C.

3.

A. (pelliculosa?)

4.

A., sp.

Genus 68. Hypoerea, Fries.

1.

H. saccharina, B. & C.

Genus 70. Hypoxylon, Bulliard.

1.

H. multiforme, Fr.

2.

H. serpens, Fr.

Genus 73. Nectria, Fries.

1.

N. episphœria, Tode.

Genus 74. Sphæria, Haller.

1.

S. acanthostroma, Mont. ?

Genus 77. Erysiphe, Hedwig.

1.

E. (Martii ?) conidia.

** Of genera new to New Zealand.

Phlebia, Fries.

1.

P. reflexa, B.

2.

P. merismoides, Fr.

Grandinia, Fr.

1.

G. granulosa, Fr.

2.

G. granulosa, v. candida.

3.

G., sp. (perhaps new, but insufficient for description.)

Odontia, Fries.

1.

O. scopinella, B.

Kneiffia, Fries.

1.

K. setigera, Fr., var.

2.

K. subtilis, B. & C.

Hymenochæte, Fries.

1.

H. rubiginosa, Lév.

2.

H. rhabarbarina, B. & Br.

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Solenia, Pers.

1.

S. anomala, P.

Calocera, Fries.

1.

C. viscosa, Fr.

2.

C. cornea, Fr.

3.

C. furcata, Fr.

Tremella, Fries.

1.

T. lutescens, Fr., v. alba, B.

Exidia, Fries.

1.

E. glandulosa, Fr.

Næmatelia, Fries.

1.

N. nucleata, Fr.

Dacrymyces, Nees.

1.

D. chrysocomus, Tul.

2.

D. deliquescens, Fr.

Lycogala, Mich.

1.

L. epidendrum, Fr.

Ptychogaster, Corda.

1.

P. (sp. n., incomplete.)

Fuligo, Persoon.

1.

F. varians, Somm.

Craterium, Trent.

1.

C. minutum, Fr.

2.

C. vulgare,—

Arcyria, Hill.

1.

A. punicea, P.

Trichia, Hall.

1.

T. varia, P.

Sphærobolus, Tode.

1.

S. stellatus, Tode.

Phyllosticta, Pers.

1.

P. sp. (young.)

Bactridium, Kze.

1.

B. magnum, Cooke.

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Cystopus, D'By.

1.

C. candidus, Str.

Trichobasis, Lev.

1.

T. oblongata, B.

Microcera, Desm.

1.

M. coccophila, Desm.

Botrytis, Mich.

1.

B. terrestris, P.

Verticillium, Link.

1.

V. rexianum, Sacc. ?

Polyactis, Link.

1.

P. vulgaris, C.

Penicillium, Link.

1.

P. glaucum, Link.

Monilia.

1.

M. carbonacea, Cooke.

1.

S. geochroum, Desm.

Mucor, Mich.

1.

M. stercoreus, Grev.

Morchella, Dill.

1.

M. conica.

Calloria.

1.

C. vinosa, Fckl.

Helotium, Fries.

1.

H. lutescens, Fr.

2.

H. citrinum, B.

3.

H. pallescens, Fr.

4.

H. phyllophyllum, Desm.

5.

H. aureum, Fr., var.

Hypomyces, Tul.

1.

H. aurantius, P.?

Nummularia, Tul.

1.

N. exutans, Cooke.

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Phyllachora.

1.

P. sp. (sterile).

Lasiosphæria.

1.

L. ovina, P.

Sphærostilbe.

1.

S. gracilipes, Tul. (?)

Rosselinia.

1.

R. mastoidea, Sacc.

Rhizomorpha.

1.

R. subeorticalis, Fr.

(As the proper serial classification of these gen. nov. to New Zealand is unknown to me (not being mentioned in any of my works on Fungi), they are placed here somewhat irregularly at the end of this section.)

Polystictus.

1.

P. pergamenus, Fr. (junior.)

2.

P. versicolor, Fr.

3.

P. tabacinus, Mont.

Fomes.

1.

F. (Fom.) fomentarius, Fr.

2.

F. (Lœvi) hemitrephus, B.

3.

F. australis, Fr.

4.

F. (Res.) obliquus, Fr.

5.

F. sp. (young specimens only.)

6.

F. sp. (resupinate state.)

Poria.

1.

P. vaporaria, Fr.

2.

P. mollusca, Fr.

3.

P. fusco-purpurea, Fr.

4.

P. mucida, P.

5.

P. ferruginea, Fr.

6.

P. vincta, B. et K.

Chrysosplenium.

1.

C. omnivirens, B.

Lamproderma.

1.

L. sp. (old.)

Daldinia.

1.

D. concentrica, De Not.

Xylostroma.

1.

X. sp. (incomplete.)

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Hamaspora.

1.

H. longissima.

Dimerosporium.

1.

D. excelsum, Cke.

Comatricha.

1.

C. typhoides.

Hypoderma.

1.

H. ilicinum, De Not.

2.

H. commune, Fr.

Section II.—Species wholly new to science (sps. nov.) with a few remarks on each.

(Those genera that are also new to New Zealand and not found in the foregoing list (**) are marked with a star.)

1 Agaricus (Naucoria) acutus, Cooke.

A small species growing closely together within a rotten log.

2 Cyphella filicola, Cooke.

A highly curious little parasitical fungus, forming small whitish cups, growing thickly on Hymenophyllum demissum, on the marginal tips of its frond, somewhat resembling large valves or indusiums of Lindsœa; it is apparently scarce, only a very few fronds having been noticed. It has also been subsequently detected by Mr. H. Hill (1 spn.), thickets, east base of Ruahine Range; and by Mr. Hamilton.

3 *Leptothyrium panacis, Cooke.

A small species, parasitical on leaves of Panax arboreum.

4 Sphœronema solanderi, Cooke.

A small species, sparingly found on rotten branches.

5 *Septoria colensoi, Cooke.

Parasitical on lining leaves of Myoporum lœtum; Napier.

6 S. coprosmœ, Cooke.

On dead leaves of Coprosma lucida.

7 *Coleosporium compositarum, Lev.; var. oleariœ.

On heads of flowers and peduncles of Olearia colorata, growing profusely; but not commonly observed.

8 Æcidium hypericorum.

On leaves of Hypericum japonicum, forming small bright-yellow spots.

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9. Uromyces microtitidis, Cooke.

On leaves of Microtis porrifolia.

10. Helotium sordidum, Phil.

Small stipitate fungus, heads circular, 2 lines diameter, of a light-drab colour; on the underside of rotten logs.

11. H. pseudociliatum, Phil.

A small species, with a white centre above, red below and at margin; margins ciliate; on rotten wood.

12. Patellaria torulispora, Cooke.

On bark of a dead tree: small species.

13. Rosellinia (Comochœta) colensoi, Cooke.

A curious small hairy fungus, with a black tip; found very sparingly nestling on dead wood.

14. Xylaria pallida, Cooke.

A curious elongated species, resembling others of this genus; only once met with on a dead log, but in profusion there.

15. *Sphœrella weinmannia, Cooke.

Parasitical on leaves of Weinmannia, racemosa.

16. S. aristoteliœ, Cooke.

On living leaves of Aristotelia racemosa.

17. S. (Sphœrulina) assurgens, Cooke.

A curious little species, forming minute black spots on fronds of living Trichomanes venosum.

18. *Berggrenia aurantiaca, Cooke; var. cyclospora.

A small bright-red sessile fungus, found sparingly, and always singly, on the ground in forests; and almost invariably gnawed by insects.

Here I would place two other new, but little known, indigenous species—Polyporus nivicolor, Col., and Nectria otagensis, Curr., from the same parcel with the foregoing; although both have been already described: the first one in “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., p. 361; and the second in a paper by Dr. Lindsay, published at Home. I now insert these two Fungi here—the Polyporus, because of it being now confirmed by Dr. Cooke, and the Nectria, because of it being also found here in the North Island; of this fungus there were three packets sent, in various stages. (Its specific name is another witness to the impropriety of giving such local habitats as a name for a species.)

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Algæ.

Of the small terrestrial Algæ sent in that parcel only two species were determined, and both of genera hitherto unknown in New Zealand, viz.:—

1. Phormidium, or Chthonoblastes, sp.

A peculiar-looking plant, found overrunning gregarious and short mosses growing in patches, in rather long lines which are nearly straight, both brown and black, having a ribbon-like appearance; scarcely visible to the naked eye when dry, but very plain when wet, especially after much rain.

2. Dritosiphon muscicola, Kutz.

A pretty little blue hairy erect moss-like plant, found in retired holes and clefts in the cliffy banks, among grass and herbage; Scinde Island, Napier.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Total number of additional species of genera known to inhabit New Zealand 82
Total number of species of genera hitherto unknown in New Zealand 77
Total number of indigenous species novœ, some also belonging to genera not before known to exist in New Zealand 18
Also two additional species novœ of terrestrial Algæ 2
Total number of species new to our N.Z. Flora 179

Two striking facts will here immediately arrest our attention, (the same, too, as were quite as noticeable on the former occasion above mentioned), viz.:—

1.

The large number of Fungi here in New Zealand that are identical as to both genera and species with those of England and other western countries, a few of them being almost cosmopolite.

2.

The small number of truly indigenous species novæ.

And that those Fungi that are at present undiscovered will still continue to be found bearing pretty nearly the same ratio I have little doubt.

Another fact worthy of notice is the large number of genera not hitherto known to inhabit New Zealand. From the preceding list it appears there are no less than 58 genera new to this country, many of them at present possessing but a single species; yet, as several of those genera contain a large number of species in other lands, it is but reasonable to suppose that the number of each will be largely augmented here.

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If time permitted I should like to make some distinct observations, illustrating several of those new genera, for they are very heterogenous, and widely differing in appearance and in substance in all manner of ways; such, however, are the usual and common features of this vast order.

Those new species vary in shape, in size, in colour, and in substance, in hardness and in softness, in durability and in fugacity, in toughness and in brittleness. Some possess striking, brilliant, and beautifully varied colours, of which a bright-red not unfrequently predominates: others are elegantly zoned, and plaited, and frilled with varying neutral colours regularly disposed; of such are Polyporus versicolor, and Stereum lobatum; some have a rich lustrous satiny appearance, others are velvety, while others are opalescent, as Poria vincta; some are black, as Daldinia concentrica and Antennaria sps.; while others, as Polyporus nivicolor, Fomes hemitrephus, and Calicium ochrolaceum var. spumeum, are of the purest white, which delicate virgin unsullied appearance, unfortunately, they often lose in the most careful drying; some are of enormous size and aberrant forms (as Fomes sps.), 2–3 feet long and proportionately thick, and no two specimens of the same species alike in shape; while others are very regular, like little round black shining beads, as Comatricha typhoides; or minute cup-shaped flowers clustered together, as Æcidium clematidis; or miniature birds' nests with eggs, as Cyathus, and Crucibulum sps.; some are very hard, and also perennial, so that an axe makes but small impression on them; while others are very soft and, indeed, ephemeral, dissolving of their own accord in a few hours from their first sprouting into a watery mass! One or two species (notably Fuligo varians) resemble, when fresh, a light custard pudding, which, with careful drying, turns to dust! while others, as Tremella lutescens var. alba, assume the appearance of a delicate branching blomange, which, curiously enough, when carefully dried, leaves no visible residuum, save a dull shining mark on white paper as if a slug or a snail had sojourned there. Some are cancellated, hollow and light, like fine net or lattice-work; others are solid and heavy; some take the appearance of old worn chamois-leather (as Xylostroma sp.; some are very tough, so that they are gathered from their matrix, or substance to which they adhere, with extreme difficulty; others are so fragile, and withal permanent, as only to be found in perfection where neither winds nor rains can reach them, and though sometimes resupinate and several inches long, can scarcely be laid hold of, or removed, with the most cautious and tender handling. For such fairy- or gossamer-like productions I usually carry a little tin box lined with silver- or blotting-paper, and so manage to cut them down and drop them into it without touching them; but even this delicate treatment is too coarse for some (Stemonitis sps.), which,

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pretty though they are in their recluse place of growth, the very slight movement of the air in putting forth one's hand towards them is often sufficient to break them up into a cloud of spores!

Three, however, of the newly detected indigenous species I should not fail to bring to your notice, if only for the peculiar matrices on which they respectively grow, two of them being only found on our delicate and elegant living ferns, Trichomanes venosum, and Hymenophyllum demissum. On the former of those two ferns, Sphœrella (Sphœrulina) assurgens is sparingly found; to the naked eye it is a minute round and slightly elevated black spot with a very small outside. The larger and far more curious species, Cyphella filicina, inhabits the latter fern, covering the tips of its fronds with its whitish cup-like receptacles, presenting a neat appearance somewhat resembling the indusiæ of a Lindsœa. This pretty and scarce fungus has also been found by Mr. Hill, and by Mr. Hamilton, in different localities, and only one specimen by each. Both of those fungi are scarce and rarely met with. The third, a very minute and almost microscopic species, Monilia carbonacea, is only found on the surface of burnt black and dry logs, giving them a very peculiar appearance. In form it resembles a minute and regular necklace of beads (whence, also, its name). It is far from being easily gathered.

In conclusion, I would briefly refer to another small and delicate species among those in the first list, Mucor stercoreus, a very common fungus at Home; but this is the first time of its being found here, or any of its sub-order. Of the non-detection of this genus (which is a large one) in these parts, Berkely wrote, saying: “No species of Mucor appears in the floras of the Antarctic regions and New Zealand, but I do not doubt their existence there, though none appears to have been collected by Bertero, who was a very close observer, in Juan Fernandez.”* And Sir J. D. Hooker, writing in the “Handbook Flora of New Zealand” on the sub-order Physomycetes, to which this genus belongs, makes a similar observation: “To this tribe belong the true moulds (Mucor, etc.), of which species must occur abundantly in New Zealand, though they have never been collected.” (p. 600.)

[Footnote] * “Cryptogamic Botany,” p. 294